Agriculture is the economic backbone of Pakistan. 67% of country’s population resides in rural areas and primarily depends on agriculture. Pakistan's soils are poor in OM and have a low C : N ratio, and the overall fertility status is insufficient to support increased crop yields. Compost is an excellent alternative solution for improving soil OM content. However, this excellent alternative supply in Pakistan has yet to be used. Mass volumes of leaves, grass clippings, plant stalks, vines, weeds, twigs, and branches are burned daily. In this study, different compost piles (P1, P2, and P3) of compost were made using different agricultural and animal waste combinations to assess temperature, pH, and NPK. Results revealed that P3 demonstrated the most successful composting procedure. The temperature and pH levels throughout the composting process were determined in a specified range of 42–45oC and 6.1–8.3, respectively. Total nitrogen content ranged from 81.5 to 2175 ppm in farm compost. Total phosphorus concentrations range from 1.33 to 13.98 ppm, and potassium levels, on the other hand, range from 91.53 to 640 ppm in farm compost. The overall nitrogen concentration grew progressively between each pile at the end of a week. The varied concentrations revealed that adding various forms of agricultural waste would result in a variation in the quantity of NPK owing to microbial activity. On-farm composting has emerged as an effective technique for the sustainability of agricultural activities, capable of resolving crucial problems like crop residues and livestock waste disposal. Based on this study’s results, the pile (P3) combination shows the best NPK value performance and is recommended for agricultural uses to overcome the OM deficiency.
Objective. Suicidal behavior among adolescents is a major public health problem that is understudied in South East Asian Muslim-majority countries. We aimed to investigate the rate and associated factors of suicidal behavior among adolescents in Bangladesh and Indonesia. Methods. The Global School-based Student Health Survey data of Bangladesh and Indonesia were used in this study. The data consist of a total of 9052 school-aged students from Bangladesh (2570, 28.4%) and Indonesia (6482, 71.6%). Suicidal behavior was assessed using three questions that measure suicidal ideation, suicidal plan, and suicidal attempts. Results. The overall rate of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicidal plan, and suicidal attempts) was 8.8%, and no significant difference between the two countries (8.9% in Bangladesh and 8.7 in Indonesia) was observed ( p = 0.81 ). Factors that independently increased the likelihood of suicidal behavior include female gender, missed class, physical fight four times or more, experienced bullying, anxiety, loneliness, rarely eating fruit, current alcohol use, and sedentary behavior ( p < 0.05 ). Meanwhile, factors that independently decreased the likelihood of suicidal behavior include parental supervision and having close friends, either one, two, three persons, or more ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. The study revealed rates and risk factors of suicidal behaviors among the school-going adolescents of two Muslim-majority countries in South East Asia. Prevention strategies should be considered guided by the risk factors for school-going adolescents.
In line with the increase in population, the production of waste will also grow every year. Unfortunately, the land used for final waste disposal (landfill) is extremely limited, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to predict landfill capacity in accommodating waste from the community based on daily waste input using a dynamic system and to provide alternative policies on landfill waste management. The analyzed data consisted of primary and secondary data, whereas the simulations applied system dynamic approach using Vensim software. The simulation results indicate that the waste production will reach 36,861,653 tons in 2030 if nothing is done. Assuming that all waste from the surrounding communities is accumulated in one landfill, Bantargebang landfill can only accommodate until 2022. To be able to use Bantargebang landfill up to 2030, the waste production must be reduced by 50% for organic waste and 50% for inorganic waste. From the analysis, it is proven that composting reduces a greater amount of waste than other waste reduction methods, namely recycling or reusing, by the same percentage. Waste sorting is therefore highly recommended to be done by the community in every household as a basis to facilitate further handling. The community can play an active role in reducing waste, e.g., by composting organic waste and recycling or reusing inorganic waste. Furthermore, regulations should be made that can give punishment to households that do not carry out segregation. Reliable infrastructure for waste management needs to be facilitated, and counseling/training/outreach on waste sorting to the community must also be provided at the district level.
Arsenic contamination in soil and water is one of the major environmental problems in multiple countries including Nepal imposing a serious threat to the ecosystem and public health. Many soil bacteria can detoxify arsenic, including genus Bacillus. With an objective to gauge the plant growth-promoting activities of arsenic-resistant Bacillus species, 36 samples (soil, rice, cauliflower, and beans) were collected from the Terai region of Nepal. For selective isolation of Bacillus species, each sample was heated at 80°C for 15 min before the inoculation into nutrient agar (NA). Following the standard protocol, arsenic-resistant Bacillus species were screened using NA supplemented with 100 ppm sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite. Among 158 randomly selected isolates, only five isolates were able to tolerate sodium arsenite concentration up to 600 ppm. Notably, all five isolates were able to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), a plant hormone, and solubilize phosphate. Based on biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolates N4-1, RW, KR7-12, Bhw1-4, and BW2-2 were identified as B. subtilis subsp. stercosis, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. cereus, and B. flexus, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of arsenic-resistant B. flexus in Nepalese soil with plant growth-promoting traits. Possible utilization of these Bacillus strains could facilitate the novel bioremediation pathway to reduce the toxic effect of arsenic from the soil and water in the Terai region of Nepal.
Soil salinity limits plant growth and production. This research investigated a suitable medium for callus induction and plantlet regeneration in the Luem Pua rice cultivar. The effect of salt stress on seedling growth was determined using in vitro culture and soil conditions. An efficient protocol for callus induction has been developed by culture sterilized seeds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium containing 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) with 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) that resulted in a 100% callus induction. Plantlet regeneration percentage of 49% was recorded on the MS medium containing 4 mg/l BA with 0.5 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) after 4 weeks. For salt stress investigation, the calli were treated on an induction medium containing various concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM), while two-week-old rice seedlings were planted in soil and treated with the same concentration of NaCl for 4 weeks. In vitro culture revealed that callus survival percentage decreased when NaCl concentration increased, similar to soil culture. Seedling growth under salinity treatment also decreased when NaCl concentration increased, while other physiological parameters such as total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, green intensity, and chlorophyll fluorescence under light conditions increased under salinity stress. These changes define the growth and physiological salinity tolerance characteristics of Luem Pua rice calli and seedlings. They can be utilized as a baseline for demand-driven in vitro rice propagation, providing useful information that can be combined with other agronomic features in rice development or breeding programs to improve the flexibility of abiotic stress-tolerant cultivars.
Microorganisms are one of the main sources of antimicrobial agents and over 50% of antibiotics currently used in hospitals are metabolites from microbes. This study aimed to isolate microorganisms from the Dompoase landfill site, Kwame Nkrumah University Physics Garden, Kosiko River, and Ada Foah seashore of Ghana and screen their metabolites for antimicrobial activity. Forty-eight (48) microorganisms were isolated and their metabolites were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans using the agar well diffusion method. Ten (10) of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity. Isolate DO5, identified as P. aeruginosa isolate, from the Dompoase landfill site was selected for fermentation because it exhibited the highest activity against all the test organisms. DO5 produced optimum antimicrobial activity when fermented for 11 days at 30°C. In the agar diffusion method, the extract of isolate DO5 recorded zones of inhibition ranging between 11.67 ± 0.23 and 21.50 ± 0.71 mm. The MIC and MBC recorded for the DO5 extract ranged from 3.13–25.0 mg/mL and from 6.25–50.0 mg/mL, respectively. Column chromatography analysis yielded eight (8) subfractions from the DO5 extract. IR analysis revealed the presence of functional groups such as alcohols, esters, and hydrocarbons in the fractions. GC-MS analysis identified nine compounds that have been reported to have antimicrobial agents. The DO5 metabolites stand the chance to be developed into potent antibiotics for infection treatment.
Dry Afromontane forests in Ethiopia are vital for the conservation of plant diversity and climate change mitigation. However, these forest resources are rapidly degrading and shrinking, necessitating empirical scientific investigations to ensure their successful conservation and long-term management. As a result, this study was conducted to evaluate the composition, plant communities, and environmental determinants of woody species in the Gennemar dry Afromontane forest of southern Ethiopia. Environmental variables such as altitude, aspect, and geographical location were recorded from 46 plots of 20 × 20 m for trees and 92 subplots of 10 × 10 m for shrubs were laid along 10 transect lines. Vegetation structure, diversity, vegetation classification, importance value index (IVI) and correlation with environmental parameters were analyzed. A total of 55 woody species belonging to 51 genera and 34 families were identified. Among the species identified, Jasminum stans, Maytenus addat, and Pittosporum abyssinicum were endemic to Ethiopia. Celastraceae (with 659 individuals) was the most dominant family, followed by Cupressaceae (268 individuals) and Myrsinaceae (222 individuals). Four plant communities were identified: Syzygium guineense-Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Maytenus arbutifolia-Podocarpus falcatus, Myrsine africana-Erica arborea, and Juniperus procera-Carissa spinarum. Juniperus procera, Podocarpus falcatus, and Maytenus arbutifolia were species with the highest IVI, while Maesa lanceolata, Rhamnus prinoides, and Gnidia glauca had the lowest. The DBH class distribution shows an inverted J-shaped distribution. As DBH increases, the number of individuals decreases in the higher DBH class. The distribution of plant communities and the composition of the species depend on altitude and topographic aspects. The study found that the dry Afromontane Forest is rich in species and that it should be prioritized for conservation to protect endemic and native species. Decisive elements such as the type of species, altitude, and topographic aspects must be considered for forestry activities.
Mite (Tetranychus urticae) that attacks the cassava plants during dry season can reduce the yield up to 53%, depending on plant age and duration of attacks. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the cassava promising clones for tuber root yield and mite resistance. The field trial was done in Malang, East Java, Indonesia, in 2018 with fifteen clones using a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The glass house experiment for mite evaluation was done in Malang in 2018. A total of fifteen clones were used in this glass house trial. Infestation of mite (imago) was done 1 month after plating with 15 mites/pot on the lower part of the fourth or fifth leaf. Results of the field experiment showed that there was a genetic variability in the clones tested. The fresh tuber yield in 10 months ranged 30.33–55.67 t/ha with mean 41.34 t/ha. The fresh tuber yield of clone OMM 0915-11 was the highest of 55.67 t/ha. The tuber result of clone UJ5d50-207-3 similar to OMM 0915-11 and significantly higher than check variety UJ5. Response of clones to mite attack were as follows: two clones were resistant, ten clones were moderately resistant, and the other clones were susceptible. Based on the green house trial, the response of clones to mite attack was as follows: one clone was highly resistant, two clones were resistant, ten clones were moderately resistant, and the other clones were susceptible. Clone OMM 0915-11 was resistant variety or high resistant variety based on the green house and field experiments, while clone UJ5d50-207-3 was moderately resistant based on both glass house and field experiments.
In recent days, the practice of adopting rooftop garden can be seen in urban areas of developing countries, but a successful adoption of well-equipped green roofs is still lacking and is limited to open farms. To ful ll the gaps in urban agriculture in determining diversity status and socioeconomic factors a ecting the adoption of RTG, this study was conducted. e survey was conducted from February 3 to April 6, 2021, where a total of 116 respondents were selected randomly from Morang and Sunsari districts. e rooftop adopters had 30.5% and 33.2% of the roofs under farming in Morang and Sunsari, respectively, having the size of the roof of rooftop adopters signi cantly larger than nonadopters. A binary logit model was used to determine the factor a ecting the adoption of RTG where age, gender, schooling year, training, and farming experience have a signi cant e ect on the adoption of RTG. Locally available material was given preference under farming and nutritionally important 50 species were reported with tests of the daily food requirement of the respondents. e diversity indices suggest that ornamental plant diversity is more followed by vegetables. ough, adopters are continuing the garden but have reported that lack of proper policy and ine ective management makes it di cult to protect the life of roof. Concludingly, respondents and other willing people must be provided with training, nancial support, and proper extension services as lack of training and extension services are the major problems reported in the study area. Proper policy of rooftop garden is lacking in study area though it is under study in Kathmandu; thus, policy makers and research institution should focus on promoting the rooftop in study area and provide more reliable package for roof protection and garden continuation.
The current study aims to perform microencapsulation of R. tuberosa L. extracts using chitosan crosslinked to sodium tripolyphosphate (NaTPP) as wall materials by spray drying and to analyze their in vitro biological activities. The influence of manufacturing conditions, like pH, chitosan concentration, and stirrer time, was assessed. Results showed that microcapsules prepared in pH 4 with a concentration of 0.1% (w/v) chitosan, and 90 min stirring time had 51.80% encapsulation efficiency and high in vitro biological activity. These were shown by high in vitro alpha amylase inhibition and antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 50.65 μg/mL and 123.97 μg/mL, respectively. Releases of the bioactive compounds in microcapsules of R. tuberosa L. were carried out on phosphate buffer medium pH 2.2 and pH 7.4 with times release of 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The bioactive compounds were released in pH 2.2 in 120 min at 2.48%. At pH 7.4, the active ingredients were more easily released, by 79.90% in 120 min. The microcapsules’ morphology showed a rough surface with spherical forms and the average sizes were 53.41 μm. This study supports the essential role of microencapsulation in improving plant extracts with reserved biological activities.
There are increasing needs for developing nontoxic, low-cost, high-yield, and eco-friendly procedures for manufacturing nanoparticles. Nanobiotechnology can be used in food security for improving crop production; nanoparticles could enhance the growth and yield of different crop plants; therefore, this work aimed to improve a new nutrition formula of a hydroponic system using green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and Malva parviflora aqueous extract. Results shown that AFM image of AgNP surface morphology provides good indicator for biosynthesizing AgNPs. UV-vis spectroscopy showed the presence of silver elements that proved the reduction of silver ion to an element in the presence of plant extract functional groups which act as a reduction reaction capping agent. AgNPs formation from 1 mM of AgNo3 and Malva parviflora filtrate can easily be characterized through visual observations by the change in the color of the reaction mixture from green to yellowish-brown. SEM showed that most of the Ag nanoparticles were spherical in shape, well dispersed, and were either arranged in clusters of particles with each other, or as small particles, and have been identified in a size range of 12–63 nm. The EDX characterization exhibited that the highest proportion of the element composition was for silver weighting (34.11%) in nanoparticle. Other elements such as aluminum (12.28%), carbon (8.62%), hafnium (18.12%), nitrogen (9.34%), sodium (10.01%), and oxygen (7.52%) may arise from Malva parviflora extract. Also, peroxidase and catalase enzyme activity, cabbage crop seedlings, fresh and dry weights, and proline and carbohydrate concentrations were significantly increased with the increase of biosynthesized AgNP concentrations but up to limit.
Thailand was proposed to be rich unexplored source of microorganisms, especially bacterial strains. There should be bacteria with high secondary metabolite production potential in the natural resources that are still unidentified. Moreover, they might not produce secondary metabolites in standard laboratory culture condition after isolation, in which coculture condition would help us pursuing the bacteria to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we aimed to identify new bacterial strains with high secondary metabolite production potential from Thailand’s natural resources. To achieve the goal, we performed bacteria isolation, phylogenetic analysis, degenerate PCR of secondary metabolism genes, cocultivation, antibacterial analysis, and HPLC chemical profiling. We isolated distinct 40 bacterial strains, which have over 98% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with known species. There were 22, 31, and 29 strains giving positive PCR amplification of NRPS, PKS, and TPS genes, respectively. Among them, Bacillus licheniformis RSUCC0101 had the highest number of PCR products, 26. In standard single culture condition, crude extracts prepared from Bacillus safensis RSUCC0021 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RSUCC0282 could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. Furthermore, the cocultivation and HPLC analyses showed that the extracts prepared from 3 pairs of culture between Staphylococcus sp. RSUCC0020, Micrococcus luteus RSUCC0053, Staphylococcus sp. RSUCC0087, and Staphylococcus pasteuri RSUCC0090 could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and produced distinct chemical profiles from their single culture condition. Our study led to the isolation and identification of several promising bacterial strains for production of secondary metabolites that might be useful in biomedical applications.
For the first time, Cleisomeria lanatum (family: Orchidaceae) has been investigated for its phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic properties. All phytochemicals studied were identified in varying degrees during qualitative screening. In quantitative screening, a maximum of 106.02 ± 0.08 mg/g alkaloids (root), 179.67 ± 8.83 mg/g phenols (stem), 17.34 ± 0.88 mg/g flavonoids (stem), 73.67 ± 1.76 mg/g tannins (stem), and 180.04 ± 0.02 μg/mL proteins (root) were detected. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic properties were investigated using a free-radical scavenging assay, heat-induced albumin denaturation assay, and blood clotting inhibition assay. The root extracts had the most effective antioxidant (IC50 = 67.98 μg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 60.86 μg/mL) properties, whereas the stem extracts had the most effective thrombolytic property (IC50 = 163.8 μg/mL). The bioactivities studied also had a significant positive relationship (r = 0.9; p < 0.05) with the amount of phenolics and tannins.
This study aimed to evaluate the root canal anatomy of central and lateral mandibular incisors in a Saudi population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Overall, 1370 CBCT images of central (687) and lateral (683) mandibular incisors of Saudi patients who attended the Dental College at King Saud University in Riyadh were examined. The number of roots and canals, canal configuration types, symmetry between bilateral incisors, and the effect of gender and age were determined. For data analysis, the chi-square test was applied, and the p value was set at ≤0.05. Only one tooth had two roots, and 41% of mandibular incisors had two canals. The most common canal configuration type observed was type I (58.83%), followed by type III (28.24%). Type V was more common in men (8.31%) than women (3.9%). Bilateral symmetries were higher in the mandibular central incisors regarding the root and canal numbers and the canal configuration types (100, 100, and 97.92%, respectively) than in the lateral incisors (99.69, 98.16, and 97.24%, respectively). The 21–40 age group showed a higher proportion of teeth with more complicated root canal anatomy than the other age groups. More than one canal in mandibular incisors is a common finding in the Saudi subpopulation, with the type III canal configuration as the most common type.
Microorganisms have been able to colonize and thrive in extreme environments characterized by low/high pH, temperature, salt, or pressure. Examples of extreme environments are soda lakes and soda deserts. The objective of this study was to explore the fungal diversity across soda lakes Magadi, Elmenteita, Sonachi, and Bogoria in Kenya. A new set of PCR primers was designed to amplify a fragment long enough for the 454-pyrosequencing technology. Analysis of the amplicons generated showed that the new primers amplified for diverse fungal groups. A total of 153,634 quality-filtered, nonchimeric sequences derived from the 18S region of the rRNA region were used for community diversity analysis. The sequence reads were clustered into 502 OTUs at 97% similarity cut-off using BLASTn analysis of which 432 were affiliated to known fungal phylotypes and the rest to other eukaryotes. Fungal OTUs were distributed across 107 genera affiliated to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and and other unclassified groups refred to as Incertae sedis. The phylum Ascomycota was the most abundant in terms of OTUs. Overall, fifteen genera (Chaetomium, Monodictys, Arthrinium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Phyllosticta, Coniochaeta, Diatrype, Sarocladium, Sclerotinia, Aspergillus, Preussia, and Eutypa) accounted for 65.3% of all the reads. The genus Cladosporium was detected across all the samples at varying percentages with the highest being water from Lake Bogoria (51.4%). Good’s coverage estimator values ranged between 97 and 100%, an indication that the dominant phylotypes were represented in the data. These results provide useful insights that can guide cultivation-dependent studies to understand the physiology and biochemistry of the as-yet uncultured taxa.
Varied nutritional interventions affect lifespan and metabolic health. Abundant experimental evidence indicates that the carbohydrate restriction in the diet induces changes to support long-lived phenotypes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are among the main mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrient consumption on the aging process. Here, we tested the influence of sucrose concentration in the diet on stress resistance, antioxidant defense systems, and oxidative stress markers in D. melanogaster. We found that high sucrose concentration in the fly medium leads to enhanced resistance to starvation, oxidative, heat, and cold stresses. However, flies that were raised on low sucrose food displayed increased levels of low-molecular-mass thiols, lipid peroxides in females, and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, indicating that the consumption of a low carbohydrate diet could induce oxidative stress in the fruit fly. We found that the consumption of sucrose-enriched diet increased protein carbonyl level, which may indicate about the activation of glycation processes. The results highlight a strong dependence of oxidative metabolism in D. melanogaster from dietary carbohydrates.
Human settlement in protected areas (PAs) is a major conservation concern in developing nations as it fuels human-wildlife conflicts (HWCs). The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the key wildlife species causing conflict, (ii) assess the perceptions of residents toward the major causes of conflict with wildlife, and (iii) evaluate the attitudes of residents toward problem animals. We conducted face-to-face semistructured interviews and two reconnaissance field surveys with 290 respondents residing in Save Valley Conservancy (SVC), in Southeast Lowveld Zimbabwe from January 2014 to June 2014. Results showed that lions (Panthera leo), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), elephants (Loxodonta africana), and Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) were the major animals involved in the conflict. Our results also showed that the land-use change from wildlife ranching to farming and contested land ownership were perceived as the major causes of HWCs. Respondents who had lived in the area longer were more likely to agree that change in land use (Ordinal logistic regression: B = 1.32, Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.74) and contested land ownership (B = .67, OR = 1.95) were major sources of conflict. In addition, increased encounters between people and wildlife triggered mixed attitudes toward problem animals. For example, males were less likely to have a negative attitude toward problem animals compared to females (Multinomial logistic regression: B = -1.39; OR = .25). Residents who had stayed for less than five years were more likely to have a negative attitude toward problem animals than those who had stayed longer (B = 3.6; OR = 36.71). These results suggest that there is a need to relook at the resettlement pattern because coordinating HWCs and implementing sustainable conservation objectives are easy in a well-planned settlement. Stakeholders need to come together and create awareness of the use of HWCs mitigations measures.
This study aims to evaluate the potency of ethanol extract of red okra pods (EEROP) in inhibiting growth of cervical cancer cells through repression of the cell cycle-associated oncogenes. The EEROP treatment was given to HeLa cells cultured with RPMI medium and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2. The MTT method was used to measure HeLa cell growth and IC50 values. The mRNA levels of the three cell cycle-associated oncogenes (MYC, TYMS, and MDM2) were evaluated by qRT-PCR to determine the effect of EEROP treatment on the cell cycle. The lowest percentage of viable cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours after EEROP treatment was in the dose of 1000 μg/mL with a growth percentage of 71.60% at 24 hours, 55.61% at 48 hours, and 46.97% at 72 hours. The IC50 values were 2845, 1153, and 776.8 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. The three oncogenes at a dose of 1000 μg/mL significantly decreased the lowest mRNA levels compared to other doses with MYC oncogene that experienced the greatest decrease. The mRNA level of dose 1000 μg/mL EEROP at the MYC oncogene was 0.014-fold changes, at the TYMS oncogene was 0.097-fold changes, and at the MDM2 oncogene was 0.028-fold changes. The EEROP has been shown to decrease the expression of three cell cycle-associated oncogenes. This is also supported by the growth of HeLa cells that did not increase throughout 24, 48, and 72 hours. However, further research is needed on the main active components in red okra that function as anticancer, so that in the future, okra can not only stop cancer cell growth but also induce cancer cell death.
Urinary tract infection remains the most common infection widespread worldwide in both community and hospital settings. Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance of uropathogens is resulting in limited treatment options. Thus, understanding the current uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities is essential for effective urinary tract infection treatment. The purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens associated with urinary tract infection at Pawe General Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from January to April, 2020, at Pawe General Hospital. Midstream urine specimens were collected from 141 individuals with suspected urinary tract infection for bacteriological identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Among the 141 study participants, twenty-nine (20.6%) showed significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.6%) had the highest proportion of isolated uropathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. each (10.7%); Proteus spp. (9.3%); coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterobacter spp. each (6.7%); Citrobacter spp. (4%); and Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus spp. each (1.3%). Outpatient isolates showed a resistance of 64% and 78.6% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and tetracycline, respectively. Inpatients showed 63.9% and 87.2% of resistance to cephalexin and tetracycline. It was also observed that all the isolates have a multiple antimicrobial resistance index greater than 0.20 except Citrobacter spp. (0.142) in inpatients. Even though in this locality, most isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and norfloxacin, they are considered appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections. Periodic monitoring of etiology and drug susceptibility is highly recommended, along with health education on the transmission and causes of urinary tract infection.
1,3,4-Thiadiazole nuclease, a 5-membered heterocyclic ring system containing two nitrogen and one sulfur atoms in addition to carbon atoms, is compound that showed promising results in the process of searching new diuretic agents. In this study, seven 5- and 2-thioate derivatives of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles were synthesized by substitution reaction using acetone as solvent and K2CO3 as a base. The compounds ware then characterized by using IR and NMR spectroscopy. The diuretic activity of the compounds was evaluated on Swiss albino mice by measuring urine volume, urinary pH, and urinary Na+, K+, and Cl−. The result showed increase in urinary excretion of both water and electrolytes. 5-Methyl-substituted derivatives of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles showed significant increase in excretion of both water and electrolytes when they are compared to both negative control and 5-amino-substituted derivatives. The highest diuretic activity (0.82) was recorded for para-nitro-substituted benzene ring at 2-thioate group of 5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole, while the least (0.56) was recorded for propanethioate group at 2nd position and amine group at 5th position of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole. The finding of the present study showed that all the compounds have diuretic activity and 5-methyl derivatives of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles exhibited significant diuretic activity.
In the terrestrial ecosystem, vegetation is the important component of exchanging of water and energy in biogeochemical and climate cycle. A study was conducted to detect the vegetation cover change at Az Zakhnuniyah island by using remote sensing techniques. It includes vegetation analysis using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) while comparing with climatological data including temperature, humidity, and precipitation. A clear trend was seen in climatological parameters where temperature and humidity were rising decade by decade although NDVI did not show. In addition, increasing soil salinization over the years was observed when soil salinity index was used. NDVI-based long-term decadal analysis on vegetation cover based on Landsat surface reflectance data showed increase of vegetation cover which was also linked to precipitation trends. Also, the short-term demi-decadal comparison using PROBA-V showed the vegetation cover reduction between 2015 and 2019. Nevertheless, the sea level surrounding the island also showed an increasing trend of 0.34 cm/y, which could be the cause of inundation in some parts of the island in future. Furthermore, all these trends need to be observed in entirety as many of those trends can be interlinked.
Okra is a minor crop that has not gained research attention in Ethiopia. Characterization of such underutilized crops has important implications for their utilization. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of okra genotypes in Ethiopia using agromorphological and biochemical markers. Thirty-six okra genotypes were evaluated for 29 agromorphological and biochemical traits. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for most of the traits, except for the number of flower epicalyx and fruit diameter. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that the first eight principal component axes accounted for 3.83 to 30.54% and 82.44% of the total variability. Genetic distances estimated by Euclidean distances from 27 traits ranged from 3.55 to 14.49. The 36 genotypes were grouped into four distinct clusters from the Euclidean distance matrix using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The first cluster contained 24 (66.66%) genotypes, and the second cluster contained 10 (27.77%) of the genotypes. This study showed the presence of considerable genetic variation among the genotypes for most of the traits, including fruit yield, seed yield, and nutrient content of seeds, indicating the possibility of using these genotypes to develop okra varieties with high fruit-yielding and good nutritional content.
Machine learning algorithms are rapidly deploying and have made manifold breakthroughs in various fields. The optimization of algorithms got abundant attention of researchers being a core component for deploying the machine learning model (MLM) abled to learn the parameters in significant ways for the given data. Modeling crop productivity through innumerable agronomical constraints has become a crucial task for evolving sustainable agricultural policies. The cross-sectional datasets of 26430 (D1) crop-cut experiments are taken by 2nd-stage area frame sampling, collected from crop reporting service. This research is taken as follows: firstly three more effective numerical optimized datasets are generated (D1, D2, and D3) from D1 by taking the centroid points of features which decrease the sample size; secondly MLM is integrated with the traditional statistical models (TSMs) for multiple linear regression (MLR), and thirdly decision tree regression (DTR) and random forest regression (RFR) are deployed to get the optimized models able to predict the wheat productivity well with 75% datasets to train and 25% to test the model using the evaluation metrics (R2, RMSE), information criterion (AIC) with weights (AICW), evidence ration (E.R), and decompositions of prediction error. The MLR outperformed for MLM than TSM. The performance capability of MLM and TSM got upswing for generated datasets. RFR got optimized and superperformed for D1, D2, D3, and D4. This study demonstrated strong evidences for deploying MLM for prediction of wheat productivity as an alternative of traditional statistical modeling.
This research aimed to determine the topical administration effect of the combination of Sargassum duplicatum and Garcinia mangostana extracts to ameliorate diabetic open wound healing. The study used 24 adult males of Mus musculus (BALB/c strain, 3–4 months, 30–40 g). They were divided into normal control groups (KN) and diabetic groups. The diabetic group was streptozotocin-induced and divided further into three treatment groups: the diabetic control group (KD), the S. duplicatum treatment group (PA), and the combination of S. duplicatum and G. mangostana treatment group (PAM). The dose of treatment was 50 mg/kg of body weight. Each group was divided into three treatment durations, which were 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days. The wound healing process was determined by wound width, the number of neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and collagen density. Histological observation showed that the topical administration of combination extracts increased the re-epithelialization of the wounded area, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and collagen synthesis. The topical administration of combination extracts also decreased the number of neutrophils and macrophages. This study concluded that the topical administration of the combination of S. duplicatum and G. mangostana extracts improved the open wound healing process in diabetic mice.
Many people in developing countries rely primarily on medicinal plants as their main source of healthcare, particularly for the treatment of skin infections. Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants, there is a lack of literature describing the relevance and risks of exposure of the phytochemicals present. Galenia africana has been used traditionally in the form of pastes, decoctions, and lotions to treat wounds and other skin-related ailments. This is a report on the phytochemical composition of G. africana and a review on the pharmacological importance and relevance of these phytochemicals. The major groups of phytochemicals identified in G. africana extracts were aliphatics, aliphatic triterpenoids, fatty acids, flavonoids, and phenolic and tocopherol compounds. These have been found to exhibit medicinal properties, thus highlighting the need to assess the safety of G. africana for topical application. The information related to the safety of the various compounds could indicate the potential risks related to accidental intake of the extract upon topical product applications. This report concludes that the quantities of the phytochemicals present in G. africana should not cause undue risk to human health, which provides comfort to pursue future work on using and developing G. africana as a therapeutic agent.
Aging is generally known to be associated with dynamic biological changes, physiological dysfunction, and environmental and psychological decline. Several studies have suggested that aging is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines, causing several diseases. However, the effect of exercise on aging has been less delineated, and the relationships between cytokine activation, aging, and exercise also need further study. Here, we discuss some ideas about the effect of exercise on aging-induced exaggerated cytokine responses and discuss the possible roles of the aging-induced exaggerated cytokine response following exercise. Evidence from these findings suggests that exercise is a beneficially applicable model to use in studies on the mechanisms underlying the age-associated gradated cytokine response, and these results may provide guidelines for health professionals with diverse backgrounds.
The factors affecting patient comfort during flexible bronchoscopy are not sufficiently addressed in resource-limited countries, and a need to devise strategies to improve patient experience is felt. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of sedation and other factors on patient comfort during flexible bronchoscopy.
A total of 374 patients, aged ≥18 years undergoing flexible bronchoscopy, were enrolled in this prospective, single-center, cross-sectional study. The baseline clinical data of sedation and nonsedation groups were recorded. Anxiety level was assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Postprocedure VAS score (primary outcome measure) assessed the discomfort related to flexible bronchoscopy. Patient-reported willingness for a repeat procedure and occurrence of adverse events were used as secondary outcome measures. Based on the median of VAS score, the study population was divided into low discomfort and high discomfort groups, and the factors affecting comfort levels in these two groups were noted.
Postprocedural VAS score (median (Q1, Q3)) for sedation and nonsedation groups was 20 (15, 30) and 25 (20, 40), respectively (<0.001). Willingness for a repeat procedure was significantly more in the sedation group (p=0.002). In the low and high discomfort groups, the preprocedural anxiety level (median (Q1, Q3)) was 20 (10, 25) and 30 (20, 40), respectively (p < 0.001).
Bronchoscopist-directed sedation significantly reduces patient discomfort and increases their willingness for a repeat procedure. Midazolam-fentanyl combination and lower prebronchoscopy anxiety are associated with lower discomfort levels during flexible bronchoscopy. This study is registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2018/11/016328).
Developing an in vitro regeneration system is very important to increase production and productivity of plants as well as for the conservation of rare and threatened medicinal plants like korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P. C. M. Jansen). To date, no study dealing with in vitro indirect regeneration system of korarima has been reported. Thus, in this study, we developed an efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro regeneration of korarima via callus. The procedure involved soaking seeds in 50% H2SO4 for 16 h that resulted in 92.5% germination on plant growth regulators (PGRs)-free half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium after a month. Shoot and rhizome induction rate of 93.75% was obtained on the MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP in combination with 0.1 mg/l IBA after five weeks. Whitish yellow friable callus was obtained from rhizome culture taken from in vitro grown plantlets. The MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l 2, 4D in combination with 0.5 mg/l kinetin, resulted in 77.5% callus induction. The shoot regeneration rate of 45% was obtained from callus on the MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l TDZ in combination with 0.5 mg/l IBA. The mean shoot number of 10.83 per explant was obtained upon multiplication on the MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP with a mean shoot height of 5.37 cm. The best rooting responses were obtained on half MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA resulting in a mean number of root of 18.59, mean root length of 9.71 cm, and mean shoot height of 7.32 cm. The plantlets showed 75% survival efficiency after acclimatization. The present regeneration protocol offers a conceivable system towards effective conservation and genetic improvement of the crop by increasing the efficiency of genetic transformation.
This study assessed factors that determine village chicken producers’ trait preferences in different agroecologies of Ethiopia. Three hundred and eighty village chicken producers were sampled for individual interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Inbreeding coefficients of chicken populations in the three major agroecologies were estimated. In addition, the multivariate regression model was employed to evaluate the degree to which agroecological difference and socioeconomic and institutional factors impact village chicken producers’ trait preferences. Egg and meat production for consumption and income generation were the three major village chicken production functions in the study. Plumage color and weight were ranked first for male and female chicken, respectively. Red plumage color (52.4%) was the primary choice followed by white color (24.5%). Agroecology and livestock holding (TLU) significantly (P
Obesity is one of the most important public health problems for university students. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) with waist circumference (WC) as a cardiometabolic risk factor (CMR) among university students.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2,048 students from a private university located in Lima, Peru. Anthropometric data (weight, height, %BF, and WC) were collected. Chi-square test was used. Association analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression.
The findings indicated that 36.9% and 61.1% of men were overweight and had higher %BF, respectively, compared to women. Women (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.17, 0.29), Peruvian students (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39, 0.90), and students enrolled in the faculty of health sciences (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62, 0.94) are less likely to manifest CMR. Also, excess body weight (OR, 17.28; 95% CI, 13.21, 22.59) and a high %BF (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 3.55, 5.84) were strongly associated with CMR.
CMRs are a public health problem among university students. Therefore, it is important to carry out healthy lifestyle programs to promote better control and prevention, particularly among male students and those who have excess weight and body fat.
Early maturity, small seed size, and high seed yield are important characters of mungbean in Indonesia. The objective of the study was to determine the useful parents in mungbean crosses for early maturity, small seed size, and high seed yield varieties by estimating the genetic parameters and their inheritance. The study was conducted at the ILETRI, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of 2014. 20 F1 and 5 parents were evaluated using a randomized block design, repeated three times. Results of the study showed that all observed traits showed the importance of both additive and dominance gene effects. The relative value of general combining ability (GCA) was greater than specific combining ability (SCA) for number of pod clusters per plant, number of branches per plant, plant height, days to maturity, and 100-seed weight which indicated the importance of additive gene effect. The dominance gene effect occurred on number of pods and seed yield per plant. Among five parents, G3 was the best combiner for all the observed characters except pod length; therefore, G3 could be exploited for late maturity, small seed size, high number of branches and pod cluster, and high seed yield. G5 has a high GCA for 100-seed weight. G1 and G2 have good GCA for early maturity. G3 and G5 genotypes are useful as parents in mungbean breeding for small and large seed size varieties, respectively. The best combination for seed yield was G2 × G3 and G3 × G1 crosses and could be proceeded with selection for early maturity, small seed size, and high seed yield varieties.
A good strategy to conquer the Escherichia coli-cause food-borne disease could be bacteriophages. Porins are a type of β-barrel proteins with diffuse channels and OmpA, which has a role in hydrophilic transport, is the most frequent porin in E. coli; it was also chosen as the potential receptor of the phage. And the Rz/Rz1 was engaged in the breakup of the host bacterial external membrane. This study aimed to analyze the amino acid of OmpA and Rz/Rz1 of lytic bacteriophage from Surabaya, Indonesia. This study employed a sample of 8 bacteriophages from the previous study. The OmpA analysis method was mass spectrometry. Rz/Rz1 was analyzed using PCR, DNA sequencing, Expasy Translation, and Expasy ProtParam. The result obtained 10% to 29% sequence coverage of OmpA, carrying the ligand-binding site. The Rz/Rz1 gene shares a high percentage of 97.04% to 98.89% identities with the Siphoviridae isolate ctTwQ4, partial genome, and Myoviridae isolate cthRA4, partial genome. The Mann–Whitney statistical tests indicate the significant differences between Alanine, Aspartate, Glycine, Proline, Serine (p=0.011), Asparagine, Cysteine (p=0.009), Isoleucine (p=0.043), Lysine (p=0.034), Methionine (p=0.001), Threonine (p=0.018), and Tryptophan (p=0.007) of OmpA and Rz/Rz1. The conclusion obtained from this study is the fact that OmpA acts as Phage 1, Phage 2, Phage 3, Phage 5, and Phage 6 receptors for its peptide composition comprising the ligand binding site, and Rz/Rz1 participates in host bacteria lysis.
PM2.5 emission is known as a major challenge to environmental health and is the cause of approximately 7 million deaths annually. This study aimed at investigating the main patterns of PM2.5 trend changes among European countries.
The annual exposure to PM2.5 pollutants was retrieved from the World Bank for 41 countries during 2010 to 2017, and a latent growth model was applied to identify the main patterns using Mplus 7.4 software.
Monitoring the overall mean annual exposure to PM2.5 in the Europe showed a downward pattern with an annual decrease of 2.48% during the study period. Turkey had the highest PM2.5 exposure with 43.82 μg/m3 in 2010, reaching 44.31 μg/m3 in 2017. Likewise, with 7.19 μg/m3 in 2010, Finland had the lowest exposure level which decreased to 5.86 μg/m3 in 2017. Two main patterns for the mean annual PM2.5 exposure were identified via the latent growth model. Countries in the first pattern, including Turkey and Ukraine, had experienced a slow annual increase in the mean exposure of PM2.5 pollutant. Likewise, the other 39 countries belonged to the second pattern with a moderate falling trend in the mean exposure to PM2.5.
Although the trend changes of mean annual exposure to PM2.5 in Europe were falling, Turkey and Ukraine had experienced a slow annual increase. It is advisable to take appropriate measures to curb the current raising exposure to PM2.5 in Turkey and Ukraine.
Aim. To compare the microleakage in class II composite restorations without a liner/with resin modified glass ionomer and flowable composite liner. Method. Forty standardized MO cavities were prepared on human permanent mandibular molars extracted for periodontal reasons and then divided into 4 groups of ten specimens. The cavity preparations were etched, rinsed, blot dried, and light cured and Adper Single Bond 2 is applied. Group 1 is restored with Filtek P60 packable composite in 2 mm oblique increments. Group 2 is precure group where 1 mm Filtek Z350 flowable liner is applied and light cured for 20 sec. Group 3 is the same as Group 2, but the liner was cocured with packable composite. In Group 4, 1 mm RMGIC, Fuji Lining LC is applied and cured for 20 sec. All the teeth were restored as in Group 1. The specimens were coated with nail varnish leaving 1 mm around the restoration, subjected to thermocycling, basic fuchsin dye penetration, sectioned mesiodistally, and observed under a stereomicroscope. Results. The mean leakage scores of the individual study groups were Group 1 (33.40), Group 2 (7.85), Group 3 (16.40), and Group 4 (24.35). Group 1 without a liner showed maximum leakage. Flowable composite liner precured was the best.
In forensic study, the biological evidence can easily degrade, especially DNA. Degraded and environmentally challenged samples can produce numerous problems in forensic DNA analysis including loss of band product. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification or LAMP is one of the DNA analysis techniques used in forensic study. This study explores the limitations of the efficiency of the LAMP technique on abandoned DNA. For the DNA template, 8 male and 2 female blood-stained samples were taken from the surfaces, namely, brick, cloth, and tile from inside, and buried outside the laboratory. The LAMP reaction was used to amplify the SRY gene for detecting male DNA. All the blood-stained samples were stored for 1, 7, 15, 30, and 45 day (s). The LAMP product from the blood-stained samples on all the surfaces that were kept in a laboratory was detected using the gel electrophoresis technique from day 1 until day 45. However, the LAMP product on day 30 and 45 was smear and dim. The LAMP product from the blood-stained samples buried outside the laboratory was observed using the gel electrophoresis technique within day 30 (smear and dim). To increase the efficiency of detection, the qLAMP technique detected product on all the male samples from all the surfaces buried outside the laboratory for 45 days. The results indicate that this LAMP condition was possible detecting male DNA and the environmental factors are the main influence on the sensitivity of the LAMP technique. In addition, the qLAMP technique can increase the capacity and sensitivity of the detection.
Understanding distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soil profile is important for assessing soil fertility and SOC stock because it varies with soils of different vegetation and land use types. In this context, the objective of this research is that it was conducted to determine key variance in the SOC stock in three different soil layers, 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm of different vegetation covers of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park of Kathmandu district, Nepal. Overall field measurement was based on standard national methods. We used the dichromate digestion method to analyse SOC concentrations. The highest SOC concentration (%) was recorded as 4.87% in 0–20 cm of oak forest and lowest 0.42% in 40–60 cm of Chir pine forest. Forest types (oak, upper mixed hardwood, lower mixed hardwood, and Chir pine) had SOC stock 149.62, 104.47, 62.5, and 50.85 t/ha, respectively, up to 60 cm depth. However, these values are significantly different (p=0.02) at 5% level of significance when comparing means between the forest types. The SOC stock was decreased with increased soil depth, though not significantly different at 5% level of significance. Further study with respect to different climate, soil, forest, and land use type is recommended.
The present study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile and atherogenic indexes in HIV-positive women with and without coinfection with human papillomavirus.
Preliminary study was conducted with HIV-positive women. Laboratory tests (lipid profile, glycid profile, and atherogenic indexes) and detection of human papillomavirus (nested PCR technique using PGMY 09 and 11 primers, GP+5, and GP+6) were performed. For the analysis of the results, the data were categorized into two groups: with coinfection (HIV+/HPV+) and without coinfection (HIV+/HPV-).
Eighty-two HIV-positive women, aged between 35 and 49 years, participated in this study among whom 50% had HPV coinfection (HIV+/HPV+). Regarding comorbidities, there was a predominance of dyslipidemia (46.3%). The analysis of laboratory determinations and atherogenic indexes showed statistical relevance in the serum concentrations of total cholesterol (p=0.04), LDL cholesterol (p=0.03), and non-HDL cholesterol (p=0.04), as well as for the Castelli I index, Castelli II index, and atherogenic coefficient (p=0.04, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively).
The present study demonstrated a correlation between the lipid profile and atherogenic indexes with HIV/HPV coinfection, demonstrating a possible synergy between these viruses. However, further studies in this area must be carried out.
Propolis contains polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenols that are able to demonstrate a broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial, and many more. This study was carried out to determine the total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of water-extracted propolis samples from three different Indo-Malayan stingless bee species, namely, Tetrigona apicalis, Tetrigona binghami, and Homotrigona fimbriata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric and aluminium chloride methods, respectively, while the antioxidant activity was analysed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Results indicated that H. fimbriata extracts exhibit the highest TPC, TFC, and antiradical activity among all samples tested. Interestingly, the data also showed that the higher the concentration of the extract used, the higher the antioxidant activity exhibited by the samples. Statistically, there were no significant differences recorded between the different bee species’ propolis studied. In conclusion, the propolis extracts showed stronger antioxidant potential with higher TPC and TFC values. This study also noted the presence of bioactive compounds from local stingless bee propolis that could potentially be utilised for their medicinal and health benefits.
The inhabitants of Tunants and Yahuahua face water supply problems in terms of quantity and quality, leading to socio-environmental and health impacts in the areas. The objective of this research, therefore, is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a proposal for a rainwater harvesting and treatment system for human consumption in the native communities. For the technical feasibility, monthly water demand per family was compared with the amount of water collected in the rainy and dry seasons. In addition, 16 physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of the water system. The economic feasibility was determined by the initial investment and maintenance of the systems; with the benefits, we obtained the net present social value (NPSV), social internal rate of return (SIRR), and cost-effectiveness (CE). Technically, oxygenation and chlorination in the storage tanks allowed for water quality in physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects, according to the D.S. N° 031-2010-SA standard, in all cases. Finally, with an initial investment of S/2,600 and S/70.00 for annual maintenance of the system, it is possible to supply up to six people per family with an average daily consumption of 32.5 L per person. It is suggested that the system be used at scale in the context of native communities in north-eastern Peru.
The dynamics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) and AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria (which are deadly groups of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria) have not been well understood in developing countries. This raises major concerns to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) control. We investigated the prevalence and factors linked to the fecal carriage of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-/AmpC-EC) in commercial chickens. Cloacal swabs from 400 birds were sampled and submitted to the Central Diagnostic Laboratory for ESBL-/AmpC-EC screening by culture methods using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime. Epidemiological data were collected using a structured questionnaire and plausible risk factor analyses prepared by R software using X² test and logistic regression modeling. Results showed that the prevalence of ESBL-/AmpC-EC was 17.5%. Univariable screening hypothesized that carriage was probably influenced by a type of commercial chicken, geographical location, age group, flock size, and housing system (p<0.05). Modeling exposed that broiler birds were at a higher risk of being ESBL-/AmpC-EC carriers (COR = 9.82, CI = 3.85–25.07). Birds from Wakiso Town Council (COR = 4.89, CI = 2.04–11.72) and flocks of 700–1200 birds were also at a higher risk of harboring ESBL-/AmpC-EC (COR = 2.41, CI = 1.11–5.23). Birds aged 4 months and below were more susceptible to ESBL-/AmpC-EC carriage compared with those aged 1 month and below being 6.33 times (CI = 1.65–24.35) likely to be carriers. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-EC in flocks suggests possible treatment failures while managing colibacillosis. Consequently, injudicious antimicrobial use should be replaced with an accurate diagnosis by bacterial culture and sensitivity testing so as to circumvent AMR emergence, spread, and associated losses.
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is defined as a neurological complication that results from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies had investigated various markers to early detect HIE; however, these markers appeared to have several drawbacks, especially in resource-limited settings.
This study aimed at evaluating the predictive value of the salivary lactate dehydrogenase level as a potential predictor of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy for newborns.
Materials and methods:
We included 30 neonates with HIE due to perinatal asphyxia and 30 healthy newborns that serve as controls, admitted at the intensive care unit for neonates and maternity ward at Ismailia area Clinics and Hospitals. We measured the LDH levels by using saliva samples that were collected for neonates maximum by 12 h after birth.
It was found that patients with HIE had a statistically significant higher salivary LDH level (1927 ± 390.3 IU/L) than patients without HIE (523.6 ± 142.8 IU/L) (p < 0.001). Moreover, salivary LDH showed a good discriminative ability where the AUC was 0.966 regarding salivary LDH (95% CI: 0.917-1.0) (p < 0.001). The best cutoff value was 1420 IU/L or more which showed the best results in predicting the occurrence of HIE with 98.3% and 97.6% sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
Salivary LDH can be considered as a useful noninvasive laboratory marker that can accurately predict HIE incidence among neonates with asphyxia within 12 hours from birth. The cases in the HIE group were assigned into three stages according to the Sarnat and Sarnat staging system: stage I: mild (irritable, normal, or hypertonia and poor feeding); stage II: moderate (lethargy, hypotonia, and frequent seizure); stage III: severe (coma, flaccid, absent reflexes, and frequent seizure). There is a positive association between LDH levels and the severity of HIE.
Background. Although higher-risk sexual behavior (H-RSB) is a major contributor to the rapid rising rate of new HIV infections, there exists paucity of comprehensive evidence across the sub-Saharan African region. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of H-RSB and its determinants across sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy. Method. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of ten sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with their three most current DHS surveys from 2000 to 2016. Only participants who ever had sexual encounters in their lifetime were included in the study. Weighted adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time was used to investigate disparities of H-RSB among the ten SSA countries. Relationships between sociodemographic, socioeconomic, knowledge, mass media, and H-RSB were investigated. Results. The trend and prevalence of higher-risk sexual behavior show that Lesotho experienced a decreasing trend of the prevalence of H-RSB from 8.92 in period one to 6.42 in period three. Ghana experienced a marginal increase from 6.22 in period one to 6.76 in period two and then to 6.43 in the third period. However, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe obtained a marginal increasing trend in the prevalence of H-RSB from period one to three: 2.75 to 3.74, 4.33 to 6.24, and 6.11 to 7.99, respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence of H-RSB in Namibia and Uganda decreased in period two to 1.84 and 5.76 but increased in period three to 2.01 and 6.83, respectively. Generally, determinants of H-RSB among the countries include age, sex, religious affiliation, marital status, educational level, employment status, economic status, age at first sex, and status of circumcision. Conclusion. Trend of relatively high prevalence of H-RSB has been found across majority of the countries with key sociodemographic factors influencing H-RSB. Therefore, different targeted interventional approaches are needed in all the countries to help reduce H-RSB and the overall HIV incidence. If issues regarding sexual behavior and sexual health are not addressed adequately, H-RSB can negate all the appreciable efforts aimed at ending the HIV pandemic by 2030.
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to an estimated 12% of the worldwide population yet accounts for more than 70% of the global burden of HIV infections [1, 2]. The adult prevalence of HIV in the region is high compared to other regions of the globe. In 2014, 70% of the infections in the world and 66% of new infections and deaths related to HIV each occurred in the subregion . Again in 2017, an estimated 71% of the world’s infections, 65% of new infections, and 75% of deaths related to AIDS were recorded in the region . There exists a significant difference in the severity of the epidemic within the subregion . There is also an association between geographical distributions and the spread of the HIV epidemic in some parts of the region . Although most of the countries in the region share a considerable number of the epidemiologic attributes, substantial subregional variation exists in the severity of these epidemics . Adult HIV prevalence is generally highest (>10%) in Southern Africa, intermediate in Central and East Africa, and lower (<5%) in West Africa. The trends in new HIV infections across countries in SSA have shown a decline by more than 33% from an estimated 2.2 million in 2005 to 1.5 million in 2013, but remain high .
In Ghana, the estimated adult HIV prevalence is 1.7%, which is low compared to other countries in the region. The HIV prevalence has remained consistently high in some African countries, notably, Swaziland 27.4%, Lesotho 23.8%, Botswana 22.8%, South Africa 18.8%, Zimbabwe 13.3%, Mozambique 12.5%, Namibia 12.1%, Zambia 11.5%, Malawi 9.6%, Equatorial Guinea 6.5%, Uganda 5.9%, Kenya 4.8%, and Tanzania 4.5% [8, 9].
According to Dixon et al. , the burden of the HIV epidemic caused a decline in economic growth rates in Africa by 2–4%. This has led low-income countries further into poverty [11, 12]. Households are feeling the impact of AIDS in terms of earnings and expenditure on medical care. The demands for healthcare in most countries have increased which has put a burden on their already weak health systems . This situation generates several policy concerns since the socioeconomic development at household, community, and national levels are affected.
Some studies have found H-RSB as a major factor which contributes to the rapid rising rate of new HIV infections [6, 14]. This could suggest that the people of high HIV prevalence countries indulge in H-RSB and that may be responsible for the high HIV prevalence. On the contrary, other studies found that the sexual behavior of the countries with high HIV prevalence is not different from countries with low HIV prevalence . It is, therefore, very important to use existing data to establish the relationship among high HIV prevalence, H-RSB prevalence, and determinants of H-RSB.
Several studies have been conducted in this area but have mostly focused on factors that cause or are associated with HIV and not necessarily H-RSB. This study seeks to fill this gap using available Demographic and Health Survey data from 10 sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of H-RSB and its determinants across sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy.
2.1. Study Design and Participants
Secondary data from DHS were used in this study for sub-Sahara African countries with the three most current DHS survey from 2000 to 2016. These DHS surveys are nationally representative. Demographic and Health Survey uses the stratified two-stage sampling design approach, by drawing enumeration areas from the most current census data.
In Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Zambia, and Rwanda, men within the age group 15–59 and women within the age group 15–49 who were occupants of a household prior to the survey were eligible to participate in the interview. In Namibia, men and women between the ages of 15 and 64 were qualified for the survey for period three; however, in the first two periods, women and men within the age group 15–49 and 15–59, respectively, were included in the study. Uganda, Malawi, and Zimbabwe included men aged 15–54 and 15–49 for women in the study. Also, in Nigeria participants who qualified for the study in period three were between the ages of 15 and 49 for both men and women. DHS ensures that the sample being interviewed is representative at all levels of the national population of the respective countries.
The three different Demographic and Health Surveys for each country were grouped into three periods. The first survey for each country out of the three survey years were grouped as period one, the second survey year was grouped as period two, and the third or most recent survey year, period three as provided in Table 1.
HIV prevalence (2017)
Source: [8, 17, 18].
Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) is a traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam. Previous investigations reported mainly compounds and bioactivities of roots, stems, and leaves while there is limited information about those of fruits. This study aims to reveal the difference in the chemical profile of defatted peel (DP) and nondefatted peel (NDP) methanolic extracts of P. trimera using colorimetric reactions and liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. We also showed the potential antibacterial activity of two extracts against clinically isolated bacteria strains including P. aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and S. aureus with the MIC values
This study concerns the characterization of oil content and quality indices for almond cultivars (Marcona (Mr), Fournat (Fn), Ferragnes (Fg), and Ferraduel (Fd)) recently introduced into marginal agricultural areas in eastern Morocco. These verities are known for their rusticity and late flowering stage. The analyzed almond oils showed low acidity and peroxide values ranging, respectively, from 0.32 to 0.36% and 1.88 to 3.18 meq O2/kg. Fatty acid (FA) profile revealed a predominance of the unsaturated FA represented essentially by the oleic (56.64-64.03%) and linoleic FA (24.57-29.80%). Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis allowed the determination of eleven species with a remarkable dominance of trioleylglycerol (OOO: 30%) and dioleyllinoleoylglcerol (OOL: 27.25%). Regarding the minor compounds, the results showed that the total phenol content ranges between 85.33 and 141.66 mg/kg. Concerning the tocopherol content, the studied oils showed richness in these secondary metabolites (408.99-491.77 mg/kg) with a dominance of α-tocopherol. In comparison to their homologues in the Mediterranean area, the evaluated almond oils demonstrated a slight superiority in terms of quality, in particular, to those produced in Spain.
Delayed union and nonunion fractures are clinical challenges for orthopedic surgeons. The development of fracture complications, such as delayed union and nonunion fractures, is still difficult to predict. Various methods are being investigated to improve fracture healing and prevent complications in patients. There are various methods to promote fracture healing, broadly divided into biological, chemical, and physical methods. One of the most widely used physical methods to promote fracture healing is the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). This study aimed to evaluate the healing process of delayed union fracture after being stimulated by PEMF. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n = 12) and the PEMF group (n = 12). Delayed union fracture was performed on the left femur of all rats. Subsequently, the PEMF group was given PEMF stimulus with a magnetic field intensity of 1.6 mT and a frequency of 50 Hz for 4 hours/day and 7 days/week. The fracture healing process was evaluated on days 5, 10, 18, and 28 based on the bone callus histology using safranin O fast green (SOFG) staining. The results of the histological analysis showed that bone cartilage was higher in the PEMF group than in the control group throughout the observation period. In addition, the PEMF group had less fibrous tissue at the beginning of the healing. This finding indicates PEMF stimulation has an effect on inducing osteogenesis on fracture healing and reducing the risk of delayed union.
Although available evidence suggests short birth intervals are associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, little is known about the extent to which birth spacing affects postnatal child growth. The present study assessed the independent association of birth interval with birth weight and subsequent postnatal growth indices.
This retrospective cohort study carried out in the rural areas of Kassena-Nankana district of Ghana compared postnatal growth across different categories of birth intervals. Birth intervals were calculated as month difference between consecutive births of a woman. The study population comprised 530 postpartum women who had delivered a live baby in the past 24 months prior to the study.
Using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) that adjusted for age of the child, gender of the child, weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), birth weight, adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, and dietary diversity of the child, the mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) among children of short preceding birth interval (<24 months) was significantly higher than among children of long birth interval (that is, at least 24 months) ((0.51 versus -0.04) (95% CI: 0.24-0.87), p = 0.001). The adjusted mean birth weight of children born to mothers of longer birth interval was 74.0 g more than children born to mothers of shorter birth interval (CI: 5.89-142.0, p< 0.03).
The results suggest that a short birth interval is associated positively with an increased risk of low birth weight (an indicator of foetal growth), but birth spacing is associated negatively with the LAZ (an indicator of postnatal growth).
SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, uses the host cell membrane receptor angiotensin-
converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for anchoring its spike protein, and the subsequent membrane fusion process is facilitated by host
membrane proteases. Recent studies have shown that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a protease known for similar
role in previous coronavirus infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome
(MERS), is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, enabling host cell fusion of the virus.
TMPRSS2 is known to be expressed in the epithelial cells of different sites including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and geni-
tourinary system. (e infection site of the SARS-CoV-2 correlates with the coexpression sites of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Besides,
age-, sex-, and comorbidity-associated variation in infection rate correlates with the expression rate of TMPRSS2 in those groups.
(ese findings provide valid reasons for the assumption that inhibiting TMPRSS2 can have a beneficial effect in reducing the
cellular entry of the virus, ultimately affecting the infection rate and case severity. Several drug development studies are going on to
develop potential inhibitors of the protease, using both conventional and computational approaches. Complete understanding of
the biological roles of TMPRSS2 is necessary before such therapies are applied.
The objectives of the current study were (1) to evaluate the effect of sprouting on protein, amino acids, fats, fatty acids, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, and ß-D-glucan content of barley grains and (2) to know the content of these nutrients in the morphological fractions of sprouts: green shoot, residual structure of sprouted grain (RSSG), residual structure of sprouted grain plus unsprouted grain (RSSG plus UG), and root fractions and to determine the proportion of each of these fractions (on fresh and dry basis) in the sprout biomass. Barley grain was sprouted in a commercial germination chamber for a period of 6 days. Raw grain was used as a control. Results showed that crude protein, ether extract, total soluble carbohydrates, and cellulose content increased, whereas starch and ß-D-glucan content decreased in sprouted when compared with the control grain. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles were also affected. Thus, aspartic acid, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, and tryptophan content increased and only that of glutamic acid decreased after sprouting. Regarding fatty acids, an increase in the relative concentration of C18 : 0 and C18:3n-3 and a decrease in that of C18:1n-9 were detected. Partitioning of sprouted barley into three morphological component fractions showed that the residual structures of sprouted grains plus unsprouted grain fraction made up 82.9% and 93.6% of sprout biomass, on fresh and DM basis, respectively, and the remainder was provided by the root fraction, 10.3% and 3.2%, respectively, and by the green shoot fraction, 6.8% and 3.1%, respectively. The three morphological fractions differed in the content of the most analyzed nutrients.
Elevated concentration of proinflammatory cytokines followed by hyperinflammation is one of the hallmarks of severe and critical COVID-19. In the short term, this may result in ARDS and lung injury; subsequently, this may cause pulmonary fibrosis-a disease with poor prognosis-in the long run. Among the cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of the most overexpressed in COVID-19. We speculate that administration of intravenous activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (aaPRP), which contains interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), would lower IL-1β levels and benefit the severe and critical COVID-19 patients.
After acquiring ethical clearance, we recruited 12 adult COVID-19 patients of both sexes from the Koja Regional Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia) ICU. After selection, seven patients were included and divided into two groups, severe and critical. In addition to three doses of aaPRP, both groups received the same treatment of antiviral, steroid, and antibiotics. Quantification of plasma IL-1β levels was performed by beads multiplex assay a day before the first aaPRP administration and a day after the second and third aaPRP administration. PaO2/FiO2 ratio and lung injury scores were evaluated a day before and a day after each aaPRP administration.
Severe and critical patients' initial plasma IL-1β concentration was 4.71 pg/mL and 3.095 pg/mL, respectively. After 2 treatments with aaPRP, severe patients' plasma IL-1β concentration decreased 12.48 pg/mL, while critical patients' plasma IL-1β concentration increased to 18.77 pg/mL. Furthermore, after 3 aaPRP treatments, significant amelioration of patients' PaO2/FiO2 ratio from 71.33 mmHg at baseline to 144.97 mmHg was observed (p < 0.05). However, no significant improvement in lung injury score was observed in severe and critical groups. All severe patients and one critical patient recovered.
The use of aaPRP may prevent pulmonary fibrosis in severe COVID-19 patients through the reduction of patients' plasma IL-1β concentration and the amelioration of PaO2/FiO2 ratio.