Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal

Online ISSN: 0301-2212
Publications
Article
PIP The impact of the subject's gender, the gender of the fetus, and the nature of the fetal impairment on the decision to abort a genetically impaired fetus was investigated on a hypothetical level in a sample of 181 college students (88 males and 93 females). It is hypothesized that subjects would be more likely to opt for abortion of a female fetus, and that this choice would be made more often when the impairment was physical as opposed to cognitive. The students were divided randomly into three groups and completed a questionnaire pertaining to a male, female, or gender-unspecified fetus. Gates syndrome was used as an example of a birth defect involving mild physical disfigurement, while Langs syndrome was cited to illustrate mild mental retardation. Subjects were asked to rate, on a scale from 1 (willing) to 7 (unwilling), their willingness to abort. Overall, female students were significantly (p 0.05) more unwilling to abort than their male counterparts. When scores for all six treatment conditions were combined, the mean scale rating in terms of willingness to abort was 4.97 for female students and 4.27 for male students. Unexpectedly, no evidence was found for sex bias in terms of the gender of the fetus or its interaction with the nature of the birth defect. The only mean score to fall below the neutral point of 4 was that for male students considering a gender-unspecified fetus with a physical defect (3.97).
 
Duration of sponsorships and sample sizes (traumatized subsample in parentheses) at the various measurement occasions: Initial, idealized time plan. Note: IG = intervention group; WL-CG = waiting-list control group. 
Regression Analysis for Anxiety as the Dependent Variable Estimate SE t Sig. 
Regression Analysis for Depression as the Dependent Variable Estimate SE t Sig. 
Regression Analysis for Psychological Problems as the Dependent Variable Estimate SE t Sig. 
Article
N = 63 refugees and asylum seekers, 27 women and 36 men with a mean age of 33.08 years (SD = 10.3) from Chechnya and Afghanistan were granted sponsorships for six months and were randomized to an intervention and a waiting-list control group. Only participants with a history of traumatization benefited from the intervention. For the traumatized sub-sample, sponsorships led to a significant and stable decrease in anxiety, depression, and psychological problems as compared to the control group, with effect sizes comparable to those of psychotherapy. The effects being rather palliative than instrumental, however, sponsorships did not instigate improvements in acculturation, societal contact, or coping capability. Women benefited more from the intervention than men, and Afghans more than Chechen.
 
Article
PIP This study assessed the relationship between constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) on condom use in a sample of 1394 Filipino female sex workers. Path analysis for observed variables was used to examine the relationship between attitudes, norms and behavioral intentions on behaviors within the context of condom use during vaginal sex. Results indicate that the direct paths between attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms were small in comparison to the direct paths between these two constructs and behavioral intentions. This supports the findings of the TRA, which states that behaviors are influenced by attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms as mediated through intentions to perform the behavior. In addition, it was illustrated that the participation of the managers in the intervention will more than likely influence the success of the intervention. These findings exemplify the need to develop HIV preventative interventions that are sample specific. In conclusion, condom attitudes and policies of managers who employ commercial sex workers are very important for reducing risky sexual practice among their workers.
 
Article
The balloon analogue risk task (BART), the delay discounting task (DDT), and the Iowa gambling task (IGT) are increasingly used for the assessment of risk-taking and impulsive behaviors. This study examined the reliability of and relationships between these three tasks in healthy Chinese subjects. The BART and DDT showed moderate to high test-retest reliability across three test sessions. However, the IGT showed low reliability for the first two sessions but high reliability for the last two sessions. Between tasks, only the BART and IGT showed significant correlations at the last two sessions, while no other correlations were found. These findings support the view that impulsivity is a complex construct with no single personality trait underlying the disposition for impulsive behaviors.
 
Article
PIP Previous studies have found that young Iranian women in the US feel conflicted between their cultural traditions and adoption of American values. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the educational level of young Iranian women is strongly related to their attitudes regarding sex roles and intimate relationships. Study subjects included 81 Iranian women (mean age, 23 years) residing in Los Angeles, California, who had been away from Iran for an average of 8 years. The mean summed scores on questionnaire items measuring attitudes about these issues were 233.57, 264.79, 290.58, and 295.57 (with higher scores indicating more liberal views) for women attending or with a high school education, attending college, with a college degree, and in graduate programs or with a graduate degree, respectively, confirming the hypothesis. Also noted were a significant negative relationship between the women's age when they left Iran and test scores and a significant positive relationship between the number of years the women had been away from Iran and test scores. A similar liberalization in sex role-related attitudes following exposure to less traditional US norms has been observed among young Puerto Rican immigrants to the US. Counselors who work with young Iranian women in the US should be alerted to potential conflicts regarding the adoption or rejection of the American way of life.
 
Article
PIP This study estimates the effects of children's economic contributions on parents' allocation of time for income-earning activities, care of preschool children, non-income home production, and leisure activities in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Fathers spent 65% of work time, mothers 20%, and children 15% during the assessment of family time allocation and income contribution. Demographic factors affecting the parents' time for the children include age of parents, age and sex of children and the number of other people living in the household. Economic factors affecting parents' time allocation include education, house value, wealth, and combined income of parents. Major observations noted were the following: 1) children contribute non-negligible amounts of income and time to their families' income-earning activities; 2) they play important roles in non-income home production and child care activities; 3) their presence has a considerable influence on their parent's allocation of time; 4) children appear to stimulate fathers to work longer hours at the expense of leisure; 5) young children reduce mothers' time in income-earning activities and leisure time; 6) older male children substitute for mothers' shorter work time; 7) older female children substitute for mothers' lesser home production time; and 8) older children of both sexes appear to increase mothers' leisure time.
 
Article
We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions.
 
Article
Five suggested alternatives for resolving indeterminacies in the theory of reasoned action resulting from ill-formed intentions were examined for their ability to predict Japanese consumer intentions to eat U.S. beef. Assessment relied upon structural equation analysis of data collected from 594 respondents in a nationwide survey of Japanese beef consumers. The alternative that incorporated product characteristics associated with the diffusion of innovations model provided the best fit to the data and the best prediction of intentions. Implications are suggested for procedures for resolving attitude- and subjective norm-intention indeterminacies in the theory of reasoned action.
 
Article
Administered the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) to 335 4th-8th graders and 295 6th-7th graders (cross-validation sample) in 2 suburban schools. Both samples were divided into well-adjusted and maladjusted subgroups on the basis of teacher ratings. The CPQ Neuroticism score and teacher ratings of adjustment yielded biserial correlations of .12 and .22, while biserial correlations of teacher ratings and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test IQ scores were -.52 and -.50, with higher IQ scores being associated with healthier (but numerically lower) teacher ratings. Implications for the validity of the CPQ are examined, and it is suggested that the teacher ratings and the CPQ Neuroticism score should be considered as measures of school adjustment and intrapsychic components of mental health, respectively; any modification of the Neuroticism score to predict teacher ratings is premature. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The “name of the game” for all types of psychotherapy is ultimately the maximization of human happiness. All psychotherapy then becomes concerned with such notions as self-realization, self-actualization, human fulfilment, etc., although a given system may not use such terminology. This paper looks at some Eastern contributions to the promotion of self-realization—in particular a technique in the Hindu Yoga meditative tradition, Transcendental Meditation (TM) which is beginning to attract substantial scientific attention. In addition the paper also looks at some of the rather arresting research in alpha brain wave biofeedback training, originating from EEG monitoring of Zen and Yoga practitioners. People are training themselves to produce states of mind found subjectively to be pleasant.
 
Article
Administered the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory and an anonymous self-report questionnaire of antisocial behavior (ASB) to 4 groups of 197 11-12 yr old and 14-15 yr old girls. An objective measure of school troublemaking was also available. Results are similar in all groups and show that ASB was positively related to extraversion (E), neuroticism, and psychoticism (P), and that troublemaking was related to E and P. It is concluded that H. J. Eysenck's theory of antisocial behavior is capable of predictions about the range of misbehavior engaged in by secondary school girls. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement, perceptual style, and personality variables in 133 white urban college undergraduates. No relationship was found between rod-and-frame test scores and 3 different measures of locus of control (Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale, the Self and School Scale by F. Denmark et al, and A. Churchman's Expectation of Success in School scale). No Edwards Personal Preference Schedule variables were common to both rod-and-frame test scores and the locus of control inventories. The personality variables presumably attributed to the field-dependent individual were not confirmed. The more statements of an intrapersonal nature the locus of control inventory in question contained, the more personality variables attributed to the internally controlled individual were significantly correlated with internal-external scores. Results suggest that the rod-and-frame test and internal-external control inventories are tapping different levels of personality functioning for this age group. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
“Positive” and “negative” social behavior was defined, and the key words in 3353 studies abstracted in the Psychological Indexes and Abstracts for the decades 1900-1975 were categorized accordingly. Studies were also categorized for their methodological orientation, and whether they used animals, children, or adults as subjects. Results: (a) prior to about 1920, there was little difference between the number of positively and negatively marked studies, (b) since about 1920 there have been more negative than positive social behavior studies, (c) recently there has been a significant increase in positively designated studies, (d) among the latter there has been an increase in experimental and psychotherapy studies using adult human subjects. These results are discussed in terms of certain influences upon research during this period, and the broadening of behavioral sciences theories.
 
Article
Three models involving three facets of social support, orientation to support utilization, and psychological distress were subjected to path analysis using data from 176 college students. Findings supported the following models: (a) Support network resources yield supportive behavior that in turn promotes positive appraisals of support, (b) orientation to support utilization effects resources, behavior, and appraisals, and (c) resources and behavior effect distress indirectly through support appraisals.
 
Article
Recently two studies have reported on the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity; however, these studies were limited to samples of university students. This study examined the temporal stability of both the 24- and 7-item versions of the junior version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (Francis, 1978; Francis, Greer, & Gibson, 1991) over a six-week period among a sample of 58 English children aged between 9 and 11 years old. Data demonstrated that stability across the two administrations was very high for both the 24- (r=.74) and 7-item (r=.67) versions, and there was no significant change between Time 1 and Time 2 for either version. These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of both the 24- and 7-item versions of the junior version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among children.
 
Distribution of Raven's CPM test scores
Distribution of the sample by GenDer anD aGe
Mean scores in the CPM test for ages 5-11.
pearson correlations between raven's cpm test anD other variables
Article
The aim in this study was to identify Omani children's psychometric properties on the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Court, & Raven, 1986; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1998), using a sample of 372 5- to 11-year-olds. Analysis of the data shows that the sample was distributed normally. The test demonstrated good validity and reliability indices and is considered to be a suitable measure to assess nonverbal intelligence of young Omani children. The authors recommend carrying out further studies comparing Omani children's performance with their counterparts from other countries and sociocultural backgrounds.
 
Article
This case study was focused on trauma treatment given to a man who was rescued after being buried for 124 hours under the rubble of buildings that had collapsed in the Wenchuan earthquake. The results of the study indicate that early psychological intervention is critical in preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that social support is one of the most important factors in the treatment.
 
Article
A total of 82 infants aged 7 through 13 months were each presented with a randomized order of stimuli in a large descriptive study. All infants passed developmental screening tests (5-minute Apgar and Denver II; Apgar, 1953; Frankenburg & Dodds, 1990). Emotional expressions in response to the stimuli were recorded by video. Male and female infants' responses to 5 social stimuli (82 × 5 = 410 observations) were analyzed. Latency was the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the beginning of a facial expression in response to that stimulus. Duration was the time between the beginning of a facial expression and the end of that facial expression. Both latency and duration were measured in terms of time (seconds). Gender differences were found in latency: t = 2.41, p < .05, but not duration of emotional expression. Females had shorter latency to emotional expression and longer duration of emotional expression than males.
 
Article
This study identified the level of self-concept in children with acute and chronic illnesses and determined the factors that may influence their self-concepts. The study sample includes 154 children (77 children with chronic illness, 77 children with acute illness). The data were collected via the General Information Form and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale for Children (Piers & Harris, 1969). The data were analyzed via MANOVA, ANOVA and the Duncan Test. The findings indicate that self-concept scores vary, depending on the age of the child (p < .01) and the age of the mother (p < .05). Furthermore, for children with chronic illnesses, the medical department (p < .05), diagnosis (p < .05), treatment period (p < .05), and length of hospitalization (p < .01) all affected self-concept scores.
 
Article
Twelve personality source traits previously replicated as simple structure factors in American samples, and known to express themselves in part also in Q-data, were represented by some 70 carefully-chosen behavioral measures (T-data) and a dozen questionnaire scales. These were applied to 273 American, 175 Japanese, End 218 Austrian children in the 12 to 14 year age range. Independent factor analysis, with the same principles and standards, on all three agreed in finding 23 factors, the first 10 of which (1) yielded significant and consistent matching by congruence coefficients across the three studies; and (2) came out with the marker variables used to recognize the source trait in terms of the earlier theoretical developments. Beyond these 10, the matching and meaning were patchy, markers being lacking. It is concluded that the source traits U.I. 16, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32, and 33 (which give precision to such concepts as ego strength, anxiety, extraversion, etc.) are as general as “human nature”.
 
Article
A sample of 236 16- to 19-year-old women completed the Eysenck neuroticism scale (Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985) and rated their perceptions of how desirable British society in general considers the items of the Bem scale of femininity for men and for women. The data demonstrate a relationship between neuroticism and the tendency to emphasise greater differentiation between the cultural stereotypes of men and women.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to better understand the sexuality of youth in the context of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Participants (400 male and 400 female 16- and 17- year-olds) 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all were of African descent. Results indicate that two-thirds of the girls and more than half of the boys had had sexual intercourse and had petted. Almost half of the boys (44.3%) and 24% of the girls took less than a week to have sexual intercourse in their current steady relationship. Only 40% of the girls and 57% of the boys had used a condom during their first sexual intercourse; HIV-AIDS prevention efforts should be linked to research on sexuality to advance effectiveness.
 
Article
The SOC scale (A. Antonovsky, 1987) purports to measure a disposition which engenders and enhances health but some empirical findings suggest that it is seriously contaminated with negative affectivity. In a criterion validation on 100 undergraduates at a predominantly Black university, SOC was correlated with S.E. Krug and E.F. Johns' (1986) 16PF second-order factor scores, as a broad spectrum of personality variables. The SOC-Anxiety correlation was -.52, in line with studies intimating negative affectivity; it could, however, also be interpreted in terms of its inverse, emotional stability. SOC correlated significantly with the other 4 second-order factors too. It thus measured a complex mixture of personality domains, rather than a single predominant trait.
 
Article
Consistent with a number of facts from suicide research and an evolutionary view of suicidal behavior, positive ecological (group-level) correlations between contemporary suicide rates and intelligence level have been observed in several geographical (cross-national and within-nation) studies (e.g., Lester, 1993, 1995, 2003; Voracek, 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006a-h, 2007). The present research extended these accounts cross-temporally to a test of the social ecology of U.S. state IQ and suicide rates during the early 20th century. Analysis of historical state suicide rates (1913-24), along with validated state IQ figures derived from the Army Alpha and Beta Intelligence Test data of Yerkes (1921), showed a clear positive correlation of state IQ with suicide rates (independent of state wealth) across the USA, thus suggesting temporal stability of the effect.
 
Article
LaPiere's (1934) seminal research into the attitude-behavior relationship has been commonly misinterpreted as pointing out a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior. In fact, the actual discrepancy uncovered was between true attitudes - the tendency to act in a certain way - and that which is measured by an attitude questionnaire. LaPiere's primary concern was to point out the danger of assuming that questionnaire-assessed “attitudes” lead to actual behavior in specific situations. The present paper theoretically and methodologically critiques LaPiere's classic study.
 
Article
An instrument (SCOI) was designed to measure Fromm's (1955) marketing character, which is based on the notion that the self may be experienced as a commodity whose value and meaning are externally determined. In study 1 (N=80 & 302), the hypothesis that the SCOI would be positively correlated with Conformity, Authoritarianism and Anger Expression was supported, providing support for Fromm's (1955) theory that these latter three traits would be evident in those individuals defined by the marketing character. The hypotheses that the SCOI and Materialism (Richins & Dawson, 1992), would be positively correlated with both Commercial Television Viewing and Anxiety were also supported. In study 2 (N=87), the hypotheses that the SCOI and Materialism would be positively correlated with Depression and negatively correlated with Voluntary Simplicity were supported. The hypothesis that the SCOI would be negatively correlated with Life Satisfaction was not supported, although Materialism was significantly and negatively correlated with Life Satisfaction. In study 3 (N=80), the hypotheses that the SCOI and Materialism would be negatively correlated with Empathy and Neuroticism were not supported, the latter result suggesting that neuroticism may not be an adequate indicator of psychological health per se. In study 4 (N=101), the hypotheses that the SCOI and Materialism would be negatively correlated with Biophilia and Environmentalism were also supported. Further, the SCOI was able to discriminate both between Ss from Newcastle, NSW (one of two preferred test markets in Australia) and Ss from a permaculture community in south-east Queensland, Australia, and between Ss enrolled in management and Ss enrolled in arts/science at the University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Hence, the SCOI generally performed as expected in tests of convergent, divergent and discriminant validity.
 
Article
On October 16, 1973, the Nobel Peace Prize awards were announced. Within four days, a field study was conducted to examine attribution of responsibility for contributions toward peace. Two major findings included (1) an inverse relationship between extremity of outcome and responsibility attribution, and (2) a positive relationship between the respondent's personal similarity to the target person and responsibility attribution. These results demonstrate the utility of field studies inasmuch as the data are consistent with predictions derived from laboratory investigations of attribution theory.
 
Article
Stimulated by a recent exchange theory of value (Emerson, 1987; Stolte, 1998), the research reported here used archived data from the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey (GSS)[1] to examine 1974-1994 trends in the value placed by Americans on socially “extrinsic” vs. “intrinsic” outcomes of exchange. The data show an increase in the value placed on socially extrinsic outcomes (specifically income) and a decrease in the value placed on socially intrinsic outcomes (specifically those mediated by marriage, kin contact, neighborly interaction, fraternal and church group membership). These trends raise questions about a possible imbalance in the pursuit of extrinsic over intrinsic outcomes, and possible deleterious social psychological consequences. While the present results are exploratory and highly provisional, they strongly encourage further research aimed at answering these questions.
 
Article
French and Raven's sixfold taxonomy has been used widely to examine social influence processes. A recent elaboration by Raven (1988a) proposes that the use of power tactics is situationally contingent, depending on availability of alternatives. The present study examined the pattern of power tactic preferences as a function of setting and status. A total of 89 subjects were given scenarios describing an attempt to influence another party. The scenario differed in setting (work vs. school) and status level of the influencing agent (manager or teacher vs. employee or student). Factor analysis indicated that several tactics (reward, coercion, and expertise) are unique whereas other tactics overlap. Findings indicated that higher status individuals as compared to lower status counterparts were perceived as using a greater variety of power tactics to gain compliance in conflict situations. In addition, power tactic patterns were found to be situationally contingent. The findings were discussed in terms of the original sixfold approach and its possible implications for management.
 
Article
The first Swedish adaptations of the Novaco Anger Scale-1998 (R. W. Novaco, personal communication, April 11, 2001), the Provocation Inventory, (R. W. Novaco, personal communication, April 11, 2001) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (Spielberger, 1999) (named as NAS-1998-S, PI-S and STAXI-2-S respectively), were performed in this study. A sample of undergraduate males (N=100) from Stockholm University completed the adaptations. Investigations of factor structures, relationships between scales, reliability, and construct validity of the adaptations were performed and the results were related to previous studies. The hypothesised factor structures were found for NAS-1998-S and PI-S; for STAXI-2-S a modified three-factor solution emerged. The adaptations had appropriate levels of reliability. The obtained model of construct validity revealed substantial similarity to Spielberger's (1999) multidimensional anger model.
 
Article
In the 17 August 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake about 20,000 people died and 3,000,000 were affected either directly or indirectly. A survey of earthquake victims in Kocaeli and Adapazari (two cities in North-Western Turkey) was conducted 8 months after this major earthquake to find out its physically and psychologically destructive effects. For this purpose a questionnaire containing 25 questions was given to 800 people in Kocaeli and Adapazari where the most destruction and greatest number of deaths occurred. Results indicate that changes in expectations from life after an earthquake are highly correlated with gender, marital status, and education level
 
Article
A survey was conducted of 500 survivors of the 1999 earthquake in Turkey to investigate their levels of alienation and forms of preparedness for future disasters. It was found that the level of alienation in general is not very significant and that level of education is the most important influential independent variable. The only alienation component found to have a negative impact on the responsible behavior related to preparedness for earthquakes was the social isolation variable. As level of education increases and social isolation decreases, responsible behavior increases. The existence of little such research in developing societies like Turkey increases the importance of this work and it is expected that it will have a positive impact on similar future studies.
 
Article
The presence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Guanajuato State in 2003 was identified by sex, age, educational attainment and health jurisdiction and the characteristics were described by sex according to number of times, age of only/first/last DSH, motive, method, purpose and death wish. The sample design was stratified, bistage and by conglomerates. A total of 2,530 students from high school affiliated to the University of Guanajuato participated. The results showed that 3.1% of males and 10.7% of females had engaged in at least one episode of DSH; age of first DSH was 13 in both males and females; age at last DSH was 13 in males and 14 in females. The characteristics of the DSH were also described.
 
Article
The aim in this study was to determine and assess the learning areas, skills and values underlined in the 2004 social studies curriculum reform for primary education in Turkey. The study was undertaken in a qualitative manner based on analyses of the 2004 social studies teaching curriculum for 4th-7th grades. Data were collected through document analyses of the 2004 social studies curriculum. Findings indicated that the learning areas, skills and values underlined in the curriculum for primary education reflect mainly global connections, multidimensional thinking, active learning, social rationalization, business mentality, creativity, individualism and democratic consciousness.
 
Article
It was predicted that the amount of satisfaction following an interpersonal exchange will be higher when the resource given is similar to the one reciprocated, and lower when they are dissimilar. Interpersonal exchange situations were experimentally created in which two independent variables—the resource given by the subject and the resource received by him—were manipulated. Each subject was induced to give a confederate, upon the latter's bidding, a given one of the following six resources: love, status, information, money, goods, and services. The confederate then reciprocated with one of two predetermined resources—money or love. The hypothesis was supported when money was the resource of reciprocation. For love reciprocation internal analysis and an additional experiment indicated that the lower-than-expected satisfaction was affected by devaluation effect and the short time allowed for the exchange. Application of the findings is discussed.
 
Article
A systematic replication is reported of a campus survey carried out in 1978. The present data (N = 100) indicate increased peer modeling effects for drinking, in which a respondent's intake of alcohol and drunkenness are both best predicted from the drinking of his/her friends. Smoking, however, today shows no correlation with the smoking of either friends or parents, unlike the previous survey. Alcohol consumption, measured as drinks per week, has remained constant over 24 years for female students, but has doubled for males, reaching four times the female level. The frequency of drinking “to excess” also increased greatly over this interval. Smoking has decreased to minimal levels, and now shows no sign of modeling effects, but self-serving bias now occurs, since respondents today report themselves as smoking fewer cigarettes than their friends.
 
Article
This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and friendship qualities in a sample of 330 undergraduates using the Adult Attachment Measure (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) and the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski, Hoza, & Boivin, 1994). Results indicated that securely attached individuals showed higher levels of transcending problems in their friendships and lower levels of conflict, while avoidant individuals showed higher levels of conflict and lower levels of companionship. Interactions between attachment style, sex of the participant, and the sex of the friend (same/opposite sex) suggested the combined impact of these variables on specific friendship qualities.
 
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not 33 flotation sessions were more effective for stress-related ailments than 12 sessions. Participants were 37 patients, 29 women and 8 men, all diagnosed as having stress-related pain of a muscle tension type. The patients were randomized to one of two conditions: 12 flotation-REST treatments or 33 flotation-REST treatments. Analyses for subjective pain typically indicated that 12 sessions were enough to get considerable improvements and no further improvements were noticed after 33 sessions. A similar pattern was observed concerning the stress-related psychological variables: experienced stress, anxiety, depression, negative affectivity, dispositional optimism, and sleep quality. For blood pressure no effects were observed after 12 sessions, but there was a significant lower level for diastolic blood pressure after 33 sessions. The present study highlighted the importance of finding suitable complementary treatments in order to make further progress after the initial 12 sessions.
 
Article
We used data obtained from wedding announcements in the New York Times newspaper from 1971 through 2005 (N = 2,400) to test 9 hypotheses related to brides' decisions to change or retain their maiden names upon marriage. As predicted, a trend was found in brides keeping their surname, and correlates included the bride's occupation, education, age, and the type of ceremony (religious versus nonsectarian). Partial support was found for the following correlates: officiants representing different religions, brides with one or both parents deceased, and brides whose parents had divorced or separated. There was mixed support for the hypothesis that a photograph of the bride alone would signal a lower incidence of name keeping. Results indicated that 14 out of the 30 hypothesized directional planned comparisons were statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment.
 
Article
The neurobiological mechanisms of Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) - induced changes in executive control function were investigated. Fourteen participants were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with the visual Go/No-go task after normal sleep and following 36 hours of TSD. The TSD-induced positive and negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals compared with that after a normal night's sleep (NORM). The areas activated with positive BOLD signals include the superior prefrontal cortex and inferior prefrontal cortex, with negative BOLD signals in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) and right lingual gyrus. Increased activation may be related to the compensatory response since more attention resources are needed to perform the Go/No-go task after 36 hours of TSD and the decreased activation in the ACC may reflect the impact of executive control function by the TSD.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate how 43 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) influences executive control functions. Forty participants were assigned to either a TSD or a control group (no sleep deprivation; NSD group) and both groups were tested at 2:00am on day 3 (after 43 hours of sleep deprivation for the TSD group). Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were taken using 32 electrodes while a Go/No go task was administered. The amplitude of the N2 was significantly larger on the No-go trials as compared to the Go trials. In the No-go trials, the amplitudes of the No go-N2 and the No go-P3 were smaller in the TSD group than in the control group in terms of prolonged latencies. The mean correct reaction time, number of misses, and the false-alarm rate were also significantly longer and increased in the NSD group. Results indicated that executive control functions were noticeable impaired after 43 hours of sleep deprivation.
 
Article
Male school children (N 241), all aged 16 years, and 144 men facing redundancy completed the 60 item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Data from the two groups was analysed separately using unrotated first principal components analysis followed by oblique rotation. The unrotated first principal component accounted for 23% of the variance in the school group, and 13.2% in the group facing redundancy. No subsequent component accounted for more than 6.1% of the variance. For both samples the first five components were subjected to an oblique rotation. Results were discussed in relation to previous findings of the GHQ. The factor structure was found to be unstable across groups. The implications of these findings were considered in the context of proposed subscales of the GHQ.
 
Article
The effects of a parent education program on the development of children aged between 60 and 72 months attending preschool were assessed. Participants were children attending 9 kindergartens located in central Ankara and their parents (experimental group: 68 children, 68 parents, control group: 68 children, 68 parents). Data were gathered using a general information form, and the version of the Brigance Early Development Inventory II (Brigance, 2004), that was adapted for use in Turkey by Aral et al. (2008). There was a significant difference between the scores on the subtests of the Brigance Early Development Inventory II and the total pretest and corrected posttest scores independent of group, but no significant difference was found between the scores of the groups on the Brigance Early Development Inventory II or the total pretest and corrected posttest scores. The results also revealed that the parent education program had a minimal effect on children's daily life and social emotional skills.
 
Article
This investigation asked the question: “Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in the United States?” Most of the 608 research participants provided dream reports (one per person) in response to a request from the senior author at dream seminars he gave between 1990 and 1996; the other dream reports were provided by friends and acquaintances of seminar participants. The total sample included 330 female and 278 male dream reports. Dreams were coded according to Hall-Van de Castle criteria on 53 categories, subcategories, and indices. The use of Cohen's h-statistic revealed several gender differences, most of which resembled those found by previous researchers.
 
Article
A sample of 415 female Hebrew-speaking Israeli undergraduate students completed a Hebrew translation of the items of the EPQR-A and EPQR-S. The findings support the comparability of the two instruments and the reliability of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scales, however, were found to be less satisfactory.
 
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the differences in communication stress responses, as they were affected by levels of linguistic ability, and measured by heart rate and blinking during a telephone communication. Nine female participants were selected as representative of the medium level of communication skills and linguistic level assessed by questionnaires. They were assigned to three conversation tasks: Japanese, English and French. The questionnaires (STAI and Iceberg Profile) were also assessed. The results showed that both blinking rate and heart rate during the English and the Japanese tasks were higher than during the French task. Results from the questionnaires showed that the highest communication stress occurred during the conversation in English.
 
Article
This paper was aimed at examining the associations between the ethical-reasoning abilities and religious beliefs of accounting students. The accounting-specific Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979) was used to assess participants' ethical reasoning abilities. Results revealed significant associations between religious beliefs and ethical reasoning abilities. Accounting students with religious beliefs revealed higher levels of ethical reasoning abilities than their counterparts who did not hold religious beliefs. However, no significant difference in ethical-reasoning abilities was found among respondents with different religions overall.
 
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Normality, as conceptualized within the field of psychology, represents an inappropriate model for the standardization of diagnostic systems. Normality continues to be confused with health. All human beings represent a composite of strengths and weaknesses. As a result, it should not be anticipated that normal people will be more effective than individuals diagnosed as abnormal in regard to all human characteristics. Creativity is examined as an example of the confusion resulting from ignoring the strengths of abnormal people and the limitations of normal adjustment.
 
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This article reports on a study of impression formation. The evaluation of products by stimulus persons is affected by the adaptation-level concept, the contrast-assimilation principle, and balance theory concepts. Discrepant information produces cognitive reorganization and overevaluation. Two experimental groups (n=54) participated in one of two conditions. In one, a white stimulus person appeared as the “artist” of ten drawings; in the second condition, an Aboriginal “artist” claimed authorship of the identical products. Subsequently, the subjects were asked to evaluate the drawings on an open-ended question and the semantic differential. The results show that the drawings attributed to the Aboriginal “artist” produced more positive impressions and were rated more highly on the semantic differential. These data suggest the importance of developing minority models to counter predominant stereotypes in the white community.
 
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Measures of stereotypes, affect, perceived threat and relative deprivation were used to predict attitudes toward three minority groups in Australia: Aboriginals, Asians and Arabs. Participants included 139 Anglo-Saxon volunteer university students (60 male, 79 female). The findings highlighted the fact that attitudes were significantly positive towards Aboriginals compared with attitudes towards Asians and Arabs. However, Asian stereotypes were distinctively positive compared to the two other target groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated that affective measures were often better predictors of attitudes towards minority groups. Overall, the results indicated the importance of emotional stakes as crucial components of racial attitudes in Australia. The implications of these findings suggest that attitude change programs, which have traditionally been based on simply changing cognitive aspects of attitudes (e.g., knowledge structures, facts about racial groups) should also take into consideration the roles of affective features of attitudes (e.g., anxiety, distrust, frustration evoked by racial groups).
 
Top-cited authors
Ahmed M Abdel-Khalek
  • Alexandria University
Anthony M Grant
  • The University of Sydney
Andrew M. Lane
  • University of Wolverhampton
Philip Watkins
  • Eastern Washington University
Russell L Kolts
  • Eastern Washington University