Russian Journal of Genetics

Published by MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
Online ISSN: 1608-3369
Print ISSN: 1022-7954
Publications
Eleven enzyme and four nonenzyme protein systems controlled by 25 loci were electrophoretically analyzed in the allopatric karyotypic forms (2n = 34 and 2n = 36) of the spotted souslik Spermophilus suslicus. Genetic variability and differentiation for the forms with different chromosome sets were estimated. Two discriminative loci (Alb and Tf) for the studied chromosome forms were found. The UPGMA dendrogram was constructed, which summarizes genetic (allozyme) relationships found for the forms of the spotted souslik with different chromosome sets. Subdividing the species into two karyotypic forms was shown to be followed by differentiating these forms at the allozyme level.
 
The Mongolian gazelle tissue sampling localities in Russia, Mongolia, and China. Symbols correspond to those on the dendrograms.
Common polymorphic positions for the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes in the Mongolian gazelle. Identical nucleotides are des- ignated by dots. Figures at the left indicate the numbers of identical haplotypes and their quantity. Figures on top indicate the positions numbers. The length of the D-loop fragment examined was 644 bp. The exception was haplotype 5, for which the fragment’s length was 721 bp. 
NJ tree common for all animals. Figures at the nodes indicate bootstrap index values (1000 iterations). Animals 25 and 15 are from Russia; animal K2 is from China, and the remaining animals are from Mongolia. The tissues from animals v1-v8, and v10 were collected in 2004.
NJ tree for the animals, whose tissue samples were collected in Mongolia, during the calving period of 2004. The figures at the nodes indicate bootstrap index values (1000 iterations).
The mitochondrial DNA D-loop hypervariable fragment sequence polymorphism was examined in 27 Mongolian gazelles from Mongolia, Russia, and China. Intraspecific polymorphism of the D-loop fragment examined was demonstrated. All haplotypes described were unique. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) for the mtDNA fragment investigated constituted 5.85 +/- 2.92%. A relatively high number of insertions and deletions was observed. In particular, a haplotype with the 77-bp insertion was described. The data obtained point to high genetic diversity of Mongolian populations. There was no correlation between the distribution of haplotypes examined and geographical location of the animal tissue sampling sites.
 
Frequencies of the acrocentric variant of chromosome 5 in the common vole populations from the Urals 
Mean values of exophenotypic characteristics of common voles homozygous and heterozygous for chromosome pair 5 
Frequencies of chromosome aberrations in 80-to 100-day common voles homozygous and heterozygous for auto- some 5 
The common vole Microtus arvalis (the form obscurus) exhibits polymorphism of a pericentric inversion in chromosome pair 5 throughout the species range. In the Urals populations, the frequency of an acrocentric variant of the heteromorphic chromosome is very low (on average 3.2%) and virtually does not change annually. The factors of maintaining stable chromosomal polymorphism in the common vole were studied under conditions of a laboratory colony. Heterozygous and homozygous for the acrocentric chromosome females showed a significant reduction of the reproductive output irrespective of the male karyotype. This effect was manifested mostly in litter size at birth. A number of cytogenetic and exophenotypic characteristics, as well as parent--offspring transmission of this chromosome in crosses of various types, were examined. We have found meiotic drive in favor of the acrocentric, as a result of which the frequency of the acrocentric (without taking into account the postnatal mortality) totaled over all cross variants (0.48) was significantly higher than that expected with random segregation (0.42). It is likely that meiotic drive of the acrocentric largely compensates for the reduced fertility of its carriers, being among the factors of maintaining it in natural populations.
 
Genetic distances between eight species of sousliks (Spermophilus) and five species of marmots (Marmota) were estimated on the basis of 39 biochemical loci. All taxa were shown to be genetically discrete. The genetic differentiation was minimal (Pfd = 11.3) between parapatric species of Palearctic sousliks of the suslicus pigmaeus group and Marmota species, intermediate (Pfd = 34.7) between allopatric sousliks species, and maximal (Pfd = 56.7) between representatives of different genera. The following trends were revealed in the geographic differentiation of the genus Spermophilus: (1) genetic similarity was associated with the geographic distance; (2) the eastern and western Palearctic phyla were markedly different genetically; (3) the eastern Palearctic forms exhibited higher differentiation than the western ones. The revealed speciation pattern is consistent with the general trend of temporal differentiation in Palearctic phyla and confirms the periodic speciation mode in the Palearctics.
 
Molecular testing for mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) is a routine diagnostic analysis for subjects with hereditary hearing loss worldwide. However, till now there is no assessment of the diagnostic significance of this analysis for Russian patients, and there are difficulties in interpretation of the results of DNA diagnostics. In the present study, a sample of 705 patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss from different regions of Russian Federation was investigated. A portion of DFNB1 hearing loss caused by mutations in the GJB2 gene among the sample was 46%. The frequency of DFNB1 hearing loss was 1:1000, that is, the frequency of isolated autosomal recessive hearing loss 1:500 in the population. It was found that each sixteenth individual in Russia is a heterozygous carrier of the mutation in the GJB2 gene. Totally, 20 pathological GJB2 alleles were detected; among them, a c.35delG mutation with the allelic frequency 81% prevails. Six most frequent mutations (c.35delG, c.313_326del14, c.23+1G>A (IVS1+1G>A), c.235delC, c.167delT, and p.Glu120del), which account for 95% of pathological GJB2 alleles, were detected. Mutations previously not described in the GJB2 gene (c.129delG, p.Gly200Arg, and c[Arg127His, Gly160Ser]) were found. An optimal algorithm of molecular testing of Russian patients which detects up to 100% of mutations in the GJB2 gene was suggested. Data concerning a clinical significance of p.Met34Thr and p.Val37Ile mutations are confirmed in the study. Eight polymorphic substitutions in the GJB2 gene which do not have clinical significance (p.Val27Ile, c.*3C>A, p.Val153Ile, p.Gly160Ser, c.Arg127His, p.Glu114Gly (c.341A>G), c.-45C>A, and p.Ala149Thr) were also detected.
 
Three common CFTR polymorphisms, 5T, M470V and R75Q, have been shown to be relatively frequent in Serbian patients with monosymptomatic CF disorders. Since there is a variation in distribution of common polymorphisms among different populations, it was important to compare their frequencies in patients with the frequencies in healthy population in order to assess the possible role of these polymorphisms in the monosymptomatic CF disorders. Samples obtained from 100 healthy Serbian individuals were analyzed for the presence of CFTR 5T, M470V and R75Q variants by PSM, RFLP and DGGE methods, respectively. Allele 5T was present in two individuals, giving the allelic frequency of 1% (2/200 alleles). The frequency obtained for allele M470 was 45% (90/200 alleles), while V470 allele was present with the frequency of 55% (110/200 alleles). Polymorphism R75Q was present in two individuals, with allelic frequency of 1% (2/200 alleles). Our study has shown that the frequencies of two common polymorphisms, 5T and M470V, differ significantly in Serbian population in comparison with other South European populations. Since it appears that Serbian population has a specific distribution of studied CFTR gene variants, it would also be interesting to analyze other common variants of this gene in our population. Such data can also be potentially useful as anthropogenetic markers in population studies.
 
Segregation by spike morphological characters and growth habit in the F 2 T. sinskajae × T. monococcum hybrids 
Ears of (a) T. sinskajae and (b) T. monococcum. 
Zymogram of aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase from seedling roots of diploid and hexaploid wheats. Lanes: (1-4) T. monococcum PI 306547; (5-8) T. monococcum K-20970; (9, 10) T. sinskajae; (11, 12, 19, 20) T. aestivum cultivar Novosibirskaya 20; (13-15) T. boeoticum K-25811; (16) T. urartu Ig-116196; (17, 18) T. urartu Ig-45296. 
Structure of the wheat nuclear Acc-1 gene. A nucleotide sequence alignment is shown for the zone containing the 46-bp deletion. T. mon, T. monococcum. 
The inheritance of several morphological and biochemical traits was studied in diploid (2n = 2x = 14) naked wheat Triticum sinskajae. The electrophoretic pattern of storage proteins (gliadins) of T. sinskajae differed only in two components from the pattern of T. monococcum accession k-20970, in a population of which T. sinskajae had been discovered. Analysis of biochemical polymorphisms revealed a difference between T. monococcum k-20970 and T. sinskajae in a slow 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase region but not in the other eight enzyme systems examined. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nuclear Acc-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) gene revealed a 46-bp deletion from intron 11 in T. monococcum k-20970 but not in T. sinskajae. This difference was not regarded as species-specific in view of the intraspecific polymorphism of the Acc-1 locus in T. monococcum. A monogenic control was demonstrated for the spring growth habit of T. sinskajae, and the monogenic control of the specific T. sinskajae ear shape was verified. The T. sinskajae ear shape is controlled by a recessive gene, while the T. monococcum ear shape is controlled by a dominant gene. The T. sinskajae ear shape, nakedness, soft glume, aristate glume, and the oblique brachium of the outer glume proved to be linked. The set of E. sin-skajae diagnostic characters is determined by a single (possibly, regulatory) gene or a set of closely linked genes. The two other genes specific to T. sinskajae-awnS, determining the awnlessness, and fig, determining the nonfissile inner (flower) glume--are, respectively, 1.35 +/- 0.98 and 3.34 +/- 1.54% of crossing over away from the mom gene, which determines the T. sinskajae ear shape.
 
The inhibiting effect of pheromone 2,5-dimethylpyrazine of house mouse females on the reproductive function of the CBA male mice was studied. The mutagenic effect of six-day pheromonal effect was assessed by dominant lethal test. Analysis for the frequency of dominant lethals showed that the pheromonal effect results in an increased death rate of the progeny of the treated males. This is probably explained by implantation failure and is expressed in a reduced average number of the implantation sites and low live embryos per female. The proportion of females with live embryos decreased significantly. The implication of the effect of female mouse pheromone 2,5-dimethylpyrazine on the genetic processes in germ cells of male mice is discussed.
 
Microphotographs of cell nuclei after electrophoresis. (a) Negative control; (b) cells treated with reaction buffer; (c) HpaIIItreated cells; (d) MspIItreated cells. Magnification ×100. Staining with SYBR Green I.  
DNA content in comet tails with and without treatment with restriction endonucleases 
Mean level of global methylation in lymphocyte culture in experiments with both mutagens. * Differences compared to level of methylation in control group before culturing (p < 0.05); ** differences compared to level of methylation in control group 25 h after culturing (p < 0.05).  
Data of level of global methylation in lymphocyte culture (experiment with dioxidine treatment) 
Data that support the evidence of mutagens known to cause epigenetic abnormalities that could potentially result in genomic instability and the development of cancer rather than to modifications in the human genome at the gene and chromosomal levels only. The level of global methylation in human lymphocytes in vitro caused by exposure to two mutagens with different mechanisms of action, i.e., dioxidine and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), was demonstrated in the present study. Global methylation was assessed by methyl-sensitive comet assay. An increase in the level of global methylation to 45.64% was revealed during culturing with dioxidine in a concentration of 0.01 mg/mL (p < 0.001), while the addition of dioxidine in a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL resulted in a decreased level of methylation up to 42.31% (p < 0.001). The addition of M MS in concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.01 mg/mL resulted in minor but significant modifications (p < 0.05) of the global methylation level ranged within natural variations in global methylation. Accordingly, the addition ofdioxidine in the concentration of 0.1 mg/mL might cause genomic instability and might be considered a potential carcinogen.
 
The hypothesis on a relationship between the high frequency of mitotic disturbances in bone marrow cells and the change in the activity of the S9 liver fraction containing promutagen-activating enzymes under olfactory stress in the house mouse Mus musculus has been tested. For this purpose, the effect of the pheromone 2,5-dimethylpyrazine on the frequency of mitotic disturbances in mouse bone marrow cells has been measured by the anaphase-telophase assay. The Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium has been employed to compare the capacities of the S9 liver fractions from stressed and intact mice for activating the promutagen 2-aminofluorene. It has been demonstrated that the increased frequency of mitotic disturbances in bone marrow cells induced by the pheromonal stressor in male house mice is accompanied by an increased promutagen-activating capacity of the S9 liver fraction. The model system used in the study allowed the genetic consequences of the exposure to the olfactory stressor to be estimated and the possible mechanisms of genome destabilization to be assumed.
 
The products of RTTPCR were separated on 1.0% agarose gel. Lane 1, GeneRuler™ SMO333 DNA Ladder marker; lane 2, amplification product. 
Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding SOD and amino acid sequence as one letter code below it. The start codon of translation is denoted in bracket and dash denotes the stop signal. Active site residues (Arg) are marked with bold rectangular and the residues His and Asp for copper/zinc binding sites are indicated with rectangular and hexagon and two cys residues for dimer interface are defined by circle. 
Multiple alignment of AlSOD amino acid sequence with SOD amino acid sequences from other plants. Sequences are aligned by the program CLUSTAL X. Asterisks indicate the identical amino acid residues, colons indicate amino acids that have high similarity, periods indicate amino acids that have low similarity, and dashes indicate gaps. 
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from molecular oxygen under biotic and abiotic stress such as salinity which have deleterious effects on cell metabolism. The toxic effect of ROS counteract by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a potential role for elimination of ROS. Halophytes respond to salt stress at different levels and can be a model for increasing salt tolerance in crop plants. Thus salt tolerance gene isolation and cloning of gene as well as subsequent transformation are first step for sensitive crop improvement. Aeluropus littoralis is a halophyte plant from poaceae family can be as a beneficial plant with high potential for creal breeding. There was no report on isolation of SOD gene from A. littoralis and little genomic study of this plant carried out. In this study a novel gene from A. littoralis isolated. This gene amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned in E. coli pTZ57R/T cloning vector. The AlSOD gene sequence contained 456 bp and the deduced transcripts encoding 152 amino acids shared a high homology with those putative CuZnSOD of higher plants like Zea mays and Oryza sativa.
 
Karyotypes of two African mouse species, Mus mahomet, 2n = 36, NFa = 34 (34A + XA + YA) and Mus sp. A, 2n = 34, NFa = 32 (32A + XA + YA), from five localities of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, were analyzed. In both species all autosomes contained C-positive pericentromeric blocks. In M. mahomet, heterochromatin blocks of different chromosomes varied in size. In addition, the X chromosomes of both species contained a pericentromeric block and showed more intensive staining throughout the chromosome. The Y chromosome was two times larger in Mus sp. A than in M. mahomet and C-positive in both species. Comparative analysis of G-banding patterns revealed a similarity with respect to nine autosomes and the X chromosome. Autosome 1 of Mus sp. A was demonstrated to result from centromere-telomere fusion of two M. mahomet acrocentrics. The other five autosomes represent different linkage groups determining a specificity of the karyotypes. The karyotypes of M. mahomet and Mus sp. A were also compared with that of M. musculus. The evolution of M. mahomet and Mus sp. A karyotypes was shown to have involved structural rearrangements in 10 and 12 autosomes, respectively. The high karyological divergence confirmed molecular phylogenetic data. The cytogenetic differences T of M. musculus C from M. mahomet and Mus sp. A are high enough to different genera.
 
Reversions of the mutable allele o2-hf leading to formation of the phenotypically normal kernels or whole endosperm revertants (WER) are studied in the plant ontogeny. The pattern of WER kernel distribution on the ear maps and analysis of their progeny showed that the reversion of the mutable allele o2-hf occurs at the late premeiotic stages of the ear development. Most of whole endosperm revertants on the ears homozygous for both the mutable allele o2-hf and regulatory element Bg-hf are grouped into clusters. The WER kernels are mostly formed during the period from the gamete fusion to the first division of the primary endosperm nucleus and are not embryo revertants. This clustering of revertant kernels seems to be caused by the joint effect of two factors on the early stages of endosperm development. These factors are (1) diffusion of an additional amount of transposase into the nearby Kernels from the developing endosperm, where the level of this enzyme is sufficient to induce excision of the receptor element and (2) the high proportion of the developing kernels with supra- and subthreshold levels of the Bg-hf-encoded transposase.
 
Using nine microsatellite loci, genetic diversity of small geographically isolated population of pedunculate oak Quercus robur L. (Fragaceae) was examined. The population was located outside of the species range in Bashkir Transuralia. Considerable temporal dynamics of allelic diversity, explained in terms of different effectiveness of gene flow in different years, was demonstrated.
 
The genesis of mini- and microsatellite loci, which is under extensive study in humans and some other bisexual species, have been virtually overlooked in species with clonal mode of reproduction. Earlier, using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we have examined variability of some mini- and microsatellite DNA markers in parthenogenetic lizards from the genus Darevskia. In particular, mutant (GATA)n-restrictive DNA fragments were found in Darevskia unisexualis. In the present study, we examined intraspecific polymorphism of three cloned loci of D. unisexualis--Du323, Du215, and Du281--containing (GATA)7GAT(GATA)2, GAT(GATA)9, and (GATA)10TA(GATA) microsatellite clusters, respectively. Different levels of intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of these loci were found. Locus Du281 showed the highest polymorphism--six allelic variants (in the sample of 68 DNA specimens). Three alleles were found for locus Du215. The Du325 locus was electrophoretically invariant. The primers chosen for loci Du323, Du215, and Du281 were also used for PCR analysis of homologous loci in two presumptive parental bisexual species, D. valentini and D. nairensis. The PCR products of the corresponding loci of the parental species had approximately the same size (approximately 200 bp) as their counterparts in D. unisexualis, but the polymorphism levels of the paternal, maternal, and hybrid species were shown to be somewhat different. These data on the structure of the D. unisexualis loci provide a possibility to study genetic diversity in the parthenogenetic species D. unisexualis and other related unisexual and bisexual species of this genus, which can provide new information on the origin of parthenogenetic species and on the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Darevskia. These data can also be used for resolving problems of marking the lizard genome, which is still poorly studied.
 
Chromosome banding patterns of Allium cepa L. were obtained by using fluorochrome combinations chromomycin A3 (CMA) + 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), DAPI + actinomycin D (AMD) and propidium iodide (PI) + DAPI. In A. cepa, telomeric heterochromatin displayed dull fluorescence after staining with DAPI and DAPI/AMD. After staining with the GC-specific CMA and AT-specific DAPI, the CMA-positive fluorescence of the NOR region and the telomeric bands of C-heterochromatin was observed. In combination with DAPI, PI, a dye with low AT/GC specificity, produced almost uniform fluorescence of chromosomal arms and heterochromatin, whereas the NOR-adjoining regions displayed bright fluorescence. Denaturation of chromosomal DNA (95 degrees C for 1-3 min) followed by renaturation in the 2 x SSC buffer (37 degrees C, 12 h) altered the chromosome fluorescence patterns: specific PI-positive bands appeared and the contrast of CMA-banding increased. Bright fluorescence of the NOR and adjoining regions was also observed in the case. Three-minute denaturation led also to a bright PI-positive fluorescence of telomeric heterochromatin. The denaturation of chromosomal DNA before staining results in changes of the DAPI fluorescence pattern and in the appearance of DAPI fluorescence in GR-rich NOP regions. The mechanisms underlying the effects of denaturation/renaturation procedures on chromosome banding patterns obtained with different fluorochromes are discussed.
 
Schematic presentation of the Sysert' site. a, meadow; b, pine forest; c, fallow land; d, soil roads; e, sampling sites in 2006.  
Indices of genetic variation in the samples Sampling site N Variation indices H o ± SE H e ± SE* F P 95% N a N e
The 66Pgdh and Est allele frequencies in the samples trapped in 2006, in the Sysert' site
Variation of 17 allozyme loci was examined in 530 Apodemus uralensis individuals caught in the Ural region from 2005 to 2007. In the populations examined, the mean value of the genetic differentiation index F ST constituted 0.169. It was demonstrated that F ST values for the samples obtained from the 1-km2 plot in different years, as well as for the samples trapped at a distance from 0.3 to 5 km during one year, could be remarkably higher than the mean value, pointing to their high, statistically significant differentiation. It seems likely that this differentiation was caused by spatial population subdivision, associated with the mice migrations, temporal change of the population structure, and the gene drift. Population of A. uralensis from radioactively contaminated zone displayed no specificities in the allozyme set and frequencies, which could basically distinguish these animals from the other Ural populations.
 
Reconstruction of species inhabiting refugia (I-VII) 
According to genetic data, North European freshwater areas were colonized from refugia along the eastern Atlantic coast, in southern and eastern areas of Baltic Sea, in Siberia, North America, and areas of the Caspian and Black seas. Probably, a refugium also existed in Southern Norway. Colonization from the sea also took place. The taxonomic position of some forms, such as members of the complex groups of Arctic chars and coregonids, was refined in the course of combined studies including morphological analysis and molecular markers.
 
The genome of aquatic animals is poorly understood and information from different taxonomic groups is sketchy. While there have been intensive genomic studies on some fish models, investigations on other fishes and invertebrates have been scarce. Yet there are recently some coordinated studies on genome mapping in a number of aquaculture animals of economic importance. This review summarizes information available on genome mapping of the important fish models and aquaculture animals. The future perspectives of this field of studies are discussed.
 
(Contd.)
Primary and secondary structure of the bluegrass 5.8S rRNA and its changes during Poa divergence. See text for explanaa tions.  
The involvement of present-day diploid bluegrass species in the formation of polyploid genomes was investigated using comparison of sequences of internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2, and the 5.8S rDNA sequence. It was demonstrated that highly polyploid New Zealand bluegrasses, P. cita (2n = 84; ca. 96 to 100), P. chathamica (2n = 112), and P. litorosa (2n = 263 to 266) formed separate highly supported clade together with tetraploids (2n = 28) P. intrusa, P. anceps, and P. trioides (Austrofestuca littoralis). Among the diploid species (2n = 14), the closest relatives of these species, as well as of the polyploid species of section Poa, are the genomes of Eurasian species P. remota, P. chaixcii (sect. Homalopoa), P densa (Bolbophorum), and P. sibirica (sect. Macropoa). Nuclear genomes of polyploid Stenopoa, Tichopoa, Oreinos, and Secundae are definitely related to the genome of Arctic species P. pseudabbreviata (sect. Abbreviatae). On the contrary, judging by the genes for nuclear 45S rRNA, genomes of diploid P. trivialis (sect. Pandemos), P. annua, and P. supina (sect. Ochlopoa both) are only remotely related to the genomes of highly polyploid species (distances p between them and other bluegrass species from different sections of subgenus Poa constitute 6-10% and 11-15%, respectively). The conclusion on the relationships between highly polyploid and diploid bluegrass species was tested using analysis of synapomorphic mutations in the 5.8S rRNA gene. It was demonstrated that genomes of Poa eminens (2n = 42) and P. schischkinii (2n = 70) (sect. Arctopoa both) were noticeably different in ITS regions from the genomes of the members of the type subgenus Poa. A comparison of the Arctopoa ITS regions showed that the differences between them constituted only 0.2%. At the same time, p distances between the Arctopoa ITS and those from the species belonging to other sections of the genus Poa varied from 5 to 14%. South American species P chonotica (sect. Andinae) (=Ncoraepoa chonotica) (2n = 42) was found to be related to Arctagrostis, Festucella, and Hookerochloa, being at the same time quite distant from the other species of the genus Poa. Polymorphic in chromosome number highly polyploid species of Northern Hemisphere, P. arctica (2n = 42 to 106), P. turneri (2n = 42, 63 to 64), and P. smirnovii (2n = 42, 70) (sect. Malacanthae) are relative to a large group of tetraploid (2n = 28) endemic bluegrass species from New Zealand and sub-Antarctic islands (P. novae-zelandiae and allied species).
 
Quantitative traits measured on floral parts of Iris pumila plants: 1 , Stem length (SL); 2 , Length of first spathe (LIS); 3 , Length of second spathe (LIIS); 4 , Ovary length (OL); 5 , Ovary width (OW); 6 , Tube length (TL); 7 , Tube radius (TR); 8 , Fall length (FL); 9 , Beard length (BL); 10 , Fall width (FW); 11 , Standard length (SL); 12 , Standard width (SW); 13 , Stigma length (SML); 14 , Crest length (CL); 15 , Crest width (CW); 16 , Stamen length (STL); 17 , Anther length (AL).  
Results of MANOVA performed on 22 quantitative traits measured on reciprocal transplants from two Iris pumila populations (Hillock and Woodland) monitored in three years
Mean scores of different locality/population/year combinations on first two axes from Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) performed on 22 Iris pumila quantitative traits. H – Hillock site; W – Woodland site; h – Hillock population; w – Woodland population; 92, 93, 94 – years.  
Response to environmental heterogeneity caused by human activity was analyzed on Iris pumila reciprocal transplants between native steppe and anthropogenic (planted pine forest) habitats that were monitored during several growing seasons in a protected area of Deliblato Sand. Morphometric traits exhibited significant plastic responses to the environmental variability between native and anthropogenic habitats that differed in light quantity and quality, as well as in some other ecological indices. Significant differentiation between populations occupying those habitats was also detected. Plastic responses and population differences were substantially related to the variation in general size and had the same direction, plastic responses being larger in magnitude. Estimates of reproductive and vegetative performance of reciprocal transplants detected home site advantage in the native open but not in the secondary shade habitat created under anthropogenic influence.
 
Integrated NJ/ME tree of the cyt b haplotypes of the European Sorex species. In the nodes are support values (bootstrap indices) for the NJ and ME trees, respectively. The values equel to 100 are not presented. The scale at the bottom shows the scope of genetic divergence (T3P). 
Using the data of karyological analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini and the cryptic species of superspecies Sorer araneus were examined. In the population of Sorex satunini from the plain of North Ciscaucasia two deeply radiated cytochrome b genes (A and B) were identified. Genetic distance between haplotype A and B groups constituted 0.0675 +/- 0.008, which is higher than any distance in superspecies S. araneus. Possible introgression of type B haplotypes from the populations of the evolutionary lineage S. subaraneus--S. araneus in Pleistocene and the time of the appearance of the chromosomal polymorphism of S. araneus is discussed. Our results show that the use of only one mitochondrial marker can lead to false conclusions on taxonomic diversity
 
Genetics and breeding studies require effective methods for polymorphism analysis that allow one to classify varieties and to determine phylogenetic interactions between plant species. A variant of the polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification with arbitrary primers (RAPD) was used to determine genetic distances between Hordeum vulgare varieties and to integrate of the varieties into groups. The dendrogram of relations between species from the genus Hordeum and species of some cultivated cereals was constructed on the basis of RAPD analysis.
 
UPGMA dendrogram of genetic similarity of the sockeye populations inferred from the RAPD data.  
F ST coefficients for each microsatellite locus and for all loci in the sockeye populations from West Kamchatka Locus F ST
F ST coefficients calculated for each population pair over all microsatellite loci
Using two types of molecular markers, a comparative analysis of the population structure of sockeye salmon from West Kamchatka as well as population assignment of each individual fish were carried out. The values of a RAPD-PCR-based population assignment test (94-100%) were somewhat higher than those based on microsatellite data (74-84%). However, these results seem quite satisfactory because of high polymorphism of the microsatellite loci examined. The UPGMA dendrograms of genetic similarity of three largest spawning populations, constructed using each of the methods, were highly reliable, which was demonstrated by high bootstrap indices (100% in the case of RAPD-PCR; 84 and 100%, in the case of microsatellite analysis), though the resultant trees differed from one another. The different topology of the trees, in our view, is explained by the fact that the employed methods explored different parts of the genome; hence, the obtained results, albeit valid, may not correlate. Thus, to enhance reliability of the results, several methods of analysis should be used concurrently.
 
The ancestral sequences of ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2 of Avena based on comparative analysis of these sequences in Aveneae. The secondary RNA structure was constructed using the GArna program [49]. In the ITS2 diagram, evolutionarily conserved "hairpins" are designated as 2A-2D. In 5.8S rRNA, arrows mark 5-nucleotide unpaired motif 5'-AAGAA-3' [50] and 14-nucleotide motif 5'-GAATTGCAGAATC-3' [51], which is conserved in flowered plants. The 3'-terminal region of 5.8S rRNA is complementary to the 5' end of 26S rRNA (shown in lowercase letters). 
List of species examined, their genomic configuration, and origin 
Phylogenetic tree reflecting the divergence of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences in the tribe Aveneae and some members of the tribe Poeae. Numerals give bootstrap values. 
The level of differences between sequences ITS1 and ITS2 in species from the genus Avena (p-distance, %) 
The karyotype evolution at the early divergence stages of the Avena with the A and C genomes. The circled numerals indicate the number of transversions; the boxed numerals, the number of transitions; the numberal in triangles, the indel number. 4X, tetraploidization event. 
To examine the genomic structure of Avena macrostachya, internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2, as well as nuclear 5.8S tRNA genes from three oat species with AsAs karyotype (A. wiestii, A. hirtula, and A. atlantica), and those from A. longiglumis (AlAl), A. canariensis (AcAc), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. pilosa, and A. clauda (CpCp) were sequenced. All species of the genus Avena examined represented a monophyletic group (bootstrap index = 98), within which two branches, i.e., species with A- and C-genomes, were distinguished (bootstrap indices = 100). The subject of our study, A. macrostachya, albeit belonging to the phylogenetic branch of C-genome oat species (karyotype with submetacentic and subacrocentric chromosomes), has preserved an isobrachyal karyotype, (i.e., that containing metacentric chromosomes), probably typical of the common Avena ancestor. It was suggested to classify the A. macrostachya genome as a specific form of C-genome, Cm-genome. Among the species from other genera studied, Arrhenatherum elatius was found to be the closest to Avena in ITS1 and ITS structure. Phylogenetic relationships between Avena and Helictotrichon remain intriguingly uncertain. The HPR389153 sequence from H. pratense genome was closest to the ITS1 sequences specific to the Avena A-genomes (p-distance = 0.0237), while the differences of this sequence from the ITS1 of A. macrostachya reached 0.1221. On the other hand, HAD389117 from H. adsurgens was close to the ITS1 specific to Avena C-genomes (p-distance = 0.0189), while its differences from the A-genome specific ITS1 sequences reached 0.1221. It seems likely that the appearance of highly polyploid (2n = 12-21x) species of H. pratense and H. adsurgens could be associated with interspecific hybridization involving Mediterranean oat species carrying A- and C-genomes. A hypothesis on the pathways of Avena chromosomes evolution during the early stages the oat species divergence is proposed.
 
Schematic diagram illustrating the origin, evolution, and structure of element B1 and related SINEs in rodents. Retropseudogene 7SL RNA carrying a 182-bp deletion appeared in the common ancestor of rodents, primates, and tree shrews, which yielded element pB1. A subsequent loss of a specific region of 7, 9, or 10 bp in size generated novel pB1 families. A tandem duplication of a 29-bp region produced the canonical B1 element known in the Mus musculuc and Rattus norvegicus genomes. The formation of a 20-bp tandem duplication in the pB1d10 element preceded the appearance of dimeric SINEs B1-dID and MEN. ID is the tRNArelated SINE that formed these dimeric SINEs through fusion with B1. A 19-bp deletion is characteristic of the dID sequences. Boxes A and B of RNA polymerase III promoter are hatched. Regions of tandem duplications are shown in gray and point shading. 
A large-scale study of short retroposon (SINE) B1 has been conducted in the genome of rodents from most of the known families of this mammalian order. The B1 nucleotide sequences of rodents from different families exhibited a number of characteristic features including substitutions, deletions, and tandem duplications. Comparing the distribution of these features among the rodent families, the currently discussed phylogenetic relationships were tested. The results of analysis indicated (1) an early divergence of Sciuridae and related families (Aplodontidae and Gliridae) from the other rodents; (2) a possible subsequent divergence of beavers (Castoridae); (3) a monophyletic origin of the group Hystricognathi, which includes several families, such as porcupines (Hystricidae) and guinea pigs (Caviidae); (4) a possible monophyletic origin of the group formed by the remaining families, including six families of mouselike rodents (Myodonta). Various approaches to the use of short retroposons for phylogenetic studies are discussed.
 
Bivalve mollusks of the genus Mytilus (M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis) occurring in Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan were first studied in Russia. A region of nonrepetitive sequences of the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein bissus was used as a species-specific genetic marker. After amplification using specific primers, a 126-bp fragment was found to amplify in all representatives of M. galloprovincialis collected from driftwood in the gulf Posset (the southwestern part of Peter the Great Bay). M. trossulus specimens from the same region were shown to have a 168-bp fragment. In Vostok Gulf (the eastern part of Peter the Great Bay), both artificially grown mussels and those from natural habitats contained a 168-bp fragment or two fragments (126- and 168-bp) that corresponded to a hybrid form between the above species. The possibility of using this genetic marker to identify closely related Mytilus strains and their hybrids in similar habitats, near the Primorye coast in particular, was demonstrated. The presence of approximately 9% of hybrid specimens confirms that a zone of hybridization between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis may exist in this region.
 
A modifier of the Bg autonomous element of the Bg-rbg system of transposable elements has been found in the genotype of the inbred maize strain 346. In the presence of this modifier (termed Mbg), the frequency of reversion of mutable allele o2-lf in combination with the Bg-lf element increases by 7-24 times. An increase in the Mbg dosage by three times increases the o2-lf reversion frequency by a factor of about two. The presence of Mbg and Bg-lf in the same genotype before meiosis is necessary for the expression of the Mbg modifying effect. The possible nature and mechanism of action of the novel modifier are discussed.
 
(Contd.) 
(Contd.) 
Allele frequencies at 24 loci examined in eight mussel species (Mollusca: Mytilidae) 
A consensus phylogeny of the Mytilidae species examined. The dotted line shows the position of M. edulis estimated from literature data. 
In 1978 and 1999, seven and eight species of Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Mean heterozygosity per individual (Hobs and Hexp) and genetic distances (Rogers' DR, Nei's DN, and others) were estimated for 21 and 24 allozyme loci. Mytilus modiolus had the highest variation among the species examined. Genetic distances were lowest for the M. trossulus-M. galloprovincialis species pair: DR = 0.147, DN = 0.078. Overall, five species of the genera Mytilus and Crenomytilus were genetically closer to each other (DR = 0.147, DN = 0.078) than to the remaining three species of this group (DR = 0.807, DN = 2.243). The relationships among the species were examined using cluster analysis and parsimony methods. The densest clusters in the dendrograms consisted of (1) M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis and (2) M. coruscus, M. californianus, and M. grayanus. These two clusters form a larger cluster (3), which comprises all representatives of the nominal genus Mutilus and C. grayanus. The Mytilus-Crenomytilus cluster is consecutively joined by Adula falcatoides, Mytilus modiolus, and Septifer keenae. According to Nei's genetic distances DN, the time of divergence between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis is 0.8-1.6 Myr; between M. californianus and C. grayanus, it is approximately 9 Myr; and between M. coruscus and the latter pair, it is 13 Myr before present. Two representatives of the Mytilus ex gr. edulis complex diverged from the Mytilus-Crenomytilus group of large-size Pacific species about 20 Myr ago. These results are in good agreement with paleontological data and indicate a relatively recent origin of the Mytilus ex gr. edulis complex. The results obtained can be used in systematics and phylogeny of modern Mytilidae.
 
Analyses of mutant gene frequencies have been completed for the domestic cat populations of cities Kholmsk and Juzhno-Sakhalinsk (Sakhalin isles). Mutant allele frequencies reported here differ from these of other Soviet Union populations of the tb and d loci. It is suggested that Sakhalin populations were influenced by domestic cat populations from East Asia. The genetic profile of the domestic cat of Sakhalin shows the close relationship with China populations. Furthermore, the results of the present study are very similar to those previously reported for Vladivostok and Khabarovsk. These similarity, perhaps, may be depend on their settlement history.
 
Allele and genotype heterogeneity in the different-age samples of the maternal trees and their seed embryos and allele heterogeneity of the paternal pool of gametes upon among-sample and pairwise comparisons in the Donbass chalk pine population Locus Heterogeneity among all samples Heterogeneity among age groups of plants old-middle-age old-young middle-age-young 
Wright's F-statistics and Nei's G-statistics for the different-age samples of the maternal trees and their seed embry- os from the Donbass chalk pine population Locus F IS F ST G ST 
Based on analysis of variation at ten allozyme loci in three age groups (25–35, 40–80, and more than 100 years of age) of plants and in seed embryos, demographic dynamics of the gene pools was studied in a small (60.5 ha) isolated relict population of chalk pine Pinus sylvestris var. cretacea Kalenicz. ex Kom. from the steppe zone of Ukraine. The observed grenotype proportions in these tree groups were shown to fit Hardy-Weinberg expectations, while in the embryos of their seeds, an excess of homozygotes was observed at five to nine loci. The mean observed heterozygosity in the sample of old (>100 years of age) trees (H O = 0.225) was substantially lower than in trees of the two other age groups (H O = 0.307; 0.311), but significantly higher than in the corresponding embryo samples (H O = 0.183–0.207). No allele and genotype heterogeneity of the maternal trees and embryos of their seeds was found. However, heterogeneity was high when the progeny of trees of different ages, particularly in pairs with old trees, were compared.
 
Main pathways of stress response of the animal organism (after [5]). ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone. 
Frequencies of reproductively and immunologically significant changes in male mice after pheromonal treatment ( P < 0.05%). UV, urea volatiles; DMP, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine; AFC, antibody-forming cells; MI and MII, metaphases of meiosis I and II, respectively. 
The review considers stress as a physiological state of the organism, affecting the cellular, genomic, and population levels. Literature data and cytogenetic studies by the author support basic statements of the physiological hypothesis of mutation, which was advanced as early as in the 1940s. Studies of pheromonal effects in germline and somatic cells of the house mouse demonstrated the role of olfactory stressors in generating genetic variation in microevolutionary changes.
 
Comparison of 19 morphometric traits (abbreviations are given in text) between flower buds from clones inhabiting open and shaded habitats in three time points (I, II, III) separated by three day periods. Mean values, P 
Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability and population differentiation of flower morphometric traits on dwarf bearded iris Iris pumila. Also, study of I. pumila flowering phenology revealed significant impact of habitat type as well as population differentiation for flowering time. Since the flowering time can influence other flower traits, we performed this analysis of flower morphometric traits in three time points during the flower bud ontogenic development in two habitat types (open vs. shaded). Analysis revealed that for most of the traits greater trait values were recorded for open habitat but only on latter time points. For most of the analyzed traits direction of differences in bud stage was the opposite to the direction of differences in mature flower stage detected in previous studies. However, length of the stem, a trait that showed the greatest variability between habitats and populations and therefore greatest genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity, was significantly greater in the samples from the late flowering shaded habitat in all time samples, indicating that in case of this trait different mechanisms were involved. Those findings have implications for design of the future studies on I. pumila.
 
Map with collections sites indicated. The sites where individuals under study were fished in the Japanese and Bering seas are encircled.
Species under study with their voucher identification numbers, GenBank accession numbers, and collection sites
Oneefactor analysis of variance of pdistances based on the Coo1 nucleotide sequences for several hierarchic levels. Mean values were obtained from the triangular matrix of pdistances (Appendix) for each of the groups.  
Twoofactor analysis of variance of the nucleotide composition in groups I (original sequences) and II (Genn Bank sequences).  
A total of 95 nucleotide sequences of a Co-1 gene fragment of approximately 650 bp were analyzed for fishes of the orders Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes (outgroup). Gene trees based on four algorithms (BA, NJ, MP, and ML) were similar in topology of solved branches. An emphasis was placed on the species and generic levels, but a significant phylogenetic signal was obtained for higher taxonomic ranks as well. For instance, a monophyletic origin was confirmed for the family Zoarcidae and the subfamily Opisthocentrinae (Stichaeidae). The proportion of different nucleotides in the sequences compared (p-distances) significantly increased with increasing taxonomic rank. The p-distances were estimated for four hierarchic levels and were (1) 0.15 0.06% for the within-species hierarchic level, (2) 6.33 0.37% for the within-genus level, (3) 11.83 0.06% for the within-family level, and (4) 15.22 0.05% for the within-order level. The difference in the Co-1 gene fragments between levels (1) and (2) allows almost errorless species identification on the basis of this kind of a molecular bar code.
 
The probability for Aa heterozygous offspring to have a brown coat color as dependent on the parental phenotype 
The relationship between the parental coat color and the expression of the transitional coat color in the offspring 
Based on the ecological features of the mole vole, family analysis of the inheritance of coat color was performed with the use of material collected in a wild population. Analysis of coat color in parents and offspring has demonstrated that the offspring segregation into black and nonblack animals after crosses of different types agrees with the hypothesis on the monogenic inheritance of these color variations. Black mole voles are homozygous for the recessive allele (genotype aa). Homozygotes for the dominant allele (AA) are brown. Heterozygotes (Aa) may be brown or have transitional color. The mean frequency of brown coat color in heterozygotes is 0.509 and is very variable. The higher the color intensity in black elements of parent coat color, the more is the offspring coat color saturated with these elements.
 
Using the data on complete sequences of cytochrome b gene, phylogenetic relationships were studied among the Stenocephalemys s. lat. (Stenocephalemys ssp. + Praomys albipes) murine rodents, inhabiting adjacent altitudinal belts of the isolated Ethiopian mountain massifs, and among the related Praomys s. lat. species. Extremely low resolution of the relationships among the main Praomys s. lat. lineages hampered identification of the nearest sister group for the Stenocephalemys s. lat. "Ethiopian" clade, monophyly of which was strongly supported. Sister relationships between P. albipes and S. griseicauda (implying "accelerated" morphological and chromosomal evolution upon the formation of the former species), as well as between S. albocaudata and the recently described novel chromosomal form of Stenocephalemus sp. A (2n = 50; NFa = 56) were demonstrated. Definite discordance between the rates of their molecular, chromosomal, and morphological evolution was revealed. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions and the estimates of the divergence time, obtained by use of molecular clock method, an attempt to draw a phylogenetic scenario for the group examined was made. The obtained data were compared to those for analogous Sigmodontinae species complexes, distributed across a marked altitudinal gradient on the Andean slopes. It was shown that molecular genetic data on the rodents from mountain tropics did not support the gradient model of diversification, based on the possibility of morphological diversification prior to their achievement of the species status (without interruption of the gene flow between the forms) due to differently directed selection across a strong environmental gradient.
 
Plants from Open and Shade habitats in two natural populations (Vrsac and Avala) were grown in two densities (High and Low). As expected, density had significant effect on most of measured traits and that effect was concordant with Shade avoidance syndrome predictions. Genetic differences between populations both in mean trait values and in plastic responses to density were also detected. Number of leaves and flowers showed plasticity in Avala population only, while shoot weight was plastic in both populations but with greater plasticity in Avala population. Differences between habitats for plant height and number of internodes were present in Vrsac population only. Habitat difference in response to density was revealed for seed weight and it was due to lack of response in plants originated from Shade habitat in Vrsac population. This study showed that not only populations, but also subpopulations occupying different habitats can differ genetically in their plastic response to density, and that between habitat differences can be population-specific.
 
Genetic origin and allelic composition of SSR loci in pear accessions examined
Dendrogram of relationships among 52 pear accessions based on Dice coefficient according to the data of SSR analysis.  
Statistical characteristics of SSR loci
Using five SSR markers, polymorphism ofmicrosatellite loci was examined in 46 cultivars and five species of pear (Pyrus ussuriensis, P. bretscgneideri, P. pyraster, and P. elaegnifolia). Most of the accessions examined demonstrated the presence of unique allele sets. The degree of relationship between Russian and Western European pear cultivar was established. It was demonstrated that P. ussuriensis and its first generation progeny were genetically distant from typical cultivars of P. communis, as well as from the P. communis x P. ussuriensis hybrids of later generations. SSR estimates of the cultivar relatedness were shown to correlate with the corresponding pedigree-based estimates. A number of SSR alleles specific to P. ussuriensis were identified. Based on the analysis of microsatellite loci, the allelic composition was determined for each cultivar examined. These data can serve as a molecular certificate of the cultivar.
 
The inheritance of the spring habit was studied in 63 old local cultivars and landraces of common wheat from Eastern and Western Siberia and the Tyva Republic. Minimal polymorphism was observed for the dominant Vrn genes, controlling the spring habit in landraces of these regions. The control was digenic and involved the Vrnl and Vrn2 dominant genes in the majority (95%) of cultivars and was monogenic in three cultivars. None of the cultivars had the Vrn3 dominant gene, characteristic of the neighboring regions of China and Central Asia. Among 137 old local cultivars and landraces of Siberia, only one (cultivar Sibirskaya (k-23347) from Irkutsk oblast, was comparable in the response to the natural short day (photoperiod) to Chinese cultivars. Comparison of the results and the data reported for commercial cultivars revealed that the genotype frequencies of the dominant Vrn genes in Siberian landraces and commercial cultivars of common wheat remained essentially unchanged at least for the past 100 years. At the same time, Siberian landraces significantly differed in Vrn dominant gene frequencies from cultivars of the adjacent regions. It was assumed that the control of the spring habit by the two Vrn dominant genes is optimal for the climatic conditions of Siberia.
 
Cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene was sequenced for six flatfish species and compared with seven other species belonging to Pleuronectiformes. Monophyly of the family Pleuronectidae representatives was fine supported by bootstrap or other means in several sequence-based trees on Cyt-b gene data. Results revealed that synonymy must be accepted for Hippoglossoides elassodon, and H. robustus, as well as for Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, and P. schrenki.
 
Young male CBA/LacStoRap mice for 2 h were exposed to pheromones that are transferred by major urinary proteins of sexually mature males of the same line. The treatment was conducted using either a complete set of the major urinary proteins typical of the CBA mice or incomplete set of protein fractions detected in some animals. The effect of pheromones was estimated 24 h after treatment by cytogenetic analysis for disturbances in dividing bone marrow cells at anaphase--telophase and in germ cells at metaphase I. The frequency of both mitotic and meiotic disturbances was significantly increased after exposure to pheromones associated with the complete spectrum of the major urinary proteins. Conversely, no cytogenetic effect was observed in the absence of particular protein fractions. Possible consequences of the pheromonal effect on the genomes of somatic and germ cells are discussed as well as the relationships between pheromones and the major urinary proteins.
 
Blot-hybridization analysis with the use of the t-specific probe D17Leh66 has been used to study DNA of various representatives of family Muridae. Hamsters from genus Phodopus have no homologs of this probe, whereas African rats from genus Lophuromys have some homologous elements. This indicates that sequence Dl7Leh66 is ancient and was probably present in the common ancestor of family Muridae.
 
mtDNA time tree of salmonids
Phylogenetic relationships among 41 species of salmonid fish and some aspects of their diversification-time history were studied using the GenBank and original mtDNA data. The position of the root of the Salmonidae phylogenetic tree was uncertain. Among the possible variants, the most reasonable seems to be that in which thymallins are grouped into the same clade as coregonins and the lineage of salmonins occupied a basal position relative to this clade. The genera of Salmoninae formed two distinct clades, i.e., (Brachymystax, Hucho) and (Salmo, Parahucho, (Salvelinus, (Parasalmo,Oncorhynchus))). Furthermore, the genera Parasalmo and Oncorhynchus were reciprocally monophyletic. The congruence of Salmonidae phylogenetic trees obtained using different types of phylogenetic markers is discussed. According to Bayesian dating, ancestral lineages of salmonids and their sister esocids radiated about 106 million years ago. Sometime after, probably 100-70 million years ago, the salmonid-specific whole genome duplication took place. The divergence of salmonid lineages on the genus level occurred much later, within the time interval of 42-20 million years ago. The main wave of the diversification of salmonids at the species level occurred during the last 12 million years. The possible effect of genome duplication on the Salmonidae diversification pattern is discussed.
 
Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among 18 samples of house mice constructed by neighbor-joining method from a squared chord distance matrix of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards (21 allozyme loci). 
List of sampling localities of house mice 
Positions of centroids of 18 samples of house mice in the first three principal coordinates calculated from the squared chord distance matrix of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards (21 allozyme loci). The minimum spanning tree connecting the centroids is shown in bold lines. 
Putative evolution of the allele pool of house mouse forms from the species complex M. musculus. Evolutionary losses of ancestral alleles by house mouse forms are shown by solid rectangles; the appearance of new alleles in distinct commensal forms and in their common ancestor, by open rectangles. See text for details. 
Observed and expected numbers of heterozygous genotypes at six diagnostic loci in the population of house mice from western and eastern Transcaucasia 
We analyzed our results and literature evidence on variability of nuclear protein genes in 39 populations of eight synanthropic and wild species of house mice (superspecies complexes Mus musculus and M. spicilegus) from Transcaucasia, Eastern and Western Europe, Near and Middle East, Central, South, and East Asia, and Cuba. These data were for the first time ever combined into a single database by unification of nomenclature of 21 loci examined by different authors in 39 populations. Analysis of geographical allele distribution have shown that populations of domestic Transcaucasian mice are close to Indo-Pakistani populations of form oriental of the species M. castaneus, which preserved a high level of ancestral polymorphism. We concluded that a very heterogeneous, rich gene pool of house mice from Transcaucasia could not develop only by secondary contacts of differentiated M. musculus s. str. and M. domesticus forms, since it is similar to the ancestral gene pool of the superspecies complexes M. musculus and M. spicilegus. In this context, unique characteristics of some Central Asian populations were examined; these populations may have served as a "transit station" in the dispersal of synanthropic house mice forms. We suggest that the Transcaucasian populations are genealogically closely related to an early Near East form of M. musculus, which, as M. domesticus and M. castaneus, split from the common ancestor and preserved nondifferentiated pool of ancestral alleles of protein genes. This hypothesis admits the involvement of differentiated species M. musculus s. str. and M. domesticus in the ultimate formation of the gene pool of Transcaucasian house mice. Apparently, these populations resulted from alternation and (or) "overlapping" of different evolutionary processes. A scenario suggesting that hybrid events having occurred in Transcaucasia at different times, were "superposed" on the gene pool of the ancient autochtonous population of house mice from this region seems most plausible. Analysis of allozyme variability in the modern Transcaucasian Mus populations could not always distinguish between ancestral polymorphism and hybridization consequences.
 
Mature laboratory male mice CBA, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and hybrids CBAB6F1 were exposed for 2 or 24 h to vapors of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP), which is a pheromone of the house mouse. This caused changes in the content of noradrenaline within the nerve fibers of both nasal mucosa and vascular testis tunic and an inhibition of leukocyte migration in the peripheral blood. Intrastrain distinctions were also revealed in the level of spontaneous leukocyte migration and intensity of the response to the DMP. The mechanisms underlying these effects and their possible adaptive significance are discussed.
 
I analyzed variability of early life survival on 881 Iris pumila juvenile plants in their prereproductive period. Seedlings were produced by applying half-sib mating scheme on clones originating from two Deliblato Sand populations that were accommodated to common garden conditions. Nineteen clones served as pollen donors (sires), and the other 90 clones served as pollen recipients (dames). Seedlings were grown in two nutrient levels (full strength and 1/10 of full-strength Hoagland solution). While I failed to detect significant mean nutrient level effect as well as significant between population differentiation for prereproductive survival, a statistically significant additive genetic variability for this ultimate prereproductive measure of fitness was detected.
 
Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.) is a dioecious plant and a suitable model for studying the XX/XY1Y2 system of sex chromosomes. To develop a sex-specific marker, 12 RAPD and 36 ISSR markers were analyzed on the basis of pools of male and female plants identified after flowering. We were the first to identify ISSR marker K-16, which manifested stable amplification of an approximately 300-bp fragment in male plants and the absence of amplification in female plants in the populations examined. Marker effectiveness was confirmed in several Japanese hop populations of different origin.
 
Oviposition food preference in substrains of D. melanogaster strain 95
To determine biologically important effects of the cytoplasmic endosymbiont Wolbachia, two substrains of the same Drosophila melanogaster strain have been studied, one of them infected with Wolbachia and the other treated with tetracycline to eliminate the bacterium. Females of D. melanogaster infected with Wolbachia are more resistant to the fungus Blauveria bassiana (an insect pathogen) than uninfected females; infected females also exhibited changes in oviposition substrate preference. Males infected with the bacterium are more competitive than uninfected males. The possible role of Wolbachia in the formation of alternative ecological strategies of D. melanogaster is discussed.
 
A simple and rapid method for detecting the 1069Gln mutation in gene ATP7B based on a PCR specific for this allele has been developed. The 1069Gln mutation is the main cause of Wilson disease (WD) in Russia and accounts for approximately 40% of all mutant alleles of gene ATP7B. Therefore, the method proposed makes the postnatal and prenatal diagnosis of Wilson disease in Russia considerably more rapid and less expensive.
 
The results of comprehensive clinical examination and molecular cytogenetic analysis of a patient carrying chromosome 3p+ in 69% of the peripheral blood lymphocytes are presented. Using microdissection of the metaphase chromosomes followed by DOP–PCR, a DNA library specific for the abnormal chromosome was obtained. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of this DNA library on chromosomes from the patient and a healthy donor, the aberrant chromosome was identified as der(3)t(3;10)(p25;q24.3). Since this chromosome was present in only a proportion of patient's cells studied and no chromosome aberrations were revealed in cells of his parents, the der(3)t(3;10) is suggested to appear de novo. The cells carrying der(3)t(3;10) are monosomic for a proportion of 3p25 and trisomic for 10q24.3 qter. The developmental malformations revealed in the patient, such as the specific features of facial skeleton, mental retardation, microcephaly, and others are similar to those described previously in patients with partial 3p monosomy and 10q trisomy.
 
Top-cited authors
Elena Artyukova
  • Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity FEB RAS
Marina M Kozyrenko
  • Russian Academy of Sciences
Yuri N Zhuravlev
  • Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity FEB RAS
Leonid A Lavrenchenko
  • Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution
Alexander N Milishnikov
  • Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution