São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina

Publications
It is currently asserted that, in industrialized countries, nodular sclerosis is the most frequent type of Hodgkin's lymphoma, in contrast to developing countries, where mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depletion are more frequently seen. The objective was to review histological data from cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma from São Paulo and Campinas cities. Cross-sectional histopathological analysis, in four university hospitals and one cancer care center. 1,025 cases diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1990 and 2000 were collected from five institutions; 631 of them (61.5%) had been immunophenotyped using antibodies to CD20, CD3, CD15 and CD30. The relative frequencies of histological types (as informed by the contributing authors, who are hematopathologists in their institutions) were determined according to age and gender. The Hodgkin's lymphoma types were distributed as follows: lymphocyte predominance 4.8%, nodular sclerosis 69.2%, mixed cellularity 21.1% and lymphocyte depletion 4.6%. The controversy regarding the frequencies of Hodgkin's lymphoma types within the Brazilian setting seems to be due to the small number of cases in previous studies. The present data show a picture close to the situation in the industrialized countries.
 
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Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy is widely accepted as effective and safe for diagnosis in many settings. Accuracy depends on target organ and needle type. Cutting needles present advantages over fine needles. This study presents experience from CT guided biopsies performed at an oncology center. Retrospective study at Hospital do Câncer A. C. Camargo, São Paulo. 1,300 consecutive CT guided biopsies performed between July 1994 and February 2000 were analyzed. Nodules or masses were suspected as primary malignancy in 845 cases (65%) or metastatic lesion in 455 (35%). 628 lesions were thoracic, 281 abdominal, 208 retroperitoneal, 134 musculoskeletal and 49 head/neck. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist or under his supervision: 765 (59%) with 22-gauge fine-needle/aspiration technique and 535 (41%) with automated 16 or 18-gauge cutting-needle biopsy. Adequate samples were obtained in 70-92% of fine-needle and 93-100% of cutting-needle biopsies. The specific diagnosis rates were 54-67% for fine-needle and 82-100% for cutting-needle biopsies, according to biopsy site. For any site, sample adequacy and specific diagnosis rate were always better for cutting-needle biopsy. Among 530 lung biopsies, there were 84 pneumothorax (16%) and two hemothorax (0.3%) cases, with thoracic drainage in 24 (4.9%). Among abdominal and retroperitoneal biopsies, there were two cases of major bleeding and one of peritonitis. Both types of needle showed satisfactory results, but cutting-needle biopsy should be used when specific diagnosis is desired without greater incidence of complications.
 
We verified molecular alterations in a 72-year-old Brazilian male patient with a clinical course of homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia, who had undergone splenectomy and was surviving without regular blood transfusions. The blood cell count revealed microcytic and hypochromic anemia (hemoglobin = 6.5 g/dl, mean cell volume = 74 fl, mean cell hemoglobin = 24 pg) and hemoglobin electrophoresis showed fetal hemoglobin = 1.3%, hemoglobin A2 = 6.78% and hemoglobin A = 79.4%. To identify mutations in a patient with the symptoms of beta-thalassemia intermedia. Molecular inquiry into the mutations possibly responsible for the clinical picture described. The structural molecular biology and genetic engineering center of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. DNA extraction was performed on the patient's blood samples. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using five specific primers that amplified exons and the promoter region of the beta globin gene. The samples were sequenced and then analyzed via computer programs. Two mutations that cause the disease were found: -101 (C > T) and codon 39 (C > T). This case represents the first description of -101 (C > T) mutation in a Brazilian population and it is associated with a benign clinical course.
 
We present the case of a patient with MDS RARS subtype with loss of part of the long arm of chromosome 11 del 11(q23). This a cytogenetic abnormality that occurs in 7% to 20% of RARS cases not related to poor prognosis. It seems that this deletion is a marker of iron overload in MDS.
 
Descriptive data and independent t test for comparison of verb type use in relation to the type of school that the participants attended 
Descriptive data and independent t test for comparison of verb type use in relation to the hearing-impaired (HI) and control groups 
Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls) were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. Twenty-two (52.4%) of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5). Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041): more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91). There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058). Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.
 
distribution by type of treatment employed for the total number of 119 cases of ovarian cancer treated at the University Hospital, FMRP, from 1977 to 1992. 
distribution by surgical cytoreduction procedure applied to the total number of 110 cases of original ovarian cancer treated at the University Hospital, FMRP, from 1977 to 1992. 
This study was conducted on patients with ovarian cancer in order to evaluate survival. A retrospective study of 119 cases of ovarian cancer from January 1977 to December 1992 with observation until 1993. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, São Paulo University. Of the 119 cases, 70 (58.8%) presented epithelial carcinomas and 21 (17.6%) tumors of the sexual girdle/stroma. The data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Statistical analysis of survival time was based on the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. The patients with a negative second look had a mean survival of 79.4 +/- 48.5 months versus 24.2 +/- 15.1 months for patients with a positive second look (P < 0.02). It is concluded that patients with a negative second look present a better prognosis compared to those with residual disease.
 
Photomicrograph showing luteinized thecoma of the ovary (hematoxylineosin; 100 x). 
Photomicrograph showing peritoneum with intense fibrosis (hematoxylineosin; 40 x). 
Context: Thecomas are benign tumors that account for less than 1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The association of ovarian thecoma with sclerosing peritonitis is rare. Case report: We report the case of a 33-year-old woman, with a two-month history of increasing abdominal volume. Ultrasound showed a complex pelvic lesion and laboratory analysis detected elevated serum CA 125 levels. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and peritoneal biopsy. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of luteinized thecoma of both ovaries associated with sclerosing peritonitis.
 
Mean CA-125 levels in serum (S) and peritoneal fl uid (PF) from women with and without pelvic endometriosis. 
Correlation between CA-125 levels in serum (S) and peritoneal fl uid (PF) from women with pelvic endometriosis. 
One of the diagnostic markers of endometriosis is CA-125, and elevated levels of this are caused by high concentrations in the ectopic endometrium. The objective of this study was to correlate CA-125 levels in serum and peritoneal fluid from women with and without pelvic endometriosis. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopy for infertility, pelvic pain or tubal ligation, during early follicular phase, at the university hospital of Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto. Fifty-two patients were divided into two groups: endometriosis group, consisting of 35 patients with biopsy-confirmed pelvic endometriosis, and control group, consisting of 17 patients without endometriosis. CA-125 levels in serum samples and peritoneal fluid were determined by chemiluminescence. CA-125 levels in serum and peritoneal fluid were higher in patients with advanced pelvic endometriosis (means of 39.1 +/- 45.8 U/ml versus 10.5 +/- 5.9 U/ml in serum, p < 0.005; 1,469.4 +/- 1,350.4 U/ml versus 888.7 +/- 784.3 U/ml in peritoneal fluid, p < 0.05), and showed a positive correlation between each other (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.4880). Women with more advanced degrees of endometriosis showed higher CA-125 levels in both serum and peritoneal fluid (p = 0.0001). There is a positive correlation between serum and peritoneal fluid values of CA-125 in women with and without endometriosis, and their levels are higher in peritoneal fluid. Advanced endometriosis is related to higher levels in both serum and peritoneal fluid.
 
Macroscopic appearance of surgical specimen of a left ovarian thecoma. 
Microscopic appearance of left ovarian thecoma (hematoxylin-eosin, 400 x). 
Context: Meigs' syndrome consists of a benign ovarian tumor accompanied by ascites and hydrothorax. Elevated serum CA 125 levels in postmenopausal women with solid adnexal masses, ascites and pleural effusion are highly suggestive for malignant ovarian tumor. However, patients with Meigs' syndrome can also have elevated serum CA 125 levels. The authors report a case of Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA 125 level. Objective: This is a case report of Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA 125 level. Case report: A 65-year-old Brazilian woman had presented progressive dyspnea, weight loss and decline in general condition over the 7 months preceding admission to our service. In another hospital, the patient had been submitted to thoracic drainage due to pleural effusion. With recurrence of the pleural effusion and increase in abdominal volume due to ascites and a pelvic mass, the patient sought our service. Transvaginal ultrasound showed an extensive adnexal solid mass of 16.4 x 10.8 cm located in the pelvis without exact limits, and the serum CA 125 level was elevated. With a preoperative diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma, the patient was submitted to exploratory laparotomy, which revealed a left ovarian tumor. The frozen section diagnosis was thecoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The histology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of thecoma. The patient was asymptomatic with a normal serum CA 125 level 20 months after the operation.
 
Context: Cancer of the uterine cervix is rare during adolescence. The reported rates are 0/100,000 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years and 1.7/100,000 women aged 20 to 24 years. However, several studies have shown increasing incidence of preneoplastic lesions at increasingly early ages. Case report: This paper reports a case of microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a 14-year-old patient with menarche at 10 years of age and first coitus at 12 years of age. The objective of the present report was to alert gynecologists and pediatricians regarding the need for cervical carcinoma prevention among sexually active adolescents, based on educational programs that explain the purpose of colpocytological examinations and encourage their use, along with condom use and limitation of the number of sexual partners.
 
Traumatic injuries of the extrahepatic biliary tract are infrequent, occurring in approximately 0.5% of all patients with blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. The incidence of this injury due to blunt abdominal trauma is rare. This study reviewed patients with injuries of the extrahepatic biliary tract due to abdominal trauma over a 6-year period to determine the incidence, trauma scores, associated injuries, surgical treatment performed, complications and mortality rate. We report our experience with 14 patients with extrahepatic biliary tract trauma. A review of the literature and the discussion about the management are presented.
 
The development of simple, accurate and low-expense techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection has great relevance. To determine the accuracy of a rapid 14C-urea breath test (UBT) employing a very simple device for breathed air collection. Prospective study. Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto. One hundred and thirty-seven adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Clinical Hospital. Histology for Helicobacter pylori (HP); urease test; urea breath test (UBT). One hundred and fifteen patients were infected by HP (HP+) according to both histology and the urease test, and 22 patients were HP-negative (HP-), according to the same two tests. UBT was capable of discriminating between HP+ and HP- in a way that was similar to the combination of urease test and histology. When this combination of results is taken as the "gold standard" for HP infection, the sensitivity and specificity of UBT are both greater than 90% for a range of cut-off points and breathed air collection times. The rapid UBT employing a simple device for air collection has a high accuracy in determining HP infection.
 
Whole body imaging using 99m Tc-MDP, from a patient with multiple bone metastases from breast cancer (skull, ribs,  
More than 50% of patients with prostate, breast or lung cancer will develop painful bone metastases. The purpose of treating bone metastases is to relieve pain, reduce the use of steroids and to maintain motion. To evaluate the use of samarium-153-EDTMP (153Sm-EDTMP) for the treatment of bone pain secondary to metastases that is refractory to clinical management. Retrospective. Division of Nuclear Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). Fifty-eight patients were studied (34 males) with mean age 62 years; 31 patients had prostate cancer, 20 had breast cancer, three had lung cancer, one had lung hemangioendothelioma, one had parathyroid adenocarcinoma, one had osteosarcoma and one had an unknown primary tumor. All patients had multiple bone metastases demonstrated by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP,and were treated with 153Sm-EDTMP. Response to treatment was graded as good (pain reduction of 50-100%), intermediate (25-49%) and poor (0-24%). All patients showed good uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP by bone metastases. Among the patients with prostate cancer, intermediate or good response to therapy occurred in 80.6% (25 patients) and poor response in 19.4% (6). Among the patients with breast cancer, 85% (17) showed intermediate or good response to therapy while 15% (3) showed poor response. All three patients with lung cancer showed poor response to treatment. The lung hemangioendothelioma and unknown primary lesion patients showed intermediate response to treatment; the osteosarcoma and parathyroid adenocarcinoma patients showed good response to treatment. No significant myelotoxicity occurred. Pain control is important for improving the quality of life of patients with advanced cancers. The mechanism by which pain is relieved with the use of radionuclides is still not yet completely understood, however, the treatment is simple and provides a low risk of mielotoxicity. Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP can control the pain secondary to bone metastases effectively in most patients with breast and prostate cancer without significant side effects.
 
Persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to cervical carcinoma. Integration of viral DNA into host cell DNA is essential for this cancer development, promoting disruption of the HPV E2 gene, thus leading to unregulated increases in E6 and E7 proteins and inactivating the products of p53 and Rb tumor suppressor genes. To investigate HPV 16 infection in cervical lesions, physical state of viral DNA and p53 gene alterations in a group of women attending a public health service. Prospective, non-controlled, transversal study. Gynecological clinic of the School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense. 43 consecutive patients with cervical lesions referred to our service. Cases were classified via cytology/histology as normal, HPV infection, condyloma, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and carcinoma. HPV infection was studied via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two PCR primer sets, to determine DNA integration. p53 gene changes were investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. One normal case, 7 HPV infections, 6 condylomas, 7 LSIL, 14 HSIL and 8 cancers were found, with 95% positive for HPV genome when tested using both L1 and E6 primers. HPV 16 was most prevalent (73.1%). HPV 16 DNA was integrated within the host genome in 3 LSIL. One LSIL progressed to HSIL by 13 months after first diagnosis. Among HPV 16-positive HSIL cases, 50% contained integrated viral DNA. HPV 16 E2 gene disruption was seen in 7 cancers (87.5%). Only smal-cell carcinoma showed intact HPV 16 E2 gene. Abnormal p53 bands detected by PCR/SSCP were observed in 4 cases: 2 squamous carcinoma with parametrium (exon 8) and two cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III (exons 5 and 7). All cases presented HPV 16 E2 gene loss. The sample had a high rate of high-risk HPV detected in benign and malignant lesions; high cervical cancer burden; HPV 16 DNA integration in all except one case of cancer; p53 gene changes in CIN III and in invasive cancer cases associated with DNA integration.
 
Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) expression in cervical epithelium was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry. Labeling was accomplished using anti-HLA-G 5A6G7 mAb (EXBIO, Czech Republic). A) Absence of expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) in normal cervix. B) Slight human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in chronic cervicitis (CC). C) Moderate human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in chronic cervicitis (CC). D) Strong human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in chronic cervicitis (CC). E) Slight human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. F) Moderate human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. G) Strong human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) staining in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I.  
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impaired local cell immunity seems to contribute towards the pathogenesis and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the underlying molecular mechanisms promoting its progression remain unclear. Identification of new molecular markers for prognosis and diagnosis of early-stage CIN may aid in decreasing the numbers of CIN cases. Several novel immunoregulatory molecules have been discovered over the past few years, including the human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), which through interaction with its receptors exerts important tolerogenic functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that T-helper interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing cells (Th17 cells) may play a role in antitumor immunity. However, recent reports have implicated Th17 cells and their cytokines in both pro and anti-tumorigenic processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the roles of HLA-G and Th17 in the immunopathogenesis of CIN I. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group using 58 cervical specimens from the files of a public university hospital providing tertiary-level care. METHODS: We examined HLA-G and IL-17 expression in the cervical microenvironment by means of immunohistochemistry, and correlated these findings with clinical and pathological features. RESULTS: There was a greater tendency towards HLA-G and IL-17 expression in specimens that showed CIN I, thus suggesting that these molecules have a contribution towards cervical progression. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HLA-G and IL-17 expression may be an early marker for assessing the progression of cervical lesions.
 
Context and objective: Trisomy 18 (T18), or Edwards syndrome, is a chromosomal disease characterized by a broad clinical picture and a poor prognosis. Our aim was to describe clinical, radiological and survival data of a cohort of patients prenatally diagnosed with T18. Design and setting: Retrospective single cohort in the Fetal Medicine Service of Hospital Materno Infantil Presidente Vargas (HMIPV). Methods: All sequential patients with T18 registered at the Fetal Medicine Service of HMIPV between January 2005 and September 2013 were considered. We gathered their clinical, radiological and survival data and used the Kaplan-Meier test for survival analysis. Results: Ten patients were diagnosed with T18, of whom seven (70%) were female. The majority (90%) were referred due to malformations seen on ultrasound. The mean gestational age at the first evaluation was 25.5 weeks. At karyotyping, the defects were considered multiple in only four patients (40%). All the fetuses presented full trisomy of chromosome 18. The main abnormality observed was congenital heart disease (n = 7). Intrauterine death occurred in half of the patients (50%). All live patients (n = 5) were born through cesarean section presenting low weight and low Apgar scores. The median length of survival after birth was 18 days. Conclusions: T18 is associated with a high risk of fetal and neonatal death. The majority of the patients present major malformations identified through ultrasound, such as congenital heart defects, which could help in identifying such cases prenatally.
 
Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the maternal risk of Down syndrome (DS). This study evaluated the influence of a 19-base pair (bp) deletion polymorphism in intron-1 of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene on the maternal risk of DS, and investigated the association between this polymorphism and variations in the concentrations of serum folate and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA). Analytical cross-sectional study carried out at Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (Famerp). 105 mothers of individuals with free trisomy of chromosome 21, and 184 control mothers were evaluated. Molecular analysis on the polymorphism was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) through differences in the sizes of fragments. Folate was quantified by means of chemiluminescence, and Hcy and MMA by means of liquid chromatography and sequential mass spectrometry. There was no difference between the groups in relation to allele and genotype frequencies (P = 0.44; P = 0.69, respectively). The folate, Hcy and MMA concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups, in relation to genotypes (P > 0.05). The 19-bp deletion polymorphism of DHFR gene was not a maternal risk factor for DS and was not related to variations in the concentrations of serum folate and plasma Hcy and MMA in the study population.
 
Etiology for the development of speech and language disturbances (n = 192). 
Performance in oral and reading comprehension tests (n = 185). 
Performance in production (oral and written) and naming tests (n = 185). 
Distribution of lesion sites in 104 cases. 
Aphasia is a very disabling condition caused by neurological diseases. In Brazil, we have little data on the profile of aphasics treated in rehabilitation centers. To present a descriptive study of 192 patients, providing a reference sample of speech and language disturbances among Brazilians. Retrospective study. Speech Pathology Unit linked to the Neurology Division of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. All patients (192) referred to our Speech Pathology service from 1995 to 2000. We collected data relating to demographic variables, etiology, language evaluation (functional evaluation, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming and Token Test), and neuroimaging studies. The results obtained in language tests and the clinical and neuroimaging data were organized and classified. Seventy aphasics were chosen for constructing a profile. Fourteen subjects with left single-lobe dysfunction were analyzed in detail. Seventeen aphasics were compared with 17 normal subjects, all performing the Token Test. One hundred subjects (52%) were men and 92 (48%) women. Their education varied from 0 to 16 years (average: 6.5; standard deviation: 4.53). We identified the lesion sites in 104 patients: 89% in the left hemisphere and 58% due to stroke. The incidence of aphasia was 70%; dysarthria and apraxia, 6%; functional alterations in communication, 17%; and 7% were normal. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the subgroup to controls in the Token Test. We believe that this sample contributes to a better understanding of neurological patients with speech and language disturbances and may be useful as a reference for health professionals involved in the rehabilitation of such disorders.
 
Characteristics of campus mental health service clients compared with the general characteristics of students at Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp) 
Client characterization is an important step in evaluating the services offered by campus counseling and mental health centers and in their further planning and development. The objectives here were to describe reported complaints and demographics among students who sought counseling/mental healthcare at a Brazilian campus mental health service over a 17-year period and to compare these characteristics with those of the general university student body. Retrospective study at the Psychological and Psychiatric Service for Students (SAPPE), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). The participants were all of the 2,194 students who sought counseling/mental health care at SAPPE from 1987 to 2004. Information was obtained from clients clinical charts. Unicamps database was consulted for general information on its students. The findings indicated overrepresentation, among the clients, of undergraduates, female students, students from Brazilian states other than São Paulo, students living in the campus residence hall and those whose main source of income was a scholarship grant. We also found overrepresentation of Humanities and Arts students among the clients. The most frequently reported complaints were difficulties in interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and poor academic performance. Course level (undergraduate or postgraduate), study field, living in a university residential facility and reliance on a scholarship grant were found to influence the behavior of seeking mental health counseling among Brazilian university students in this study. Course level was found to influence the pattern of complaints reported at first contact with the mental health service.
 
Comparison between the prevalence and incidence rates for breast cancer between 1988 and 2002, in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.  
Studies have shown increased prevalence rates for breast cancer, relating to higher incidence, longer survival and breast cancer prevention programs among populations. The aim here was to analyze the annual prevalence of breast cancer in Goiânia over a 15-year period. This was a cross-sectional study on women with breast cancer diagnosed in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from 1988 to 2002. The breast cancer cases were identified in the database of the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiânia. The 15-year period was stratified into three five-year periods. The cases were followed up for five years, and the mortality database was used to exclude deaths. The population of the official census was used as the denominator for rate calculations. The coefficient of breast cancer prevalence in Goiania was 22.87/100,000 in 1988 and 220.22/100,000 women in 2002. The analyses for periods showed that in the first period, the rate was 19.39/100,000 and that it was 44.79/100,000 in the last period. For the fifteen years analyzed, the prevalence rate for breast cancer was 127.24/100,000 women. The annual percentage change was 27.07 (P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval, CI: 20.79-33.67) from 1988 to 1992 and 9.39 (P < 0.001; 95% CI: 8.52-10.25) from 1992 to 2002. There was an increase in the breast cancer prevalence rate in the city of Goiânia between 1988 and 2002, possibly relating to the improvement in the screening and treatment of breast cancer.
 
Percentage of mastectomies over time.  
in univariate but not multivariate analyses. 
Recently, breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has been replacing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in mastectomy and BCS rates and the factors relating to these shifts. A retrospective study in a Brazilian public hospital. Pathological records from female patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), between 1989 and 2008 were reviewed. The mastectomy and BCS rates were calculated. The chi-square test was used to assess factors associated with type of surgical treatment and to compare trends in treatment type over the years. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. From 1989 to 2008, 2050 breast cancer surgical specimens were received in our service, corresponding to 1973 patients; 1324 (64.6%) of them were from mastectomy and 726 (35.4%) from BCS. A shift from mastectomy towards BCS was observed (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, earlier year of surgery (P < 0.001), larger tumor size (P < 0.001), having at least one positive axillary lymph node (P < 0.001) and patients' age greater than 68 years (P = 0.007) were predictors of mastectomy. There was a shift from mastectomy towards BCS in our institution over the years. This may reflect consolidation of BCS (plus radiotherapy) as an equivalent treatment to mastectomy in terms of survival and a shift to earlier diagnosis for the disease.
 
Distribution of the malnourished index-children-Brazil-PNSN-1989.
Proportion of malnourished children and malnourished children's mothers with overweight and obesity according to the situation and regions.
Proportion of malnourished children and malnourished children's mothers with overweight and obesity according to maternal age and the index-child's age
To evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status of the youngest child under 48 months of age (in families with the biological mother present) and their mothers among 3906 children selected from a sample of a national survey in 1989 (PNSN). Malnutrition was present in 5.8% of the children. From these, 21.8%, 60.9% and 17.3% had overweight/obese, eutrophic and malnourished mothers, respectively. Stratified analyses taking into account the regions, situation, income distribution and mother's educational level demonstrated that a lower proportion of malnourished children was concurrent with a higher proportion of overweight/obese mothers. The Kappa test evidenced a poor agreement between the nutritional conditions of the child-mother pairs (K < = 0.048). When the proportion of malnourished children decreased within the analyzed groups, the proportion of overweight/obese mothers increased. Such an epidemiological pattern indicates that within groups in which malnutrition is less prevalent, the proportion of children for whom a lack of food in the household is the main determinant factor for malnutrition is lower.
 
Percentages of the different age groups, comparing the sample obtained and the total population. 
In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. Epidemiological survey. All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households) were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% were men. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%). The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%): a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%): Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%): about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%). Cocaine use (2.1%) was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%). There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the case of obtaining heroin: 38.3% sold if was easy to obtain. This study supports the implementation of better prevention programs regarding drug abuse in Sõ Paulo state.
 
Genetic investigation of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides valuable information about the genes regulating proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, migration and apoptosis in the CNS. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms (codon 31 and 3' untranslated region, 3'UTR) and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) gene in patients with and without CNS tumors. Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pediatric Oncology Department, Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto. 41 patients with CNS tumors and a control group of 161 subjects without cancer and paires for sex, age and ethnicity were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Protein analysis was performed on 36 patients with CNS tumors, using the Western Blotting technique. The frequencies of the heterozygote (Ser/Arg) and polymorphic homozygote (Arg/Arg) genotypes of codon 31 in the control subjects were 28.0% and 1.2%, respectively. However, the 3'UTR site presented frequencies of 24.2% (C/T) and 0.6% (T/T). These frequencies were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from those seen in the patients with CNS tumors (19.4% and 0.0%, codon 31; 15.8% and 2.6%, 3'UTR site). Regarding the protein expression in ependymomas, 66.67% did not express the protein CDKN1A. The results for medulloblastomas and astrocytomas were similar: neither of them expressed the protein (57.14% and 61.54%, respectively). No significant differences in protein expression patterns or polymorphisms of CDKN1A in relation to the three types of CNS tumors were observed among Brazilian subjects.
 
Patient showing shortening of the left thigh and both legs with bilateral varus foot. 
X-ray showing bilateral absence of the tibia with intact fibulae and distally hypoplastic left femur plus normal right femur. 
CONTEXT Congenital absence of the tibia is a rare anomaly with an incidence of one per 1,000,000 live births. It is mostly sporadic and can be identified as an isolated disorder or as part of malformation syndromes. CASE REPORT A male child, born to unaffected and non-consanguineous parents, presented with shortening of the legs and adduction of both feet. Physical examination at six months of age showed head circumference of 44.5 cm (75th percentile), length 60 cm (< 3rd percentile), weight 7,700 g (50th percentile), shortening of the left thigh and both legs with varus foot. There were no craniofacial dysmorphisms or chest, abdominal, genital or upper-extremity anomalies. Psychomotor development was normal. His workup, including renal and cranial ultrasonography, brainstem auditory evoked potential, and ophthalmological and cardiological examinations, was normal. X-rays showed bilateral absence of the tibia with intact fibulae, distally hypoplastic left femur, and normal right femur. In addition, spinal radiographs showed hemivertebrae at T9 and T10. CONCLUSION This novel association expands the spectrum of tibial hemimelia. Moreover, this observation highlights the usefulness of this inexpensive diagnostic method (X-rays) for characterizing the great clinical and radiological variability of tibial hemimelia.
 
Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) scores prior to (Tpre), during (T0) and two (T2) and fi ve (T5) minutes after the painful stimulus, and Premature Infant Pain Profi le (PIPP) score on the fi rst, third and seventh days of life 
It is challenge to assess and treat pain in premature infants. The objective of this study was to compare the multidimensional pain assessment of preterm neonates subjected to an acute pain stimulus at 24 hours, 72 hours and seven days of life. Prospective cohort study, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Eleven neonates with gestational age less than 37 weeks that needed venepuncture for blood collection were studied. The exclusion criteria were Apgar score < 7 at five minutes, presence of any central nervous system abnormality, and discharge or death before seven days of life. Venepuncture was performed in the dorsum of the hand, and the heart rate, oxygen saturation and pain scales [Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS), Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP)] were assessed at 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days of life. NFCS and NIPS were evaluated prior to procedure (Tpre), during venepuncture (T0), and two (T2) and five (T5) minutes after needle withdrawal. Heart rate, O2 saturation and PIPP were measured at Tpre and T0. Mean values were compared by repeated-measurement analysis of variance. The pain parameters did not differ at 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days of life: heart rate (p = 0.22), oxygen saturation (p = 0.69), NFCS (p = 0.40), NIPS (p = 0.32) and PIPP (p = 0.56). Homogeneous pain scores were observed following venepuncture in premature infants during their first week of life.
 
Weight gain distribution during the first year of life for the three groups of children followed up in an outpatient service in São Paulo. 
Comparison of weight of children followed up in an outpatient service in São Paulo with NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) curves for male gender. 
Comparison of weight of children followed up in an outpatient service in São Paulo with NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) curves for female gender. 
During the first year of life, the growth process is highly vulnerable to several impairing factors that need to be understood. To perform follow-up evaluation on newborns weighing less than or equal to 2,000 g in a population of low socioeconomic level. Retrospective. Hospital Maternidade Escola de Vila Nova Cachoeirinha, São Paulo, Brazil. The study included 60 children born between March 1996 and January 1998, weighing less than or equal to 2,000 g. They were divided into three subgroups, according to birth weight and adequacy for gestational age. The factors studied were maternal variables, illnesses among the newborns, hospital admissions subsequent to discharge from the nursery, and the evolution of weight from birth until 12 months of life. Statistical analyses were performed through application of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) V.9.0 and Curve Expert 1.3 programs. Previous maternal diseases occurred in 38.6% of the pregnant women and intercurrent events occurred in 100%. The prevailing neonatal diseases were sepsis (30%) and hyaline membrane disease (25%). There were 404 visits on an outpatient basis: the most frequently diagnosed complaints related to respiratory diseases (26%). Among visits to specialists, 81.7% were to the neuropediatrician. A diagnosis of normality was made for 80% of all visits, for all specialties. For each of these groups, a growth curve was established. These were shown to be below the reference curve standards, with such differences least evident with regard to the children's corrected age. The severity of the newborns'conditions may be related to the high incidence of maternal diseases prior to pregnancy as well as intercurrent events during pregnancy. The differences in growth in relation to NCHS charts show that corrected age should be used as a parameter. Socioeconomic conditions, clinical/obstetric events and newborn diseases during the hospital stay had repercussions on these children's progress during their first year of life. Their growth profile was found to be very far from the reference standard, thus indicating a need for constant, differentiated assessment.
 
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim here was to evaluate trends in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in three different regions of the Americas. This was a time series study in which mortality data from three different regions in the Americas from 2000 to the latest year available were analyzed. The source of data was the Mortality Information System of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). Data from 27 countries were included. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze trends. During the study period, the age-adjusted mortality rates for men were higher than those of females in all regions. North America (NA) showed lower rates than Latin America countries (LAC) and the Non-Latin Caribbean (NLC). Premature deaths (30-69 years old) accounted for 22.8% of all deaths in NA, 38.0% in LAC and 41.8% in NLC. The trend analysis also showed a significant decline in the three regions. NA accumulated the largest decline. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence interval was -3.9% [-4.2; -3.7] in NA; -1.8% [-2.2; -1.5] in LAC; and -1.8% [-2.7; -0.9] in NLC. Different mortality rates and reductions were observed among the three regions.
 
Nonfatal injuries according to age (number and rate/100,000), Brazil, 2003
Since 1980, injuries have been the second biggest cause of death among the Brazilian population. This study aimed to analyze national data on fatal injuries and nonfatal injury hospitalization in Brazil, for 2003. This was a population-based descriptive study, Brazil, 2003. Data from 126,520 fatal injuries and 733,712 nonfatal injuries seen at public hospitals were analyzed. The data were stratified by sex, age, intent and injury mechanism. Raw and age- and sex-specific rates were calculated per 100,000 individuals. The raw injury mortality rate was 71.5/100,000 (122.6/100,000 for male and 22.0/100,000 for female). For fatal injuries, the proportions of unintentional and intentional injuries were equal (44.3% and 46.9%, respectively). Homicides were the leading cause, 40.3% overall (28.8/100,000), followed by transport-related deaths, 26.2% overall (17.0/100,000). For nonfatal injuries, the rate was 414.8/100,000 and unintentional injuries were predominant (88.9%). Overall, the leading cause was unintentional falls, accounting for 42.6% of victims treated in public hospitals (176.8/100,000). Transport-related injuries were second: 15.0% overall; 62.0/100,000. Fractures comprised 46.7% of principal diagnoses at hospitals. The injury types in the fatal and nonfatal datasets varied according to sex and age. The highest rates were found among young males and elderly people. Injury prevention activities need to be developed. To prevent deaths, homicide has to be addressed. Among hospitalized cases, falls are the most important problem. Traffic-related injuries play an important role in morbidity and mortality.
 
Injuries are an important public health issue in the State of São Paulo. Each year around 32,000 people are killed and 180,000 are hospitalized due to injury. The aim of this work was to analyze fatal injury data to provide an overview on mortality due to injuries in the State of São Paulo in 2003, the most recent year for which data are available. Population-based descriptive study carried out in the State Health Department of São Paulo. Data from 31,032 deaths due to injury were analyzed. The dataset was from the Mortality Information System (SIM/DATASUS). The data were stratified by sex, age, intent and mechanism of injury. Unadjusted and age and sex-specific rates were calculated per 100,000 population. The unadjusted injury mortality rate was 80.2/100,000 (140.2/100,000 for males and 22.4/100,000 for females). The highest rates were found for males and among young and old people. A greater proportion of intentional injuries than of unintentional deaths resulted in death (49.73% and 39.7%, respectively). Homicides were the leading cause, 44.6% overall (35.8/100,000), followed by motor vehicle traffic, 22.3% overall (17.9/100,000). Firearms played an important role among homicide deaths. Intention and mechanism of injuries varied according to sex and age group. These data indicate a need to develop injury prevention strategies, considering the magnitude of the problem and the groups at high risk. Homicides among young people have to be addressed. Motor vehicle traffic injuries play an important role for all ages.
 
Frequency of anemia and associations between anemia and the variables relating to the children. Embu, 2003-2004 
Frequency of anemia and relationship between anemia and the variables relating to sociodemographic factors. Embu, 2003-2004 
Iron deficiency anemia is an important public health problem in Brazil. In the municipality of Embu, a population study in 1996 found anemia prevalence of 68.5% among children aged one to two years. From these data, prescription of prophylactic ferrous sulfate was instituted in 1998 for children under two years old followed up within the children's healthcare program. After five years of intervention, the prevalence of anemia and associated factors were investigated among children aged 12 to 18 months to whom guidance for prophylactic ferrous sulfate use had been given. Cross-sectional study covering October 2003 to June 2004 at a primary healthcare unit in Embu. A randomized sample of children aged 12 to 18 months to whom guidance for prophylactic ferrous sulfate use had been given was obtained. Hemoglobin was measured in capillary blood, using HemoCue apparatus. Hemoglobin < 11 g/100 dl was taken to indicate anemia. The sample comprised 118 children and anemia was found in 41.5%. There was no statistically significant association between anemia presence and the variables of sex, birth weight, neonatal intercurrences, chronic diseases, breastfeeding or iron supplementation use. There was a statistically significant association (p = 0.03) between anemia presence and per capita income, such that the higher the income was, the lower the prevalence of anemia was. The prophylaxis program against iron deficiency anemia did not achieve the expected results. New strategies must be considered in the light of the magnitude of the problem.
 
Overall assessment of the proposals presented 
Numbers of bills presented in the National Congress, numbers of senators and federal congressmen and numbers of bills presented by senators and federal congressmen per year and per region of the country 7 
The Federal Constitution of 1988 allowed the National Congress to contribute towards formulation of new public policies. The objective of this study was to analyze the legislative production that dealt with health issues that was in passage in the National Congress between January 2007 and December 2008. Descriptive-exploratory cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative approaches, conducted in a federal university. The analysis material for the study comprised 144 draft bills that were classified and subsequently randomly evaluated by 155 professionals working within the healthcare system. The analysis showed that the Workers' Party (PT) and Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) were the parties that presented the largest proportions of the draft bills (12.5% and 11.1%); 25.4% of the draft bills were presented by congress members with academic qualifications within healthcare and only 1.4% of the draft bills became transformed into legal regulations. In questionnaire responses, 51.5% of the evaluators did not consider the draft bills to be viable, 40.6% did not consider them to be relevant and 52.5% said that if the draft bills were not approved it would not be harmful to Brazilian society. In analyzing the data from this study, it was noted that the legislative production relating to healthcare was low and the transformation rate from draft bill to legal regulation was negligible. The results from the evaluation showed that the quality of legislative production was impaired.
 
The patient at the age of three months. (A) Face, (B) profile, (C) feet (note the overlapping toes).  
Cytogenetic analysis. (A) GTG-banded partial metaphase. Chromosomes are (from left to right): normal chromosome 15, der(15) and two normal chromosomes 21. (B) fluorescence hybridization in situ (FISH) using chromosome 21 probe. (C) FISH using chromosome 15 probe.  
Robertsonian translocations (RT) are among the most common balanced structural rearrangements in humans and comprise complete chromatin fusion of the long arm of two acrocentric chromosomes. Nevertheless, non-Robertsonian translocation involving these chromosomes is a rare event. We report a de novo unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 21. The newborn was the daughter of a 29-year-old mother and a 42-year-old father. The couple was non-consanguineous. Clinical findings led to the diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) with severe congenital heart defects (persistent arterial duct, and complete atrioventricular septal defect), as well as low birth length and weight (< 5th and < 10th percentile, respectively, based on specific measurement curves for DS). Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed the karyotype 46,XX,der(15)(15pter→15q26.2::21q11.2→21qter). The translocation was confirmed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. The parents had normal karyotypes. Differently from RT, in our case a rare event occurred involving the distal segment of 15q and the proximal segment of 21q. Only two reports of this translocation, involving chromosomes 15 and 21 but different breakpoints, have been described so far. The association between 21q duplication and 15q deletion makes it difficult to separate the effect of each chromosome, but might also be responsible for increasing the growth retardation, as detected in our case. Cytogenetic analysis on DS patients is mandatory not only to confirm the diagnosis, but also to assess the risk of recurrence at genetic counseling, as well as to evaluate the contribution of other chromosome aberrations in the final phenotype.
 
Schwannomas are benign neoplasms of the peripheral nerves originating in the Schwann cells. According to their cellularity, they can be subdivided into Antoni A or Antoni B types. They are rare and usually solitary, with clearly delimited capsules. They occur in the head and neck region in only 25% of the cases, and may be associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease. The present study retrospectively analyzed some data on this disease in the head and neck region and reviewed the literature on the subject. Retrospective study at Head and Neck Service, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Data on 21 patients between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. The sites of cervical schwannomas and the intraoperative, histopathological and postoperative clinical status of these cases were studied. Diagnostic methods, type of surgery and association with neurofibromatosis were evaluated. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 72 years. Four patients had a positive past history of type I neurofibromatosis or Von Recklinghausen's disease. The nerves affected included the brachial and cervical plexuses, vagus nerve, sympathetic chain and lingual or recurrent laryngeal nerve. The nerve of origin was not identified in six cases. Tumor enucleation was performed in 16 patients; the other five required more extensive surgery. Schwannomas and neurofibromas both derive from Schwann cells, but are different entities. They are solitary lesions, except in Von Recklinghausen's disease. They are generally benign, and rarely recur. The recommended surgical treatment is tumor enucleation.
 
Vancomycin has been frequently recommended for the treatment of multi-resistant infections. Twenty-two children undergoing vancomycin treatment were observed. Nine adverse effects were registered in 6 children: eosinophilia in 5 cases, skin rash in 2 cases, and an increase in plasma creatinine in 2 cases. All adverse effects remitted with withdrawal of the drug.
 
Tumor mass dissected at the carotid bifurcation. (A) Arrow shows carotid body tumor. (B) Preserved carotid arteries (arrows) after resection of carotid body tumor. 
Computed tomography showing left parapharyngeal tumor (arrow). 
Carotid body tumors, or chemodectomas, are the most common head and neck paragangliomas, accounting for 80% of the cases. They may present minor symptoms; however, they deserve special attention in order to achieve accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment. The objectives of this study were to show the approach towards chemodectomas and evaluate the complications of the patients treated surgically without previous embolization. Retrospective study on chemodectomas followed up at the Head and Neck Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, Unicamp. Twenty-two patients were evaluated between 1983 and 2009. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and imaging methods. The epidemiological characteristics, lesion characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment and complications were analyzed. The paragangliomas were classified as Shamblin I (9%), II (68.1%) and III (22.7%). Angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis in 20 patients (90.9%). Five (22.7%) had significant bleeding during the surgery, while four (18.1%) had minor bleeding. Four patients (18.1%) developed neurological sequelae. Seven (31.8%) needed ligatures of the external carotid artery. Three patients (13.6%) underwent carotid bulb resection. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 months to 14 years without recurrences or mortality. In our experience and in accordance with the literature, significant bleeding and neurological sequelae may occur in chemodectoma cases, particularly in Shamblin III patients. The complications from treatment without previous embolization were similar to data in the literature data, from cases in which this procedure was applied prior to surgery.
 
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves presented by the different screening criteria. 
Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of different screening methods for 22q11DS in patients with CHD. Our study evaluated a consecutive sample of patients with CHD hospitalized for the first time in a pediatric and cardiac intensive care unit of a referral hospital in southern Brazil. All of them underwent the examination through fluorescent in situ hybridization for 22q11DS. These patients were part of the study by Rosa et al.
 
Pulmonary thromboembolism is the third most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality among acute cardiovascular diseases. The incidence of pulmonary embolism in necropsies has remained unchanged over the last few decades. Cardiac diseases, neoplasia, trauma, recent surgery and systemic diseases are important predisposing clinical conditions. The relationship between male and female sexes is estimated at 1.24. Various studies have shown an increase in morbidity in spring and autumn. There is great difficulty in precise anatomopathological diagnosis in relation to the localization of the emboli in the pulmonary vessels, although they are preferentially located in the right lung and lower lobes. To study the incidence of lethal and non-lethal pulmonary thromboembolism in relation to epidemiological and anatomical variables. Retrospective study performed via reports on the necropsy findings. University hospital providing tertiary-level attendance. 16,466 consecutive necropsies performed from January 1972 to December 1995. Frequency of lethal and non-lethal pulmonary thromboembolism, predisposing diseases, occurrence in relation to the seasons of the year, and location where the embolus is lodged. Pulmonary thromboembolism was found in 4.7% of all the necropsies performed. There was a predominance of lethal cases (68.2%). There was no difference in relation to sex or seasons of the year for the occurrence of this disease. Cardiovascular diseases were more frequently associated with thromboembolic phenomena. With regard to the location where the embolus was lodged, various lung segments showed greater incidence of being bilaterally compromised. Over the period of this study, it was observed that there was a reduction in the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism, which was probably due to the increase in prophylactic measures over the last few decades. Nonetheless, lethal thromboembolism predominated in frequency, probably because of the abrupt onset of a condition of attack across a large area of the lung, lack of clinical suspicions and consequently a lack of early diagnosis, and delay in instituting fibrinolytic therapy in the cases with hemodynamic repercussions or a large number of lung segments affected.
 
Chordoma is a rare and slow-growing tumor, with local aggressiveness and preferential localization in the vertebral column. The main objective of this study is to evaluate natural history and results of treatment of chordomas. This is a retrospective study from 1953 to 1993. The age ranged from 2 to 86 years (mean = 34.5). Twelve patients were male and 12 female. The localization of the tumor was: 20 in the sacral region, 3 in head and neck and one out of the spine. The treatment, alone or combined, was surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate for patients with lesions in the sacrum ranged from 4 to 119 months, since the date of the symptoms. The 5-year overall survival was 4.2%. Chordoma is a rare and slow growing tumor, with a very difficult approach by surgery due to its preferential location in the sacrum and poor therapeutic results with radiation therapy or chemotherapy, mainly in patients with advanced disease.
 
Patient with pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland bulging into the oropharynx (arrow). 
CT scan in a coronal section, showing the tumor in the parapharyngeal space (arrow). 
Context: Parapharyngeal space tumors comprise less than 0.5% of all head and neck neoplasms. The majority of these tumors are benign, but surgery is usually required to establish the diagnosis and treat the patients. We present 26 patients treated surgically for tumors arising in the parapharyngeal space (PPS) at the State University of Campinas Hospital--UNICAMP. Cases series: Of these, 17 (65.5%) had benign and 9 (34.6%) malignant neoplasms. The surgical and pathological data relevant to these cases are highlighted, observing any local recurrence, surgical complications and the five-year survival. Neurogenic tumors and soft tissue sarcomas were, respectively, the most frequent benign (35.3%) and malignant neoplasms (44.5%). Benign tumors accounted for the majority of the cases and involved minimal surgical morbidity with no recurrence during a median follow-up of five years. Malignant tumors had a high rate of recurrence and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice for PPS tumors. A knowledge of the anatomy of this site is essential for the safe performance of surgical procedures. Malignant neoplasms have a poor prognosis. Fine needle aspiration was helpful in diagnosis of all tumors.
 
Cumulative survival rates according to selected characteristics 
Cumulative survival rates according to histopatology of primary tumor 
Statistical models for the risk of death after surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases 
Pulmonary metastases are among the most common sites for the spread of cancer, particularly with mesenchymal tumors. Despite improvements in cancer therapy, the prognosis remains poor, except for the highly selective group of patients who are considered eligible for surgical treatment and those with chemosensitive tumors. The main objective of this study was to evaluate survival results of 291 patients who underwent thoracotomy due to pulmonary metastases between 1953 and 1986. The number of metastases ranged from a minimum of 1 to as many as 30. The type of resection depended on site, size, and number of pulmonary lesions: 154 wedge resections, 49 lobectomies, and 9 pneumectomies. The tumor was not resectable in the remaining 79 patients. Of the prognostic factors analyzed, only type of pulmonary resection (wedge vs. lobectomy vs. pneumectomy vs. unresectable) and disease free interval (DFI) between primary treatment and pulmonary metastases diagnosis (< or = 6 months vs. 7-12 months vs. > 12 months) were selected as independent predictors of the risk of death in multivariate analysis. A reduced model for bone tumors included disease free interval, sex and histology.
 
The authors report the case of an infant with an extensive face hemangioma with subglottic airway obstruction which had been successfully treated with interferon alpha 2A but then reoccurred with the same dimensions and airway blockage after treatment was abruptly interrupted. The authors suggest the implementation of a standard procedure for the interruption of interferon alpha 2A treatment in order to avoid this rebound effect and advise on the need for further studies to properly evaluate dosage and administration parameters for interferon alpha 2A in the treatment of difficult hemangioma.
 
Top-cited authors
Álvaro Nagib Atallah
  • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Hanneke Jansen
  • University Medical Center Utrecht
Louise A Baur
  • The University of Sydney
C. Summerbell
  • Durham University
Claire O'Malley
  • Teesside University