Simulation & Gaming

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1046-8781
Publications
Article
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.
 
Article
This article presents an analysis of the ethical issues in debriefing simulations and games informed by a consideration of the ethical issues involved in debriefing research experiments. Ethical issues faced by debriefers and participants in postexperimental and postexperimental debriefing are discussed Guidelines for ethical participation in simulation/gaming debriefings are presented.
 
Article
A simultaneous double auction market with bid and offer cards was utilized in classes on the theory and history of money and financial institutions and occasionally in classes on the theory of games. The prime purpose in using this game was to teach the students how to construct process models of economic phenomena. The second purpose was to consider the properties of the double auction market. The third purpose was to interpret the experimental results an link them to theory.
 
Article
The results are presented from several experiments. They include the selection of points in the core, interpersonal comparisons of utility, and the reconsideration of Stone results on prominence in contrast with symmetry.
 
Article
Two folded leaves of game materials. August 1984.
 
Article
Describes the mechanisms of the Devil's Advocate game, a tool for introducing, discussing, and analyzing difficult and controversial topics. This game can be played by a group of 12–20 participants in a learning environment and takes 40–60 min. The game facilitator selects an issue for debate and develops a set of vignettes that is printed on an Opinion Statement Form (OSF). The players express their agreement or disagreement with the statements on a 4-point scale, and then the facilitator shuffles and redistributes the OSFs, assuring total anonymity of the respondents. After the discussion period, the facilitator instructs each player to check the answer to the second vignette on the OSF. This is followed by the facilitator summarizing the different positions held by different groups on the issues. A debriefing session in the end is used to probe emotions, reactions and personal views of the players. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes a negotiation exercise set in the context of the Middle East conflict to facilitate an understanding about how power differentials impact negotiation. The exercise involves multiparty negotiation that can evolve into coalition negotiation. Individuals are divided into teams of Israelis, Syrians, Jordanians, and Palestinians, and must negotiate to reach a peace agreement. After completing the exercise, individuals are debriefed about leadership style, group dynamics, power differentials, and negotiations. Exercise variations and recommendations for facilitators are included. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The Rules Of The Game is a game designed to generate organizational communication issues. Each player's goal is to have the issues he or she identifies as most important dealt with at the appropriate organizational level. The specific issues to be dealt with and the sequence of questions depend on the game director's goals and experience with debriefing and on the level of sophistication of the participants. Generic questions that flow from 3 types of criteria (validity, reliability, and utility) of the Rules Of The Game include what the implications of one's behavior are, how did the action unfold, and how worthwhile was the experience. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
GHETTO, designed by Dove Toll and marketed by Western Publishing Company was played several times during March and April, 1970, by students and teachers in the public elementary schools of Highland Park, Michigan. The reviewer is the Assistant Superintendant of Schools in Highland Park.
 
Article
PSYCHE-PATHS, $2.98, KMS Industries, Inc., Scientific Games Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1968. Available through book and game sellers. During the week from October 16 to October 23, 1970, Julia Shea's sixth-grade class at Wylie Middle School in Dexter, Michigan, played Psyche-paths. The week prior, 4 of these students had been among the 27 from Wylie who had competed in an Equations tournament in nearby Ann Arbor, and they had won. Mrs. Shea's students are sophisticated game players. All of them have access to chess, Equations, Probe, On-Sets, Eurocard, Nim, Perquacky, and Clue, as well as games they create whenever their regular assignments are finished. They play for fun and they play to learn, and we wanted their reaction to Psyche-paths. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68407/2/10.1177_003755007122009.pdf
 
Article
STARPOWER (Western Behavioral Sciences Institute 1150 Silverado, La Jolla, California 92037; 1969) was played by 36 people in a two-hour review session at the University of Michigan, Tuesday, July 28, 1970, and was discussed by the players, the director, and observers for another hour after the end of play. The participants ranged in age from about twelve to about fifty; roughly half of them had had some experience with social simulations. None of them had any previous knowledge of Starpower. The director, who has designed instructional games in logic and mathematics, had neither played nor directed Starpower before. The reviewer, who observed this session, is engaged in instructional gaming. He has had considerable exposure to the literature on simulations, but little firsthand experience with them; he had never played, directed, or observed Starpower before. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68725/2/10.1177_003755007014009.pdf
 
Article
The negotiation leading to the historic Lausanne Peace Treaty provides a setting for exploring the impacts of different power configurations on bargaining behavior. Symmetric and asymmetric coalition structures existed on two key issues in the talks, passage through the straits and the question of civil rights for minorities. A content analysis of the transcripts showed some differences in bargaining behavior between the two power structures. These structures were simulated and compared to a third condition, bilateral negotiations between parties of equal power Opposing negotiators in the symmetric parties condition were more satisfied with the outcome, achieved faster resolutions, disagreed less, and made fewer competitive statements during the discussions than negotiators from these countries in the coalition conditions. Both similarities and differences were found in the comparison between the processes and outcomes in the actual and simulated negotiations. The results have implications for designing structures that improve negotiations and illustrate some advantages of experimental simulation.
 
Article
SENATE BARON is an educational simulation in which each participant takes on the role of a U.S. Senator during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. As few as 12 and as many as 96 participants may participate in this. Players strive to gain influence by promoting legislation that they support and by blocking legislation that they oppose. The goal of the exercise is to illustrate the political climate of the 1930s, and the difficulties involved in building coalitions for and against various proposals. Facilitators may also wish to teach about the rhetorical strategies employed by the senators of the time through use of the optional Debate Phase.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68997/2/10.1177_104649648301400111.pdf
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68751/2/10.1177_104687818801900217.pdf
 
Article
This article reports on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School held in New Delhi (Gurgaon), India. This Summer School was hosted by the Institute for Integrated Learning in Management. Participants came from all over the world. This year’s theme was “The Art and Science of Simulation and Gaming Design and Facilitation for Business and Management.”
 
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This article reports on the International Simulation and Gaming Association’s conference in Spokane, Washington, United States (ISAGA2010). It provides an overview of the many presentations and workshops at the conference, as well as hints of other events both planned and unplanned.
 
Article
As 3D digital game–based learning (3D-DGBL) for the teaching of literature and history gradually gains acceptance, important questions will need to be asked regarding its method of design, development, and deployment. This article offers a synthesis of contemporary pedagogical, instructional design, new media, and literary-historical theories to articulate design guidelines for these types of game environments. From the synthesis emerges a discussion of critical components for the design of space, the virtual objects within it, and the needs of player-as-learner in synthetic worlds. Guidelines include preserving the otherness of the game world, supporting knowledge and social networks of learners in virtual spaces, and the importance of point of view with respect to situated contexts. This effort seeks to open a broader, multidisciplinary discussion on the design and use of 3D-DGBL in humanities curricula.
 
Article
At the close of the 40th Anniversary Symposium of S&G, this editorial offers some thoughts on a few important themes related to simulation/gaming. These are development of the field, the notion of serious games, the importance of debriefing, the need for research, and the emergence of a discipline. I suggest that the serious gaming community has much to offer the discipline of simulation/gaming and that debriefing is vital both for learning and for establishing simulation/gaming as a discipline.
 
Article
ABSEL News and Notes was formed as Simulation and Games became the official journal of ABSEL in 1982. Its purpose has been to give ABSEL members the opportunity to present news and views concerning business simulation and experimental exercise theory and practice. Therefore, member contribution is encouraged and can be sent in the form of short articles, position papers, requests for information, or letters. Material should be sent to Jerry Gosenpud, ABSEL News and Notes, Management Department, University of Wisconsin— Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190.
 
Product-pruning according to the profitable-product heuristic  
An Illustrative Research Report Conveying Critical Information Regarding Segment Size, Product Preferences, and Total Demand Segment size and relative product preferences 
Demand potential for the 13 related textbook products  
Demand potential for 13 related textbook products, arranged by segment
Demand potential for 13 related textbook products for a different set of segments  
Article
Business simulation game designers typically ignore product line interactions in the design of marketing simulation games. This article addresses the failing by modeling Rust, Zeithaml, and Lemon’s concept of the profitable-product death spiral, a product-mix interaction theory based on the concept of customer lifetime value (CLV). According to their theory, marketers often enter a cycle of decreasing demand by deleting less profitable products. When customers seek multiple products from the same company, the deletion of less profitable ones will often reduce demand for more profitable products as well, rendering them less profitable. Unchecked, the cycle continues until the company fails. This article discusses how to model the “death-spiral” effect by adapting Teach’s gravity-flow model to evaluate the product mix as a kind of “meta-product,” where desired products function as product attributes.
 
Article
The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further elaborated and justified based on four areas of learning objectives seen from learning-theoretical and from didactic points of view: (a) the definition of these structures of knowledge that (cognitive-psychologically seen) correspond to the respective areas of the learning objective; (b) referring to cognitive learning theories, the degree to which knowledge can be acquired, through which learning processes will be assessed; and (c) which conditions are suitable to trigger the respective learning processes. Didactic analyses based on these assumptions deal with the question of how these learning conditions can be implemented in business games.
 
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Article
The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience’s values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study suggests that the game fostered the creation of peer-generated user content, motivated informed action, created positive pressure, and was perceived as a fun and engaging experience.
 
Article
Based on 10 years of participatory modeling experience, the authors developed a multilevel participatory modeling process that links national policy makers, local councils, and grassroots stakeholders using a combination of games and computerized simulations. The challenge was to allow the target groups to design and evaluate collective adaptations to climate change that combine new collective rules for local, regional, and national regulations. This article details and highlights the novelty of the methodological process, which allows stakeholders to codesign frameworks for their own behaviors and rules. The experiment uses games and models with soft rules and the stakeholders themselves incorporate their own perceptions both in the board and computerized games. This was shown to be an efficient way to reach assessments and proposals that are shared between local stakeholders and policy makers, and should thus help improve the design of policies to face up to climate changes.
 
Article
The ABSEL simulation competition revealed a variety of readily identifiable team-playing styles. These types seemed to be associated with various levels of performance and may provide some insights for simulation administrators as to how to coach various teams in a class.
 
Article
Results from research into negative correlates of computer/video game play in the United Kingdom and in Japan are presented, with new analyses across cultures. Patterns of play are similar, although Japanese adolescents have been playing for longer, they play fewer aggressive games, and there is greater perceived concern by Japanese parents. Principal components analyses of a scale to measure needs met by game play produce essentially the same factors: “companionship,” which correlates with play in the United Kingdomonly, and “prefer to friends,” which in Japan correlates with play for both genders, but only for boys in the United Kingdom. Aggression scores are predicted by frequency of play in both cultures, but years of play explain none of the variance. A preference for aggressive games predicts lower aggression scores in Japan. These findings would seem to provide little support for the causal link hypothesis.
 
Article
This article reviews how and why the authors have used the cross-cultural simulation BAFA BAFA in a 1styear social sciences inquiry course on social identity. The article discusses modifications made to Shirts’s original script for BAFA BAFA, how the authors conduct the postsimulation debriefing, key aspects of the student-written reflection of the simulation, and research results on how students perceive and rate BAFA BAFA relative to their learning. Students enrolled in the course find the simulation to be important to various aspects of their learning, including helping them to understand cultural diversity. This is particularly true for students who score highly on measures of deep learning, that is, the ability to connect course content with meanings in other situations and experiences in reflective ways.
 
Article
Within a game we can specify all positions, all objects, all rules by which they are connected. In short, a game is a complete, self-consistent system in which people submit themselves completely to the rules [Back, 1963: 68].
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in Simulation & Gaming, published by and copyright SAGE Publications. Games technology has undergone tremendous development. In this article, the authors report the rapid advancement that has been observed in the way games software is being developed, as well as in the development of games content using game engines. One area that has gained special attention is modeling the game environment such as terrain and buildings. This article presents the continuous level of detail terrain modeling techniques that can help generate and render realistic terrain in real time. Deployment of characters in the environment is increasingly common. This requires strategies to map scalable behavior characteristics for characters as well. The authors present two important aspects of crowd simulation: the realism of the crowd behavior and the computational overhead involved. A good simulation of crowd behavior requires delicate balance between these aspects. The focus in this article is on human behavior representation for crowd simulation. To enhance the player experience, the authors present the concept of player adaptive entertainment computing, which provides a personalized experience for each individual when interacting with the game. The current state of game development involves using very small percentage (typically 4% to 12%) of CPU time for game artificial intelligence (AI). Future game AI requires developing computational strategies that have little involvement of CPU for online play, while using CPU’s idle capacity when the game is not being played, thereby emphasizing the construction of complex game AI models offline. A framework of such nonconventional game AI models is introduced.
 
Article
This article is concerned with the use of computer adventure games for the development of communicative fluency in language learners. The author concentrates on student-centered activities focused on the cooperative learning approach, where the teacher is seen more as a facilitator than as an instructor. The major issue addressed is how an investigation of what makes computer games fun can offer an interesting new light on what will motivate a student to learn.
 
Article
Simulations facilitate the construction of increasingly complex theories, which, in turn, suffer three attendant curses. By definition, complex theories have many variables, decreasing the chances that all of them will be clear and measurable. This makes complex theories difficult to test, decreasing the chances they will be adequately tested, and difficult to understand, and decreasing the chances of attracting or sustaining an audience. However, constructing simulations that embody complex theories provides an opportunity for new perspectives and insights, and an occasion to renew respect for the complexities of the phenomena that they simulate. These are aesthetic benefits concordant with the definition of science as art with numbers.
 
Article
This article presents a specific association of a role-playing game (RPG) and an agent-based model (ABM) aimed at dealing with a large range of time scales. Applications to the field of natural resource management lead one to consider the short time scale of resource use in practice at the same time as the longer ones related to resource dynamics or actors' investments. In their daily practice, stakeholders are translating their long-term strategies, a translation that is contextualized and combined with some cooccurring events. Long-term thinking is required for sustainable use of natural resources, but it should take into account its necessary adaptation on a short time scale. This raises the necessity for tools able to tackle jointly these various time scales. The similarity of architecture between computerized ABMs and RPGs makes them easy to associate in a hybrid tool, targeted at meeting this requirement. The proposition of this article is to allocate the representation of short time scales to computerized ABMs and the long ones to RPGs, while keeping the same static structural conceptual model, shared as a common root by both. This synergy is illustrated with PIEPLUE, an interactive setting tackling water-sharing issues.
 
Article
Artificial intelligence and intelligent agents are sources of synergy for simulation and computer-based games. They support striking realism of the physical environment and provide unique opportunities for learning and complex operations. This article's purpose is to explore the relationship of software agents to simulation and games. This includes agents with advanced cognitive abilities (introspection, perception, anticipation, and understanding) as well as those representing personality, emotion, and cultural aspects of individuals and societies including issues. A recent special issue of Simulation: Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International on agent-directed simulation (ADS) is introduced. As a prelude to its presentation, the promising synergy of artificial intelligence, simulation, and gaming is elaborated on. A unifying paradigm for the synergy of agents and simulation and gaming—namely, ADS—is presented. It includes agent simulation, agent-supported simulation, and agent-based simulation. Also, two different usages of the term agent-based simulation are clarified.
 
Article
We propose to combine two methodologies: experimental economics and agent-based simulation for the study of rational behavior of individuals in a market environment. The related market represents a competitive continuous double auction (CDA). Much of what we know about CDA is based on experimental research. We still do not understand sufficiently the choice processes observed during behavior experiments. Therefore, in this paper, we will build an artificial society, which allows us to analyze how perceptions of the market price impact on individual strategies and collective behavior. More precisely, using an analytical science approach, we studied learning (for example, number of transactions memorized) and use of global vs. local information. The result of our work mainly shows that the memory of past transactions is of little importance, and that the revision of prices models the memory of agents adequately to demonstrate how rapidly price converges on an equilibrium state of the market.
 
Article
Research on international relations at Northwestern University in the 1960s and 1970s revolved around Harold Gueztkow’s pioneering work on the simulation of international processes. As a beginning faculty member, I benefited from the insights and excitement of that special time and place. As a participant in one of his events, I experienced the challenges he faced in carrying off the complex operation of man-machine simulation, when the machines consisted of typewriters, thermofax machines, and a mainframe computers with punch-card input. As a beneficiary of the revolution introduced by networked microcomputers, I realized that Guetzkow’s successes would have been multiplied many times over if the proper technology had been available to him.
 
Article
This article argues for the use of expert players as coresearchers when studying game systems and game design choices. As emergent systems that may react differently to different playstyles, games need to be studied from a variety of gameplay perspectives. Combining approaches from game studies with usability testing, interpretative phenomenological analysis, and reader-response theory, this article suggests a method for game research that is relevant for the study of games as both artifacts and playgrounds.
 
Article
Stakeholders in the Netherlands’ rail cargo sector exhibit strategic behavior that causes irregularity and unpredictability in freight trains. This leads to the suboptimal use of scarce rail capacity. The authors present the results of a research project that used gaming to explore and validate alternative organizational methods for the management of rail cargo capacity with decision makers and subject matter experts from ProRail, the Netherlands’ railway infrastructure manager. Various scenarios for the organization of rail cargo capacity management were played out, tested, and extensively debriefed in three project phases. The gaming sessions demonstrated that open information sharing among stakeholders does not depend on the introduction of price mechanisms and is, indeed, a more effective way of managing capacity. The authors conclude that it is vital to introduce gaming gradually and build up organizational acceptance for this method. However, once acceptance has been achieved, gaming can generate valuable insight into strategic behavior and the performance of sociotechnical infrastructures.
 
Article
Business organizations and their employees face ever-increasing complexity and accelerating changes. This brings along the need for training models that can transmit knowledge and skills needed in this kind of environment. Business process understanding is especially required. This article evaluates business games in the light of constructivism, a view of learning emphasizing the need to anchor training to everyday activi- ties and concrete contexts, and introduces a new computer-based business game. The purpose of this con- struction is to give the business game participants a realistic view of business processes and thus enhance participant business process perception. The primary aim of the construction is to present business pro- cesses to game participants by providing a natural representation of the real world and a case-based learn- ing environment that fosters reflective practice. Although this article does not explicitly describe a geo- graphically distributed game case, it introduces a game construction based on Internet transmission protocol that can also be used in a distributed manner. But as such, the article argues for the use of tech- niques that support continuously processed and Internet-based gaming simulations.
 
Article
Cellular automata were designed by John von Neumann in the 1940s, as a mathematical abstraction for modeling self-replicating algorithms. Since then, cellular automata have been widely studied theoretically and evolved into multiple variants. In the 1970s, Bernard P. Zeigler proposed a formalism rooted on systems theory principles, named DEVS (discrete-event systems specifications), which paved the way for component-based modeling and simulation and related methodologies. The purpose of this article is to survey how cellular automata and its variant, called cell-DEVS, may be used to implement computer simulations that can be used as digital serious games. The authors illustrate that implementation through some of the practical applications of such cellular automata. They show various serious game applications using real case studies: first, a simple bouncing ball and pinball game, a particle collision model, another on gossip propagation, and an application on human behavior at a metro station. Then, they show an application to social simulation using a voters game, a theoretical application (a model called Daisy World, which is derived from Gaia theory), and applications to physical phenomena such as a sandpile formation model or, finally, a three-dimensional model of a “virtual clay” that changes its shape when it is subject to pressure effects.
 
Article
One expressed need in computer games literature is for intrinsic evaluation methodologies and workable operational research procedures to evaluate subjective game-play experiences and judgments and other user "pay-offs." A phenomenological methodology provides an appropriate "bottom-up," subject-centered, inductive, and empirically driven research approach. However, a need exists for case examples and specific methods to follow on how to apply a phenomenological methodology to games research. The authors offer a case study of how they used it to develop and test evaluation criteria for games, illustrating their analysis with examples from two studies where 25 participants played, then analyzed, offline adventure and role-play computer games. The authors’ evaluation approach offers bridges between the design and analytical sciences. It contributes to the analytical sciences by attempting to identify theoretical principles for evaluating quality in narrative adventure and role-play games. It contributes to the design sciences by supplying findings expressed as design principles for games improvement.
 
Interrelated Activities in Coastal Zone Management and Public Planning SOURCE: Ramachandran, Balchand, & Enserink (2002).
Overview of Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA) Materials
Article
Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in southwest India). The simulation of a consultancy mission to Kerala described in this article was designed for a classroom situation but it can also be applied in settings with local stakeholders as a tool for social learning. Filmed interviews with real stakeholders contributed largely to the realism of the simulation and stimulated learning: Students aligned with local stakeholders and acquired professional skills as future analysts; local people learned about their own situation and the frames of other stakeholders.
 
Article
Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often inadequately tuned for learning. First, this study aims to identify architectures that more effectively support the development of multiuser immersive learning scenarios. Second, this study takes up the challenge to define and assemble more flexible architectures that cater for fast and easy development, which will become important in the current period of economic breakdown. Third, this study describes how such architectures should enable research into guidelines for multiuser immersive learning scenario design and development. This study outlines a method for defining and setting up such architectures by using experts and existing literature.
 
Article
The article begins with an abbreviated CV of the author and then recounts the formation of Society for the Advancement of Games and Simulation in Education and Training (SAGSET) and the early days of simulation and gaming in the United Kingdom. Four strands of elements of development are described together with the key events of the 1970s and 1980s. The author draws attention to the way in which simulation and gaming have moved from loosely directed events based on fun and interaction toward a more academic and analytical approach but speculates that these trends may be starting to be reversed.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69119/2/10.1177_003755007234004.pdf
 
Article
Building and evaluating artifacts specifically for K-12 education, technologists committed to design sciences are needed along with an approach to evaluation increasing the systemic transfer from research and development into school settings. The authors describe THE VIRTUAL LAB scanningelectronic microscope simulation, including (a) its development from a design and project management perspective at NASA and (b) the formative evaluation, drawing on a usability study conducted in high school science classrooms by University of Central Florida. The authors offer a four-level assessment that begins with the overarching vision that guided developers. Over time, a team of evaluators (a) verify (the artifact), (b) check variation (of content), (c) verify (in context), and (d) document value (in the field of education). THE VIRTUAL LAB usability study is offered as a specific example in the evaluation process using both quantitative and qualitative data while responding and contributing to an overarching vision for education.
 
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An abstract is not available.
 
Article
This article reports on two studies that were conducted to determine whether (a) total enterprise simulations are suitable for assessing business skills and (b) the tournament concept can be effectively applied to such simulations. The first study involved 141 senior business students; the second, 74. The results are consistently favorable on both questions. The studies also show that the free-rider problem that may have previously undermined the validity of simulation performance scores can be overcome by incorporating a system of individual performance scores, and that a progressively difficult simulation experience can keep participants challenged for 30 decision periods.
 
Top-cited authors
James E Driskell
  • Rollins College
Rosemary Garris
David Crookall
  • Université Internationale de la Mer. Université Côte d'Azur (retired). | https://www.linkedin.com/in/simulation/
Joseph Wolfe
A. J. Faria
  • University of Windsor