Sixteenth Century Journal

Online ISSN: 0361-0160
Publications
Article
The suicide rate for children and adolescents in early modern England exceeded modern percentages considerably. Children suffered a sense of isolation in a system which sent them from parents' home and set them apart from its support system, and significant numbers reacted against this loneliness in spite, taking revenge upon forces beyond their control through suicide.
 
Article
Jacques Ferrand's first treatise on the definition, diagnosis, and cures of erotic melancholy was published in 1610, and managed to circulate for ten years before it was recalled for burning by the Inquisition in Toulouse. The delay and the circumstances surrounding the proclamation raise one set of questions; the grounds for the recall, both those stated and those presumed, raise another. There are strong hints of certain Counter-Reformation attitudes involved regarding the medical profession and its aggressive claims to prerogatives in treating the diseases of the soul. That a full documentation of the charges survives, and that Ferrand wrote a second treatise on the same subject, published three years after the prosecution, serves both to clarify yet to compound the issues involved.
 
Article
In traditional historiography, Milan, like other Italian cities, began to decline in the seventeenth century as its merchants were no longer able to compete with their English, Dutch, and French counterparts. Urban manufacturers virtually collapsed and only the countryside showed signs of vitality. This essay reconsiders this conventional picture of seventeenth century Lombardy, highlighting new evidence that portrays Milan as surprisingly resilient, particularly because of its role as a commercial center and its power of attraction on the regions's migratory flows. Certainly the plague of 1630 and the recurrence of military operations on Lombard soil until 1659 brought hardship and dislocation in their wake; nonetheless, as an industrial and trade center, Milan held its own, and, after the middle of the century, was able to supply capital, market networks, and skilled labor for recovering rural industries.
 
Article
Enough evidence survives about the Abbaye des Conards, which organized Rouen's yearly carnival in the sixteenth century, to create a case study of a French festive society. The abbey's members were drawn from the city's "middling sort"-artisans, merchants, and minor officials. Thanks to a period of urban prosperity and autonomy, and the development of Rouen's printing industry, the abbey enjoyed a golden age of creativity in the middle of the century. The advent of the Wars of Religion ended this era and forced the abbey into a more formal relationship with Rouen's Parlement. The abbey survived the opposition of both the Protestant and ultra-Catholic movements, but disappeared in the early seventeenth century, partly because the attitudes of its own supporters were changing. The history of the abbey reveals that rather than being popular or elite, the Conards' membership and activities were distinctively urban in nature.
 
Article
Prophecy was a major theme in the early published writings of the English clergyman Thomas Tymme (d.1620). However, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Tymme replaces his prophetic writings with Paracelsian alchemical studies. This article suggests that a relationship existed between prophetic and devotional literature and Tymme's alchemical studies, and places Tymme's Paracelsian alchemical studies within the larger context of his devotional writings. Alchemy allayed the fears and concerns that Tymme expressed in his earlier work; therefore, his alchemical writings were invested with profound eschatological and apocalyptic significance. Tymme's alchemical studies also led him to consider whether or not the Book of Nature was the more perfect expression of God's Word than the Book of Scripture. His alchemical studies anticipated the erosion of the position and status of the Bible in natural philosophy in the late seventeenth century.
 
Article
Over the last two decades German family history has developed into an increasingly specialized field of research. Through the work of demographic, economic, social, legal, and culturalhistorians (the "sentiments school"), much has been learned about the burgher family. There is still, however, a lack of knowledge about just how burghers in the late medieval and Reformation era actually lived their lives and what "family" meant to them. Private letters have begun to fill that gap, and those of Nuremberg burgher Linhart Tucher are an example of the new information they provide. During the plague of 1533, he placed his children in the safe hands of faraway relatives, while he and his wife continued to operate their Nuremberg business. From the correspondence back and forth from all sides, we discover the interaction of the nuclear family, the kin group, and the ancestral family-each an indispensable part of a contemporary multilayered concept of family.
 
Article
Seventeenth-century Spain and Mexico witnessed an explosion in artistic depictions of holy matrimony. Numerous patrons commissioned scenes such as "The Betrothal of the Virgin" and "The Dream of Saint Joseph", also called "Joseph's Doubts" or "Jealousy", which imaged the union of Mary and Joseph as the consummate loving alliance. In conjunction with plays, songs, sermons, and other devotional texts, such marriage scenes shaped societal discourses and attitudes toward gender roles, marital concord, and adultery. Most significantly, these images appear to document the emergence of new discourses of Hispanic masculinity. In the New World, where the visual arts performed the additional cultural work of colonialism, marital imagery bolstered Spanish attempts to Hispanicize the recently Christianized indigenous population.
 
Article
In the post-Reformation Church, strict monastic enclosure compounded the traditional religious and social ideologies limiting nuns' opportunities to support themselves. The English cloisters, established in France and the Low Countries, were further frustrated by their isolation from England which provided novices, alms, and much of their regular income. To survive the nuns transformed their everyday tasks into revenue-raising activities. A combination of prayer, needlework, hospitality, education, and housework generated sufficient income for most convents to withstand the economic and political hardships of the seventeenth century. These strategies can best be understood as a reworking of the centuries-old Martha/Mary metaphor, in which Martha stood for the active apostolate and Mary represented the contemplative life. Monastic archives show that the nuns reinterpreted the metaphor in such a way that they could not only gain commercial benefit from religious duties, but they could also inject different meanings into prayer and domestic chores.
 
Article
This article explores the problems of identity, membership in the community, and religious violence which converge in one case study of Simon Lecomte, a merchant of Lyonnais origins, and a bourgeois of Paris, whose residence in Toulouse extended from the turbulent 1560s through the Catholic League's rise to power in the late 1580s. Arrested for heresy in 1586, Lecomte was a man of "amphibious" identity, neither wholly inside nor outside the community of Toulouse. By examining the course of Lecomte's trial from 1586 to 1589, this article also seeks to further our understanding of the roots of religious conflict in early modern France. Who became a victim of religious persecution and why? What role did long-standing grievances, personal and familial, urban rivalries, and economic competition play in shaping the ferocity and direction of religious persecution?
 
Article
In March 1554, the Oxford Martyrs, Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley and Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, were confirmed at Oxford in the care of city officials until their execution in October 1555 (Latimer and Ridley) and March 1556 (Cranmer). Because of a reimbursement dispute, Oxford bailiffs' accounts for Latimer and Cranmer survive for the relevant part of the municipal year 1555-56. The accounts record the composition and costs of the prisoners' individual daily diets by item and dish for 245 meals. This unusual, since food accounts from this period normally are highly aggregated, and information on individual meals usually is derived from descriptive or prescriptive sources. The prisoners' diets conformed to the general conventions of the period, but the accounts allow a nuanced analysis. Individual tastes and situations were accommodated, but both Cranmer and Latimer were maintained at a dietary level significantly below that authorized for persons of their status, and Cranmer's precedence as archbishop was not recognized. The religious regime was observed strictly (but not harshly) and clearly was the primary determinant of dietary change, far outweighing all other influences such as seasonal availability of foodstuffs or nutritional theory.
 
Article
The Zimmern family of Swabia, like so many other noble families in early modern Germany, struggled to reconcile its inheritance practices and expectations with the realities of external political pressures and internal family disagreements. While its strategies were in many ways unique to the Zimmerns' own domestic dynamics, the family shared in the situation of all nonprincely nobles who were caught between a constituting empire and competing princely houses. The Zimmern Chronicle, written in the latter half of the sixteenth century, is a rich source that provides historians with a better understanding of how emotions helped to shape the early modern German nobility's inheritance decisions. Recording marriage alliances, property divisions, feuds, and sibling disputes, the Chronicle is a "Gedachtnis", a carefully crafted memory of a noble family in decline.
 
Book
This is the first full account of the evolution of the government of London from the tempestuous days of the Commune in the late twelfth century to the calmer waters of Tudor England. In this three-hundred-year period Londoners learnt how to construct, and to manage, 'self-government at the king's command'. They had to develop ways of negotiating with demanding and very different kings and to devise ways of raising money from citizens which were seen to be fair. London's elected rulers had also to resolve conflicting economic interests, to administer common resources and to protect and enhance the health and well-being of all those who lived in the city. London was by far the most populous and wealthy city in the kingdom, and its practices were widely copied throughout England. It was, as the Londoners claimed in 1339, the 'mirror and example to the whole land'. Available in OSO: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/content/history/9780199257775/toc.html Contributors to this volume - Anne Lancashire
 
Book
The current debate about the best methods of European organization - central or regional - is influenced by an awareness of regional identity, which offers an alternative to the rigidities of organization by nation-state. Yet where does the sense of regionalism come from? What are the distinctive factors that transform a geographical area into a particular 'region'? Tom Scott addresses these questions in this study of one apparently 'natural' region - the Upper Rhine - between 1450 and 1600. This region has been divided between three countries and so historically marginalized, yet Dr Scott is able to trace the existence of a sense of historical regional identity cutting across national frontiers, founded on common economic interests. But that identity was always contingent and precarious, neither 'natural' nor immutable. Available in OSO: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/content/history/9780198206446/toc.html
 
Book
This classic study of a single community in early modern England has had a major influence on the interpretation of the social dynamics of the period. It opens with a chapter establishing this small Essex parish in the national context of economic and social change in the years between 1525 and 1700. Thereafter the chapters examine the economy of Terling; its demographic history; its social structure; the relationships of the villagers with the courts of the church and state; the growth of popular literacy; the impact of the reformation, and the rise in puritanism. The overall process of change is then characterized in a powerful interpretive chapter on the changing pattern of social relationships in the parish. This revised edition has a new chapter, 'Terling Revisited' which addresses the debate occasioned by the book, notably over kinship relations in early modern England, and the impact of puritanism on local society. In both cases a new interpretive synthesis is attempted and the argument of the first edition is defended, elaborated, and advanced in the light of subsequent research. Available in OSO: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/content/history/9780198203216/toc.html
 
Book
On the Parish? is a study of the negotiations which took place over the allocation of poor relief in the rural communities of sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth century England. It analyses the relationships between the enduring systems of informal support through which the labouring poor made attempts to survive for themselves; the expanding range of endowed charity encouraged by the late sixteenth century statutes for charitable uses; and the developing system of parish relief co-ordinated under the Elizabethan poor laws. Based on exhaustive research in the archives of the trustees who administered endowments, of the overseers of the poor who assessed rates and distributed pensions, of the magistrates who audited and co-ordinated relief and of the royal judges who played such an important role in interpreting the Elizabethan statutes, the book reconstructs the hierarchy of provision of relief as it was experienced among the poor themselves. It argues that receipt of a parish pension was only the final (and by no means the inevitable) stage in a protracted process of negotiation between prospective pensioners (or 'collectioners', as they came to be called) and parish officers. This running theme is itself reflected in a series of chapters whose sequence seeks to mirror the experience of indigence, moving gradually (and by stages) from the networks of care provided by kin and neighbours into the bureaucracy of the parish relief system, emphasising in particular the importance of labour discipline in the thinking of parish officers. By illuminating the workings of a relief system in which notions of entitlement were both under-developed and contested, On the Parish? provides historical perspective for contemporary debates about the rights and obligations of the poor in a society where the dismantling of the welfare state implies that there is, once again, no right to relief from cradle to grave.
 
Article
Lay patronage of religious houses remained of considerable importance during the late medieval period; but this is the first full-length study dedicated to the subject. Based on a wide range of medieval documentary sources, including wills, monastic registers, inquisitions post mortem, cartularies and episcopal registers, this book traces the descent of these later patrons and assesses their activities, in particular their bequests and benefactions, their involvement in the affairs of their houses, and their burials in the conventual churches; and it argues that the ties which bound the two parties together, whether amicable, indifferent or abusive, continued right up until the Dissolution brought monastic life in England and Wales to an end.
 
Article
This penultimate volume in Pelikan's acclaimed history of Christian doctrine—winner with Volume 3 of the Medieval Academy's prestigious Haskins Medal—encompasses the Reformation and the developments that led to it. "Only in America, and in this case from a Lutheran scholar, could we expect an examination so lacking in parti pris, a survey so perceptive, so free—and, one must say, the result of so much immense labor, so rewardingly presented."—John M. Todd, New York Times Book Review "Never wasting a word or losing a plot line, Pelikan builds on an array of sources that few in our era have the linguistic skill, genius or ambition to master."—Martin E. Marty, America "The use of both primary materials and secondary sources is impressive, and yet it is not too formidable for the intelligent layman."—William S. Barker, Eternity
 
Article
Thesis (doctoral)--Université de Paris IV: Paris-Sorbonne.
 
Article
Thesis (doctoral)--Université de Paris IV: Paris-Sorbonne, 1999.
 
Article
On spine: Le Ban de la Roche, 1489-1630. Originally presented as the author's Thesis (Université des sciences humaines, Strasbourg). Includes bibliographical references (p. 103-109).
 
Article
1st publ. in Paperback Bibliogr. na s. 329-339
 
Article
Landscape and History explores a complex relationship over the past five centuries. The book is international and interdisciplinary in scope, drawing on material from social, economic and cultural history as well as from geography, archaeology, cultural geography, planning and landscape history. In recent years, as the author points out, there has been increasing interest in, and concern for, many aspects of landscape within British, European and wider contexts. This has included the study of the history, development and changes in our perception of landscape, as well as research into the links between past landscapes and political ideologies, economic and social structures, cartography, art and literature. There is also considerable concern at present with the need to evaluate and classify historic landscapes, and to develop policies for their conservation and management in relation to their scenic, heritage and recreational value. This is manifest not only in the designation of particularly valued areas with enhanced protection from planning developments, such as national parks and world heritage sites, but in the countryside more generally. Further, Ian D. Whyte argues, changes in European Union policies relating to agriculture, with a greater concern for the protection and sustainable management of rural landscapes, are likely to be of major importance in relation to the themes of continuity and change in the landscapes of Britain and Europe.
 
Article
Attitudes toward homosexuality in the pre-modern Arab-Islamic world are commonly depicted as schizophrenic—visible and tolerated on one hand, prohibited by Islam on the other. Khaled El-Rouayheb argues that this apparent paradox is based on the anachronistic assumption that homosexuality is a timeless, self-evident fact to which a particular culture reacts with some degree of tolerance or intolerance. Drawing on poetry, biographical literature, medicine, dream interpretation, and Islamic texts, he shows that the culture of the period lacked the concept of homosexuality. “Meticulously researched, lucidly written, nuanced, and brilliantly conceived, [the book] forthrightly takes on complex issues surrounding the culture of same-sex eroticism that existed in the Arabic-speaking lands of the early modern Ottoman Empire. . . . An important book by an excellent scholar.”—Journal of Religion “Rectifies many . . . prejudices and misinterpretations in a masterly fashion.”—Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
 
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1973. Vita. Includes bibliographical references.
 
Article
On December 18, 1499, the Muslims in Granada revolted against the Christian city government's attempts to suppress their rights to live and worship as followers of Islam. Although the Granada riot was a local phenomenon that was soon contained, subsequent widespread rebellion provided the Christian government with an excuse—or justification, as its leaders saw things—to embark on the systematic elimination of the Islamic presence from Spain, as well as from the Iberian Peninsula as a whole, over the next hundred years. Picking up at the end of his earlier classic study, Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500— which described the courageous efforts of the followers of Islam to preserve their secular, as well as sacred, culture in late medieval Spain—L. P. Harvey chronicles here the struggles of the Moriscos. These forced converts to Christianity lived clandestinely in the sixteenth century as Muslims, communicating in aljamiado— Spanish written in Arabic characters. More broadly, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, tells the story of an early modern nation struggling to deal with diversity and multiculturalism while torn by the fanaticism of the Counter-Reformation on one side and the threat of Ottoman expansion on the other. Harvey recounts how a century of tolerance degenerated into a vicious cycle of repression and rebellion until the final expulsion in 1614 of all Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. Retold in all its complexity and poignancy, this tale of religious intolerance, political maneuvering, and ethnic cleansing resonates with many modern concerns. Eagerly awaited by Islamist and Hispanist scholars since Harvey's first volume appeared in 1990, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, will be compulsory reading for student and specialist alike. “The year’s most rewarding historical work is L. P. Harvey’s Muslims in Spain 1500 to 1614, a sobering account of the various ways in which a venerable Islamic culture fell victim to Christian bigotry. Harvey never urges the topicality of his subject on us, but this aspect inevitably sharpens an already compelling book.”—Jonathan Keats, Times Literary Supplement
 
Article
It is frequently assumed, especially by political theorists, that the development of the modern theory of resistance to governmental authority was the accomplishment primarily of Huguenot writers of the late sixteenth century and that it was they who laid the foundations for the more famous seven- teenth-century English theories of a right of revolution. The corollary is that Lutheran writers made little contribution to the development of this theory, if not, indeed, a negative one. Contrary to this fairly common assumption, however, the justification of resistance was a major concern of German Protestants in the early sixteenth century, and I would contend that they played an indispensable role in developing and transmitting the inchoate theories of the Middle Ages to the Calvinists of the later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who made of them a doctrine which could properly be termed a theory of the right of revolution.
 
Article
Summary in Dutch. Thesis (doctoral) -- Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen, 1987. Includes bibliographical references (p. 374-398) and index.
 
Article
Originally presented as the author's thesis (doctoral)--Universität Bonn, 1994/95. Includes bibliographical references (p. 277-288) and indexes.
 
Article
Renaissance Bodies is a unique collection of views on the ways in which the human image has been represented in the arts and literature of English Renaissance society. The subjects discussed range from high art to popular culture – from portraits of Elizabeth I to polemical prints mocking religious fanaticism – and include miniatures, manners, anatomy, drama and architectural patronage. The authors, art historians and literary critics, reflect diverse critical viewpoints, and the 78 illustrations present a fascinating exhibition of the often strange and haunting images of the period.With essays by John Peacock, Elizabeth Honig, Andrew and Catherine Belsey, Jonathan Sawday, Susan Wiseman, Ellen Chirelstein, Tamsyn Williams, Anna Bryson, Maurice Howard and Nigel Llewellyn."The whole book ... presents a mirror of contemporary concerns with power, the merits and demerits of individualism, sex-roles, 'selves', the meaning of community and (even) conspicuous consumption."—The Observer
 
Article
2nd Ed, repr Bibliogr. s. 275 - 297
 
Article
This article analyzes the royal entry festival held for Henri II by the city of Rouen in 1550. It focuses on the entry's reproduction of a Brazilian village, which included fifty Brazilians. The conceptually indeterminate position of New World peoples in early modern France is used as a key to unlock the social and cultural narratives which organized the entry. Not simply displayed as curiosities, the Brazilians were scripted into the larger narrative of the king's entry. The well-known figure of Hercules (who also figured in the entry) plays a crucial role in understanding this narrative and the place that the Brazilians held within it. The identity of Hercules as an eloquent savage is used to analyze French perceptions of the Brazilians. The article aims to explicate the manner in which these cannibals came to mediate the interests and identities of those who wrote, organized, and watched the entry.
 
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