Security Journal

Published by Springer Nature
Online ISSN: 0955-1662
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Article
Loss prevention professionals are tasked with preventing shoplifting, and more often, with detection and apprehension of shoplifters. In the July-August 2020 print edition of LP Magazine, Dr. Read Hayes urged LP practitioners to use evidence-informed observation rather than profiling appearance to detect and detain shoplifters. Offender profiling that focuses on arbitrary features of shoplifters, such as sex, ethnicity, and age, is ineffective and costs retailers billions of dollars in loss from shrink and bias lawsuits. So, how can loss prevention personnel be trained to become efficient observers of theft-action behaviors? Here is a five-step, situational-based training program as a preliminary phase in teaching LP professionals the shoplifting detection, surveillance, and apprehension skills needed to reduce external shrink.
 
Article
This paper explores how in the United Kingdom, traffic regulatory systems, cars, and our culture of automobility have been subsumed within a security agenda. Scholars have begun to examine the overlaps between mobilities and security studies, particularly in the context of topics such as migration and terrorism, framing security as a prerequisite to automobility. But little security-mobility research explores how drivers, and the population at large, are themselves securitised through institutions of automobility. The paper details how “surveillant automobility” has manifested in the seemingly mundane traffic systems of the UK, and the deficient transparency and accountability these systems afford. This paper uses government statistics and industry data to support an interdisciplinary theoretical approach, combining mobilities, security, regulatory and Foucauldian approaches.
 
Article
This paper presents an initial assessment of the results of a four-month research project studying the Ultras 1 groups in BiH. This research contributed to the Bosnia & Herzegovina Resilience Initiative (BHRI) Programme (implemented by the International Organization for Migration-United Nations, funded and closely coordinated with the U.S. Agency for International Development-USAID) aiming to reduce the threat of violent extremism in BiH and to counter extremist efforts to deepen or exploit community tensions.
 
Article
The growth in size, role and authority of private security has triggered a variety of regulatory reactions. These have stimulated a growing academic debate on preferred regulatory models. This paper summarizes the key existing models of regulation. It then provides a critique of the observations of Loader and White (Brit J Criminol 58(6):1401–1419, 2018) on the existing models. It critically examines their proposed model and outlines how we believe that private security regulation can be enhanced by setting out ‘three pillars’ of effective regulation. The literature and research points towards the need for a regulatory pillar that enhances the wider private security sector, a distributive pillar that addresses security inequality, and lastly a responsibility pillar designed to align the private security industry with the public interest.
 
Article
While most countries have experienced a crime drop in the last few decades, Mexico experienced a dramatic increase in violent crime since the mid-2000s. In this paper, we test whether the increase in violence observed in Mexico is consistent with theories of crime opportunity. In particular, we explore whether the rise in violence between 1999 and 2011 can be explained by an increase in the availability of illegal weapons (a situational explanation) that resulted from policy changes (and increases in firearms production) in the bordering U.S. Analyses are conducted to test whether changes to U.S. gun policy led to an increase in the production of guns in the U.S., particularly in southern states bordering Mexico, and, if this, in turn, led to an increase in the illegal availability of weapons in Mexico, and consequently to an increase in homicide. In addition to examining country-wide trends, we test the theoretical expectation that there was a pattern of distance decay from the U.S.–Mexican border. Our findings suggest that changes to gun policy in the U.S. did increase the supply of firearms at the Mexican border, which increased opportunities for trafficking into Mexico, and that there was a clear association between firearm availability and homicide rates. The analyses are thus consistent with the hypothesis that variation (across space and time) in illegal firearm availability in Mexico provides a parsimonious explanation for the observed variation in state-level homicide rates. These findings are observed after accounting for factors associated with traditional explanations of violence.
 
Article
Private security work is seen as traditionally outsourced ‘non-core’ work and a low-status job, and its skills are undervalued. Further, security guards tend to receive little attention from their employers regarding the aspects influencing the quality of work life (QWL). To contribute to an analysis of this issue, this work presents an exploratory approach to assess the QWL of bank security guards. By conducting a case study in 43 branches of a Brazilian city, categories and thresholds were defined to classify the QWL level, and the quartiles analysis was suggested to identify the most critical items that must be prioritized to improve the QWL of bank security guards. As a result, the most critical items concerning the QWL are related to remuneration, career growth, equipment weight and non-compliance with safety standards.
 
Article
This paper explores the rarely researched areas of co-offending and bribery. Based upon interviews with six persons convicted of bribery-related offences and other cases in the public domain, this paper explores how previously ‘clean’ persons are recruited to corrupt schemes. In doing so, this paper draws on Reason’s resident pathogen theory on safety and uniquely applies it to bribery. This paper also identifies common recruitment techniques used by corruptors and proposes pathogen network analysis as a novel method for enhancing bribery prevention.
 
Article
Some research has examined the factors that influence whether individuals take precautions against crime, while other work has explored residents’ perceptions about what effectively protects homes from burglary. However, prior studies have not assessed whether the perceived effectiveness of a protective measure affects the likelihood of its use. The present study explored that question using data from a mail survey; other independent variables included fear, perceived risk, prior victimization, and demographic factors. The analyses indicated that perceived effectiveness was the most frequently significant predictor, while other variables were generally insignificant.
 
Article
A body of research has examined the nature of security work, legislative efforts and training requirements. Fewer studies, however, have explored security officers’ perceptions of the training they received to perform their duties effectively. Although effort has been made to explore how useful the extant of training regime is for security officers in Canada (Manzo, 2009), it is unclear whether such views would hold among security officers in the United States, as both countries have minimal standard requirements regarding training. Building from Manzo’s (2009) research, we use in-depth interviews with 19 US security officers to explore security officers’ perceptions of training and what, if any, additional training security officers perceive that they need to perform their job effectively. Similar to Manzo’s work, we found that some of the officers improvise the needs and demands of their jobs with experiences drawn from prior employment; however, unlike Manzo’s study, security officers perceived a lack of adequate training to perform their tasks effectively and strongly endorsed the importance of and need for systematic and standardized training. Security Journal advance online publication, 23 September 2013; doi:10.1057/sj.2013.34
 
Article
This article revisits the Fraud Triangle, an explanatory framework for financial fraud, originally developed by the American criminologist Donald Cressey from his interviews with embezzlers. First of all, we describe several developmental cornerstones of the Fraud Triangle. Its recent theoretical and practical application is reconsidered. In accordance with the three elements – motivation, opportunity, rationalization – and on the basis of our empirical study of 13 company fraudsters in Austria and Switzerland, we illustrate some within-company measures, which may contribute to a low fraud risk corporate culture. Although opportunity is necessary but not a sufficient condition for ‘upperworld’ criminal offences, our respondents regard the perceived pressures they experienced as salient. Rather than rationalizations, there is a ‘fraud-inhibiting inner voice’ before the crime, which normally deters an individual from fraudulent behaviour. This inner voice becomes quieter over time until the fraud occurs; at least in their cases. Our interviewees argue that all Fraud Triangle elements – including the inner voice – are highly influenced by the corporate culture in their companies.
 
Top-cited authors
Lisa Tompson
  • The University of Waikato
Spencer Chainey
  • University College London
Jerry H. Ratcliffe
  • Temple University
Richard Wortley
  • University of London
Elizabeth R. Groff
  • Temple University