A structured questionnaire in English and Afrikaans was administered to 1471 randomly selected secondary school students from Katima Mulilo, Ondangwa, Windhoek, and Keetmanshoop educational regions of Namibia in a study to determine their cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral risks which could promote HIV infection. The students were aged 13-28 years (mean age, 18 years). Approximately half were in grades 8, 9, and 10, while the remainder were in grades 11 and 12, and 47.8% of the students were male. 50% of the students were unaware of AIDS, 42% thought that some people were immune to AIDS, 48% reported that they would be rejected by their peers if they refused to have premarital sex, 47% indicated that mistrust was communicated when one used or suggested the use of a condom during sexual intercourse, and 50% believed that alcohol facilitates communication with peers of the opposite sex. The study found differences in the expression of AIDS-related risks due to age, sex, and region. Significantly more boys than girls and more students from Northern than from Central and Southern regions thought that mistrust was communicated by condom use and sexual intercourse made one popular, proved sexual maturity, showed commitment to and maintained love relationships. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
84 9th–10th grade secondary school students in Moscow who had been studying an advanced course in computer science (CSC) for 2 yrs participated in this investigation. A battery of 7 intellect tests was used (called conclusions, words, general comprehension, classification, analogies, arithmetic, and numerical rows). A psychological questionnaire elaborated on the basis of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was used to determine Ss' personality traits. Content analysis of derived regression equations showed that "an expert mark of CSC achievement" was to a significant degree determined by intellectual factors and to a lesser degree by personality traits. CSC achievement increased with the increase in logic and arithmetical task solving skills, and also with the increase of psychological stability and decrease of Ss' sensitivity. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the HIT-MAN, which was designed to deal with the suicide epidemic among Hong Kong adolescents. The program attempts to identify students who may be at risk from suicidal behavior—in particular, the expression of suicidal ideas. It is a social network set up in a school for promoting positive mental health through mutual support among students, with a minimum of input from teachers and other caring professionals. Through the formal development of groups of buddies, students may develop positive attitudes toward life and give each other friendly support. In terms of suicide prevention, HIT-MAN is an early detection and intervention approach. In addition to its goal of preventing suicide, HIT-MAN is also a way of helping students to develop positive peer cultures, using techniques that complement Hong Kong students' preference for group activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explores the implications of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and lesser fetal alcohol effects. Issues of international incidence, characteristics, identification, and treatment, and their relevance for the school psychologist, are discussed. It is suggested that an important thrust in prevention should be education by the school psychologist at school and community levels. The school psychologist should spearhead and support local and national efforts designed to reduce the occurrence of FAS. The school psychologist's assessment of the FAS child should be considered as a means to help the family and school understand and meet the child's needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, and Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery were reviewed to reveal 258 basic concepts within the test directions. Findings show that the directions of 4 of the 5 tests were replete with basic concepts. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children had only 6 concepts used in the test directions, and it is asserted that the instrument allows for task teaching and alternate wording. Threats to validity are discussed for the 4 instruments that had the most concepts assumed by the test authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses instruments for assessing students' perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment, namely a modification by D. L. Fisher and B. J. Fraser (1981) of the Learning Environment Inventory, the Classroom Environment Scale, and the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire. Practical applications, preferred forms, and reliability and validity are outlined. Past uses of the instruments are discussed, including studies of student outcomes and environment dimensions and person–environment fit, and practical attempts to improve classrooms. Implications for school psychologists are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined conceptual and test-related intelligence among 214 Brazilian students (aged 5–11 yrs). Tests included the Progressive Matrices and Draw A Person. Data were also contributed by parents and teachers. Results show that intelligence correlated significantly with SES, achievement, grade repetition, family size, health, and school absences. Both intelligence and SES variables had a substantial influence on achievement, suggesting that parent qualities exert at least as strong an influence on achievement as does intelligence. Support exists for a construct of intelligence that is separate from other variables reflecting social class and other family qualities. The usefulness of British and American measures of intelligence with Brazilian children is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents a cross-cultural comparison of school psychology in the US and the USSR. In the US, there is said to be a dichotomy of democracy and authoritarianism. By not expressing value judgments, US teachers may be conveying a message that there are no values. In the USSR, there are no private schools and the system of education in highly centralized. Schools are conceptualized as "the tool of the dictatorship of the proletariat." It is suggested that interest in school psychology has only recently emerged in the USSR, in contrast to its development in the US. It is concluded that psychologists in the USSR are struggling with issues familiar to those in the US. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Research on Hispanic childrearing practices reveals that compared to Anglo-American and Black families, Hispanic families are characterized by (1) a greater emphasis on support from within the family system and less emphasis on self-reliance, (2) a more authoritarian parenting style, and (3) closer maternal relationships and more open expression of parental affection. These differences are moderated in part by SES and degree of acculturation. School psychologists need to stress the positive values of being bicultural to increase the Hispanic child's self-esteem, which often suffers from the differential treatment by teachers and the internalization of negative stereotypes. School psychologists and teachers should develop strategies to encourage independent school-work behavior and the development of self-reliance. The interdependence characteristic of Hispanic families must be taken into account during intervention, which may require the active involvement of the entire family. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Suggests that the word "mobbing" should be reserved for group violence only, because group violence has important characteristics, which become decisive in treatment. The author describes the background for his common concern treatment method [CCM (1987)] and how the CCM is conducted in talks with individual mobbers, a hypothetical victim, and a final group of mobbers and victim. The mechanisms governing interest in mobbing problems are discussed, and the origin of the author's philosophy behind mobbing therapy is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explored the relationship between elementary school principals' level of Machiavellianism (Mach V Scale) and their subordinates' perceptions of their principal's effectiveness as a leader (Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire). Ss were 65 principals and their subordinates (373 teachers) in 11 school districts in western New York State. Data suggest that a high Mach leader might function most effectively in schools where an active leadership role is required, where the leader is not required to become intimately or personally involved with staff, and where high staff involvement is not essential to task achievement. Conversely, a low Mach leader might prove more effective in a school environment that is more stable, where maintenance skills are important, and where a personalized relationship between mid- and upper-level staff is related to task achievement. Implications for organizational change are discussed. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared the reading gains of children using their current remedial reading problem with the gains produced using the Corrective Reading Program (CRP). 11 Ss (mean age 11 yrs 9 mo) in the experimental group using the CRP and 8 Ss in the control group (mean age 11 yrs 10 mo) were administered the Daniels and Diack Test of Reading Experience. Results indicate that it is possible for a secondary school to practically eliminate remedial reading problems across the 1st yr of schooling. Findings are in agreement with those of A. Maggs and R. Murdoch (1979) and T. Thorne (1978). (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In recent years, large numbers of grandparents have become full-time surrogate parents to their grandchildren. These grandparents and grandchildren often have serious problems that may require assistance from schools and mental health professionals. The term 'grandfamily' is used to easily identify families where grandparents raise children because their biological parents can no longer care for them. 'Grandkin' are children and 'supergrands' are the grandparents in these grandfamilies. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren tend to have elevated levels of stress that negatively impact their well-being. School personnel report 'grandkin' also experience behavioural, emotional and academic problems at school. In light of the substantial needs of 'grandfamilies' and the lack of data about 'grandkin,' this article provides a first step in describing the major challenges experienced by a grandson and his grandmother. This 'grandfamily' encounters serious economic, emotional and educational stressors. Both the grandson and grandmother experience difficulty functioning under the pressure of stressors and would benefit from an integrated intervention approach based in the home, school and their faith organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the effectiveness of R. Morgan's (see record
1977-02011-001) home tutoring program, Paired Reading (PR), using a multiple baseline time-series design. PR, which consists of 2 phases (simultaneous and independent reading), provides children with a model (the parent), and focuses on the use of positive reinforcement. In the study, 13 nonrelated parents of 2nd–4th graders were taught to implement PR at home. Results indicate that parents were able to implement the PR procedures with relatively high accuracy. A significant improvement in the children's reading skills, however, was not observed. At the completion of the intervention, parents and children reported having a positive perception of the PR program. Parents reported that they observed the greatest change in the children's self-confidence and attitude toward reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article presents results on the factor structure, testretest reliability and external validity of the Teacher and Classmate Support scale, a brief self-report measure on perceived support from teachers and classmates. The main study included 315 13-year-olds and 366 15-year-olds. At 7-10 days after the main study, a subsample of 57 13-year-olds and 51 15-year-olds took part in a retest study. A confirmatory factor analysis of the scale showed that a correlated 2-factor model fitted the data well in both age groups, indicating that the division into a teacher and a classmate subscale is a valid measurement model. Both subscales correlated moderately with school motivation, but weakly with a measure on subjective health complaints. Convergent validity was indicated by moderate to strong relationships between the teacher subscale and an independent measure on teacher support, and by moderate relationships between the classmate subscale and an independent measure on friend support. Test-retest correlations were 0.69 for the teacher subscale and 0.74 for the classmate subscale. The scale offers promise as a parsimonious self-report measure on classmate and teacher support, but more evidence is needed before the scale can be recommended for wider research purposes.
Formal analysis of research publications serves as one indicator of the current status of a profession or a journal. Content analyses provide both practitioners and academicians with information on the status of research in the profession. These types of analyses can also provide information on the concordance between published research and what professional organizations consider key areas of practice. The current study examined articles published in one journal, School Psychology International, for a 22-year period from 1990 through 2011 (n = 671 articles). All articles were coded for demographics of the author, including country of origin and level of international content, and the content matching categories found in the NASP Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services. Results indicated that the journal is very much international with authors coming from 57 countries. With regard to gender, a trend was noticed for increased participation by women. Finally, the analysis of content found a pattern that was not highly consistent with the categories identified by NASP. Factors contributing to the lack of consistency between research and areas of practice are discussed.
Since Turkey is a centrally prime earthquake zone, Turkey’s children are at risk for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) caused by earthquake exposures and threats of anticipated earthquakes. Given the gaps in the literature and the risk to children living in Turkey, the present study was undertaken to investigate the severity and prevalence of PTSD in 4th and 5th grade Turkish children after the notorious 1999 earthquakes in the city of Sakarya. Data were collected in May 2000. The research focus was to compare results between high-impact trauma and low-impact trauma groups according to percentage, severity and the frequency of PTSD diagnosis. Group means were compared for mild, moderate, severe and very severe categories of PTSD diagnosis. High and low impact groups were not significantly different in any category; the number of children who met the PTSD requirement was almost the same in both groups in number and severity.
If educational psychologists wish to make a meaningful difference as practitioners, both to the children they work with and the ecologies these children come from, then, knowledge and application of resilience theory is crucial. Toland and Carrigan (2011) underscore this relationship in their 2011 article in this Journal. In our contribution below, we extend their assertion by urging greater attention to the interactive processes which underpin resilience and, more particularly, to how proximal, face-to-face transactions embedded in mesosystems and microsystems and nuanced by the distal, macrosystemic influences, mould resilience. Using examples from resilience research conducted in South Africa we argue that such a focus (i.e. on the transactional ecosystemic nature of resilience) is crucial in developing contexts. Furthermore, we contend that sensitivity to mechanisms of resilience as well as the contexts and cultures in which these continuously evolve, begs an approach to practice that foregrounds the ecosystemic, promotes child-ecology transactions, and is cautious about generalizing resilience theory to children across diverse contexts, cultures and time periods. To conceptualize resilience as anything but a reciprocal, dynamic, contextually-influenced interaction between children and their ecologies, would be to fail children in developing contexts.
School psychologists have consistently been found to have high levels of job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify the current level of job satisfaction for practicing school psychologists and examine the changes over the past 22 years. Surveys were sent to 500 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, and the results were compared to previous national surveys conducted in 1992 and 1982. Job satisfaction has slightly increased over the previous 22 years. School psychologists continue to be most satisfied with the social service, independence and values aspects of their jobs. They are also very satisfied with their co-workers and job activities. Satisfaction with job security, compensation and working conditions improved the most over the 20-year time span. Opportunities for advancement and school system policies and practices remain sources of job dissatisfaction. Aspiring school psychologists can take some measure of assurance that school psychology offers a career in which one can do work that provides an important service to others and is consistent with one's values. (Contains 4 tables.)
The D-48 is a nonverbal analogies test used as a measure of general intelligence, widely known in Europe and other parts of the world, but not the US. The results of a study with 126 MexicanAmerican and 139 Anglo-American seventh graders are presented and these show the D-48 to be reliable, free of slope or intercept bias, a valid indicator of performance on Stanford Achievement subtests and significantly correlated with both achievement and teachers' evaluations of intelligence.
We evaluated 22 learning disabled students with documented learning disabilities on standardized academic achievement tests at the beginning and end of one academic school year. In addition, at the beginning of the school year, neuropsychological measures were also administered and readministered at 1.5 year follow-up to a subset of these children (N =16). As a group, subjects demonstrated impairment on neuropsychological measures and these measures were stable over the follow-up period. Subjects improved from the beginning of the school year to the end of the school year in the academic area of written language. Specific patterns of neuropsychological ability correlated with academic improvement in specific areas. Our preliminary results suggest that neuropsychological testing may be useful in predicting academic improvement and ultimately in designing educational strategies for learning disabled children.
This article outlines factors to consider when planning prevention, treatment or abstinence maintenance interventions for drug abuse, especially marijuana abuse, in the schools. It discusses the literature on the effectiveness of anti-drug campaigns on drug use, reviews the spectrum of mental health interventions, discusses the ramifications for their use in schools' work to intervene in drug use, provides examples of programming and examines roles that utilize psychologists to impact marijuana use in schools through prevention, early intervention, treatment and abstinence maintenance. Much of the school-based prevention and intervention literature is generic on the subject of 'drugs'. We have tried to be specific to marijuana use when possible; however, few programs targeted only marijuana, many targeted alcohol and other drug use.
The interdependence of psychological functions such as motor skills, perception, language, and cognition has been well documented by many (Hebb, Piaget, Kephart, Johnson and Myklebust, Frostig, Ayres, and de Quiros, to name a few). It is also quite well established that disorders of perception are concomitants of early academic problems. It is reported by Crosby and Liston (1976) that at least 10 per cent and perhaps as many as 15 per cent of children entering first grade may have neurologically based problems which will inhibit their academic progress. The process of learning is highly dependent upon adequate perceptual functioning (ability to interpret stimuli from the sense organs) as well as sensory integration (ability to filter, organize and integrate sensory information).
The primary findings of this study are preliminary support for the promotive effects of positive peer relations in an educational context with a specific group of First Nations adolescents. Eighty-one students from grades 6–11 who attended the sole school in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach in northern Québec, representing virtually all of the youths in the community, completed questionnaires regarding peer preferences, self-report peer and parental attachment, and affiliation with mainstream White and Native culture. Based on a regression analysis with full information maximum likelihood (FIML) analyses to handle missing data, only the measures of peer preference and self-report attachment to peers were found to predict school grades. These findings are inconsistent with the oppositional hypothesis that has been forwarded with other minority youths from historically oppressed communities, but rather are evidence for the beneficial effects of ‘peer power’ in this community.
In the past few decades a growing research interest in internal and external factors that contribute to a student’s motivation to learn has yielded numerous models and theories. Despite their similarities, these theories have tended to be developed and tested independently of each other, although some connections have been made between them. The aim of this study is to investigate connections between key aspects of two theoretical approaches: the attributional theory (Weiner, 1985, 1992) and self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000). Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between four types of regulatory styles of learning and students’ causal attributions of their attained academic achievement. The participants were 127 elementary school students (Mage= 13.71) in Croatia. First, students assessed their final mid-term grades either as success or failure (subjective appraisal of successfulness), after which the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire of Ryan and Connell (1989) and the Causal Attribution Scale of Sorić (1998) were applied. The results showed that intrinsically motivated successful students, who feel autonomous and self-determined rather than controlled by others, attributed their success to more internal and controllable causes. But associations between other regulatory styles and causal dimensions still remain unclear, especially in the case of failure situations.
We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American (N = 41) and European American (N = 49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed marginally more interdependent representation of self and marginally less trust for teachers than did the European American students. While interdependent representations of self and trust for teachers were positively related for the Native American students, neither cultural representations of self were related to trust for teachers for the European American students. However, with respect to academic performance, interdependent representations of self and trust for teachers were positively related to academic performance for the Native American students. Conversely, independent and interdependent representations of self were positively related to academic performance for the European American students, but trust for teachers was not associated with academic performance. Finally, as predicted, culturally congruent representations of self predicted academic performance. Specifically, trust for teachers and interdependent representations of self positively predicted academic performance for Native American students, whereas only independent representations of self predicted academic performance for European American students. Implications for culturally congruent models of education are discussed.
Academic buoyancy has been defined as a capacity to overcome setbacks, challenges, and difficulties that are part of everyday academic life. Academic resilience has been defined as a capacity to overcome acute and/or chronic adversity that is seen as a major threat to a student’s educational development. This study is the first to examine the extent to which (a) academic buoyancy and academic resilience are distinct (but correlated) factors, and (b) academic buoyancy is more relevant to low-level negative outcomes (anxiety, uncertain control, failure avoidance), whereas academic resilience is more relevant to major negative outcomes (self-handicapping, disengagement). The findings, based on 918 Australian high school students from nine schools, showed that academic buoyancy and academic resilience represented distinct factors sharing approximately 35% variance. Also, academic buoyancy was more salient in negatively predicting low-level negative outcomes whereas academic resilience was more salient in negatively predicting major negative outcomes. In supplementary analyses, the effect of academic buoyancy on low-level negative outcomes tended to be direct, whereas the effect of academic buoyancy on major negative outcomes was mediated by academic resilience. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders’ perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey assessing these variables. Results of hierarchical regressions indicated that in terms of environmental predictors, teachers’ autonomy support negatively predicted both help avoidance and self-handicapping, whereas teachers’ psychological control positively predicted self-handicapping only. As for the predicting effects of individual factors, students’ dedication negatively predicted both avoidance of help seeking and self-handicapping. By contrast, the lack of efficacy positively predicted help avoidance, whereas cynicism positively predicted self-handicapping. Further, results of MANCOVA revealed that even after controlling for the effects of teachers’ autonomy support and psychological control, burnout students were significantly more likely to avoid seeking academic help and self-handicap than were engaged students.
This study examined the relationship between motivational style and academic achievement among 2,220 secondary school males and females in Hong Kong. Respondents were classified into high, average, or low academic performance (AAP) groups based on a single average for academic subjects obtained from their schools. Respondents were also classified into top, middle, or bottom groups based on their perceived academic performance (PAP). Results indicated that only 42% of the students perceived their academic performance correctly. Compared to their lower AAP counterparts, high scoring AAP males were significantly more serious, conformist, and arousal-avoidant. The high scoring AAP female group was found to be more self-oriented than the other female groups. The top PAP male group was also found to be more serious, conformist, arousal-avoidant, and optimistic than the other PAP male groups. The top PAP female group was more self-oriented and optimistic than the other two PAP groups. The present findings suggest that the traditional Chinese cultural values of collectivism, diligence, and education are major influences on shaping the motivational style of Hong Kong Chinese high school students. The implications of the results for school psychologists and teachers are also discussed.
The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils’ progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities in Cuba. School-based involvement was significantly higher among parents of children not at risk for behavioral problems than among parents of at-risk children. Parental involvement in Year 1 did not significantly predict changes in student academic competency or total difficulties between Year 1 and Year 2. These results suggest that school-based parental involvement may be of some importance in the adjustment of Cuban children. Any effects of parental involvement, however, were not strong enough to cause changes in ratings of student adjustment and achievement from Year 1 to Year 2.
The well-known view that success leads to success and failure or frustration with learning to more failure has been investigated by Keister and Updegraff (1937). This has also been proved correct in recent years (Latta, 1978). Ample research observations exist concerning under-achievement and its aetiology or associated features. One of the more recent pieces of research refers to parental influences on a child's capacity to achieve academically (Su, 1976). Su surveyed the perceptions of parents of 352 male and female Junior high-school students who were classified as high, medium or low achievers on the basis of the differences between their expected and actual scores in school examinations. Only students scoring between 90 and 135 on the Army General Classification Test were included. Attitudes towards parents were assessed with ‘the parent/child relationship questionnaire’. Results indicate that high achievers perceive their parents more favourably than do low achievers, rating them higher in giving love and respect. Low achievers felt more rejection and neglect, and received fewer symbolic rewards and more symbolic punishments. Males more than females perceived their parents as demanding and not as showing love and care. Both males and females felt their mothers were more rejecting than their fathers.
Although the efficacy and acceptability of conjoint behaviour consultation (CBC) is well documented in the US, this method of intervention has not been widely studied in Canada. Thus, this study was designed to examine the perceptions of school psychologists and parents in Canada regarding the acceptability of CBC, as well as how consultant variables such as training and theoretical orientation impact upon these viewpoints. First, a survey was distributed to Canadian school psychologists and the results were compared to those of a previous study of American psychologists. Second, a similar questionnaire was completed by Canadian parents. Canadian psychologists rated CBC highly in regards to procedural acceptability and situational acceptability. Furthermore, CBC was rated as the preferred intervention for three common problem types: academic, behavioural and social-emotional. Direct service was rated as the second most-preferred method across problem types, followed by parent-only and teacher-only consultation. The perceptions of the Canadian psychologists were highly consistent with those of psychologists in the US. In both Canada and the US, the majority of respondents rated CBC as highly acceptable, and reported using a behavioural consultative framework. Parents likewise rated CBC as a highly acceptable intervention modality for their children. It is recommended that future research into the use of CBC in Canada, and in other countries, focus on clarifying the current practice of consultation and targeting areas for improvement, thus improving service delivery.
Future orientation in adolescents is an important concept to study because of its relations with academic performance and success levels. This study examined adolescents’ realism about childrearing and their perceptions of others’ approval of teen pregnancy to examine their association with future orientation. Participants were 476 high school-aged adolescents (122 males and 354 females), aged 14-20. They were 82 percent Caucasian and 18 percent Middle-Eastern. Among the 392 Caucasian-American students there were 105 males and 287 females, aged 14-19, grades 9-12. Among the 84 Arab-American students (17 males, 67 females), students ranged from 14-20 years old, grades 9-12. Variation by gender, race and academic performance levels was also examined. Generally, results confirmed hypotheses. Also, realism and future orientation varied by an interaction between race, gender and academic level, but there were no significant differences in perception of others’ approval of adolescent pregnancy. Implications for researchers, school personnel and parents are discussed.
This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path analysis showed that for those who were low in Machiavellianism condition, physical and verbal bullying was negatively linked to peer acceptance and academic performance while no significant association was found for the high-Machiavellianism group. Bullying was negatively, yet non-significantly, associated with rule-following behavior for both groups. The results largely supported the buffering effect of Machiavellianism on the negative outcomes of bullying. Implications for school-violence prevention and for research on adaptive bullies are discussed.
Acceptability to the client plays an important role in adherence to psychological interventions for atypical children. Previous research has established that teacher acceptance of psychological treatments varies as a function of the severity of the target problem, the time needed to implement the intervention and several other factors. The major objective of the current research was to expand the number and theoretical diversity of treatments surveyed. Three social learning methods (coaching, modeling and problem solving) were compared with two behavior modification techniques (time out and token reinforcement) and three traditional clinical treatments (family therapy, pharmacotherapy and play therapy), using the Treatment Evaluation Inventory (Kazdin, 1980a). Subjects were ten male and forty-three female regular and special education teachers from the Ottawa area. Participants listened to an audiocassette on which one of two hypothetical cases was described (either a withdrawn or an aggressive child), followed by a second cassette on which either seven (withdrawn child) or eight (aggressive child) possible interventions were suggested. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that teachers preferred family therapy over all other forms of intervention, and that pharmacotherapy was rated as the least acceptable. Teacher assignment, type of disorder and teachers' gender were also found to influence acceptability ratings.
Education is viewed as the keystone for the continued development of Third World nations. Thus, considerable efforts are needed to understand features that contribute to or attenuate students' educational development. The apparent influence of intelligence, socioeconomic status, family size, health and school absences, and gender-related behaviors on achievement is examined for 214 Brazilian children. Relationships between intelligence and general achievement are strong. The relationship is especially noteworthy for reading. In addition, SES is associated with general achievement and math achievement whereas gender-related behaviors are related to achievement motivation. Relationships are drawn between literature in Brazil and the United States.
This research examined the scope of parental involvement at school entry and sought to determine what, if any, differences existed between ethnic groups. In addition, the researcher attempted to determine if parental involvement was related to academic achievement at school entry. Participants were the African American and European American parents and children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K; US Department of Education, 2005). Results from this project suggest that ethnic differences in parental involvement are present at school entry. In particular, European American parents were more like to be involved in home-based parental involvement activities such as reading to their children while African American parents were more likely to be involved in school related activities such as volunteering at school. In addition, the analysis suggests that parent involvement was only slightly related to reading achievement at school entry. The study is discussed in terms of its implications for future research towards narrowing the achievement gap.
The relationship between boys' and girls' nonverbal ability and mathematical achievement at the Norwegian elementary school level was studied. Instruments used were The Matrix Analogies Test-Short Form, and a mathematical achievement test based on the Norwegian national school curriculum. More low ability girls than low ability boys had corresponding low mathematical scores. However, the gender difference in discrepancy between nonverbal ability and mathematical achievement was minor.
This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) – severity subscale and a questionnaire which consists of items serving to compare the symptoms between home and school settings. The mean obsession and compulsion subscores on the CY-BOCS were found to be 10.73 ± 3.14 and 10.88 ± 3.17, respectively, both summing up a Total score of 21.61 ± 5.52. The mean CGI-severity scores, rated for home and school settings were 4.42 ± 0.90 and 2.42 ± 1.13 respectively, indicating a strong difference in the presentation of OCD between those settings (t= 7.02, df = 50, p< 0.0001). No gender, diagnosis (pure versus comorbid) and age effect (7 to = 12 years versus > 12 to 17 years) was found on the CY-BOCS and CGI-severity subscale (Mann–Whitney U test, all p> 0.05). The presentation difference we have noted in this study is a significant finding. Further studies are needed to delineate the characteristics of this phenomenon with possible implications for diagnosis, management and treatment.
This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children’s resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/ initiated activities to activities that maximized children’s participation. The children were allowed to set their own pace in dealing with their feelings of trauma and loss. Initially, their activities focused on school, family, pets, nature and, finally, the earthquake. Ultimately, the children’s activities evolved into helping to rebuild their school and community. The project ended on the three-month anniversary of the earthquake with a memorial march initiated by the children to honor their deceased family members and friends. This article links participatory action projects to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies’ models of psychosocial disaster recovery efforts, and argues that participatory projects provide qualitative data to evaluate their efficacy. The article proposes that school psychologists, because of their diverse training in mental health services, consultation, and research, are especially suited to using these kinds of projects to train community members, e.g. teachers and community elders, to implement them. The American Psychological Association and other humanitarian relief organizations have articulated this goal of increasing capacity in the communities of developing countries as an essential component of international disaster recovery efforts.
The present research examined the relationship between self-concept and level of involvement in delinquent activities of 1327 (612 males, 715 females) years 8-12 high school students. Through cluster analysis, participants were identified as having either high or low involvement in delinquent activities from scores on a self-report measure of delinquency. Three multidimensional areas of self-concept (classroom, peer and confidence) were investigated, because of previous findings indicating discrepancies in these three dimensions for adolescent involvement in delinquent activities. Four, two-way multivariate analyses of variance were conducted across the three self-concept dimensions for Gender, Year Level, and involvement in Delinquent Activities. Students highly involved in delinquent activities reported significantly lower classroom, peer and confidence self-concepts. For gender and year level effects, males reported significantly higher confidence self-concept while females scored significantly higher on peer self-concept. There were significant differences among year levels with a general decline in confidence self-concept with age but for classroom and peer self-concept, no clear age trends were evident. The results indicate the importance of considering multidimensional self-concept when examining adolescents' involvement in delinquent activities and incorporating self-concept enhancement strategies in intervention programs.
The present project analysed the use of participatory models during the process of application of a prevention program with preschool-aged children in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Relevant phases in achieving community collaboration are delineated and challenges are discussed. Results indicate that participatory models provided an effective means of introducing and carrying out a prevention program in local schools although a significant level of commitment was required from all groups involved.
Play therapy is a highly adaptable treatment method that can be modified according to children’s ages, circumstances, and settings in which counseling occurs. Play therapy may be used in schools, community settings, and homes to help children following the death of a significant other. After reviewing basic developmental factors that affect children’s ability to comprehend the meaning of death, the article discusses the special circumstances of grief in different situations, including community-based counseling after Hurricane Katrina, school-based group play therapy following a teacher’s death, and conjoint parent-child play therapy after a father’s death in a terrorist attack. Increasing the acceptability and effectiveness of play therapy, professionals must consider and incorporate family and community traditions and beliefs. Additionally, professionals are encouraged to support teachers and parents in utilizing play-based activities to facilitate children’s expressions of grief.
Reports from schoolchildren in a variety of countries suggest that school-based interventions tackling cases of bullying are often unsuccessful. Closer attention is needed to the adequacy and appropriateness of specific forms of intervention. This article examines the contribution that can be made through the use of a non-punitive approach known as the Method of Shared Concern. Its use was explored in depth in 17 cases of moderately severe peer victimization in which the Method was applied in schools by trained practitioners. Detailed reports of the meetings with students suspected of bullying and the target were obtained from the practitioners. The practitioners and each of the students were subsequently interviewed to ascertain the effectiveness of the Method. Despite some variations in the way the Method was implemented, positive outcomes were achieved in a large majority of cases for a range of age groups and educational settings. Appropriate and inappropriate applications of the Method in resolving bully/victim problems are examined and discussed.
Bullying in schools is now regarded as an important social problem which schools need to address. However, recent evaluations of existing anti-bullying programs have not indicated a high level of success in the reduction of bullying. This article seeks to critically examine the theoretical perspectives that have been adopted in explaining the prevalence of bullying and their implications for the work of schools. Five different theoretical perspectives are identified and examined. Each is shown to have some empirical support and to have influenced the thinking adopted by schools and actions undertaken in addressing bullying. However, none can claim to provide a complete explanation for bullying behaviour in schools, nor form the basis for a comprehensive approach to the problem. It is suggested that educators recognize both the strengths and limitations of existing theoretical perspectives.
Conditions in China today are calling for a more holistic approach to education. As a result of seminars held in Changchun, Jilin, senior administrators suggested the introduction of Student Services Offices in elementary schools. This study examined 19 action plans developed by educators in North East China which reveal their goals for these offices. Findings reflect literature on comprehensive guidance program models as support for students’ academic, career and personal/social needs. However, the educators’ perceived needs for the Student Services Offices also include assisting teachers with their personal and work issues. Implications for international research and suggestions for rethinking school counselling programs are offered.
To examine the effects of time of day and playtime on hyperactive behaviour in children with ADHD, 14 boys with ADHD and 14 control children were observed and videotaped during a whole school day. Analyses reveal minor differential effects of time of day and playtime on the hyperactive behaviour of children with ADHD compared to control children for noisiness and out of seat behaviour. Children with ADHD show a stronger increase in hyperactive behaviour after playtime in the afternoon. These differential effects are important in the light of the management of children with ADHD in the classroom and of observations that commonly take place for both diagnosis and research.
It is increasingly apparent that differential diagnosis of children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is, at best, difficult, with a majority of children identified as ADHD also diagnosed with co-occurring developmental learning disorders. Most notably, children with ADHD have been found to have a high prevalence of language problems. Research has further indicated that children with ADHD demonstrate significant difficulty on tasks used to assess central auditory processing skills and that these difficulties are ameliorated by the use of stimulant medication. Early findings raised the question of whether ADHD and Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) can be differentiated, or if they represent a singular disorder. Literature highlignting the similarity of psychoeducational and behavioral sequelae of children with CAPD and those with ADHD are presented. Studies of central auditory processing abilities in children diagnosed as having ADHD as well as a more recent study investigating the prevalence of ADHD in children diagnosed as CAPD are reviewed as well. Given the overlap in etiology and symptomatology of ADHD and auditory/linguistic disorders such as CAPD, the need for a collaborative effort on the part of professionals who work with these children (school psychologists, speech-language pathologists, audiologists) in diagnosis and intervention planning as well as other implications of this research are presented.
This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city, Tripura. Data were collected using a self-administered Semi-structured Questionnaire for Children/Students and a Social Adjustment Inventory which were custom-made for the study based on measures in the extant research adapted for the Indian context. Findings revealed that students experienced physical (21.9%), psychological (20.9%), and sexual (18.1%) violence at home, and 29.7% of the children had witnessed family violence. Boys were more often victims of physical and psychological violence while girls were more often victims of sexual violence. The social adjustment scores of school children who experienced violence, regardless of the nature of the violence, was significantly lower when compared with scores of those who had not experienced violence (p < 0.001). Social adjustment was poorer for girls than boys (p < 0.001). The study speaks in favour of early detection and intervention for all child maltreatment subtypes and for children exposed to interparental violence, and highlights the crucial role of schools and school psychology in addressing the problem.
Post-incestual adjustment of 26 Alaskan native and non-native adolescents, 19 girls and seven boys, tended to be poor, although adaptation levels improved by rescuing seduced victims or removing the offender from the family home. Characteristics of the offender, the spouse, and the victim were identified as well as the dynamics within the family setting. An Incomplete Sentences Blank and a behavioural checklist indicated that in the aftermath of incest there was a high rate of delinquency, chronic rule violations, substance abuse and running away among victims. Low tolerance for frustration, depression and hostility towards authority figures were frequently observed behaviours. Over-eating was common among female victims and hysterical seizures were noted in four cases. Sexual acting-out occurred in 46 per cent of the subjects studied. Pitfalls apt to be encountered in treatment of victims were discussed.