This paper presents the results of a survey aimed at gauging the potential acceptance of a collaborative and Web 2.0 inspired scholarly communication sector. While this sector has seen the birth of a multitude of innovative initiatives, there is still little empirical evidence of the acceptance of such initiatives by researchers. We received 349 completed questionnaires from researchers of many different disciplines. The results of the survey show that there is a strong positive attitude towards Web 2.0 and open publishing approaches. However, the major challenge still resides in combining free dissemination of results with robust and reliable quality control mechanisms.Highlights► We explore the opinions of researchers on Web 2.0 for scientific knowledge. ► 345 questionnaires were completed by researchers from many different disciplines. ► Results show dissatisfaction with current copyright and dissemination policies. ► There is room to adopt methods to combine free dissemination and quality control. ► Authors recommend policy intervention to change the mainstream publishing practices.
The sixteenth issue of our index of interviews appearing in current little magazines received for the Sukov Collection of Little Magazines (Department of Special Collections, Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is a double one, covering 2000 and 2001. The index includes 1059 entries, with the usual mix of well-known and new writers in a wide range of journal titles. The index follows an initial list of magazine titles currently received by the Sukov Collection, now arranged by country of publication, which are not included in the thirty-seventh edition of the International Directory of Little Magazines and Small Presses (Dustbooks). Serials Review 2002; 28:126–141.
A Web-based survey of librarians and library staff who work with serials reveals a variety of opinions about the desirability of adhering to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data. The authors review reasons for and against working with the standards and provide suggestions for responding to concerns raised by the survey.
Increasingly, academic libraries are choosing to discard or place in storage print journals that are now available online. The identification of these titles and related collection analysis activities are often time-intensive. The approach at the University of Saskatchewan Library was to develop an online toolkit that combined available data from disparate sources including the integrated library system, SFX link resolver, and OCLC's WorldCat and then present them in a collaborative open source environment. This paper demonstrates how the careful combination of existing data presented in a simple online format allowed subject specialists to make accurate print journal deselection decisions quickly and painlessly.
For centuries researchers have relied upon abstracting and indexing (A&I) services to manage information overload and ensure the flow of scholarly communication. Today these services continue to provide ease-of-access to current publications and to content-rich databases encompassing decades, even centuries, of invaluable scholarly research. But will today's A&I services meet the information needs of future generations of scholars within the rapidly growing digital information community? The author discusses the role and evolution of A&I services, the challenges they now face, and the strategies that are being developed to ensure success in the foreseeable future. Serials Review 2003; 29:200–209.
Today's abstracting and indexing services had their beginnings in the nineteenth century when periodical publishing exploded and the need for access to the wealth of information in these publications increased. Technology effected enormous changes in this aspect of the information industry. This article traces some major transformations from the perspective of the H.W. Wilson Company. Understanding how abstracting and indexing services make decisions, incorporate technology, collaborate with the American Library Association, and design new products provides valuable insights into this particular aspect of the serials community and the information industry. Serials Review 2003; 29:213–220.
Prompted by survey results from users of the University at Buffalo Health Sciences Library, the Coordinator of Information Management Education created a workshop about electronic journals (e-journals). Common reference questions regarding accessing and using e-journals led to the development of specific course objectives. The workshop focused on the commonly held myths surrounding e-journals, and the recommended methods for accessing journals through the University at Buffalo Libraries. This article details the process of building the workshop and suggests reasons and methods for implementing similar instructional opportunities in other libraries. Serials Review 2002; 28:88–92.
Academic library consortia, faced with requirements of assessment and accountability, are increasingly pressured to measure the impact of their networked electronic services. Studies on usage of electronic library resources and electronic journals, in particular, proliferate; relatively few focus on the academic library consortium. This paper gives an overview of one assessment tool, MINES for Libraries®, as implemented in the Scholars Portal service of the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). The novel contributions of this study are twofold: firstly, the creation of peer groups within an academic consortium for comparison purposes, and secondly, the use of regression analysis to explore the correlation between usage and three separate variables outside the MINES survey — library print holdings, library acquisitions budget, and sponsored research revenue.
Colorado State University faculty, graduate students, and administrative professionals were surveyed in Spring 2001 to determine their usage and acceptance of e-journals. A majority of respondents used e-journals at least monthly and preferred multiple access points on the Libraries Webpage and OPAC. Almost all respondents supported adding electronic access to print journal subscriptions, but fewer respondents supported canceling print subscriptions and relying on the electronic subscriptions. Respondents strongly supported having access to journal back runs older than four years and believed that the Libraries had a good balance of print and electronic resources. Serials Review 2003; 29:16–25.
The economic development of a country depends heavily on its scientific strength and ability to resolve problems in such areas as public health, infectious disease, environmental management, or industrial progress. Access to research information traditionally depends on ability to pay, which has a negative impact on developing countries. A number of new initiatives address this imbalance, ranging from consortial licensing and new publishing models to the Open Access Initiative, and have the ability to meet the needs of research in financially constrained countries. The advent of the Open Access strategies, particularly interoperable institutional archives, has the potential to revolutionize access to essential research.
Open Access is increasingly considered the most logical and hopeful solution to ease the burden on library budgets, as well as the best way to unshackle research findings—its primary role. But is Open Access the panacea for all the ills that currently beset those of us dedicated to the dissemination and preservation of good quality academic research? In this article, Richard Gedye (Sales Director, Oxford Journals) explores the background to one of Oxford Journals' current Open Access initiatives and explains some elements of the model adopted. He also offers his personal opinions on the significant role librarians could play in the Open Access story.
This study examines the electronic availability of agronomy journals at eight ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member institutions with doctoral programs in agronomy. Of the forty-seven journals examined, twelve were not available electronically at any of the institutions. On average, institutions provided access to thirty of the titles, with twenty-seven of these being unembargoed. In terms of depth of access, much of the older literature which is important to the agricultural sciences was not available electronically. Librarians can use these results to communicate to researchers the importance of not relying solely on electronically available research materials.
Recent legislative activity in the US House of Representatives and the UK House of Commons has added fuel to a debate over electronic access to the Scientific, Technical and Medical (STM) literature that was initiated in 1999 with the introduction of E-Biomed. Ongoing efforts to change the landscape of STM publishing involve moving it away from a subscription basis to an author-pays model. This article chronicles the swift evolution of electronic access to the scientific literature and asks whether the scholarly community will really be better off with government-mandated Open Access (OA) publishing.
Discussion about Open Access (OA) has dominated industry news for the past two years. Librarians and publishers alike are attempting to fully grasp the implications of different business models on various issues, including costs, peer review, funding mechanisms, value, and archives. While there is general agreement about the importance of broadening access to scientific literature, there is disagreement on how this is best achieved in a financially responsible fashion. This article looks at some of the questions surrounding Open Access journals as well as the role publishing plays in the continuum of science in general, particularly with regard to membership organizations.
All parties in the scholarly-information marketplace agree that any Open Access (OA) system will have to account for the costs of disseminating scholarly information and of editing, publishing and distributing it. There has been less discussion of the fact that for an OA forum to succeed, it will have to be accepted and supported by authors. Author charges, a relative lack of prestige, and the required abdication of copyright are three characteristics of many currently emerging OA models that may pose significant barriers to author acceptance. These will have to be addressed if OA providers wish to be competitive with non-OA providers.
Since January 2007, Ukraine has a law mandating open access to publicly funded research. Most of the Parliament members supported it. The law is already the second parliamentary inquiry mandating the Cabinet of Ministers to take actions on creating favorable conditions for developing open access repositories in archives, libraries, museums, and scientific and research institutions with open access conditions to publicly funded research. Nevertheless, the “bottom-up” approaches of Ukrainian universities and research centers as well as political support from the principle legislative body in the country, have still not resulted in a network of well-functioning institutional repositories. The article highlights recent open access developments and presents the lists of open access benefits for the developing and transition countries and regions.
Each proposal for Open Access (OA) has its unique combination of features; each argument for or against OA focuses on particular features or criteria. This article is intended to discuss these criteria, both individually and also as each of them contributes to the different proposals for OA. Evaluation of the proposals themselves is not attempted. This discussion is intended to be of value to the supporters of OA, in choosing which plan to adopt, and to those opposed to OA, in showing where the weaknesses do and do not lie. In other words, this article intends to improve the level of factual understanding in the ongoing discussions.
The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC in Spanish, http://www.csic.es) is the largest public institution dedicated to research with more than a hundred centers and institutes nationwide. Its main objective is to develop and promote research that will help bring about scientific and technological progress and to collaborate with Spanish and foreign entities in order to achieve it. Digital.CSIC was created to maximize the international visibility, accessibility and impact of CSIC research by taking advantage of innovations in the field of information management and by participating actively in the open access movement.
This paper sets Open Access (OA) publishing in the context of today's scientific, technical, and medical (STM) publishing trends. Four areas are covered: (a) a brief overview of STM publishing and its value today; (b) OA's place in the industry; (c) the underlying economics of OA, particularly its author-pays model; and (d) directions in moving towards “universal access” to STM information, where both researchers and the public have access to the scientific information they need.
The Essential Electronic Agricultural Library (TEEAL) and Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) are programs that will provide low-income countries with access to agricultural journal literature that advances their agricultural research and education objectives. Developed by Cornell University's Mann Library and launched in 1999, TEEAL is a self-contained agricultural research library with full-text articles and graphics of 140 major journals related to agriculture from 1993 through 2003, stored and indexed on over 400 CD-ROMs. In mid-2005, most of the collection also became available for use over local area networks. Launched in October 2003, AGORA is an Internet-based journal delivery system led by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), with Mann Library as a principal partner. AGORA offers almost 800 journals from twenty-seven international publishers to 113 low-income countries and territories for free or a nominal fee.
SCOAP3 is an innovative Open Access initiative for publishing in high-energy physics. The model is viewed by many as a potential solution to multiple issues related to the financial crisis, the peer review system, scholarly communication, and the need to support institutional repositories. This installment of “The Balance Point” presents articles written by three Open Access advocates, outlining the SCOAP3 proposal, benefits of participation, and some of the roles libraries, publishers and scientists can play in making important changes to scholarly communication. Contributors discuss scalability and transferability issues of SCOAP3, as well as other matters of concern.
The primary purpose of information services has always been and will always be to reduce to a minimum the amount of time required by local users to obtain access to that information they need to do their work.1
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro's Jackson Library has introduced a new journal information service that makes finding and accessing journal articles easier and more effective than traditional methods. Journal Finder is part of a broader program to provide location-independent information access and through a single interface it allows users to connect directly to an electronic, full-text version of a journal; obtain local holdings and format information about a specific title; order a specific article from any journal through an unmediated document delivery service or interlibrary loan; and search other libraries' catalogs for journal holdings data. Developed in-house using a relational database structure, Journal Finder offers unique service advantages, while signaling a shift in the delivery of journal information from print subscriptions to access by means of separate articles in electronic or print formats. Serials Review 2002; 28:13–20.
Universities have always been one of the key players in open access publishing and have encountered the particular obstacle that faces this Green model of open access, namely, disappointing author uptake. Today, the university has a unique opportunity to reinvent and to reinvigorate the model of the institutional repository. This article explores what is not working about the way we talk about repositories to authors today and how can we better meet faculty needs. More than an archive, a repository can be a showcase that allows scholars to build attractive scholarly profiles, and a platform to publish original content in emerging open-access journals.
A study conducted for the (United Kingdom) Joint Information Systems Committee reviewed possible models for implementing Open Access to research reports in institutional archives and Open Access journals. The conclusion was that a “harvesting model,” in which full texts reside on the original servers but metadata are harvested, held, and enhanced by a central service, was preferable to either a centralized national service or a completely decentralized service for the UK. The study included issues of populating institutional archives (IAs) and some form of mandatory archiving for publicly funded research results to obtain a critical mass of Open Access material in such a system.
There have been increasing calls for the United States (U.S.) government’s implementation of broad public access policies mandating free online access to federally funded research. This study examines the potential impact of such a policy on peer-reviewed forestry literature. The authors analyze information about federal government authorship, federal government funding, and U.S. authorship indicated in articles published in five core forestry journals in 2006. The results of the analysis provide evidence that federal public access legislation would have a significant impact on the accessibility of forestry literature published in leading journals in the field.
Three years ago, the Gold and Green Roads to Open Access were viewed as complementary strategies, with repositories having the potential of gradually behaving more like journals, and vice versa. Since then, repositories and journals have been progressing on parallel tracks. Re-examining the situation, the reasoning suggested in 2004 appears still valid. Simultaneously, a knowledge economy has made of science a strategic resource. The developing world is essentially invited to contribute to world science with little or no regard to the development of an autonomous scientific capacity. Open Access, in this context, takes a new meaning with one objective to help development of local and autonomous scientific capacity. However, to do so, mixing and matching repositories with journals is needed. Brazil exemplifies this type of development and shows how the Green and Gold roads can mix and match.
The research access/impact problem arises because journal articles are not accessible to all of their would-be users; hence, they are losing potential research impact. The solution is to make all articles open access (OA, i.e., accessible online, free for all). OA articles have significantly higher citation impact than non-OA articles. There are two roads to OA: the “golden” road (publish your article in an OA journal) and the “green” road (publish your article in a non-OA journal but also self-archive it in an OA archive). About 10% of journals are gold, but over 90% are already green (i.e., they have given their authors the green light to self-archive); yet only about 10–20% of articles have been self-archived. To reach 100% OA, self-archiving needs to be mandated by researchers’ employers and funders, as they are now increasingly beginning to do.
The research access/impact problem arises because journal articles are not accessible to all of their would-be users; hence, they are losing potential research impact. The solution is to make all articles Open Access (OA; i.e., accessible online, free for all). OA articles have significantly higher citation impact than non-OA articles. There are two roads to OA: the “golden” road (publish your article in an OA journal) and the “green” road (publish your article in a non-OA journal but also self-archive it in an OA archive). Only 5% of journals are gold, but over 90% are already green (i.e., they have given their authors the green light to self-archive); yet only about 10–20% of articles have been self-archived. To reach 100% OA, self-archiving needs to be mandated by researchers' employers and funders, as the United Kingdom and the United States have recently recommended, and universities need to implement that mandate.
Recent discussions on Open Access (OA) have tended to treat OA journals and self-archiving as two distinct routes. Some supporters of self-archiving even suggest that it alone can bring about full Open Access to the world's scientific literature. In this paper, it is argued that each route actually corresponds to a phase in the movement toward Open Access; that the mere fact of self-archiving is not enough; that providing some branding ability to the repositories is needed. However, doing so will eventually bring about the creation of overlay (or database) journals. The two roads, therefore, will merge to create a mature OA landscape.
Open Access (OA)—defined simply as “free, unrestricted access (to primary research articles) for everyone”—exists in various forms. Authors can achieve OA either by self-archiving their articles on the Web or by publishing in an OA journal. OA journals themselves may adopt a model of delayed OA, partial (or hybrid) OA, or full, immediate OA. But for any of these alternative models of cost recovery to work, it is necessary to know what the real costs are. More research is needed to begin to evaluate the financial and nonfinancial effects of Open Access on all those involved.
An increasing number of libraries are canceling their print journal subscriptions and subscribing to journals in purely electronic format. With the print version of a journal, when the subscription is cancelled, the library retains all the earlier issues of the journal to which it subscribed. With the online version, this may not be the case. A library canceling an online subscription may lose all access to the journal, including issues for which access had previously been paid. The author describes the policies and practices of selected e-journal vendors and libraries in relation to archival access.
Consortial licenses with online access clauses can offer libraries the opportunity to begin new journal subscriptions at no additional cost and without losing access to existing subscriptions. Mississippi State University (MSU) participates in consortial partnerships that provide online access to all Elsevier and Wiley journals to which any partner subscribes. The license agreements prohibit simply canceling duplicate subscriptions, but they allow any library to swap existing subscriptions for titles of equal cost. In 2006, librarians realized MSU was paying for access that it would retain regardless of whether it maintained subscriptions because many subscriptions were duplicated with partner libraries. This article describes a project that allowed MSU to provide online access to an additional sixty journals at no increased subscription costs.
The libraries in the Western North Carolina Library Network (WNCLN) seek effective ways to provide patrons with a complete list of electronic journals provided through their various aggregator services, so patrons can determine e-journal access to article citations. The WNCLN libraries (Appalachian State University, the University of North Carolina at Asheville, and Western Carolina University) accomplished this through their shared catalog (Innovative Interfaces, Inc. [INNOPAC]), data provided by Serials Solutions, and local computer programming. Brief MARC records, with locally created key titles, provide an interim solution to the complexities of aggregator services. Serials Review 2002; 28:108–112.
To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of searches for information, accounting students, researchers, practitioners, and regulators could benefit from a Website devoted to the electronic access to journals. The site described here addresses such a need in the business discipline of accounting. On the site, the titles of over 470 journals are listed and categorized by topical areas within accounting. Then, within each accounting category, the journals are grouped according to their Internet accessibility. To provide the user with quick access to the various journals, the site provides links to the homepages of the various journals. Serials Review 2002; 28:201–205.
Depressed economic times often lead libraries to consider new practices, including alternatives to the traditional subscription model. This column discusses a pay-per-view (PPV) model for acquiring journal articles whereby a library creates an account with a content provider and then authenticated users can purchase articles at the library's expense. To gain insight into the current use of this model, the paper draws on both a literature review and the results of a survey assessing the practices of academic libraries with experience acquiring articles through unmediated, user-initiated pay-per-view transactions. The future of the PPV model as well as issues and challenges that it raises are also considered.
As the market of scholarly communication continues to evolve, a number of indicators suggest that the unit of information currency is shifting from a primary focus on journal articles to a broader emphasis on key elements of scholarly communication, namely data sets. This article examines and summarizes recent developments that have contributed to this shift in emphasis. The authors will also consider how this shift may affect some of the core functions of the collections and acquisitions processes.
A collection manager and an acquisition librarian discuss difficult decisions to be made regarding electronic resources and associated value-added services. Balancing budget constraints with patron demands for easy access to information requires librarians to reevaluate assumptions about the electronic products and associated services that have quickly become staples of library life, even as these staples become increasingly untenable. The authors scrutinize the cost/benefit of continuing value-added services, such as providing access to abstracting and indexing tools and full MARC cataloging records of journal titles, as well as considering the adoption of new services such as federated search engines and link resolvers.
The proliferation of electronic resources has dramatically changed every aspect of the serials industry, including library operations. This article addresses issues that have challenged the serials unit at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries. The authors describe the use of subscription agencies’ reports to track serial formats and discuss issues surrounding serials management, including the importance of identifying and reconciling format discrepancies, maintenance of serials order records, and serials processing workflow.
For authors, publishers, and researchers, the information roadmap charts and utilizes evolving technology. “Infomediary” is a new name for an old role, describing participation in both traditional and emerging ways to deliver information and publications. This article briefly defines the role of the infomediary and the types of services provided by companies such as Ingenta, ISI (Institute for Scientific Information), and Gale. The best infomediaries will provide rational order to the growing and changing base aggregation of published material as it moves from researcher to author to publisher to library and back to researcher, particularly as that material evolves from print to electronic form.
This article presents an analysis of the Web presence of Chinese American newspapers and periodicals in the United States based on the author's last ten-year national survey of Chinese American newspapers and periodicals in the United States in 1997. The author reports on and updates the changes, development, variety, and status of Chinese American newspapers and periodicals and their Web editions. These publications and their Web presence have played a major role in maintaining the identity, cohesiveness, and structure of Chinese communities. They are the major sources for covering significant aspects of Chinese culture, including the historical, social, economic, and political development of Chinese Americans in the United States. Serials Review 2003; 29:179–198.
Among the financing strategies available for Open Access (OA), the author-pays business model has received increasing attention. The consequences of this approach, however, for the system of scholarly communication and for publishing houses as participants in value added, have remained largely unclear. The paper presented here, therefore, analyzes the probable realistic magnitude of publishing fees in different subjects, based on empirical data. The paper shows that the most favorable conditions are met in the Natural Sciences and in Mathematics. However, the analysis also shows that publishing houses would have to raise publishing fees well beyond the level that scientists are willing to pay. Furthermore, the analysis leads to the conclusion that the amount of money currently available in the system of scholarly communication is probably not sufficient for the sustainable financing of publishing fees.
Hypertext theory and criticism is an emerging and exciting area of research. To facilitate research in hypertext studies, however, there are not many scholarly bibliographies available, especially annotated bibliographies. The present annotated bibliography fills that need with books, book chapters, journal articles, and scholarly reports on hypertext projects covering a wide range of issues significant to literary theory and criticism and their relationship to hypertext theory. Providing critical introductions to the ideas and insights of leading hypertext theorists and practitioners, the annotations in this bibliography will be helpful to scholars and researchers in the field.
This article describes the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), an initiative that is developing mechanisms for accessing and sharing metadata and for facilitating the development of services that can be built using that shared metadata. Serials Review 2002; 28:156–158.
With the growing number of scholarly journals in electronic format, long-term preservation of scholarly electronic journals has become one of the most important issues in digital libraries. Accessibility of scholarly journals on the Internet and electronic publishing in general is causing a shift in the responsibility for archiving journals from libraries to agreements between libraries and publishers. The author focuses on some of the important issues surrounding preservation of digital resources, especially scholarly electronic journals and presents a study on the archiving policies of the following publishers: Elsevier, Springer, Taylor & Francis, Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, and IEEE.
This research evaluates the success of open access self-archiving in several well-known institutional repositories. Two assessment factors have been applied to examine the current practice of self-archiving: depositorship and the availability of full text. This research discovers that the rate of author self-archiving is low and that the majority of documents have been deposited by a librarian or administrative staff. Similarly, the rate of full-text availability is relatively low, except for Australian repositories. By identifying different practices of self-archiving, repository managers can create new strategies for the operation of their repositories and the development of archiving policies.
The authors discuss the development of a related set of institutional repositories among several liberal arts college libraries. Contrary to the usual focus on faculty publications, the primary goal of these repositories is the promotion of student work, especially undergraduate theses. Discussion of issues concerning selection of materials and archival policies is included along with practical considerations of workflows and reflections on the advantages and disadvantages of the particular software platform (Digital Commons). Marketing the repository and the subsequent addition of other materials, including e-journals, are discussed in light of ambiguity about its purposes among campus faculty and students.
When authors of scholarly articles decide where to submit their manuscripts for peer review and eventual publication, they often base their choice of journals on very incomplete information about how well the journals serve the authors’ purposes of informing about their research and advancing their academic careers. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new method for benchmarking scientific journals, thereby providing more information to prospective authors. The method estimates a number of journal parameters, including readership, scientific prestige, time from submission to publication, acceptance rate and service provided by the journal during the review and publication process. Data directly obtainable from the Web, data that can be calculated from such data, data obtained from publishers and editors, and data obtained using surveys with authors are used in the method, which has been tested on three different sets of journals, each from a different discipline.We found a number of problems with the different data acquisition methods, which limit the extent to which the method can be used. Publishers and editors are reluctant to disclose important information they have at hand (i.e., journal circulation, Web downloads, acceptance rate). The calculation of some important parameters (for instance, average time from submission to publication, regional spread of authorship) can be done but requires quite a lot of work. It can be difficult to get reasonable response rates to surveys with authors. All in all, we believe that the method we propose, taking a “service to authors” perspective as a basis for benchmarking scientific journals, is useful and can provide information that is valuable to prospective authors in selected scientific disciplines.
For the past thirty years libraries have made serials backfile decisions based on an understanding that microfilm is a more cost effective format than bound print journals. Yet with the rising cost of microfilm, is this still the case? In spring 2002, the collection development team leader at the Florida Gulf Coast University Library compared the costs of microfilm and bound print serial backfiles, and also how those two mediums compared with costs of a stable electronic backfile collection. The author presented the results in a poster session at the 17th annual conference of the North American Serials Interest Group in Williamsburg, Virginia, June 20–23, 2002, and then recalculated all statistics prior to publication in this article. Serials Review 2003; 29:282–286.
Michael Norman, head of serials cataloging at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) library, describes his library's development of an integrated management system for serials, the Online Research Resources (ORR). The ORR was designed to draw together and deliver to the public a wide range of information related to the library's serial holdings that previously could only be obtained by consulting a number of sources. With a single search, UIUC patrons can now consult the ORR for serials information such as variant titles, online availability, subject categories, print summary statements, ISI impact factor, where the title is indexed, and whether it is peer reviewed—an innovation sorely needed and highly welcomed by librarians and patrons alike.