Shanlax International Journal of English

Published by Shanlax International Journals
Print ISSN: 2320-2645
Publications
The meaning of the words ‘world’, ‘good,’ and ‘misfortune’ has been given. The hypothesis, objectives and the sources of data collection have been mentioned. The present research on the select theme of ‘All world is good?’ is a justification study from the perspectives of misfortunes met by characters in the select novels of Candide and The Grapes of Wrath written by Voltaire and John Steinbeck respectively. It has been concluded with the view that the world seems to be not good for those who meet many misfortunes.
 
The present comparative postcolonial analysis aims at drawing thematic parallels between two postcolonial novels: The Conscript (1950) by Ghebresus Hailu (Eritrea, Horn of Africa) and The Glass Palace (2000) by Amitav Ghosh, India. Though the novels are productions of two different geographical space, cultural and colonial experience, they have stark similarities. In The Conscript Hailu paints a picture of his colonized country men under Italian masters similarly, Ghosh in The Glass Palace attempts to delineate the life of Indo-Burmese people under the British Empire. Although a lot of research has been carried out on Anglophone and Francophone colonial literature, there hardly exists any analysis of Italian colonial literature. In this regard comparative analysis of The Conscript (a novel written in Tigrigna, a language spoken in Eritrea, East Africa and translated into English by Ghirmay Negash, a professor in Ohio University) and The Glass Palace, I believe will provide additional knowledge concerning Italian colonial experience visà-vis wide existing Anglophone and Francophone literature. The thematic commonalities drawn between The Conscript and The Glass Palace in this paper are native role and complicity, racism and interiorization, dislocation, colonial order, traumatic effects of colonialism in the colonized, decolonization strategies, and anticolonial consciousness. I will explore and analyze the relations of the two novels based on afore mentioned aspects. Then following the discussion I will conclude by revisiting some general points concerning the texts. This paper mainly frames its arguments on theoretical frameworks of Rene Wellek, Robert Young, Edward Said, and Franz Fanon about notions of comparative literature, resistance, and representation, exploitation, and interiorization.
 
The growth of technology has given the viability to media, which has emerged as ‘the third eye for humans to comprehend the world. The people are too dependent onthese technologies, where they have forgotten their real nature of life. Because of global surveillance, technology has become a double-edged sword, where individual privacy is been lost. Moreover, people have exchanged their precious gift of freedom for the technology, which has become the manacle that restrains them to the core these days. The media is used as a tool to manipulate the thought process of the people in this digital era. The politicians are using these strings to make the people as the puppets, they induce the thought within people and restrict them from thinking beyond. This paper attempts to study the effects of Global surveillance and Media manipulation through George Orwell’s 1984.
 
Entangled in the web of absurd and alienated society, modern man confronts bounteous problems and keeps on suffering with the greatest curse of the absence of inter-personal relations. Lack of humanity, results in fragmentation, frustration, chaos, desperation, perplexity and detachment in the human psyche. The injuries inflicted and the scars left on his psyche generate a cynical attitude towards the established social norms and values. The socio-cultural pressures tend to affect his inner peace causing disorders in his physical, mental and psychological attitudes. The issue of existing meaninglessly can be traced in all facets of human life which seems to be a major menace. Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, in which he deals with life and death and its complexities. The society finds unacceptable and unmentionable, such as insanity and suicide that is depicted in the novel meticulously. It is about the protagonist Veronika’s psychological problem and she decides to die and how she attempts to kill herself and how after her tailed suicide attempt, she learns to live.
 
This paper mainly focuses on the importance of the protection of the element air. It also provides how literature creates awareness among people for various causes. There are many writers who have written about nature and all kinds of things to convey some message and information. Here, the poet Abhisumat Singh clearly explains what air pollution is and how it is caused and also how to control air pollution. His words are simple and clear. He conveys his message through his poem effectively. He also says about the responsibility of the people to protect nature.
 
Adoption is a beautiful thing in the world when it comes to giving life to abandon children. But as said often, “The only guarantee if a child is adopted is trauma,” the same adoption is so brutal when the child has been separated from the living family members and given for adoption. There is no worse pain than the pain of the children being separated from their birth family. This research throws light on abscission from the familial cohesion because of the critical situations in the family. Here, in this study, a young child is abscissed from her own family by adoption. The permanent separation from her biological parents creates the feeling of separation and longingness in the novel, And the Mountains Echoed, written by Khaled Hosseini. Pari, is theadopted child, and the protagonist of the novel was in her immature age when she had been separated from her family. The importance of familial relationships is shown very deeply in this novel through the plight of the protagonist, Pari. After the years of separation, the same child who became a mature woman gets reunited with her brother. But the traumatic experience that she had undergone can never be undone.
 
The novel, Bluebeard (1987) presents a dialogue between abstract and representational painting, pointing out both the value and shortcomings of each school. It may end by imagining a type of art in which the usual boundaries separating the real and the artificial fall away; an art that is able to capture the complexity, sorrow, and beauty of life itself. On the other hand, it focuses on human’s cruelty to human. However, the novel also shows that even in the midst of war and death and sorrow the innate human impulse is a creative one. The novel discovers the human desire to create as it investigates the nature of new art itself. Vonnegut was mostly inspired by the grotesque prices paid for works of art during the past century. He thought not only of the mud-pies of art, but of children’s games as well.
 
The Birthday Party is an absurdist play written by the British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor Harold Pinter. He is one of the most celebrated dramatists of the Theatre of the Absurd. The objective of the paper is to examine how Pinter’s play The Birthday Party incorporates the elements of an absurdist play. The paper also tries to explain how the fragility of language to communicate is being portrayed through the play.
 
Living Dead Girl story follows a prepubescent girl named Alice, who has been kidnapped by a pedophile named Ray. The novel takes place 5 years after Alice’s abduction when she was 15 years old. They pose as father and daughter, though they have no connections to anyone in the outside world. During the time they were inside home, he deprived her of food in order to retain her body as a child itself and he dresses her like a child and then he will rape her everyday. Alice refers to herself as a Living Dead Girl she is numb on the inside and is looking forward to the day when Ray will finally kill her, like before, Ray lived with the first Alice until she reach the age fifteen and her body had begun to mature, so he killed her, but he had never been suspected. As there are many types of sexual abuse, most dreadful abuse is child sexual abuse, where it is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being. CSA is unacceptable international problem that can affect children of both the gender.
 
The study was conducted using a self-concept rating scale and achievement test in English. Inferential statistical techniques were done. The sample consisted of 240 students covering various demographic variables. It was manifest that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of Self-concept among students in terms of gender, types of institutions, the medium of instruction, socioeconomic status. In the mean scores of self-concept among students in terms of locality, there is no significant difference. There was a considerable difference in the mean scores of academic achievement in English in terms of area, the medium of instruction, socioeconomic status. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a high positive correlation between self-concept and performance in English.
 
Love is a phenomenal force that activates almost all the living beings in the planet earth. Lover is colour blind, race blind as well as gender blind. Robert Sternberg developed the Triangular theory of love to show the components in which it is composed of. The theory is applied to same sex love couple Achilles and Patroclus in Madeline Miller’s The Song of Achilles. This paper shows that the love between Achilles and Patroclus is beyond gender and they comprises Sternberg’s all three- passion, intimacy and commitment until their death.
 
To become proficient in any language reading becomes the most important skill to be achieved. When it comes to English,Reading becomes one of the major skills of the language. Reading can be defined as an art of comprehending words then mastering sentences to paragraphs then to the whole content. Studies have found that the more a person reads the more skilful he becomes with speaking as with the use of vocabulary. Skills of reading can be acquired through continuously reading and comprehending ,developing a full understanding over the content, fluent in the usage of the read vocabulary leading to independence in oration. The skills of reading for a non-native (ESOL) speaker is cumbersome and acquiring the skills become pretty important and integral part of life,with English becoming important as the Global Lingua-Franca. With all these factors reiterating the importance of reading as an important skill, the digital natives of today actually have failed to understand the importance of reading at all. The ability of the language usage among Non-native speakers is directly proportional to their reading habits is a research finding. This article focuses on the development oriented, approaches using the digital platform to improve reading skills and to make reading easier & comprehensible to the non-native speaker. It also analyses on the various online resources available to improve the habit of reading in young learners, and checks the effectiveness of these platforms.
 
Developing students’ strategies for learning unfamiliar words is a prime challenge of English reading people. The shortcomings of this approach are well known. Much dictionary work can mar all interest in reading and even interfere with comprehension because readers become less aware of the context which gives them meaning. It also leads to very slow and ineffective reading. Surmising vocabulary from context is the usual way to con the meaning of new words. Honey field stresses the impetus of context by remarking that even with a functional vocabulary of the 3,000 most frequently occurring items in English; readers will still not know approximately 20 per cent of the items they come across in a un simplified text.
 
Problems students faced due to different patterns of essays
Although smart writing skill is equally important in both academic and professional spheres, many Bangladeshi tertiary level learners find writing skills too difficult to be developed. In respect of this, the students are given many writing tasks (such as composing a five-paragraph essay) to improve their competencies in a language classroom. Anyhow, writing a good essay needs several cognitive steps that a student has to go through demanding a high level of motivation and constructive teacher feedback. Considering the fact, this paper has investigated tertiary level Bangladeshi learners’ perspectives about how the essay-writing tasks keep them motivated in class. This pilot project had been conducted using a set of 20 items (quantitative survey questionnaire), which was administered among thirty participants from the Department of English of a reputed Bangladeshi public university. The small-scale research revealed that the majority of the undergraduates stay motivated during the brainstorming part of essay writing tasks. However, many of them find the patterns of essays quite confusing. However, these learners believe more writing assignments, along with effective teacher feedback, can highly encourage them to develop their writing skills.
 
The Thousand and One Nights (also called The Arabian nights) were introduced popularly to Tamil people and got a good response from both Muslims and non-Muslims, so it has been continuously translated into Tamil by different authors for over three centuries. We divided the Tamil translation of Arabian nights two, complete translation and partial translation. Sixteen complete translations and twelve partial translations were made in these three centuries. Some of the complete translations do not cover all stories of Arabian nights. The adaptation can be separated into two. The first one is to extract only the subject matter from Thousand and nights. In this way, there are a lot of short stories and novels were written in Tamil, based on the subject matter of Thousand and nights. Let us take the structure and subject matter of thousands and nights. There is a children novel in Tamil, Mayakkallan by Perisamy Thooran, which adapted the structure and subject matter of Thousand and nights. Mayakkalan, like Thousand and nights, involves many stories within a story and exemplifies magic in the subject matter.
 
The term ‘subaltern’ identifies and illustrates the man, the woman, and the public who is socially, politically, and purely outside of the hegemonic power organization. Nowadays, Subaltern concern has become so outstanding that it recurrently used in diverse disciplines such as history, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and literature. The notion of subaltern holds the groups that are marginalized, subjugated, and exploited based on social, cultural, spiritual, and biased grounds. The main purpose of this paper is to expose various themes such as oppression, marginalization, the subjugation of inferior people and working classes, gender discrimination, unnoticed women, deprived classes, racial and caste discrimination, etc. It is one of the subdivisions of post colonialism. In this paper, Aravind Adiga and Bina Shah illustrate subalterns through The White Tiger and Slum Child.
 
India in the turn of the millennium has encountered with liberalization, globalization and privatization subsequently resulting in paradigm shift encompassing all activities along with trade and commerce. This transnational and transcultural phenomenon has brought to India advanced technologies with economic opportunities to provide talented and hardworking minds to grow by new exposure and unbiased platforms whicheventually proved boon to the victims of restricted stratified society. To the parallel of legacy of family business, ran the entrepreneurship aspirations by many newcomers in the field to claim the share in emerging economy which had witnessed drastic change with the arrival of greater ideas and dreams. Aravind Adiga’s Man Booker awardee novel The White Tiger, published in 2008 has encapsulated the nuances of globalized contemporary society and foreseen the trend of entrepreneurships and surge of startups to change the scenario to great extent in near future. The protagonist of the narrative, Balram Halwai, a village boy from Bihar emerges as a successful entrepreneur in the cosmopolitan and global backdrop of Bengaluru; the silicon valley of India. The IT/BT revolution in India post-Y2K has strengthened its socioeconomic status in global forum. Recently India has displaced the UK and occupied third positionnext to the USA and China in terms of the number of unicorns created in 2021. This paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of globalizationas a paradigm shift as portrayed in The White Tiger.
 
This research article entitled “Advancing Dynamic Proficiency Skills in Teaching English as a Second Language in Indian Setting” is devoted to deliberate the uniqueness of Communication Skills in English for special as well as secondary purpose. It is in short about refining the speaking skill in English as a second language in India. In the course of its deliberation it would point out the central insights of the topic, and would elucidate the outcomes of the research. Some recommendations will also be stated in this article. Teaching and learning English, in addition to the vernacular language, is highly essential for communicative purposes so as to cope with the ever increasing regional, national and the global demands for communication skills in English. In India, English is the official language, and is used for the purposes of education, employment and for wider communication within and among the states as well for traveling to foreign countries. To cope up with the national and global demand, innumerable efforts have been made to the Indian educational system to enhance the learners English speaking skills.
 
Where there is Oppression, there is going to be resistance. This is the story of almost every Independence struggle history has ever seen. Such was also the story of one the most shocking and horrendous tale of oppression the world has come to know, the apartheid system of South Africa. It was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that divided the whites and blacks living in South Africa, which gave the former full rights to enjoy all the privileges that the natives ought to enjoy rightfully, depriving the latter of every good thing the country had to offer. This paper will attempt to throw some light on the whole system by analysing a work of art not written by an outsider, but through the eyes of a person who was born into it and saw apartheid for what it was and what it did to the blacks living in South Africa. It is a memoir written by South African comedian Trevor Noah titled Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood, an autobiographical work published in the year 2016 where Noah narrates instances from his childhood living in post-apartheid South Africa. The book is a kind of dedication to Noah’s mother, Patricia Nombuyiselo Noah, a symbol of resistance. Patricia Noah broke almost every rule imposed by the White government, from having a good education and moving in to a house in a white neighbourhood to having a relationship with a white person resulting in giving birth to child of mixed race, a crime for which the punishment was death. The paper will attempt to bring out the struggles and tales of resilience of the black people under apartheid by analysing the experiences of the Noah Family with special emphasis on Patricia Noah who can be seen as an embodiment of Resistance, resilience and above all sheer stubbornness to comply with the rules of the colonizers.
 
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory originally developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in which Freud throws light into the “personality” of a human being. He gives a tripartite structure that involves a conscious (superego), pre-conscious (ego), and super-conscious (the ‘id’). These concepts and their explanations form the fundamentals of the psychoanalytical theory. This thesis will focus on “Resistance and Repression,” which is one among the many theories of psychoanalysis established by Freud. ‘Repression’ or also referred to as ‘Suppression’ by later psychologists, is the process of deliberately pushing out a painful thought, memory or feeling out of consciousness and becoming unaware of its existence, to which ‘Resistance’ acts as a safety measure by the mind in not giving entrance to certain painful memories into the conscious. Thisphenomenon plays a major role in the psyche of an average person as a “defense mechanism” to escape the anxiety that is caused by certain unacceptable concepts to the conscious mind. This thesis brings into light the psyche of the protagonist of Cecelia Ahern’s novel “Postscript,” who, throughout their life, represses painful events of the past, thus altering their decisions in life to a great extent. This work focuses on the behavioral patterns of the characters in the selected novels of study and the corresponding psychological traits that give an in-depth understanding of repression and its corresponding theories and their role in human life.
 
This paper focuses Ajay.K.Pandey’s views on the inner exploration and the tremendous change of the protagonist in his novel A Girl to Remember, using the ideas of the famous Psychoanalyst Carl Jung, the novelist restates the idea that every human being has two sides of personality, good and bad. He narrates the story of the demon that lives within the protagonist and how he skilfully silencing the angel and winning over its dark temptations through the inner exploration. This novel is an attempt at exploring the role of some female characters who are responsible for making the protagonist’s life extraordinary by guiding him in his inner journey and finding a destination.
 
This paper focuses on the influence of travel in the protagonist’s life. The protagonist of this novel travels to different places in order to achieve his goals. Travel plays a vital role in the lives of humans. A Person learns about the world when they travel. Santiago the protagonist of the novel lives in Andalusia and he dreams of travelling the world in search of a treasure. His love for travel and his sacrifices helps him to achieve his goal and also makes him a better person. Santiago’s journey teaches him about the meaning of the life through different people he meets.
 
Paulo Coelho is a Brazilian writer and lyricist known for using rich symbolism in many of his works. He is honored with many international awards for his prolific contribution to the field of literature. In 1984, he wrote his first novel, “The Pilgrimage,” which is a collection of his spiritual inclination on his way to Santiago de Compostela, but he did not receive much acclamation for this. He achieved fame with his second novel, “The Alchemist,” which has sold at least 65millions of copies and holds a position in Guinness World Record for being one of the most widely translated books in the contemporary world. His mesmerizing novel ‘The Alchemist’ is regarded as one of the magnum opuses that deals with the self-recognition of the protagonist of the novel.
 
African-American women have been inappropriately and unduly, stereotyped in various contrasting images as slaves post-slavery, wet nurses, super women, domestic helpers, mammies, matriarchs, jezebels, hoochies, welfare recipients, and hot bodies which discloses their repression in the United States of America. They have been showcased by both black men and white women in different ways quite contrary to their being in America. Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Gloria Naylor, Gayl Jones, Paule Marshall, Sonia Sanchez, Toni Cade Bambara, to name a few writers, have put forth the condition of black women through their works. They have shown the personality of many a black women hidden behind the veils of racism, sexism, classism and systemic oppression of different sorts. Walker coined the term Womanism in her 1984 collection of essays titled In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens: Womanist Prose. Womanism advocates consensus for black women starting with gender and proceeding over to race, ethnicity and class, with a universal outlook. Womanism offers a positive self-definition of the black woman’s self within gendered, historical, geographical, ethnic, racial and cultural contexts too. Walker’s novel The Temple of My Familiar 1989 is a womanist treatise putting forth the importance of womanist consciousness and womanist spirit. The novel is a tribute to the strength, endurance and vitality of black womanhood. The novel revolves around three pairs of characters and their lives to showcase the lives of African Americans and coloured population in America. The three couples namely Suwelo and Fanny, Arveyda and Carlotta, Lissie and Hal showcased in the novel, belong to different age groups and different, mixed ethnicities. Through them, Walker depicts the lives of marginalized population in America, and the umpteen trials they face for being who they are. Furthermore, this paper showcases how Womanism as a theory can really enliven the life of the black community, especially black women when put into practice.
 
Tradition, culture, religion all these are too much cling to human life and society. Traditions, cultures include some events, customs, rituals of the society. Most of the society of different countries set many events, customs and rituals to be performed by women. And when it is about African American women, who have been discriminated throughout ages for their race class and gender. The women are underrated, marginalized in the society. They are treated as slaves under go many struggles i.e. race, class, gender discrimination. These women are deprived of their basic rights. By maintaining the values of the tradition these women forget the value of their own Life, Identity and Body. They have been affected psychologically and also faces trauma. To bring all the truth behind the traditions and to emancipate these women, some African-American women writers come to the front and make these African-American women realise about their self-esteem, selfhood through their writers. They paved way for the liberation of African-American women. Among the praiseworthy writers Alice Walker is another, who is not only a writer, but also an activist. She rises voice for the betterment and settlement of subjugated women. This paper brings light on the horrible practice of Female Genital Mutilation in Alice Walker’s Possessing the Secret of Joy. Removing female genital parts for the pleasure of man and in the name of tradition which brings trauma to the African women.
 
The existence craving at no time gratified. This paper deliberates round the substantial and diaspora adversity which speculates the peculiar facets of the country. The nation endures with the content of partition, rootlessness, alienation and search for identity. Amitav Ghosh distinctly interprets the jolt of the dispute on the ignorant lives of the country people. Ghosh’s novel The Glass Palace exposes the three lives of discrete generation. The protagonists of the fiction were uprooted from their inhabitant lands and agonize for their survival in the new space. The author characterized his protagonists with the challenges in search for their identity throughout their journey. The people dominance array the probability for survival in any crisis. The novel sailed around pandemic of two countries and bothering of many people. The British power and Japanese invaded the prevailing life and even dynamic were uprooted. The people regulate all over their life in a modified factors, recent land and people. The characters in the fiction sense the feel of alienation and for their reality of Existence.
 
This article deals with R.K. Narayan’s The Man-Eater of Malgudi as an allegorical novel. An allegorical story tries to entertain the reader through theuse of extended metaphor in which characters, plot, abstract ideas represents not only moral lessons but also explains story hidden underneath. In R.K. Narayan’s The Man-Eater of Malgudi, the author has profoundly used allegorical element to explain the relationship between Natraj and Vasu. Natraj, a well- to- do printer of the town lives his life peacefully but he gets outraged with the arrival of Vasu. Vasu is just like Shakespeare’s Lago in Othello who is an embodiment of self-destruction. He has been called the Man-Eater of Malgudi who tries to suppress the innocent lives of Malgudi. The author has used the mythological term,‘Bhasmasura’ to explain the demonic attributes of Vasu. He kills innocent animals, seduces women, threatens people of Malgudi and seeks pleasure out of it. He considers himself as supreme figure which leads him to his doom. R.K. Narayan through Vasu’s character has highlighted that who are prideful will bring about their self-destruction. In allegorical view, the author has depicted the sad reality of modern society where people like Vasu try to squash the innocent people.
 
The objective of this paper is to mirror the feminine quest for freedom, self-discovery, identity, revelation and the declaration of equal status along with their male counterparts in society. Hence, it does not justify the male domination which tries to establish a right to impose their will upon the fellow-creature. Feminism is a theory that investigates the various aspects of culture which are inherently patriarchal and the unequal treatment meted out to the women in the established sections of society. Isabel Allende’s Daughter of Fortune points out the various aspects of feminism through the portrayal of the hostile atmosphere where the women strive for their eternal quest for freedom and self-identity. The paper also intends to analyze and explain the transition of a young girl into a powerful woman figure which is indicative of the inner strength and power of the living spirit which is inherited in each woman. Eliza acts as a representative who stands against the constricting forces of patriarchy. This points out the ability of the woman to come out of their cocoons to explore the world. It asserts the value of every woman’s self-identity. The paper analyses how the “quest” of Eliza turns out to be the quest of the woman folk for genuine freedom and self-identity.
 
Patriarchy is an evil social construct. A woman is marginalized based on her gender as a woman who is treated inferior compared to men. Patriarchal ideologies are imposed upon women. They are discriminated, suppressed, or subjugated based on a socio-economic and political basis. Gender Inequality is evident in almost all fields, where women enjoy unequal rights as compared to women. Kishwar Naheed, in her famous poem “I am not that Woman,” raises her voice against injustice towards women.
 
Rabindranath Tagore, the prominent voice of the Indian Renaissance skilfully presented the conflicts of spirituality, marginality and liberation in the form of a dance drama Chandalika. The play depicts the class consciousness and desire of a marginalised woman to liberate her inner self. She passionately yearns to challenge the social norms and rebel against the discriminations in society. The paper proposes to locate the conflicts, sense of liberation and marginalisation from the psyche of an ostracised woman Prakriti, in Chandalika. The study also focuses on the socio-cultural impulses of the playwright and the plight of a woman to break the social obstacle of marginality. The play tends the readers and the audience to rethink the idea of equality and liberation. The marginalised experience, differences are shown based on caste, gender bias and other conflicts are raised as an aesthetic exploration in the play. It questions the existing belief of caste and marginality. Tagore is imaginative and modernistic in the presentation of the play. The sequences in the play are depicted through dance. Dance in the play is a powerful symbol. Emotions, conflicts, struggles and dialogues are articulated in its true form with the help of the dance. The playwright further amalgamates the internal, spiritual conflicts of liberation against the social hegemony in the play Chandalika
 
Masculinity often associated with being strong, aggressive, powerful. Masculinity, as a social construct, plays a significant role in shaping the public-private behavior of men. The emerging field of studies on men has extensively dealt with the question of construction, practice, and variations of masculinity. Amandeep Sandhu’s Roll of Honour (2012) underpins the constructed hegemonic masculinity through the resistance of subordinated masculinities. The text unravels the traumatic effects of the traditional notion of masculinity faced by the protagonist, Appu. The narrative contains implicit and explicit references to sexual abuse. Sexual abuse, especially targeting children, is not only physical and mental abuse but also a political act imposing masculinity. The present paper explores the recurrence of sexual abuse in the text as a method of constructing hegemonic masculinity and resistance to this abuse as the assertion and counter-hegemonic exercise of various kinds of subordinated masculinities. The paper focuses on unraveling the politics of domination and tracing the use of sexual abuse as a coercive political tool. Through the life of Appu, Sandhu delineates the various socio-political layers associated with sexual abuse, as well as the horrific trauma of victims and the aftermath of such incidents. The present paper engages with various forms of resistance by the characters who were prone to or victimized by sexual abuse at the hands of abusers.
 
Some people cannot love even their family members, while some seemingly normal people have few paradoxical qualities. Is there a connection between their strange behavior and their childhood experiences? What is the role of childhood in the character development of a person? The psychologists consider childhood experiences as the building blocks of a person’s personality. Freud believed that the child’s bond with the parents is the key to his/her psyche. Erikson divides a person’s life into eight stages of development. Every child faces a crisis or a challenge at each stage. The resolution of the crisis would lead to the acquisition of virtue, while failure caused maladaptive. Karen Horney also puts forth similar views. If the child’s basic need is not met, he/ she would either move towards people or move against or move away from people. This article examines the portrayal of children, their challenges, idiosyncrasies, and impact of their experiences on their psyche in the fiction One Amazing Thing, written by famous Indian American author Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni from a psychoanalytical perspective. She has written a few children’s novels also. A master storyteller, she weaves reality, imagination, and psychology together and creates both adult and juvenile characters who are true to life.
 
This paper deals with the plight of women characters in Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy. It focuses chiefly on the colonial rule that the situation is even shoddier. Opium affects the life of all women characters in a straight line or in a roundabout way. It aims to tell in brief about the women characters with the extraordinary spotlight on the characters of Deeti, Paulette, daughter of a French botanist living in Calcutta; she respects Indian culture even though being a French woman and Shireen in particular. It represents exploring the emotional world of women, which helps the readers to connect and empathize with their situations. Through these characters, the lives of women are described and the survival of life with suffering and hardships.
 
Marguerite Annie Johnson known as Maya Angelou was an Americanpoet and civil right activist. she is well known for her unique autobiographical writings. Many of her poemsencompasses the themes of survival and protest. she was the hero for many women. she voicesout the rights of women, racism and slavery. The paper examines the racism and injustice meted out of women the in United States. got throws light on the intuition of black people opportunity, slavery and the rights for women. The regarding attempts to analyse whether the rights bestowed to women are acquiesced by the society.
 
Menaka is a heavenly apsara who was born from the mind of Brahma. Extremely beautiful and intelligent in her way, Menaka is a celestial dancer who makes love and leaves. She, like other apsaras, cannot owe anything for herself, including her husband and family. When she was assigned the task of diverting the Brahmarishi from his ardent penance, she falls in love with him and longs to form a familial relationship that is not expected of her. She, her story of love, her longing for familial love, and her choice are analyzed through Lee’s Theory of Colours of Love.
 
In developing nations poverty is seen not only affecting the personal but also social life of an individual, because of which he remains deprived of all the amenities that he wants to enjoy. Poor and poverty goes hand in hand. Though both are different where poor means a poor person or family whereas poverty affects the whole community. Due to lack of fundamental government policies the developing countries are facing such crisis. This paper explores Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s major character and their struggle for upgrading their life.
 
Untouchability is an evil social menace, where certain group of people are discriminated or alienated based on their caste, class or job from the mainstream sections of the society. Untouchables are the most oppressed and marginalized people, who often lack right and voice in the public domain. Manual scavenging is considered or treated as a job attributed to the untouchables of lowest strata of the society. These people are not given any dignity due to their job of carrying human waste using their bare hands. Mulk Raj Anand presents the sufferings and hardships of an untouchable boy named Bakha as a manual scavenger faced in the casteist society through his well known novel Untouchable.
 
The paper intends to study the translation of a few selected stories of Hans Christian Andersen in an Indian vernacular language, Odia. It argues that the translation strategy adapted by the translator is guided by the purpose of translation and the expectation of the target readers. The paper takes into account eight selected fairy tales translated by Sri. Sujata Mishra for this study, which is published under the Biswa Sahitya Granthamala series by Granthamandir, a renowned Indian publisher. We would examine the translation strategies used in introducing the world author to the non-English speaking readers of Odisha, an Indian state.
 
The most insightful story of Hagar in the novel The Stone Angels reveals the character’s stubborn attitude and her final transformation which has provided a strong thematic perspective for the study. The story is a complete recitation of Hagar’s whole life history nevertheless her life’s incidents reveal about lack of many substances in her life. Incompleteness or Lack of something is the major theme of the novel which is suggested by the very title that the angel seems to be lifeless and has reduced to stone. Hence the study ventures on a search for the incompleteness present in the life of Hagar. The most notable quality that the protagonist doesn’t processis emotion which is highlighted by the author as an important character traitforwomen. Without emotion, Hagar is viewed as unusual and is pictured as antagonist. Moreover, the character Hagar’s feministic attitude lacks certain smartness which leads to the failure. Thus, the paper makes a thematic observation to explore the theme of incompleteness in different aspects.
 
This paper critically examines Kavery Nambisan’s novel The Hills of Angheri under the lens of Dr. Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach. The core concepts of this approach serve as critical tools in assessing the social inequities existing in Indian society. Kavery speaks about the massive inadequacy of healthcare and basic amenities found in rural places, especially in the village Angheri. Both Sen and Kavery aspire for the enhancement of a person’s well-being. They truly believe that necessities such as education, health are requisite for an individual to achieve more in life. The unfavorable socio-economic conditions and the unavailability of the basic medical care within his reach create social insecurity. Kavery brings to light the dearth of hospitals in our rural villages and reinforces the need for well-equipped hospitals and highly qualified doctors in the village. She expresses her anguish that most of the doctors flock to cities and neglect the villages where seventy or seventy-five percent of the people live. She points out the need for facilitating health care amenities in the health-care deprived villages to ensure social justice in the society. The novelist wants better health-care conditions to be made accessible to all, irrespective of their socio-economic status. The health disparities in villages can be eliminated if socially-responsible persons like the protagonist Nalli volunteer to serve the less advantaged people.
 
Crime fictions are always celebrated in literature and among which psychopaths are the major interest of the crowd. Deeply analysing these characters of psychopaths one can find various psychological reasons behind them and this paper is intended to analyse one reasonbehind the psychopathic behaviour. The researcher has selected the character of Chikka from Anita Nair’s Cut like Wound.The objective of this paper is to analyse and understand the narcissism in the psychopath and then to identify the role narcissistic rage has played in the making of the psychopath. The researcher follows a step wise analysis of identifying the characters of a narcissist in the psychopath and then identifying the traces of narcissistic rage in the life of the psychopath which brings out the psychopath in him. The researcher has done a psychological reading of the text to understand these characteristics features of the psychopath.
 
“The past isn’t dead, it isn’t ever past” – Willium Faulkner The relation among psychology and literature is bilateral. Human’s soul makes the literature and literature nourishes a human’s soul. Both psychology and literature perform the same essential in know-how any literary piece due to the fact they each pass hand in hand. The human psyche is largely related with reminiscences of any kind. The latest novel ‘THE NIGHT CHILD’ is masterfully written into the darkish recesses of an abused woman’s thoughts. Anna Quinn writes the touchy situation as she exposes the protagonist’s heart, thoughts and soul. This paper specializes in the cognitive mental evaluation of the paintings of artwork ‘THE NIGHT CHILD’ of ways Nora, the protagonist receives tormented by her beyond early life reminiscences within side the gift which even results in a mental breakdown.
 
This paper tries to symbolically evaluate the character, Alexi Alexandrovich Karenin, as an ideal husband figure in comparison with other characters from the movie Anna Karenina (2012) which is an adaptation of the well-known novel Anna Karenina by the prominent author, Leo Tolstoy. Here, the dramatic focus is not just bestowed to the protagonist and her lover, instead the side lined and betrayed meek character with his true heart is valued as ideal. The novel throws light towards the elements of love, lust and eventually to its consequences. While the exact focus can be brought towards the absence of selfishness, providence of love and trueness of sacrifice portrayed by Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin.
 
This study aims to show the fictional and philosophical engagement of Aldous Huxley and Somerset Maugham in unveiling human behavior in relation to capital. Huxley in his sarcastic essay Selected Snobberies has described the nature, utility, types and sources of snobbish attitude in people. Most often snobbery stems out from an individual’s socio-economic situation and his consumerist nature. In the short story The Ant and the Grasshopper, Somerset Maugham has deconstructed the age old story of Aesop that is universally used worldwide to teach children the basic morality and work ethics. He reveals the peculiar desire of human beings to indulge in consumption in contrast with learned behavior of self-denial. This study focuses on the degenerative tendency that is outgrown in human nature through the analysis of George Ramsay from Maugham’s The Ant and the Grasshopper. In addition, this study analyses the changing nature of the idealistic tenets pertaining to the changing mode of time and situation. The binary existence of ethical tenets and the allurement of the consumerist world leads to question the value of its palpability, its effect on making people happy or snobbish. Now the fundamental question is how far a human being is capable of learning self-denial. Considering the reality of truth as not one and universal but multifaceted as Chakraborty (2020) claims, both Huxley and Maugham in these two literary pieces are interestingly inquisitive of the modernist ethics and redefine the means of success.
 
T.P. Kailasam’s play, Fulfilment, is a fascinating account of the confrontation from the Mahabharata’s Drona Parva between a vindicated and virtuous mortal, Eklavya, and a scheming divine, Krishna. T.P. Kailasam fictionalizes the Mahabharata myth of Ekalavya’s death in the hands of Krishna and weaves it into a powerful play of deceit and treachery in which the protagonist Eklavya tragically falls victim to the antagonist Krishna’s cunning act of treachery. The god, rather than protecting a virtuous human, has been shown as the one destroying him. This is entirely a new image of Krishna that T.P. Kailasam brings forward through this play, Fulfilment. The present paper aims to explore this tale of the divine antagonism from a fresh perspective.
 
Among the different cultures and traditional practices that are followed in and around the world, the Native Americans are following distinct cultural practices among their clans. Among the Native American tribes, the ‘Ojibwe’ group is a special clan. This particular clan has fought and acquired freedom from the European settlers. ‘Ojibwe’ ancestors have notable characteristics that are followed by generation after generation. This study analyses the struggle in emphasizing the identity of the ‘Ojibwe’ tribal people in the novel ‘The Antelope Wife’ .Through an innovative story- telling method, the novelist tries to create an identity for them and reclaim their cultural identity. The novelist has used literature as a tool for studying about the indigenous past, family ties, tradition and culture in the novel. Moreover, the novelist strongly stresses upon the importance of family in one’s life. According to ‘Ojibwe’ people, an individual’s life is constructed or marred if he is stranded from his family. This study focuses on how myth, imagination, ancestral values and heritage are intertwined in establishing ‘Ojibwe’ culture.
 
The article examines the lives of Dalits in contemporary India with specific reference to Sujatha Gidla’s Ants Among Elephants. She had exposed the reality of socio-economic nature of India where the struggles of Dalits cannot be expressed in words. The atrocities committed against the community are still continuing with strong political support. It also examines the themes of exploitation, marginalisation, and untouchability. The main objective is to analyse and expose the reality of casteism still prevailing in the modern era witnessed by development. It also concludes that education can be a source of emancipation from these social evils.
 
The North Eastern states of India are known for their myths, cultural tradition, folklores and nature which found their expression in many forms of literature. Though this region is gifted by Mother Nature with abundant resources and unblemished beauty it also witnesses bloodshed, violence, turmoil and conflicts in the names of ethnicity, race and national identity. People of this region suffer from various forms of oppression and they are not in a position to find solutions to the problems they face. Their helplessness and lack of political power or support make them vulnerable to oppression and violence. Temsula Ao, the emerging English writer from the Naga community brings out the sufferings and pain of this region through her writings. Violence, which has become the part of their day to day life, is the primary theme of her works and she portrays the significant impact of violence on the people of Nagaland which deprives peace, harmony and other fundamental requirements of coexistence. People are forced to give up their socio-ethnic practices, food habits and culture. The trauma, humiliation, exclusion and discrimination experienced by the marginalized tribes of this region remain the primary cause for the youth joining the armed rebel groups. People are caught up between the nation state and the rebel groups and suffer because of both the elements. This paper focuses to analyse the affliction, disillusionment and trauma experienced by the ordinary people in the conflict zones of Nagaland through the select stories of Temsula Ao.
 
At the dawn of the Twentieth Century, changes were rapidly taking place in our society. The word ‘Modern’ was, during this time, flying everywhere in the wind. Amidst all this, some people were in search of their own identity, as well. Societies across the globe were changing, and everyone was gaining consciousness about his/her identity, his or her place in society, we need an identity to survive in this world of ours. It’s very hard to imagine ourselves without an identity; our quest for identity commences as soon as we arrive in this world and lasts till the graveyard. Identity is a must for everyone in this world of ours; therefore, in literature too, the characters were haunted with their own identity, their sense of belonging. The aim of the researcher and this paper is to point out the importance of identity for the character as well as a writer and why identity is so must for us if we want t to survive in this world.
 
Top-cited authors
Iffat Jahan Suchona
  • The University of Asia Pacific
Sadia Afrin Shorna
  • The University of Asia Pacific
Tamanna Kabir
  • East West University (Bangladesh)
Khadizatul Kobra Urmy
  • Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
Thulasivanthana Udhayashankar
  • SVIAS, Eastern University Sri Lanka