Self and Identity

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1529-8876
Publications
Article
We examined the relation between race- and gender-group competence ratings and academic self-concept in 252 Black seventh- and eighth-graders. On average, youth reported traditional race stereotypes, whereas gender stereotypes were traditional about verbal abilities and were nontraditional regarding math/science abilities. Among boys, in-group gender and in-group race-based competence ratings (i.e. ratings of boys and Blacks) were related to math/science and verbal self-concepts. However, only gender-based ratings (i.e. ratings of girls' abilities for reading/writing) were related to girls' self-concepts. These findings suggest that the influence of race stereotypes on Black adolescents' academic self-concepts is different for girls than boys. Whereas self-relevant gender groups were associated with both Black girls' and boys' academic self-concept, race-based competence ratings were only relevant for the academic self-views of Black boys.
 
Article
We examined relations among African American mothers' (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.
 
Article
Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk.
 
Article
Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period.
 
Article
Approach and avoidance are two basic motivational orientations. Their activation influences cognitive and perceptive processes: Previous work suggests that an approach orientation instigates a focus on larger units as compared to avoidance. Study 1 confirms this assumption using a paradigm that more directly taps a person's tendency to represent objects as belonging to small or large units than prior studies. It was further predicted that the self should also be represented as belonging to larger units, and hence be more interdependent under approach than under avoidance. Study 2 supports this prediction. As a consequence of this focus on belonging to larger units, it was finally predicted that approach results in a stronger identification with one's in-group than avoidance. Studies 3 and 4 support that prediction.
 
Article
Objective self-awareness theory contends that focusing attention on the self initiates an automatic comparison of self to standards. To gain evidence for automatic self-standard comparison processes, two experiments manipulated attention to self with subliminal first-name priming. People completed a computer-based parity task after being instructed that the standard was to be fast or to be accurate. Subliminal first name priming increased behavioral adherence to the explicit standard. When told to be fast, self-focused people made more mistakes and had faster response times; when told to be accurate, self-focused people made fewer mistakes. A manipulation of conscious self-awareness (via a mirror) had the same self-regulatory effects. The findings suggest that comparing self to standards can occur automatically and that it is attention to self, not awareness of the self per se, that evokes self-evaluation.
 
Article
One of the most consistent findings in psychology shows that people prefer and make positive attributions about attractive compared with unattractive people. The goal of the current study was to determine the power of attractiveness effects by testing whether these social judgments are made where attractiveness differences are smallest: between twins. Differences in facial attractiveness predicted twins' evaluations of self and their co-twin (n = 158; 54 male). In twin pairs, the more attractive twin judged their less attractive sibling as less physically attractive, athletic, socially competent, and emotionally stable. The less attractive twin did the reverse. Given that even negligible differences in facial attractiveness predicted self and co-twin attitudes, these results provide the strongest test yet of appearance-based stereotypes.
 
Differential effect of neighborhood disadvantage on strategies for attaining school-focused possible identities by gender and level of disadvantage: displayed at low (25th percentile) and high (75th percentile) levels of disadvantage. Notes: NDI ¼ Neighborhood Disadvantage Index; graph displays the relationship between child gender and level of neighborhood disadvantage based on the final HLM analytic results.  
Effect of Child Gender and Race, Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context on Salience of School-focused Possible Identities, Controlling for Prior Grade Point Average (HLM Analyses, Beta Coefficients with Standard Errors)
Effect of Child Gender and Race, Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status on Strategies to Attain School-focused
Article
Low-income children perform better in school when school-focused future identities are a salient aspect of their possible self for the coming year and these school-focused future identities are linked to behavioral strategies (Oyserman et al., 2006). Hierarchical linear modeling of data from a four-state low-income neighborhood sample of eighth-graders suggests two central consequences of family and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on children's school-focused possible identities and strategies. First, higher neighborhood disadvantage is associated with greater salience of school in children's possible self for the coming year. Second, disadvantage clouds the path to school-success; controlling for salience of school-focused possible identities, children living in lower socioeconomic status families and boys living in more economically disadvantaged neighborhoods were less likely to have strategies to attain their school-focused possible identities. The influence of family socioeconomic status was seen particularly with regard to strategies to attain academic success and teacher engagement aspects of school-focused identities.
 
Article
Two types of interpersonal goals-self-image goals and compassionate goals-reflect distinct motivational perspectives on the relationship between the self and others-egosystem and ecosystem perspectives, respectively. Research on the associations of self-image goals and compassionate goals with students' experiences in their first semester of college is described. Chronic self-image goals and compassionate goals predict changes in learning and achievement goals, self-regulation and goal progress, social support and friendships, emotions, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Self-image goals have costs for belonging, and compassionate goals have benefits for belonging.
 
Article
The self-concept is recognized as important to both smoking initiation and cessation. However, most of extant research has viewed the self-concept as a static, monolithic construct. It has not drawn on contemporary social-cognitive theories of the self-concept, which view the self-concept as a dynamic, multi-faceted cognitive structure that regulates behavior in context. This paper discusses a contemporary social cognitive framework that can be used to understand the role of the self-concept in smoking.
 
Article
To the extent that cultures vary in how they shape individuals' self-construal, it is important to consider a cultural perspective to understand the role of the self in health persuasion. We review recent research that has adopted a cultural perspective on how to frame health communications to be congruent with important, culturally variant, aspects of the self. Matching features of a health message to approach vs. avoidance orientation and independent vs. interdependent self-construal can lead to greater message acceptance and health behavior change. Discussion centers on the theoretical and applied value of the self as an organizing framework for constructing persuasive health communications.
 
Article
Social comparisons allow individuals to gain knowledge of their traits and abilities. Individuals frequently have self-enhancement goals when processing self-relevant information. This study provided an initial test of the hypothesis that individuals engaging in social comparisons would manipulate cognitive representations of themselves and comparison targets in ways that allowed them to self-enhance. Participants were presented with upward, downward, or no social comparison information about their intelligence. They then completed a task, designed for this program of research, which assessed how participants altered cognitive representations of social comparison information. Results showed that participants altered cognitive representations in ways associated with greater perceived similarity to upward comparison targets and less similarity to downward comparison targets. This effect was moderated by self-esteem, suggesting that the process of manipulating cognitive representations of self-relevant information may serve self-enhancement motives. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in social comparisons is an important step towards accounting for the interplay of motivation and cognition in determining the outcomes individuals experience from social comparisons.
 
Article
Stereotype threat can vary in source, with targets being threatened at the individual and/or group level. This study examines specifically the role of self-reputational threat in women's underperformance in mathematics. A pilot study shows that women report concerns about experiencing self-reputational threat that are distinct from group threat in the domain of mathematics. In the main study, we manipulated whether performance was linked to the self by asking both men and women to complete a math test using either their real name or a fictitious name. Women who used a fictitious name, and thus had their self unlinked from the math test, showed significantly higher math performance and reported less self-threat and distraction, relative to those who used their real names. Men were unaffected by the manipulation. These findings suggest that women's impaired math performance is often due to the threat of confirming a negative stereotype as being true of the self. The implications for understanding the different types of threats faced by stereotyped groups, particularly among women in math settings, are discussed.
 
Experiment 1: Mean basic psychological needs fulfillment by randomly assigned imagined subjective social status and its internalization. 
Experiment 2: Mean basic psychological needs fulfillment by randomly assigned behaviorally manipulated subjective social status and its internalization. 
Article
What makes low social status toxic to well-being? To internalize social status is to believe the self is responsible for it. We hypothesized that the more people internalize low subjective social status, the more their basic psychological needs are thwarted. Experiment 1 randomly assigned participants to imagine themselves in low, middle, or high social status and assessed their subjective social status internalization by independent ratings. The more participants internalized low status, the more they reported their basic psychological needs were thwarted. This effect did not appear among their higher status counterparts. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings using a behavioral manipulation of subjective social status and a self-report measure of internalization. We discuss implications for basic and action research.
 
Article
We report the results of an experiment mirroring an earlier study finding that Asian-American women performed better on a math test when their Asian identity was salient and worse when their female identity was salient (Shih et al., 1999; Ambady et al., 2001; and Shih et al., 2002). In this paper, we assessed the performance of Asian-American women on a verbal test, a situation in which the valence of the stereotypes associated with the same two identities (i.e. Female, Asian) are flipped. Consistent with stereotypes, women performed better on the verbal test when their female identity was made salient than when their Asian identity was made salient. These results, taken together with the previously reported findings, indicate that identities are not universally adaptive or maladaptive, but rather are adaptive or maladaptive in different domains.
 
Article
Self-concepts change from context to context. The experience that one's self is context-sensitive may be universal, however the amount and meaning of context-sensitive self vary across cultures. Cross-cultural differences in the amount and meaning of context-sensitive self were investigated in three Western cultures (Australia, Germany, and UK) and two East Asian cultures (Japan and Korea). The amount of context-sensitivity of self was greater in Japan than in Western cultures and Korea. The meaning of context-sensitive self also varied across cultures. In the Western cultures, a context-invariant self was seen to be clear and true; however, these patterns were not observed in the East Asian cultures. In Korea, a context-invariant self was interpreted to be exhibiting a relational self, which adheres to the ethics of care. In Japan, it was a context-sensitive self that was seen to be true, implying that the true self in Japan may mean to be true to the self-incontext, rather than the transcendental, decontextualized self. The results suggest the importance of differentiating East Asian cultures such as Japan and Korea. The utility of quantitative methods in explicating cultural meaning was highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Stress-buffering effects of high self-complexity can be explained by two different theoretical models. According to the affective spillover model (Linville, 1985), a large number of independent self-aspects prevents a generalization of affect after negative but also after positive events. According to the self-regulatory processes model, a large number of self-aspects promotes efficient self-regulation, which is restricted to negative events. Effects of negative and positive events on subsequent changes in depression were investigated in a prospective design. Having a large number of self-aspects was found to attenuate adverse effects of negative events on depression, irrespective of the distinctness of the self-aspects. No buffering effects were observed regarding the relation between positive events and depression. The self-regulatory processes model also predicts that for people with a large number of self-aspects, an increasing number of positive experiences should be generated in response to high levels of stress. This prediction was tested and confirmed in a second part of the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Hypotheses drawn from Taifel and Turner's (1986) Social Identity Theory and a hypothesized "need for distinctiveness" predict that attention to how two groups differ, as opposed to how they are similar, should reduce prejudice. Previous research, however, indicates that a self-awareness manipulation is needed for prejudice reduction to occur (Zárate et al, 2000). It is possible, however, that the previous self-awareness manipulations acted as self-affirmation procedures, which may complicate any interpretations. Research by Fein and Spencer (1997) based on Self-Affirmation Theory show that self-affirmation procedures enhance self-concept, which acts to reduce expressed prejudice. The present studies test hypotheses concerning a need for distinctiveness and the role of the self in prejudice reduction. 236 participants were asked to focus on between-group similarities or between-group differences, after which participants performed a self-affirmation task (Experiment 1) or a negative self-awareness task (Experiment 2). Results demonstrate that attention to group differences, in conjunction with a self-awareness manipulation, reduces prejudice. The findings are discussed for the relevance to various theories of prejudice and for models of cultural pluralism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Correlations Between Major Variables
Article
Anecdotal research strongly suggests homeless persons who develop subsistence strategies to survive on the street maintain self-reliance yet are highly unlikely to transition back off the street. The current study empirically tests this assumption. Ninety-seven homeless persons were interviewed, given a spontaneous self-concept description measure, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(1979). Combing two self-report scores created an "identification with homelessness" score. As predicted, those individuals who identified most highly with the identity of being homeless: (a) used fewer services (were more self-reliant), (b) made fewer attempts to transition off the street, and (c) had higher self-esteem scores than those with low identification scores. These data and additional data assessing the impact of perceived needs on the aforementioned dependent measures are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
numerical identity a proposed typology of possible continuity warrants / 5-part / linking their use to the kinds of underlying cognitive competencies which support them realistic, content-centred, simple similarity arguments realistic relational arguments constructivistic arguments cognitive competence and the use of alternative warranting strategies (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
As the journal "Self and Identity" enters its third year of publication, I continue to be impressed by the way in which "self has emerged from the hinterlands of social and behavioral science to become a central, organizing construct in many areas of research. it is essential for writers to distinguish clearly between: (a) the processes that are involved in reflexivity and self-awareness; (b) the knowledge, beliefs, or feelings that people have about themselves; and (c) the processes involved in agency and self-regulation. Fortunately, we have many compound words such as "self-concept," "self-image," "self-schema," "self-belief," "self-perception," and "self-representation" that refer to people's conceptualizations of or beliefs about themselves, and words such as "self-evaluation," "self-esteem," and "self-blame" to refer to evaluative and affective reactions to oneself. As cumbersome and inelegant as these hyphenated words may be, their referents are relatively unambiguous compared to the term "self." Likewise, there are more precise terms than "self," both hyphenated and not, that refer to reflexive processes and agency. Whatever terms one uses, providing clear and precise definitions will also help to promote communication and minimize confusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Despite the commonly accepted belief that people are influenced by their heroes, researchers have yet to examine the process by which this occurs. The current study examined whether the process of inclusion-of-other-in-self (IOS; Aron & Aron, 19862. Aron A Aron EN 1986 Love and the expansion of self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction New York, NY: Hemisphere View all references), previously used to describe how significant others and social groups influence individuals' self-concepts, can explain individuals' connections to cultural heroes.A Stroop-like self-description test used previously to test IOS was presented to 63 participants. As expected, information about people's heroes affected their ability to complete self-descriptions whereas information about comparable non-heroes did not.Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of self-concept research.
 
Article
People strategically regulate information about the identities of friends to help those friends create desired impressions on audiences. Are people willing to help acquaintances manage their impressions, and if so, are such efforts moderated by the helper's own self-presentational concerns? Participants were 234 same-sex strangers who went through a structured self-disclosure procedure designed to induce psychological closeness. They later described this partner to an opposite-sex third party who supposedly preferred either extraverts or introverts as ideal dates, and who their partner regarded as attractive and wanted to impress or as unattractive and did not care to impress. As predicted, participants described their partners consistently with the preferences of the attractive other, but only when their own self-presentational concerns about accuracy were low. If the third party was unattractive, participants whose accuracy concerns were low tended to describe their partners opposite the preferences of the other, suggesting they were "not your type." The results indicated that beneficial impression management occurs even among acquaintances, but is held in check by self-presentational concerns about accuracy.
 
Changes in affect intensity (least-squares means) as a function of the manipulated frequency of social disclosure (Study 4). 
Article
Affect associated with negative autobiographical memories fades faster over time than affect associated with positive autobiographical memories (the fading affect bias). Data described in the present article suggest that this bias is observed when people use their own words to describe both the emotions that they originally felt in response to events in their lives and the emotions that they feel when they recall those events. The data also suggest that the fading affect bias is not a consequence of distortion in memory for the emotions experienced at event occurrence, but instead reflects current affective responses to memories for those events. Moreover, this bias has a social component. Frequently disclosed memories evince a stronger fading affect bias than less frequently disclosed memories. Memories disclosed to many types of people evince a stronger fading affect bias than memories disclosed to few types of people. Finally, the relation between social disclosure and fading affect appears to be causal: the results of an experiment demonstrate that social disclosure decreases the fading of pleasant affect and increases the fading of unpleasant affect associated with autobiographical memories.
 
Article
We used mindset priming techniques to conduct an experimental study (N = 316) designed to assess ideas derived from psychoanalytic theory. Specifically, we investigated the possibility that the unconscious activation of the Oedipal situation would lead people—especially men and individuals who possess narcissistic personality features—to become more prohibitive toward sexual infidelity in romantic relationships. Results supported this hypothesis, which was tested using a new scale of attitudes toward sexual infidelity. Although men and narcissists tend to be more permissive towards sexual infidelity in general, when they are led to identify and empathize with the victim of betrayal, they become as disapproving of extra-dyadic sexual involvement as are women and low narcissists. Correlational evidence indicates that narcissism is positively associated with the likelihood of having affairs, the number of partners cheated on, and (for women but not men) the likelihood of being cheated on. In addition, the (self-reported) occurrence of parental cheating behavior is positively associated with one's eventual likelihood of cheating on others. Among daughters (but not sons), a history of parental cheating is associated with increased narcissism and the likelihood of being cheated on. Potential explanations and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
 
Article
This study adds to tests of the construct validity of stigma consciousness by asking if people high in stigma consciousness demonstrate a greater tendency than people low in stigma consciousness to make attributions to discrimination. In a study that approached this question from both an individual difference and a situational perspective, women high or low in stigma consciousness made attributions for a negative evaluation, ostensibly written by a male peer. Under control conditions, women low in trait stigma consciousness demonstrated less of a tendency to make attributions to discrimination than women high in trait stigma consciousness. When they experienced a situationally induced increase in stigma consciousness, however, participants low in trait stigma consciousness demonstrated just as great a tendency to make attributions to discrimination as their high stigma conscious counterparts. The results provide further validation for the stigma consciousness construct, and raise questions about who benefits from attributions to discrimination.
 
Article
The present study examines motivational influence on the perceived ease with which autobiographical memories are recalled, and the role perceived ease plays in momentary self-perception as characterized by inferences of success-promoting attributes (Kunda & Sanitioso, 198917. Kunda , Z. and Sanitioso , R. 1989. Motivated changes in the self-concept. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 272–285. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Participants were first induced to believe that introversion is conducive of success or of failure in one's university studies and beyond. Next, in a supposed separate experiment, they recalled five past behaviors they considered to be related to introversion. Introversion-success participants, presumably motivated to see themselves as introverted, perceived the recall task as easier than did introversion-failure participants. Perceived ease, in turn, mediated self-perception as characterized by the success-promoting trait inferences: introversion-success participants rated themselves as more introverted compared to introversion-failure participants. The present findings extend past research emphasizing the biased content in the recall of autobiographical memories (Sanitioso, Kunda, & Fong, 199026. Sanitioso , R. , Kunda , Z. and Fong , G. T. 1990. Motivated recruitment of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 229–241. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) to the subjective experience associated with the recall itself, to realize a desired self-perception.
 
Article
The present study investigated the relation of self-presentation style to automobile driving behavior and behavior while meeting a stranger. Eighty-eight female and 51 male undergraduate psychology students completed a 40-item self-presentation style inventory and a 20-item Road Rage Survey. One-hundred and two of these participants were then videotaped walking into a room and introducing themselves to a confederate. Aggressive driving behavior correlated positively with the self-presentational style of intimidation and negatively with ingratiation and exemplification. Nonverbal behavior when meeting a person was related to intimidation, exemplification, and self-promotion, with intimidation and self-promotion associated with not hesitating prior to sitting down, intimidation associated with focusing on the target, and exemplification associated with initiating a handshake.
 
Article
Personal well-being and resilience are contingent on the ability to negotiate and successfully pursue personal goals through life tasks and opportunities afforded by one's social environment. Our research addresses these processes by examining college students' participation in campus groups. We investigated simultaneous strivings toward the development of a distinct personal identity and toward social integration. Specifically, we argue that group participation is critical to selfdefinition because its enables personal exploration within the context of a network of stable social relationships. We also demonstrate that individual goals interact with group structure in shaping the nature and extent of group engagement. We conclude that successful resilience of self is a reflection of balance in life task participation, in which individuals integrate personal self-development with maintaining social connections.
 
Article
Prompted by research suggesting females' self-concepts are more interpersonally rooted than males', I compare girls' identity changes in reaction to relationships in new social contexts with boys', testing whether identity change processes are the same for each sex. I use survey responses from 320 summer program students about five activity areas: (1) science & technology; (2) computers; (3) athletics & recreation; (4) beliefs & interests; and (5) arts & literature. While girls become more attached to and involved with others, their identity processes are equivalent to those of boys. Girls change more, but their change is rooted in greater sociability, not higher reactivity to new relationships. Findings vary by relationship and activity types, indicating sex differences may reflect gender role expectations.
 
Article
Two studies examined the role of implicit theories of personality in the relation between actual - ideal self-discrepancies and self-esteem. Replicating previous work, we found that those with greater actual - ideal self-discrepancies reported lower self-esteem. Moreover, we hypothesized that this outcome would be especially stronger for those possessing an entity theory of personality (i.e., believing that personality is relatively fixed and unchangeable) than for those possessing an incremental theory of personality (i.e., believing that personality is relatively flexible and malleable). Both studies supported this prediction, using either a nomothetic measure of actual - ideal self-discrepancy (Study 1) or an idiographic measure of actual - ideal self-discrepancy (Study 2). In other words, the relation between self-discrepancy and self-evaluation was stronger for entity theorists than for incremental theorists. Implications of these findings for topics ranging from emotional regulation to educational settings are discussed.
 
Article
This study examined differences in self-concept between children with congenital low vision and their sighted peers. The sample consisted of thirty-four eight- to eleven-year-old children, seventeen with congenital low vision (nine boys and eight girls) and seventeen who were sighted. The findings revealed that the children with low vision scored lower than those with normal vision in aspects of their relationships with classmates but higher in their relationships with parents. No differences were found on other general or specific facets of the self-concept, such as physical ability, physical appearance, verbal ability, mathematics, or general subjects.
 
Article
The Semantic Procedural Interface Model of the Self (SPI) suggests that, depending on the strength of the situational accessibility of independent or interdependent self-knowledge, people will tend to process stimuli either unaffected by context (context-independency) or cognizant of context (context-dependency). In this paper we describe the cognitive processes underlying context-independent or context-dependent information processing. We suggest that degree of context-dependency depends on cognitive control processes (attentional focus on focal or task-relevant information; inhibition of contextual or task-irrelevant information; task-management). Second, we predict motivational effects of the self's independence/interdependence by including assumptions about possible selves.
 
Reactions to Interactions as a Function of Presence of a Member of Own Social Group (MyGreek Effect)
Interdependent Self-construal and the Effects of the Presence of a Member of Own Social Group (MyGreek Effect)
Reactions to Interactions as a Function of the Presence of Members of Social Groups for Non-members (SameGreek Effect)
Article
In a study of social identity in everyday social interaction, 133 undergraduates described their social interactions for two weeks using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record. Some participants were members of campus social organizations and some were not, and descriptions of interactions included the social affiliation (identity) of the others who were present. Participants also completed measures of social dominance and self-construal. A series of multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that for members of social organizations, on average, the presence of members was not associated with a change in reactions to interactions; however, for members high in social dominance, interactions with members were more positive than interactions with non-members. In contrast, for non-members, the presence of a member was associated with less-positive interactions on average; however, there were no such differences for non-members who were high in independent self-construal.
 
Article
The normal operation of the self has important implications for people's interpersonal interactions and relationships. In particular, people's relationships with others are affected by the degree to which people represent other people as part of the self, recognize that their own perceptions are necessarily egocentric, have low versus high self-esteem, and feel compelled to defend symbolic aspects of the self. This article examines the effects of these self-processes on interpersonal behavior and relationships, and offers suggestions for future research.
 
Confirmatory Factor Analysis Fit Indices for the Three Factor Model For Each Group Membership. One Factor
Article
The current research aimed to examine evidence for the construct validity of the three-factor model of social identity as measured by the Three Dimensional Strength of Group Identification Scale proposed by Cameron (2004). The 12 item version of the Three Dimensional Strength of Group Identification Scale was used to collect data from an undergraduate sample (N = 219) to assess their social identification across three distinct group memberships. This data was subjected to Confirmatory Factor Analysis to examine the fit of the three-factor model of social identity in comparison to fit indices for one and two-factor models. The results indicate that the three-factor model is the most parsimonious and best fit to the data, providing empirical support for the hypothesized three-factor structure of social identity. In addition, the fact that different patterns of means and correlations emerged across groups emerged on the three dimensions, provides further evidence for a multidimensional model of social identification.
 
Article
We investigated the development of three aspects of implicit social cognition (self-esteem, group identity, and group attitude) and their interrelationships in Hispanic American children (ages 5 to 12) and adults. Hispanic children and adults showed positive implicit self-esteem and a preference for and identification with their in-group when the comparison group was another disadvantaged minority group (African American). However, challenging the long-held view that children's early intergroup attitudes are primarily egocentric, young Hispanic children do not show implicit preference for or identification with their in-group when the comparison was the more advantaged White majority. Results also supported predictions of cognitive-affective balance in the youngest children. Strikingly, balance was absent in adults, suggesting that in disadvantaged minority groups, cognitive-affective consistency may actually decline with age. Psychology Version of Record
 
Article
We argue that members of individualist cultures balance their desire to belong with their desire to be different by maintaining a self-image as being loyal but relatively immune to group influence. Consistent with this, in Study 1 there was a strong tendency for people to rate themselves as being more independent (i.e., less conformist) than other people in their college. College students also rated themselves as being highly loyal to the group, however no self - other discrepancies were found on this dimension. This is despite the fact that traits of loyalty were rated more positively than were traits of independence. Study 2 provided evidence that culture influences the pattern of self - other discrepancies. Whereas people from individualist countries self-enhance on independence dimensions, people from collectivist countries self-enhance on loyalty dimensions. Again, these effects could not be explained as being a function of how positive these traits were seen to be, suggesting a cultural explanation rather than a straight forward superiority bias explanation for the observed discrepancies in self - other ratings. Results are discussed in relation to the SCENT model.
 
Article
This research investigated the effect of the competitive dimension of collective selfesteem contingency (CSEC-C). We hypothesized that CSEC-C would predict higher levels of intergroup bias, particularly when faced with an out-group threat. The validity of the CSEC-C measure was established among Canadian undergraduate participants (Study 1). In Study 2, Australian undergraduates received criticism versus praise from an in-group versus out-group member. Participants showed more bias after receiving criticism from an out-group than in-group member, but the effect was specific to high CSEC-C participants. Study 3 replicated these findings using a resource allocation measure. High CSEC-C participants also displayed a marginal drop in personal self-esteem after receiving an out-group criticism. All effects remained after controlling for identification and collective self-esteem. 2009 Psychology Press.
 
Article
As both high self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 19975. Bandura , A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman. View all references) and forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 200632. Gollwitzer , P. M. and Sheeran , P. 2006. Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances of Experimental Social Psychology, 38: 69–119. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) are known to improve goal attainment, it is suggested that implementation intentions geared at strengthening self-efficacy should be a very helpful self-regulation strategy to achieve high scholastic test scores. In Study 1, female participants had to perform a math test either with the goal intention of solving as many problems as possible or with an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention. In Study 2, male participants worked on an analytic reasoning test under either a mere achievement goal intention, an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention, or an additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intention. In both studies, participants with self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions outperformed the mere achievement goal intention participants. Moreover, Study 2 showed that additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intentions were not as effective as additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to research on both self-efficacy and implementation intentions.
 
Article
This paper examines the puzzle of high self-esteem among ethnic minorities by making a distinction between the personal self and the collective self and between explicit and implicit self-esteem. The study was conducted among three groups of early adolescents: Dutch, Turkish-Dutch (of Turkish origin and living in the Netherlands), and Turkish participants living in Turkey. It was found that the Turkish-Dutch had scores similar to the Turks in Turkey except for measures of implicit collective self-esteem. Furthermore, the percentage of participants with high explicit and low implicit collective self-esteem was significantly greater among the Turkish-Dutch than among the other two samples. Additionally, for the Turkish-Dutch, perceived discrimination was negatively related to implicit collective self-esteem but not to other self-esteem measures. It is concluded that the distinctions between the personal and the collective self and between explicit and implicit self-esteem can improve our understanding of the psychological development of disadvantaged ethnic minority groups, and assist in making sense of otherwise puzzling findings in the literature.
 
Mean Number of Correct Solutions and Average Time Spent on Correct Solutions (in seconds) on the Raven Matrices as a Function of Self-Efficacy, Implementation Intention, and Task Difficulty (N = 58)
Article
Self-efficacy was analyzed as a potential moderator of implementation intention effects on goal attainment. Participants' self-efficacy with respect to taking an analytic reasoning test (Advanced Progressive Matrices; Raven, 197641. Raven , J. C. 1976. Advanced progressive matrices. Set II, Oxford, , UK: Oxford Psychologists Press. View all references) was manipulated before they formed the goal to perform well. Next, all participants learned about double checking as an effective strategy to improve test performance, but only in the implementation intention condition did they put this strategy into an if–then plan. The analytic reasoning test was comprised of easy, medium–difficult, and difficult items. Implementation intentions advanced performance on difficult items when high self-efficacy had been established, but not when self-efficacy was low. The time participants spent solving the Raven items mediated this implementation intention effect on performance.
 
Descriptive Statistics, Internal Reliabilities, and Correlations among Study 1 Variables 
Descriptive Statistics, Internal Reliabilities, and Correlations among Study 2 Variables 
Article
Does motivation for goal pursuit predict how individuals will respond when confronted with unattainable goals? Two studies examined the role of autonomous and controlled motives when pursuing an unattainable goal without (Study 1) or with (Study 2) the opportunity to reengage in alternative goal pursuit. Autonomous motives positively predicted the cognitive ease of reengagement with an alternative goal when the current goal was perceived as unattainable, especially when participants realized goal unattainability relatively early during goal striving. Autonomous motives, however, were negative predictors of cognitive ease of disengagement from an unattainable goal. When faced with failure, autonomously motivated individuals are better off realizing early the goal unattainability. Otherwise, they will find it difficult to disengage cognitively from the pursued goal (despite reengaging cognitively in an alternative goal), possibly due to interfering rumination.
 
Article
Despite the importance of the social identification construct in research and theory on group processes and intergroup relations, the issue of its dimensionality remains unresolved. It is proposed that social identity can be represented in terms of three factors: centrality; ingroup affect; and ingroup ties. I examined the efficacy of this model in five studies involving a total of 1078 respondents, one nonstudent sample, and three group memberships (university, gender, and nationality). Results of confirmatory factor analyses support the acceptability of the tripartite model, which fits the data significantly better than one- or two-dimensional (cognition/affect) alternatives. Correlations with theoretically relevant variables provide support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the three factors. Advantages and implications of the three-factor model are considered, with particular reference to social identity theory.
 
Article
The above named article has been retracted from publication in Self and Identity by agreement of the journal Editor, the Publisher and the Co-authors. The retraction has been agreed after the Noort Committee determined fraud in the publication. For further details, please visit the following link https://www.commissielevelt.nl/.
 
Meta-analytically integrated pearson correlation coefficients between aggregates of narcissism, ESE, and specific ISE measures.
Article
Research on narcissists’ explicit self-esteem (ESE) and implicit self-esteem (ISE) is characterized by a wide array of competing hypotheses and inconsistent empirical findings. Using data from 18 samples (total N = 5,547), we moved beyond classical null-hypothesis testing and employed an information-theoretic approach combined with Response Surface Analysis to provide a first competitive test of all plausible ESE-ISE combinations for different aspects of narcissism and across a wide set of ISE measures. Agentic and communal narcissism were positively, neurotic and antagonistic narcissism were negatively related to ESE. Contradicting the mask model and other more complex models, no consistent evidence was found for relations between narcissism and ISE, and ESE-ISE discrepancies, respectively. Implications for understanding narcissistic self-regulatory dynamics are discussed.
 
Article
Asians are not immune to racial discrimination and discrimination against Asians has heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic because they were blamed as the origin of the virus. A pre-registered 14-day diary explored if self-compassion was associated with subjective well-being and protective behaviors for Asians (U.S. & Canada) who faced COVID-19 discriminations (N = 82 & ndiaries =711). Participants reported discriminations experience for 28% (U.S.) and 25% (Canada) of their days. Daily self-compassion predicted daily subjective well-being despite COVID-19 discrimination experience. Daily self-compassion predicted increased COVID-19 protective behaviors on days Asian Americans experienced COVID-19 discrimination. Daily acceptance, but not daily reappraisal, explained the link between daily self-compassion and daily subjective well-being. These findings could not be accounted for by daily self-esteem.
 
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Mark Leary
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Michael F. Scheier
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