Tazarotene (Tazorac, Allergan) has been shown to be effective in reducing the effects of photoaging in short term studies. To determine its effectiveness in the longer term, a 24-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle controlled intervention study of 562 patients with facial photodamage was carried out followed by a 28-week open label extension. Patients were treated with one daily application of tazarotene 0.1% cream or vehicle cream to the face for 24 weeks, then tazarotene 0.1% cream for another 28 weeks. At week 24, when compared to vehicle, tazarotene resulted in a significantly greater incidence of patients achieving treatment success (over 50 percent greater improvement) and at least a 1 grade improvement in fine wrinkling, mottled pigmentation, pore size, lentigines, elastosis, irregular depigmentation, tactile roughness, coarse wrinkling and overall integrated assessment of photodamage. Additional clinical improvement occurred with continued tazarotene treatment and had not plateaued by week 52.
Topical products commonly used to treat acne include retinoids and antimicrobials, due to their effects on different components of pathogenesis. Accordingly, a fixed combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% was developed (Epiduo, Galderma) and was approved by the US FDA in December 2008 for the treatment of acne. The superior efficacy of this combination was demonstrated in 2 large randomized controlled trials. This paper reviews the evidence for efficacy and tolerability of the combination of the retinoid adapalene 0.1% and BPO 2.5%, a once-daily gel formulation for the treatment of acne.
Carac (5-fluorouracil 0.5% cream, Aventis Pharma) was approved by the US FDA in October 2000, for the treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses involving the face and anterior scalp. The cream should be applied in a thin film once daily to the skin where actinic keratoses (AKs) are present. When it is applied for 1, 2, or 4 weeks, it is significantly more effective than a vehicle in the management of patients with five or more AKs at pretherapy. Pooled data from the two pivotal trials (n=384) indicate that following 4 weeks of therapy the number of subjects with total AK clearance in the Carac and vehicle groups was 52.9% and 1.6% respectively (p<0.001). Furthermore, the corresponding reduction of AK lesion counts in the Carac and vehicle groups was 82.5% and 19.3%, respectively (p<0.001). Treatment should be continued up to 4 weeks as tolerated by the patient. The most common adverse-effect is facial irritation.
Hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin are common and can be the source of significant psychosocial distress for patients. The most common of these disorders are melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Sunscreen use and minimizing sun exposure are crucial in all cases. Topical applications are the mainstay of treatment and include phenols, retinoids, corticosteroids, and their combinations.
Eflornithine HCl 13.9% cream is the first topical prescription treatment to be approved by the US FDA for the reduction of unwanted facial hair in women. It irreversibly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step for follicular polyamine synthesis, which is necessary for hair growth. In clinical trials eflornithine cream slowed the growth of unwanted facial hair in up to 60% of women. Improvement occurs gradually over a period of 4-8 weeks or longer. Most reported adverse reactions consisted of minor skin irritation.
Photoaging and skin damage that is caused by solar radiation is well known. We have recently learned that within the solar spectrum this damage not only results from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near infrared radiation. Accordingly, infrared radiation (IR) has been shown to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least 2 ways: (1) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen degrading enzyme matrixmetalloproteinase-1 while (2) decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. Infrared-A (IRA) radiation exposure, therefore, induces similar biological effects to UV, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different. IRA acts via the mitochondria and therefore protection from IR requires alternative strategies.
Acting on keratinocytes to produce antimicrobial peptides and chemokines, which in turn attract neutrophils and other inflammatory cells, interleukin-17 (IL-17) is believed to be a potent driver of plaque psoriasis. Its proinflammatory characteristics make IL-17 an attractive therapeutic target for addressing immune dysregulation. This review examines the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of plaque psoriasis and the potential implications of its inhibition. The efficacy and safety results from Phase 2 and 3 trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-17RA (brodalumab), and IL-17A (ixekizumab and secukinumab) validate IL-17 as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of plaque psoriasis.
Actinic Keratoses (AKs) are epidermal skin lesions that have the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Many of the treatment options available can cause discomfort, pain or skin irritation. Topical 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel (Solaraze, Bioglan Pharma) is a relatively new treatment that has been shown to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of AKs.
In the past three decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The currently accepted theory is that T-cell mediated immune dysregulation triggers keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis. Recent research indicates that the Th17/interleukin (IL)-23 pathway plays a prominent role in the amplification phase of psoriasis. The discovery of the Th17/ IL-23 pathway provides targets for new drug development. This review focuses on the role of IL-23 in psoriasis pathogenesis and the current therapies targeting IL-23 that are in clinical trials.
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that is mediated, in part by the body's T-cell inflammatory response mechanisms. Further insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and the role of various cytokines, particularly interleukin(IL)-12 and IL-23, has led to advances in the treatment of this disease. A relatively new class of drugs that inhibit these interleukins is being developed and studied. Current data regarding the efficacy of these agents show they may have the potential to become the new clinical gold standard for biologic therapy to treat psoriasis.
Imiquimod 3.75% cream has recently been approved by both the U.S. Federal Drug Administration and Health Canada for the treatment of external genital warts. Herein, we provide an overview of external genital warts, review the phase 3 clinical trials leading to the approval of imiquimod 3.75% cream, and compare its efficacy and clinical use with imiquimod 5% cream. Moreover, therapeutic options have further expanded with the relatively recent introduction of sinecatechins 15% ointment, an extract of green tea leaves.
Psoriasis is a common skin disease affecting 1%-3% of the world's population with significant impacts on quality of life. There is a great need for therapies that are efficacious and safe, not only for the short-term, but also for long-term management. Dovobet/ Daivobet/ Taclonex is a product combining two molecules, calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate, that may offer psoriatic patients with an option for maintenance therapy. The efficacy and safety of this combined formulation when used over a 4-week period is well documented. A recent publication in the British Journal of Dermatology discusses the safety of this product when used for 52 weeks.
The latest techniques for endovenous occlusion, i.e., radiofrequency ablation catheters or endoluminal laser targeting water are our preferred methods for the treatment of saphenous-related varicose veins. Clinical experience with endovenous techniques in more than 1,000 patients shows a high degree of success with minimal side effects, most of which can be prevented or minimized with use of tumescent anesthesia. Within the next 5 years, these minimally invasive endovenous ablative procedures involving saphenous trunks should have virtually replaced open surgical strippings.
Wound care after laser skin resurfacing (LSR) is critical for achieving a successful result. The superficial thermal injury created by LSR heals more quickly and with a reduced risk of scarring under occlusion. While open and closed wound care regimens can be employed to expedite reepithelialization, closed methods with semi-occlusive dressings may decrease morbidity. Effective medications and management techniques can help to minimize expected effects of the procedure such as crusting, discomfort, pruritus, erythema, and swelling.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are rare, distinct forms of non-Hodgkin´s lymphomas. Of which, mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are two of the most common forms. Careful, clear classification and staging of these lymphomas allow dermatologists to commence appropriate therapy and allow correct prognostic stratification for those patients affected. Of note, patients with more advanced disease will require multi-disciplinary input in determining specialist therapy. Literature has been summarized into an outline for classification/staging of MF and SS with the aim to provide clinical dermatologists with a concise review.
Acitretin (Soriatane, Roche Pharmaceuticals) is an aromatic retinoid, effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis. This study highlights data from two existing clinical trials to capture PASI 50 and PASI 75 responder rates which represent a common metric used in current psoriasis clinical trials. A review of pharmacokinetics, safety and a discussion of relapse rate establish acitretin as an efficacious, convenient, oral treatment for initial and maintenance therapy of severe psoriasis.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.
Benzoyl peroxide is one of the most widely used topical agents for acne. It has potent antibacterial and mild anti-inflammatory and comedolytic effects. To treat mild to moderate acne, it can be used alone or in combination with topical antibiotics and topical retinoids. The combination of benzoyl peroxide with either erythromycin or clindamycin is synergistic and well-tolerated. In more severe acne, when oral antibiotics are required, benzoyl peroxide can contribute to suppressing the emergence of resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes.
Dapsone 5% gel for the topical treatment for acne vulgaris was recently introduced in Canada. It represents the first new anti-acne agent to gain North American regulatory approval in the past decade. Dapsone's utility is attributable to its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that improve both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne, with more prominent effects occurring in inflammatory lesions. Short- and long-term safety and efficacy have been demonstrated. Especially for patients exhibiting sensitivities or intolerance to conventional anti-acne agents, topical dapsone is a novel addition to the treatment armamentarium.
Clinical studies with topical and systemic agents for acne show remarkable improvement over a 3 month period of time, with continued progress in long-term use. However, in clinical practice it is uncommon to see these favorable results. Clinical experience and recent published data suggest that compliance, perhaps better referred to as adherence, is a major obstacle in achieving these outcomes. This article will review this problem and offer a number of suggestions, including dosing considerations and the use of laser/light devices, to better treat the nonadherent patient.
Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic bacteria implicated in the pathogenesis of acne. The last 30 years have witnessed an alarming increase in resistance to antibiotics commonly employed to treat acne. Antibiotic resistance in acne represents a significant international public health concern because resistance can occur in more pathogenic bacteria than P. acnes, and an increase in pathogenic P. acnes has been reported. Current treatment guidelines offer strategies to limit the potential for resistance while achieving optimal outcome in the management of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne.
There is compelling evidence that oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in the management of mild-moderate acne vulgaris, as well as cumulative evidence that elevated levels of androgens in acne patients, relative to appropriate controls, are an underlying pathophysiological factor in acne. All low dose OCs reduce serum free testosterone (T) to a similar extent, which is contrary to the traditional concept that a patient who has acne should not use an OC containing a progestin with androgenic properties. The efficacy of various OCs to improve acne has been reported in transverse, cohort and comparative studies, and more recently in multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Recently, an ultra-low dose OC (Alesse, Wyeth) was shown to effectively reduce non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions in mild-to-moderate acne, while having a profile of side-effects similar to that of a placebo. Besides its contraceptive efficacy, an ultra-low dose OC represents an attractive alternative as a single or associated medication in the management of acne.
Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed.
Psoriasis, acne vulgaris and photoaging are common conditions. Tazarotene is a pro-drug of tazarotenic acid, a receptor-selective retinoid, which has shown efficacy in the treatment of these disorders. In the treatment of acne vulgaris, it has greater comedolytic activity than the currently available topical retinoids. In psoriasis, tazarotene normalizes keratinocyte differentiation, reverses keratinocyte hyperproliferation and has better anti-inflammatory effects than any of the currently available topical retinoids. It is most commonly used as combination therapy with a topical corticosteroid or phototherapy in psoriasis, or with an antibiotic in acne.
A vast spectrum of topical anti-acne agents has emerged in response to new insights that have been gained through the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the need for clinicians to adopt an individualized therapeutic approach. Because topical agents are most commonly used for acne management, this article reviews some novel vehicle delivery advances that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, and/or offer the possibility of simplified dosing regimens that may improve treatment outcomes.
Clindoxyl Gel (Stiefel) is a combination of 1% clindamycin phosphate and 5% benzoyl peroxide in a gel vehicle that is well tolerated and more efficacious than either active agent alone or the vehicle in reducing lesion counts and improving global scores in patients with moderate acne. It was approved for once daily use in Canada in November 2001.
Acne scarring is often challenging to manage. Various laser treatments are helpful in addressing abnormal color and texture in order to improve the appearance of an acne scar. This paper will review the appropriate use and side-effects of these laser treatments.
Topical acne treatment can positively benefit patients with acne. This review summarizes clinical and prescribing information on currently available topical agents. The efficacy of the medications included in this report is supported by properly designed randomized clinical trials.
This paper reviews current evidence presented by recent studies on the impact of acne on psychosocial health. Study methodologies, including case-control and cross-sectional surveys, have demonstrated psychological abnormalities including depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, including pain and discomfort, embarrassment and social inhibition. Effective treatment of acne was accompanied by improvement in self-esteem, affect, obsessive-compulsiveness, shame, embarrassment, body image, social assertiveness and self-confidence. Acne is associated with a greater psychological burden than a variety of other disparate chronic disorders. Future studies with a longitudinal cohort design may provide further validation of the causal inference between acne and psychosocial disability provided by the current literature.
Oral contraceptives (OCs) are a valuable option for the treatment of women with acne. The use of OCs can be considered across the spectrum of acne disease severity in women. In Canada, three preparations are approved for mild-to-moderate acne, and a fourth is indicated for severe acne. These formulations contain estrogen in the form of ethinyl estradiol and a progestin. In Canada, the most recently approved OC is ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg and drospirenone 3mg (Yasmin, Bayer). With the accumulating evidence on the efficacy and safety of drospirenone-containing hormonal preparations, this formulation provides dermatologists with a new treatment option for acne and other hyperandrogenic disorders.
Treatment objectives and pharmacoeconomic considerations are important when developing guidelines that are effective and rational. Canadian Acne Treatment Guidelines were last published in 1995. New guidelines were recently developed to incorporate therapeutic advances and data from more recent studies. Isotretinoin fulfills the major objectives of acne treatment and has clear pharmacoeconomic advantages when compared to conventional rotational oral antibiotics, antiandrogens and topical therapy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne. It should be considered the standard of treatment for scarring acne and moderate-to-severe non-scarring acne.
Administration of antibiotics, often for prolonged periods, has become the de facto standard of care for acne (and rosacea). However, the world is now facing a health crisis relating to widespread antibiotic resistance. The authors provide current evidence to suggest that dermatologists should consider a radical departure from standard operating procedure by severely curtailing, if not outright discontinuing, the routine and regular use of antibiotics for acne.
Acne vulgaris can represent a therapeutic challenge in terms of managing ongoing symptoms and preventing scar formation. While the copious variations of available treatments address milder forms of the disease, until recently, therapies for resistant or moderate-to-severe forms were limited to systemic agents that were accompanied by potentially severe side-effects. With the addition of lasers, light sources, and aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) therapies, dermatologists may now have viable new alternatives for treating all grades of acne severity that circumvent the negative side-effects associated with many conventional options.
Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. Four contributing pathogenic factors need to be elucidated and include excess sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization, colonization of the pilosebaceous unit by Propionibacterium acnes, which is a gram positive anaerobic diphtheroid, and the release of inflammatory mediators into the follicle and dermis. One or more of these factors are targeted by each of the systemic therapies for this disease and its variant, including systemic antibiotic therapies, which will be reviewed here.
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment.
Oral isotretinoin, since its introduction more than 20 years ago, has been and still is the "gold standard" in the treatment of acne and its variants. This is the only approach to acne with the possibility of a permanent "cure" or long term remission. The role of isotretinoin has evolved with higher dosage schedules and use earlier in the course of the disease. The frequency of laboratory monitoring has diminished along with associated costs based on 2 decades of experience. Pregnancy-associated safeguards have become a more prominent facet of oral retinoid therapy leading to increased safety for its use in females of child-bearing potential.
Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.
An actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-malignant cutaneous lesion that frequently manifests in sun-exposed areas of the skin as a small, rough, scaly erythematous papule. They are one of the most common presenting complaints for dermatologists. AKs should be treated due to their potential to progress into a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). There are numerous treatments available for managing AKs including those broadly categorized as destructive, topical field, and procedural field therapies. The topical field therapies include 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, and diclofenac gel. Recently, imiquimod 3.75% (Zyclara TM) has been approved for the treatment AKs on the face and scalp. It is a reasonable alternative to imiquimod 5%, as the approved indication includes a larger surface area for treatment, shorter duration course, and the potential for less severe local skin reactions. There is no widely accepted algorithm for the treatment of AKs, as comparative data is unavailable between all approaches. Therapy choices are guided by efficacy, adverse effects, cosmetic results, and patient compliance.
Methyl aminolevulinate-hydrochloride cream (Metvix [in Canada] and Metvixia [in the US], Galderma) in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides an effective treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs), superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and Bowen's disease (BD). Good clinical outcomes have been reported in the literature. Complete responses (CRs) in AK range from 69% to 93% at 3 months. In sBCC, reported CR rates were from 85% to 93% at 3 months and almost on par with cryosurgery at 60 months (75% vs. 74%). In BD, CR rates were 93% at 3 months and 68% at 2 years. Current evidence has shown that this noninvasive treatment is superior in terms of cosmetic outcome to other management strategies such as surgery. It also offers the advantages of relative simplicity, low risk of side-effects and decreased complications due to scar formation.
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant inflammatory skin lesions with the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). There are several treatment options available for patients presenting with multiple AKs. Imiquimod is believed to stimulate and enhance host immune responses locally against skin tumors and viral infections. Five clinical studies to date have demonstrated its safety and efficacy in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Long-term follow-up studies examining recurrence rates are limited.
The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of in situ neoplasias and tumors of the skin is steadily increasing. Its principles of photodynamic action include an intratumoral enriched photosensitizer and light activation. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has demonstrated highest efficacy in topical PDT, and has become the most clinically useful. For actinic (solar) keratoses, topical ALA-PDT using Levulan Kerastick (20% topical solution, DUSA Pharmaceuticals) is already postulated to be the treatment of choice. In December 1999, the US FDA approved this topical product for the treatment of actinic keratoses. Levulan is well tolerated and leads to excellent cosmetic results with only minor side effects.
Herpes labialis is a frequently occurring viral infection of the lips and oral mucosa. Recurring lesions are induced by viral reactivation and replication, but the symptoms leading to morbidity, such as pain and inflammation, are immune-mediated. The introduction of 5% acyclovir/1% hydrocortisone in a topical cream (Xerese™) represents a therapeutic strategy directed at both of these pathogenic processes. Applied at the onset of prodromal symptoms, this combination treatment has a good safety profile and is more effective in reducing healing time than antiviral or anti-inflammatory agents alone. Although it was US FDA-approved for herpes labialis in 2009, Xerese™ has only recently been approved for use in Canada in October 2013. Herein, we review the basic science and clinical studies that support the efficacy of this topical combination acyclovir-hydrocortisone product in treating herpes labialis and examine its safety profile, as well as touch upon other therapies that have been shown to be effective in treating this common viral condition.
Treatment of metastatic melanoma using traditional chemotherapy regimens has been disappointing. However, recent work with agents that modify the host's immune system (e.g., interleukins) have provided limited but encouraging results. Interleukins are a group of molecules involved in immune cell signaling. As a high-dose, single agent therapy, Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has produced durable, complete responses in a small, but real percentage of metastatic melanoma patients, but toxicities are significant and specialized care is required. The use of IL-2 in conjunction with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents has produced an even higher percentage of complete responses, but the trials have been relatively small to date and durability is not as well proven. IL-2 is also being tested in conjunction with vaccines, activated immune cells, and other biologic response modifiers (including IL-12). It is hoped that these will lead to further increases in the number of metastatic melanoma patients who respond in a clinically meaningful fashion.
A variety of novel therapeutic modalities have recently become available for patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). In particular, with recent FDA approvals of the three new agents vorinostat (Zolinza), romidepsin (Istodax), and pralatrexate (Folotyn) CTCL treatment has been transformed. Here, we offer a brief overview of these agents and discuss their place in the spectrum of current therapies for CTCL.
The pemphigus variants represent a group of potentially life-threatening autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases. Though systemic corticosteroids have dramatically reduced the rate of disease mortality, current therapeutic options are limited by their toxicity profiles. Advancements in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus have translated into the development of novel therapies. However, few treatments have been subject to randomized controlled trials to firmly establish therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we focus on the new and emerging therapies in the management of pemphigus.
There are many herbal therapies available for dermatological diseases that patients have already begun to discover. Dermatologists must be educated not only in the benefits of these therapies, but must also be aware of some of the risks and adverse effects. They need information about the effects of herbal remedies in order to better serve their patients who may be using herbs to treat their dermatological conditions. This brief review summarizes some of the more common herbal therapies used by many dermatology patients for their skin diseases, and the adverse reactions and drug interactions that may occur.