Sexuality & Culture

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Online ISSN: 1936-4822
Print ISSN: 1095-5143
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Sexting frames thematic map
This study explores the phenomenon of sexting among college students through a qualitative research design. Participants took part in online synchronous focus groups where they were asked twelve open-ended questions about their experiences with sexting. Overall, 49 Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovinian students partici�pated in fve focus groups. Participants defned sexting as an exchange of sexually explicit content underpinned by a range of motives. Relational motive was seen as the most prevalent reason for sending ones’ own sexts, while the ‘harm motive’ was identifed for posting/sharing sexts of other people without their permission. Young persons expressed positive views toward sending their own sexts, particularly if sexting was voluntary and with a trusted person. Posting and/or sharing someone sextswithout the permission of the person depicted in that material or blackmailing someone with posting and/or sharing their sexts were often perceived negatively. Participants noted a number of advantages related to sexting in terms of increas�ing relationship satisfaction, but also disadvantages related to the risk of distributing sexts to others, or feelings of guilt associated with distributing other people’s sexts. In conclusion, this study contributes to the extant research on sexting by provid�ing perspectives of young persons from Croatian and Bosnian and Herzegovinian regions.
FGM and its sociocultural consequences
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is justified by sociocultural arguments, including that it guarantees girls’/women’s appropriate sexual behavior, thus preserving family honor. We explored the perspectives of Guineans who do not practice FGM (“positive deviants”), as well as of Guineans who still practice FGM but who are supportive of abandoning the practice (“reluctant adherents”). We conducted a “focused ethnographic” study in Conakry, Guinea with a sample of 58 people. Individual semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the views and experiences of 18 women and 12 men of different generations who abandoned the practice of FGM. Group interviews with an additional 16 women and 12 men (half of whom were “positive deviants” and the other half “reluctant adherents”) validated and enriched the data. Participants consider that FGM has deleterious consequences as it: (1) does not prevent girls or married women from being sexually active outside of marriage; (2) may impair couples’ sexual satisfaction, and thus lead to divorce, men’s infidelity or polygamy; and (3) may reduce women's ability to have multiple children, because of the increased risk of infertility or obstetric complications. In addition, participants reported that many Guineans fear that the promotion of FGM abandonment is a Western plot to eradicate their culture. We conclude that Guineans who practice and do not practice FGM share the same cultural values about the importance of culturally appropriate sexual behavior, being married, and having many children, which are central sources of honor (symbolic capital) to women and their families. They, however, have opposing views on how to achieve these objectives. Based on our participants’ perspectives, the harmful consequences of FGM can potentially sabotage these sources of honor. Recommendations for messages aimed at promoting FGM abandonment are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to explore young women’s experiences of pornography and how they believe pornography has affected both themselves and other adolescents in terms of sexuality and sexual experiences. Seven young women aged 17–18 years were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed through thematic analysis. The results show that the participants’ pornography consumption has at times evoked feelings of shame in relation to their official feminist stance. Moreover, they all report experiences of being pressured to adopt a “supporting role” in sex and to perform in line with a narrow pornographic script, thus compromising their wish to enjoy sex and enact sexual agency. It is also evident how the participants have struggled to navigate through the conflicting positions that are available within a postfeminist culture, for instance in relation to feminism, heterosexual gender norms, and the strong ideal of being an “agent” in sex. In the pursuit of young women’s healthy sexual development, the results highlight the need for safe female venues, a relational understanding of agency, cultural change rather than individualized responsibility, porn literacy training, and the advancement of broader sexual scripts.
The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 in the US ushered in new technology for preventing HIV in people who are seen as at risk of contracting HIV. However, the rollout of PrEP has been filled with various debates and controversies ranging from concerns about effectiveness, adherence levels, cost-effectiveness, and moral responsibility for HIV prevention. In this context, some commentators have noted the uncanny similarities between this debate on PrEP and the debates that surrounded the launch of the oral contraceptive pill (the Pill) some 50 years ago. In this article, we provide the first to our knowledge analysis that compares how debates surrounding the launch of the Pill and debates which emerged concerning the launch of PrEP. Our analytical setting is the launch of the Pill in Norway in the 1960s and the launch of PrEP in 2016. Moreover, we wanted to focus on how both pharmaceuticals were framed in news media in Norway. We argue that such an analysis can tell us something about how the pharmaceuticalization of sex and sexuality often becomes dominated by discourses of morality and pivots around various issues of responsibility, in particular when it comes to female and gay sexualities.
Using the theoretical constructs of uncertainty and coping as guiding frameworks, this study examines how the online setting (e.g., private direct message or public comment) and type of harassment (i.e., gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion) affect younger employees’ sexual harassment experiences on Facebook. Specifically, this study examines how the online setting and type of harassment affect a survivor’s level of relational uncertainty and individual problem-focused coping strategies. Results show private unwanted sexual attention predicts a survivor’s level of uncertainty. In addition, results show survivors are more likely to cope by blocking the harasser when they experience public harassment and private sexual coercion. Also, survivors are more likely to cope by changing their privacy settings and being more cautious with their use of Facebook when they experience gender harassment in a private setting. Ultimately, the study findings extend literature on online sexual harassment, coping, and uncertainty by showing how both the online setting and type of online sexual harassment impact and complicate a survivor’s level of uncertainty and coping strategies.
Little is known about the other leisure activities of people who engage in kink, including sexual practices and the use of alcohol and other drugs. This article examines the drinking, illicit drug use and sexual practices of people who engage in kink from a novel sample of attendees at an English festival. Of 966 respondents, 64 reported having engaged in kink within the past 12 months. We provide evidence of these respondents’ self-reported demographic characteristics, alcohol and other drug use in their lifetime and within the past 12 months, as well as other sexual practices they engaged in. This study illustrates the value of accessing participants through in situ festival fieldwork to understand kink practices, and helps us move beyond notions of clustered risky activities toward a leisure studies approach to understanding the practices of people who engage in kink.
Though there is evidence of an historical exclusion of trans women from lesbian feminist separatist spaces supported by radical feminist lesbian anti-trans discourse as well as modern examples of anti-trans perspectives promoted by feminists sometimes described as Trans Exclusionary Radical Feminists, it remains unclear as to if there is a significant association between being a lesbian cis woman feminist and harboring negative attitudes toward trans women or alternatively, if the recent proliferation of exclusionary tactics directed toward trans women’s rights (especially via social media) has been the result of loud voices among a minority who have been successful anti-trans mouthpieces as of late. The current study utilizes survey data (N = 1461 cis women; n = 331 lesbian cis women) to investigate the following research questions: (1) do lesbian cis women feminists express greater levels of negativity toward trans women than other cis women (heterosexual, bisexual, pansexual, and asexual) do? and (2) is there a relationship between feminist identity among lesbian cis women and the stigmatization of trans women (as undeserving of rights, as incapable parents/mothers, as excluded from the military, and as sexually problematic)? Results provide ample evidence of anti-trans perspectives among some lesbian cis women feminists. Overall, the findings provide a starting point to begin to understand how to dismantle the complexities embedded in the relationships between feminism, lesbian identity, and trans negativity and work toward a trans-inclusive future of feminism.
Previous studies suggest marital sexual infidelity (MSI) is growing among men and women. Also, social sciences literature has indicated that religious involvement and values reduce MSI occurrence. Religious persuasions and values remain critical in social life in Ghana and Nigeria, but little is known about religious influence on MSI and protection in both countries. In this study, the 2014 standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ghana (GDHS2014: 3,808 women and 1,967 men) and that of 2013 in Nigeria (NDHS2013: 22,220 women 8,292 men) were analysed within the framework of Durkheim’s theory of religion. Results suggest that MSI occurred more among women than men in Ghana (women = 12.9%, men = 9.9%) and Nigeria (women = 6.0%, men = 5.0%). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that religion significantly predicted MSI in Ghana (p < 0.05) and Nigeria (p < 0.001). In Ghana, Other Christian women (OR = 0.5(CI0.4-0.7), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.9), p < 0.05) and in Nigeria, Other Christian women (OR = 0.7(CI0.6-0.9), p < 0.001, and Muslims (women, OR = 0.3(CI0.3-0.4), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.8), p < 0.01) had lower odds of reporting MSI experience relative to Catholic Christians. Women are likely more vulnerable to STIs in both countries due to higher MSI prevalence and relatively poor protective behaviour. Therefore, marriage counsellors should focus more on women and men across all religious persuasions. However, women and Catholic Christians require more attention to address the MSI and condom use challenges in Ghana and Nigeria. Social campaigns aiming to prevent MSI and STIs should be intensive in both countries across all religious persuasions.
A growing body of academic literature has directed attention toward the buyers of commercial sex as calls to address the demand side of this underground industry have steadily increased. The presence of violence in the commercial sex market has been extensively documented, compelling scholars to examine how the clientele contribute to this phenomenon and in what ways they can be distinguished from the general population. Empirical evidence gives reason to believe sex buying and sexual violence are connected but also raises questions about the nature and degree of this relationship. Further, findings in this area have been inconclusive as the mechanisms underlying how commodification translates into aggression remain underdeveloped. The current inquiry contributes to the field by synthesizing existing knowledge on sex buyers with correlates of sexual violence. This article compares and contrasts the risk factors for both sex buying and sexual violence and identifies areas where findings have been inconsistent. The discussion concludes with theoretical and methodological recommendations for improving our understanding of violence against women in the modern commercial sex market.
Sexuality has become an area of social competence in which individuals strive to be recognized as sexually competent performers. However, a large proportion of young women experience reduced sexual desire. In this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied. Using data from a questionnaire, the aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, lack of sexual interest and desire among young women in Norway. Further, with the help of in-depth interviews, we investigated how young women with reduced sexual desire experience living with their desire problems and what they experience as the cause of their problems. The sample in the quantitative study consisted of 505 Norwegian women between the age 18-29 years. ANOVA was employed to explore differences in scores on psychological factors and relational factors, as well as between participants who experienced a lack of sexual interest and desire, and those who did not. The results indicate a high prevalence of lack of sexual interest and desire among women (37.1%), while low appearance satisfaction and low relationship satisfaction were central predictors of lack of sexual interest and desire. The sample in the qualitative study consisted of ten Norwegian women with reduced sexual desire between the ages of 18-29. Through thematic analysis, four themes emerged as causes of and experiences of living with reduced sexual desire: 1) physical and mental health, 2) being a young woman in today’s society, 3) relational factors, 4) negative experiences, personal expectations toward sexuality, and sexual trauma.
This paper explores how gay, bisexual, and queer men (GBQM) discuss “stealthing,” the removal (or alteration) of condoms and ejaculation during penetration without consent, in a barebacking (or condomless sex) online forum. Considerations of stealthing have largely been framed as a legal problem based on the notion of consent or the lack thereof. However, such examinations may be oversimplistic, failing to recognize how GBQM negotiate and understand sexual consent and stealthing. Mobilizing “sexuality-assemblages” frameworks, this article explores the relationship between GBQM and their physical, social, and technological contexts in shaping articulations of sexual consent and stealthing. Examining online discussion board postings from a popular barebacking website, I argue that views about stealthing’s moral acceptability emerges through various relations involving more-than-human entities. Some GBQM conceptualize stealthing as morally unacceptable when considered through liberal/contractual consent and HIV criminalization, where the materialities of condoms (their alteration or removal) and HIV status (lying about or not disclosing) play crucial roles. However, stealthing may be morally acceptable for others, especially in anonymous sexual spaces, like bathhouses, where there is a culture of silence. Consent is perceived to be passively given in these spaces because the normative idea of consent as a communicative exchange is constrained. The article highlights the ways in which sexual scenarios and environments are implicated in the remaking of alternative conceptualizations of sexual morality and “consent.”
Emerging adults face a disproportionate burden of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, especially in the southern United States. This study investigates how multiple dimensions of current religiosity as well as religious upbringing influence the sexual behaviors, including contraceptive usage, of individuals 18–25 years old (n = 211) in the South. Based on regression analyses, results suggest that emerging adults with higher levels of current religiosity are more likely to remain abstinent, but less likely to use pregnancy prevention methods, such as birth controls pills and long-acting reversible contraceptives. Having a religious upbringing is also associated with lower contraceptive usage. Through the assessment of multiple dimensions of religiosity and various sexual behaviors, this study presents a nuanced picture of the complex associations between religion and sexual health, specifically among emerging adults in the southern United States.
This article examines the radical presentism portrayed in narratives of queer youth sexuality. In particular, it interrogates the portrayal of queer youth sexuality and mental health in the Norwegian teen television drama Skam and three of its European adaptations (Skam France, Skam Italia, and wtFOCK). By considering these four shows as a single archive of queer youth sexuality, I explore how queer sexuality is not an ideal state deferred for the future (e.g., adulthood), but practiced and enacted in the present among the individual’s community of friends. I specifically tie the format and production of the show to one of the central philosophies of the show: minute-by-minute. My goal is to demonstrate how the show projects alternative ways that youth, especially queer youth, navigate through and engage with relationality in the now, representing a nascent basis for a heterotopic articulation of queer youth identity and possibilities for thriving.
Using the theoretical framing of structural ambivalence, which points to how competing cultural norms can cause conflict in family relationships, this paper asks: how does the transition to parenthood affect the intergenerational family relationship between LBQ adult women and their heterosexual mothers? Analyzing qualitative data from interviews with three adult child-parent dyads, we discuss how two cultural norms manifest in these relationships: pronatalism, or the privileging of procreation and heteronormativity, or the privileging of heterosexuality. In some ways, the intergenerational family relationship is strengthened as both LGB daughters and their heterosexual mothers express that the grandchild resulted in their becoming closer and developing a better understanding of one another. Yet the intergenerational family relationship is also strained as both members express that new conflicts arose within their relationship over issues such as how to refer to the donor or how to explain the LBQ-parent family to other family members. Mothers often felt put in an intermediary role between family members who did not approve of the LBQ parent’s sexuality and families. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to sexuality and family scholarship and changing LGBTQ family dynamics.
The objectives of this study were to determine and to expose the morphology of polyamorous relationships through their conception and characteristics, identifying experienced and perceived situations of discrimination, and to analyze the future expectations for polyamorous relationships. For this purpose, 11 people who were in a polyamorous relationship, with an age ranging from 26 to 57 years, were interviewed. The results show that polyamorous people define their relationships as casual, without possession, a lifestyle that includes friendship, trust, affection, and sex. The success of this type of relationship depends on freedom, respect for each other’s spaces, flexibility of roles, and sharing household expenses and responsibilities. All participants claimed to experience and perceive discrimination by their environment and society. Among their expectations for the future is continuing the relationship, even considering reproduction. Such relationships represent a breakdown of the monogamous society. Poliamory poses many challenges in an attempt to legitimize the diversity of relationships and environments of coexistence in our society.
The association between political ideology and attitudes toward conventional marriage by gender
The association between political ideology and attitudes toward conventional marriage by sexual orientation
The association between religiosity and attitudes toward same-sex marriage by gender
The association between political ideology and attitudes toward same-sex marriage by gender
The association between political ideology and attitudes toward polyamorous marriage by sexual orientation
This study examines the idea that attitudes toward marriage are liberalizing in the US in the face of federal recognition of same-sex marriage legislation by examining attitudes toward conventional marriage ideals, same-sex marriage, and polyamorous marriage. It draws on a sample of liberal arts college students (n = 330) in the southeastern United States as a representation of a cohort more flexible to change and greater social tolerance. Findings indicate shifts away from conventional marriage and toward marriage as more inclusive of same-sex couples. At the same time, less than half support polyamorous marriage. Unsurprisingly, religious students are more likely to support conventional marriage ideals and less likely to support same-sex marriage and students with conservative political ideology are less likely to support same-sex marriage or polyamorous marriage. In particular, the negative impact of political ideology on these attitudes is stronger for men and straight students. Women are more likely than men to support same-sex marriage. LGBQ students are less likely to support conventional views of marriage and more likely to support polyamorous marriage than heterosexual students. While college students today have entered adulthood in the age of marriage equality, and are accepting of same-sex unions, students indicate more mixed feelings about what marriage encompasses, the value of marriage, and whether to support polyamorous marriage.
Self-Objectification by Gender Interaction in the Prediction of Appearance Anxiety Note. N = 535
We modified Liss and colleagues' Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale (ESS) to be suitable for samples that include individuals of varied gender identities and sexual orientations (ESS-R). In two undergraduate samples (Ns = 294 and 527), we found that enjoyment of sexualization (ES) was distinct from but related to self-objectification (SO) in both men and women. As in previous research, men and women reported similar levels of ES, but women reported higher levels of self-objectification. The ESS-R yielded a single factor structure for both men and women, although multiple-groups confirmatory factor analysis suggested that only 4 of the 8 items were invariant across gender. SO, but not ES, was found to positively predict disordered eating attitudes, appearance anxiety, and desire to have a different body size. Finally, with regard to HEXACO personality, ES was associated with low Honesty-Humility and high eXtraversion, whereas SO was associated with high Emotionality and low Honesty-Humility, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, and Openness to Experience. Findings from the two studies indicate that (a) ES is relevant to both men and women, (b) ES and SO have distinct personality correlates, and (c) ES is associated with less damaging outcomes than SO.
The current study examined the depiction of sexist behaviors in film. It was generally expected that characters’ behaviors in popular films would mirror modern American culture. We expected benevolent sexism would be more prevalent than hostile sexism or sexual assault behaviors. We also expected that sexism behaviors would be depicted less in recent movies than in “classic” movies. Lastly, we expected more sexism behaviors would be found in action movies. We found that sexism was ubiquitous in the films, but that benevolent sexism was by far more prevalent. However, the frequency of sexist behaviors has not decreased over time. Lastly, we found that all genres portrayed sexism, but that characters in sci-fi/fantasy films exhibited the least amount of sexist behaviors. These findings are important as they help us to become more critical consumers of film so as not to normalize sexism and further reinforce damaging gender stereotypes.
Interaction Effects of Gender and Message Condition Groups. (Note Interaction Effects of Gender and Message Condition Groups)
Those involved in the adjudication of sexual assault often communicate as much or more concern for the leveling of an inaccurate accusation against the accused than for the effect of the crime on the victim. Gender roles that influence perceptions of sexual assault responsibility have long been credited for the stalemate in the prevention of and justice for sexual violence. This study directly examines whether linguistic labels of sexual misconduct influence the perception of both criminal wrong-doing and the imposition of sanctions. This project hypothesizes that lexical choices in sexual assault labels can elicit or stifle gender stereotypes and rape myths that ultimately encourage a particular perception of the violation and potential sanction for an offense. Using a sample of 152 college students, this study uses a hypothetical scenario paired with three different linguistic labels (rape, sexual assault, non-consensual sexual intercourse) and found that the terms rape and sexual assault negatively correlated to findings of guilt.
Satisfaction with being single, by age groups (means)
Satisfaction with being single in heterosexuals, by sexual activity during the past month (means)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Norwegians are satisfied with their singlehood, and to determine the association between being single and sexual activity. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of a representative web sample of 1076 unpartnered individuals (568 women, 508 men) aged 18–89 years. A total of 45.2% of the single respondents reported being satisfied with being single, while 33.9% reported being unsatisfied. There was no difference between the age groups in men, but more women aged 45 years or older than women under the age of 45 were satisfied with being single. A higher percentage of gay, bisexual, and transmen than heterosexual men was satisfied with being single. More women who had not been sexually active with a partner in the past year were satisfied with being single than were women who had been sexually active. The men who were most satisfied with being single were those who had masturbated and/or had sexual intercourse, and least satisfied were those with no sexual activity, or exclusively masturbation activity. The results are discussed in terms of biological, psychological, and social positions.
Sex work is one of the most stigmatised professions in the world. Although research examining other stigmatised populations has found associations between internalised stigma, increased loneliness, and poorer mental well-being, there is limited research examining these associations for sex workers. This is concerning, considering Corrigan’s theory that internalised stigma, as well as external stigma, reduces opportunities of stigmatised persons. Further, internalised stigma, loneliness, and poorer well-being have been associated with significant social, mental, and physical consequences for stigmatised populations. As such, this exploratory study investigated sex workers’ internalised stigma, and its relationship with their mental well-being and experience of loneliness. 56 full-service sex workers (78.6% females, 12.5% non-binary, 8.9% males, ranging from 18 to 43 years old) completed an online, cross-sectional survey measuring their self-reported internalised stigma, loneliness, and mental well-being. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (MRAs) supported the hypotheses that higher internalised stigma would significantly predict lower mental well-being and higher loneliness after controlling for age and gender. Internalised stigma accounted for a significant 39.3% of the variance in loneliness, and a significant 12.6% of the variance in mental well-being. Correlations supported the hypothesis that higher loneliness would significantly, negatively correlate with mental well-being after controlling for age. Findings aligned with prior research and supported Corrigan. Limitations of the study are discussed, including the small sample size and the cross-sectional, self-report research design. Identified areas of focus for future research and practice include consideration of other associates of internalised stigma for sex workers, as well as lessening the consequences of stigmatisation for sex workers through reduction of its internalisation.
Conceptual framework of current study
Unstandardized regression coefficient for the moderated mediation model
Moderation of the effect of guilt on self-esteem by disclosure conditions
The present study examined the mediating role of guilt between stigma and self-esteem of sexual minority individuals (N = 282 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer) living in India under two disclosure conditions. These disclosure conditions were conceptualized as moderator in which a degree of disclosure ranging from disclosure to a large extent (N = 156) to limited disclosure conditions (N = 126). Results revealed that guilt successfully mediated the relationship between stigma and self-esteem in limited disclosure conditions but not in the case of disclosure to a large extent condition hence confirming the successful moderation between guilt and self-esteem. These results emphasize two important aspects of the findings. First, the relationship between stigma experiences and self-esteem is not direct and also could not be assumed similar for all sexual minorities who carry concealable stigma attribute. Second, the role of self-conscious emotions like guilt needs further examination in the case of concealable stigma.
Hypothesis 2 Results using the Simple Moderation Model (Model 1 in PROCESS). RCI = Raunch Culture Inventory; QIDS = Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology
Hypothesis 3 Results using the Simple Mediation Model (Model 4 in PROCESS). RCI = Raunch Culture Inventory, INCOM = Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure, QIDS = Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology
Hypothesis 4 Results with Time Spent on Social Media as the First Mediator. RCI = Raunch Culture Inventory, TSSM = Time Spent on Social Media (daily average, in minutes, of time spent on social media), INCOM = Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure, QIDS = Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. The indirect effect coefficient refers to the pathway of RCI → SMTF → INCOM → QIDS
Hypothesis 4 Results with SMIS as the First Mediator. RCI = Raunch Culture Inventory, SMIS = Social Media Intensity Scale, INCOM = Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure, QIDS = Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. The indirect effect coefficient refers to the pathway of RCI → SMIS → INCOM → QIDS
"Raunch culture" is a term describing the promotion of overtly sexual representations of women. This concept may provide people opportunities to engage in positive social comparisons, but also negative social comparisons. As such, this concept could also relate to the phenomenology of depression in women. In an attempt to further investigate the effects of raunch culture, this study examined relationships between raunch culture, depression, and social media use in undergraduate students. Participants (N = 199) from a moderately-sized university in the Midwest completed measures of raunch culture, depression, social comparison, and social media use via an online platform. Primary hypotheses centered around the impact of raunch culture on depressive symptoms, as well as other variables such as social comparison and social media behaviors and their involvement regarding the relationship between endorsement of raunch culture and depression. Findings suggest that students with greater depressive symptoms were more likely to be accepting of behaviors associated with raunch culture, and that this effect may be more prominent in women. Results also indicate that raunch culture may be associated with an unfolding pathway, wherein endorsement of these features is associated with more intense consumption of social media, which in turn can lead to higher rates of social comparison and ultimately affect depressive symptoms. Future research may benefit from examining raunch culture and social media involvement in the context of other important psychosocial variables.
The aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about Swedish school girls’ perspectives of sexual harassment and their relations to peers when exposed to violence in terms of sexual harassment, both online and offline. The empirical data was collected through pair interviews where 28 girls participated. The theoretical framework was based on coping strategies that people use when facing stressful situations. The transcribed empirical data was read and interpreted based on what appeared to be important and decisive related to the theoretical framework. The found strategies are divided into three main categories, namely, problem-focused behavioural strategies, emotion-focused cognitive strategies, and emotion-focused behavioural strategies. The results show that the girls use different strategies depending on if the harassment occurs online or offline and if the perpetrator is known or unknown. Problem-focused cognitive strategies are used due to the specific context. Emotion-focused cognitive strategies are foremost used if the perpetrator is a known friend.
Susan Sontag, in her classic 1967 essay, “The Pornographic Imagination,” argued: “Tamed as it may be, sexuality remains one of the demonic forces in human consciousness …. “In the last half-century, Sontag’s demonic force of sexuality has transformed pornography and the “pornographic imagination”—let along social relations between women and men. In this essay, I adopt Walter Benjamin’s concept of phantasmagoria—a magic-lantern show of optical illusions, rapidly changing size and blending into one another—as the metaphoric commodity form of postmodern capitalist society, fetishism-on-display. I examine the evolution of technological forms of pornographic representation over the last two centuries, including the magiclantern, daguerreotype, photography, stereoscope and film as well as the internet, erotic toys, electronic devises, VR and sex robots. These developments are set against a background of equally profound legal and cultural developments that have recast the sexuality of postmodern America. I argue that these (and other) developments have recast patriarchy and, in some important ways, the sexual relations between “consenting” adults. I conclude reflecting on the current intellectual and political debate about pornography between “pro-sex” and “anti-sex” feminists. With the enormous increase in the production and availability of pornography, I ask, perhaps “quantity” can give way to improved “quality”? I ask whether today’s sexual phantasmagoria can fashion a “new” feminist sexuality—and a more humane pornography?
The current study aimed to examine the emerging role of early adaptive schemas within heterosexual romantic relationships. In accordance with schema theory, it was hypothesised that endorsing greater early adaptive schemas would predict higher levels of relationship quality. A total of 941 heterosexual adults (age, M = 32.44 years), who identified as being in a current romantic relationship (relationship duration, M = 7.92 years), completed questionnaires online. Early adaptive schemas were measured using the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire. Relationship quality was measured by relationship and sexual satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for potential confounding variables, higher levels of the early adaptive schemas of Emotional Fulfilment and Self-Care predicted greater relationship and sexual satisfaction. The current findings suggest that specific early adaptive schemas may be beneficial for bolstering romantic relationship quality in heterosexual relationships. This preliminary evidence may inform the development of a more holistic schema-based couple therapy intervention. Specifically, one which incorporates the enhancement of early adaptive schemas to promote sexual and relationship wellbeing in couples. Future research is required to elucidate the explanatory mechanisms and to examine whether integrating early adaptive schemas into schema therapy does indeed have a positive effect on therapy outcomes.
Model of Perceived Family Support and Coming Out
Outness is determined by disclosing one’s sexual orientation and gender identity to people we socially engage in everyday life. For lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, coming out may have several consequences due to stigma and discrimination toward sexual minorities. Perceived social support, a generalized sense of acceptance, has been associated with greater psychological well-being and sexual identity disclosure. The present study used a sequential explanatory mixed design to investigate perceived social support and its role in the outness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in the Philippines. Phase 1 consisted of 239 self-identified LGB Filipinos ages 18 to 24 who completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Outness Inventory. Quantitative results showed a positive relationship between perceived social support and outness, with perceived family support being a significant predictor. Phase 2 involved 11 participants who were randomly selected from the study sample. The substantial interpretations of the qualitative interview supported and validated that perceived social support from family is a determining factor in the participants’ disclosure of sexual orientation. Further analysis revealed that perceived social support from one’s family could be a sequential process influencing the LGB youths’ coming-out decisions. Three key themes emerged in the participants’ experiences of perceived family support that served as the main stages in their coming out process: (1) Initial Reactions, (2) Readiness to Accept the Idea, and (3) Openness and Involvement. Generally, higher overall social support, especially from family members, leads to a higher degree of outness among Filipino LGB youths.
Path model 1 with narcissism as mediator (standardized parameters; * p < .001)
Path model 1 with FOMOS as mediator (standardized parameters; * p < .001)
Path model 1 with ASI-R as mediator (standardized parameters; * p < .001)
The present study investigates differences between gay and heterosexual Italian men regarding both social networking behaviors and addiction. Furthermore, it explores the possible mediation effects of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, fear of missing out, and physical appearance on social networking behaviors and addiction. A total of 586 Italian men (334 gay and 252 heterosexual) were recruited with snowball sampling, and they completed an online questionnaire. Results showed a significant difference between the two groups, with men who identify themselves as gay having higher levels of social networking addiction, narcissism, fear of missing out, and the importance of one’s appearance. A direct effect of sexual orientation on social networking behaviors and addiction can be seen, which is only partially mediated by the variables posed as mediators.
Popular American commercial rap is believed to (re)produce cultural narratives of masculinity. Yet, there is no knowledge about the relationship between consumption of idealized masculinity in rap and young (Black) men’s senses of masculine selves. This study aims to explore how sixteen American and Dutch Black adolescent men perceive ideals of masculine behavior, physical appearance, and mate desirability in commercial rap. Grounded in social comparison theory, it furthermore aims to understand whether these young men compare themselves to these ideals, and if so, how this informs their self-evaluations. A (hybrid) comparative thematic analysis of interviews with eight U.S. and eight Dutch adolescents revealed three masculinity ideals to be present in rap and congruent with the majority of the respondents’ own ideals. First, it is appropriate for young men to be ‘playas’ and view (young) women as either (sexually) freaky girls or wifey material. Second, attractive men look wealthy, and, third, desirable men financially provide for their partners. The participants who endorsed these ideals and, subsequently, compared themselves to them, reported positive self-evaluations and emotions, which were believed to translate into their own behavior, appearance, and desirability. Interestingly, although the participants came from different cultural contexts, systematic differences in perception, attitude, social comparison and self-evaluation were not found. Suggestions for future research are provided and implications for intervention programs are discussed.
This paper explores the ways in which swingers negotiate their world in swinger settings in Spain and France. This includes previously ignored subgroups in swinger subculture, such as single swingers, intergenerational and intercultural couples as well as cuckold couples. Demographics differ slightly from previous studies, including 7 nationalities, suggesting a higher level of multiculturalism among swingers in cosmopolitan and touristic areas, such as the south of Spain and south of France. Drawing on ethnographic data collected in Andalusia, Spain, and Cap d´Agde, France, as well as qualitative interviews with 40 participants, we demonstrate the ways in which swingers negotiate their world. Strategies by swingers were used to avoid misunderstandings, create boundaries, claim agency, transgress, and deal with stigma.
Overview of the codes
This study aimed to investigate how sexual consent is depicted in sex comics published in Japan. Twenty best-selling comics from 2010 and 2020 were set as objects of analysis and separated into 277 scenes. A codebook developed after five rounds of trials was utilized by four coders to code the materials. First, the results showed that explicit communication was not rare: among all materials, 39.9–57.3% of scenes were initiated by an explicit approach, while only 5.2–19.4% of scenes were coded as depicting non-explicit initiation. Further, as for the act of gatekeeper, 21.6–35.5% and 6.5–9.7% of scenes depicted explicit consent and refusal, while 20.3–28.2% of scenes were coded as expressing non-explicit consent/refusal. Second, in the comparison between 2010 and 2020, there were fewer scenes in which more than three characters were involved and sexual acts were initiated by non-explicit forms in 2020. Contrastingly, there were more scenes in which sexual acts were initiated by assault or intimidation. Based on these findings, social implications and future research orientations are discussed.
An illustration of the analysis procedure
Word clouds of top 20 reposted Weibo posts of four weeks
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The HPV vaccination has been widely advocated around the world since the vaccine is beneficial in avoiding diseases, including some sexually transmitted diseases, brought on by HPV infections. For most Chinese, the HPV vaccine is still a relatively new concept, having only been made available to the general public in 2016. Despite the vaccine’s increased prominence, there is still a lack of investigation about how the public is influencing the conversation about HPV vaccines and the public’s perception of this vaccine. With the theoretical construct of the Health Belief Model, this study conducts both quantitative and qualitative content analysis to investigate the existing media narratives around HPV vaccines in China and the changes in public opinion by looking at users’ contributions on Weibo, one of China’s most popular social networking sites. It was found that different groups of Weibo users had contributed to diverse narratives surrounding HPV vaccination. Though the public awareness of HPV vaccination had been improved along with increasingly active communication practices and enhanced public health services, public knowledge about HPV remains inadequate. Therefore, to facilitate the popularisation of HPV related knowledge, more effort should be invested in tailoring and disseminating messages that communicates responsive and comprehensive HPV related information.
The COVID 19 pandemic has impacted sexual health in a variety of ways. The purpose of this research was to examine the ways in which college students (attending a university providing primarily online curriculum during fall 2020 and spring 2021 semesters) perceive the pandemic influencing their sexual health and lives. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 66) at a mid-sized Western university recruited during the beginning of the spring 2021 semester. Participants completed an anonymous online survey. A Thematic Analysis of responses to two open-ended questions asking about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their sexual health and lives was conducted. Several important themes were identified during this analysis: (1) Sexual activity and quality, (2) Relationship dynamics, (3) Self-focus, (4) New partners, (5) Sexual healthcare, (6) No change. Findings have implications for promoting sexual health for students during times when the majority of instruction is conducted online.
Association between being man and perception of the severity of COVID-19 health consequences as a function of the endorsement of traditional masculinity
Study 2: Descriptive statistics for the variables we used and correlations among them
Epidemiological data show that men and women have similar probabilities of contracting COVID-19. However, men with COVID-19 tend to have more severe outcomes than women. We performed two studies to analyze the associations between gender, adherence to traditional masculinity ideology, perceived vulnerability to COVID-19, and the adoption of protective behaviors against COVID-19. In Study 1 (quota sample of the Italian adult population, N = 1,142), we found no differences between men and women in terms of the perceived probability of contracting COVID-19. However, compared to women, men perceived themselves to be less likely to suffer severe consequences if falling ill. In Study 2 (Italian community sample, N = 305), a moderated mediation model showed that adherence to traditional masculinity ideology moderated the association between being man and the perceived severity of the consequences of COVID-19, which, in turn, showed negative associations with three protective behaviors against COVID-19. The article ends with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of this research.
Russia is one of the few countries, where commercial gestational surrogacy a legal for locals and foreigners. Even though surrogacy in Russia is stigmatized, a sizeable number of Russian women would like to become surrogates. Drawing on SelfDetermination Theory and based on a qualitative content analysis of 656 posts in a Russian-language online forum for SMs, this paper explores how Russian surrogates conceptualize their occupation and what are their primary aims and motivations for surrogacy. They discuss four interrelated motives: 1) Financial: SM is a job, even a profession, that should be properly remunerated, 2) Social: SMs enjoy their unique and indispensable role as carriers of future children that could not be born otherwise, 3) Hedonistic: SMs enjoy the very experience of pregnancy and related body sensations, and 4) Moral: SMs find satisfaction in contributing to common good and ensuring future happiness of a childless couple. Judging by the posts on the website under study, the extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of these motives are closelyintertwined.
Our commentary responds to claims made by DiMarco and colleagues in an article published in this journal that the majority of victims of rape are men and that 80% of those who rape men are women. Although we strongly believe that studying male sexual victimization is a highly important research and policy endeavour, we have concerns with the approach taken by DiMarco and colleagues to discuss these incidents. Specifically, we critique their paper by addressing the definitions of rape used by the authors, questioning their interpretation of national victim surveys, evaluating their analysis of the underreporting of male rape, and highlighting the heteronorma-tive framework they use to outline the landscape of male sexual victimization. With this commentary, we call for a holistic, nuanced, and balanced study of male sexual victimization that recognizes the reality of both female-on-male and male-on-male violence, the experiences of survivors, and multi-layered barriers that male victims often encounter.
The article presents results of research on academic youth attitudes on love, intimacy, and infidelity in Poland. The research goal was to determine how modern adolescents define a relationship, what role is played in this regard by the sociocultural understanding of love they adopted, and how their ideas about relationship and love translate into faithfulness in the relationship. The research was conducted using quantitative methods with computer assisted (aided) web interviews on an Internet channel supervised by Lime-Survey system. The study was of an exploratory character; it used N = 621 of full questionnaires. Factor analysis enabled distinguishing three analytic areas: relationship, infidelity and causes of infidelity. Within every definitional range, the number of variables extracted from the question pool was reduced to two dimensions. In each case, the definitional variants clearly fit into a distinct dualism of cultural forms of love, which distinguished between romantic love and pure relationship. Young people’s attitudes towards love and infidelity are full of contradictions and paradoxes. On the one hand, they look for romantic love, on the other, one can observe a need of sexual experiences and pleasures. Adolescents define infidelity in corporal terms, but they do not forget about its emotional aspect. Their opinions about infidelity point to a rather elusive nature of traditionally applying norms and prohibitions. What is crucial in this regard is the way the relationship is perceived and the strength of emotional involvement and ties binding the couple.
British-Australian counterculture magazine Oz (1963–1973) was a subversive imagetext platform for anti-establishment issues, prominent among which were free love and sex. Particularly controversial was the “Schoolkids” issue (May 1970), which led to the editors’ indictment for obscenity. Oz presented progressive ideas on sex, but also conventionally sexist contents. For example, “Schoolkids” featured images of free and passionate lesbian sexuality, as well as a comic strip depicting the violent deflowering of an objectified female. The trial dwelled on these examples not from an anti-sexist standpoint, but from a conservative one, disapproving of explicit sexuality. This article argues that Oz was a sort of peer sex education agent for young British readers, and discusses its sexual discourse from the perspective of critical pedagogy, which considers visual culture a key educational vehicle. It analyses the magazine’s messages in the context of contested conceptions of sexuality in 1960s–1970s Britain, according to three themes: Sexist and objectifying discourse; Feminist critical discourse; and Egalitarian and subversive discourse. The article concludes by suggesting that despite its weaknesses and contradictions, Oz reflected a utopian version of the sexual revolution – which, as conceded in retrospect by one of its few female authors, Germaine Greer – was (and is) yet to come.
Regional Distribution of Participants across the United States. Map constructed in Tableau (2020) using base maps, with permission, from
© Mapbox and © OpenStreetMap. See and
Multiple United States federal courts have recently drawn inferences regarding community sentiment as it pertains to public female toplessness. Despite citing common social factors in their rulings, the courts have rendered conflicting decisions to uphold (Ocean City, MD) or to overturn (Fort Collins, CO) female-specific bans. Regional differences in attitudes toward toplessness may in part explain these discrepant legal outcomes. Participants (n = 326) were asked to rate their general impressions of photos depicting topless women in three different public settings. Geographic region was unrelated to reactions toward toplessness, however, participants from states with prohibitive or ambiguous statutes rated the photos differently. Consistent with a body of theoretical and empirical work on cultural objectification of women, female participants, on average, were more critical of the photos of other topless women. Other demographic and attitudinal predictors showed a pattern that suggests moral objections as a likely source of unfavorable reactions. Ascribing morality with the practice of toplessness echoed some of the commentary that surrounded the above legal cases and further substantiates prior objectification research (i.e., Madonna-whore dichotomy). Overall, attitudes toward public female toplessness appear to be driven more by individual opinions than by context (e.g., beach, park) or structural factors (e.g., region or state-legality).
The integrated behavioural change (I-Change) model
Sudan is one of the Islamic countries where extramarital sex is religiously forbidden and socially unacceptable. However, increasing numbers of university students become engaged in premarital sex practices, which increases their risk of contracting STIs, including HIV, and puts them into conflicts with their religious beliefs. As little is known about the motivations for abstinence from premarital sex, this study aimed to identify these psychosocial determinants. Using a cross-sectional design, a sample of 257 students between18 and 27 years old was recruited from randomly selected public and private universities in Khartoum. The participants filled out an online questionnaire based on the Integrated Change Model (ICM) to assess their beliefs and practices about abstinence from premarital sex. The analysis of variances (MANOVA) showed that the students who reported being sexually active differed significantly from abstainers in having more knowledge about HIV/AIDS, higher perception of susceptibility to HIV, more exposure to cues that made them think about sex and a more positive attitude towards premarital sex. The abstainers had a significantly more negative attitude towards premarital sex, higher self-efficacy to abstain from sex until marriage and perceived more peer support and norms favouring abstinence from sex until marriage. These findings suggest that promoting abstinence from sex until marriage among university students in Sudan, which aligns with the Sudanese religious values and social norms, requires health communication messages addressing these potential determinants. However, given that sexual encounters still may occur, health communication messages may profit from a more comprehensive approach by also addressing the need for condom use for those unwilling to refrain from sex.
Narratives depicting an imbalanced sex ratio in a romantically-themed context (e.g., the “love triangle”) are featured in various types of entertainment media. Exposure to media messages depicting skewed sex ratios have been shown to influence romantic and sexual preferences and selectivity among audiences. The current study examined the extent to which individuals' intention to commit infidelity is influenced by these types of narratives. In an experiment, participants were exposed to descriptions of film narratives depicting a skewed (male-biased vs. female-biased) sex ratio. Participants’ intention to engage in infidelity was significantly and directly influenced by exposure to an abundance of partners; however, perceptions of actual sex ratio did not mediate these effects. Findings are discussed in light of biological market theory and priming.
In her recent article published in Sexuality & Culture, “This is my TERF! Lesbian Feminists and the Stigmatization of Trans Women,” Worthen focuses on feminist lesbians and their alleged “anti-trans” and “trans-exclusionary” beliefs. Analyzing a subsample of ‘cis women’ from a larger online survey, Worthen examines whether feminist lesbians “express greater levels of negativity” toward transwomen than other women and whether there is “a relationship between feminist identity among lesbian cis women and the stigmatization of trans women”. Although Worthen reports finding a positive association between being a feminist lesbian and holding negative views towards transwomen, which she interprets as indicating that lesbian feminists hold more negative sentiments toward transwomen than other women, that is not what her results show. Notably, while this misinterpretation of findings is particularly egregious, mischaracterizations pervade Worthen’s article. Here, I correct these misrepresentations. I address Worthen’s use of ad hominem in lieu of logic and evidence. I also discuss differences between gender-critical feminism and what I call trans-activist feminism, drawing attention to the latter’s explicit prioritization of male inclusion in women’s provisions over female safety and psychological well-being. I show that, contrary to her interpretations, Worthen’s findings indicate that lesbians have significantly less ‘anti-trans [woman] sentiment’ than most other women and their non-lesbian feminist counterparts. I conclude by considering how we arrived at this socio-cultural situation, where feminists who believe that sex is biologically real and matters in some contexts are derided, their concerns are denounced as hateful, and flawed articles purporting to demonstrate feminist lesbians’ uniquely ‘anti-trans’ sentiment are published despite factual inaccuracies.
Core Interview Questions by Section
Despite having essential health needs regarding sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS), young people (e.g., adolescents) in many countries show low use of such services. The World Health Organization advocates fostering young people’s autonomy to access health services to address this global health problem. However, there are gaps in the literature to understand how young people’s autonomy can be fostered to access SRHS. In 2019–2020, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 45 young people aged 14–23 years old in Colombia to explore how they might wish to have their autonomy fostered in accessing SRHS. Research in different cultural contexts has shown that young people generally do not wish to discuss sex with their parents. By contrast, most of our participants expressed a strong wish for the ability to talk openly with their parents about their sexual and reproductive health. One of the main complaints of these young people was that their parents lacked the necessary knowledge to help them make informed decisions related to their sexual and reproductive health (e.g., choosing a contraceptive option). As a potential solution, participants were enthusiastic about initiatives that could provide parents with comprehensive sex education to assist young people in making informed choices for their sexual and reproductive health, including how to access SRHS.
The Devadasi tradition exists in some temples of India as a religious practice which requires the offering of pre-puberty girls for the worship of a deity or service to the temple for the rest of their lives. The Devadasi System in Assam is distinct from those prevalent in other parts of India in more ways than one. The article traces the trajectory of the system over the centuries, from an obscure origin with traits of Tibetan influence, to its apparent reduction to a mere dance form, ‘devadasi nritya’, which lost its divine sanctity and degenerated into ‘natinach’ by the 11th century, and has been on the wane since the 20th century. It delineates the gendered spaces and illustrates how religion, as a part of the masculine power structure, itself becomes the motor through which power and hierarchy are challenged under Ahom rule. It also examines the Devadasi system of Assam as a complex cultural practice rooted in religion, and organically linked to economy, society and even political power, through the lens of gender and within a framework of intersectionality of religion, class, caste, gender and sexuality. Religion and gender are here seen not as variables but as ‘mutually constitutive social categories’ and religion itself is viewed in the broader context of gender, sexuality and culture.
The contemporary global discourse of “HIV normalisation” is intimately linked to the scientific consensus that, with effective antiretroviral therapy, an “undetectable” viral load renders HIV “non-infectious” and “untransmittable” between sexual partners. Beyond this correlation, HIV normality is rarely defined, leaving the impression that it is an objective and universally applicable phenomenon. But what does normality mean in settings where these concepts are not widely known or part of local understandings of HIV? Our research in Papua New Guinea with “serodiscordant” couples (one partner has HIV, but not the other) found that while HIV normality was a widespread narrative, it pivoted on culturally specific values and expectations, not on undetectability. We argue that narrow assumptions of what constitutes “HIV normalisation” limit our capacity to understand how global discourses can translate and manifest in local contexts and with what consequences for personal lives, relationships, and the epidemic.
This research compares the relationship experiences, beliefs, and intentions related to love and romantic relationships of 75 individuals who indicated they were asexual (from a sample of 2,665 young adults) with subsamples of individuals who indicated they were either heterosexual, bisexual, or gay/lesbian. Identifying as asexual generally associated with having generally less-romantic beliefs and less interest in marriage and parenthood. The asexual group also tended to have more in common with other sexual minority groups than with the heterosexual group. Multivariate analyses revealed that asexuality was especially associated with being single and with seeing oneself living with one’s parents after college.
Body Appreciation by Gender and Participation in Nude Activities Notes: (1) Participation in nude activity predicted higher body appreciation scores regardless of gender. (2) Scores ranged from 1 to 5. (3) Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. (4) Participants were 6670 German adults; 1609 men (24.1%), 4992 women (74.8%), and 69 who identified as “other” or “prefer not to say” (1.0%)
Prior research suggests that naturism leads to less social physique anxiety and more positive body image, but that other forms of public nudity (e.g., casual stripping, sexting) may be harmful, particularly for women. Two cross-sectional studies built on those previous findings. Study 1 (N 1 = 6670) found a positive relationship between generalised nude activity and body appreciation which was not moderated by gender. Study 2 (N 2 = 331) found that both naturism and casual stripping predicted more body appreciation, a relationship mediated by less social physique anxiety. Again, these relationships were not moderated by gender. In contrast, sexting did not predict body appreciation and predicted more social physique anxiety, but only in men. These findings highlight that some types of nudity may be more beneficial or harmful than others, and that future research and policy should specify the type of nudity under consideration in order to maximise positive effects.
Dating app users are likely to experience a high frequency of viewing the sexually explicit material of potential partners prior to a physical meeting. The present study aimed to investigate what information is inferred from a picture of a penis at zero-acquaintance. Past research in impression formation at zero-acquaintance has demonstrated a stability with regard to personality and trait perceptions of faces. Utilizing 106 participants, our study extends this paradigm by testing the hypothesis that penis prototypicality would be associated with attractiveness, as well as explore the personality and sexual perceptions of penises along the dimensions of girth, length, and amount of pubic hair. The hypotheses were confirmed and the analysis of penis dimensions revealed strong results. Penises which were wider, longer, and moderately hairy were perceived more positively in terms of personality and sexual appeal. Shorter and narrower penises were perceived as more neurotic. The results demonstrate the function of impression formation within the digital sexual landscape with regard to sexually explicit material.
Top-cited authors
Mathias Weber
  • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Oliver Quiring
  • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Rusi Jaspal
  • Nottingham Trent University
M. Paz Galupo
  • Towson University
Chiara Rollero
  • Università degli Studi di Torino