3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a contaminant belongs to a group of chemicals called chloropropanols. 3-MCPD can be formed in foods as result of processing or storage condition. At the beginning 3-MCPD was identified as a contaminant of the acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein, which is produced using hydrochloric acid and high temperature. Studies have shown that 3-MCPD is carcinogenic for rats, however genotoxic adverse effect was not observed in vivo. The purpose of this studies was determination of 3-MCPD amounts in retail food products and comparison with the EC legislative limit. 99 samples of foodstuffs was tested: soya sauce, hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), sugar, instant soups, stock cubes, bakery products, chips and edible fats. 3-MCPD was detected at levels below 10 microg/kg in 15% of the tested samples, and above 10 microg/kg in 63%. 3-MCPD was not occurred in 22% of the tested samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
The aim of this work was optimization and validation of the method of determination of Cr(VI) existing in the form of chromate(VI) in mineral and spring waters by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) technique with application of postcolumn reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and VIS detection. Optimization of the method performed with the use of initial apparatus parameters and chromatographic conditions from the Method 218.6 allowed to lowering detection limit for Cr(VI) from 400 ng/l to 2 ng/l. Thanks to very low detection limit achieved it was possible to determine of Cr(VI) concentrations in 25 mineral and spring waters presented at Polish market. In the cases of four mineral and spring waters analyzed, determined Cr(VI) concentrations were below of quantification limit (< 4 ng/l) but simultaneously in another mineral and spring waters the concentrations of chromium(VI) were determined in the range of 5.6 - 1281 ng/l. The fact of existence of different Cr(VI) concentrations in investigated waters could be connected with secondary contamination of mineral and spring waters by chromium coming from metal installations and fittings. One should be underlined that even the highest determined concentration level of chromium(VI) was below of the maximum admissible concentration of total chromium presented in Polish Decree of Minister of Health from April 29th 2004. Therefore after taking into account determined in this work concentration of Cr(VI), the consumption of all waters analyzed in this study does not lead to essential human health risk.
A method for measurement of cesium and potassium-40 in environmental samples with the use of a gamma Tristan-1024 spectrometer was presented. The method involves taking into account the influence of the Compton effect on the shape of the observed spectrum, and then counting of the impulses in appropriate energetic intervals. The results showed that it is possible to rapidly measure K-40 activities exceeding 30 Bq/kg as well as the activities of Cs-137 and Cs-134 isotopes of an order of several Bq/kg in so-called "fresh" sample, with no need for applying expensive preparative treatment. The low cost of measurements, as compared with radiochemical methods, is an advantage of the presented method.
The aim of this study was to analyze the intakes of selected micronutrients by obese children and adolescents aged 7-13 years before and after nutrition counselling. The study showed that the introduction of hypocaloric diet did not bring about any significant reductions in body weight of subjects expressed as body mass index BMI. Dietary counseling did not result in changes in the intakes of vitamin B12, folates, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, potassium, which fell below the recommended values. The consumption of vitamin B6 vitamin C was in accordance with the recommended daily intake (RDI), but the intakes of sodium exceeded the RDI. In order to prevent the development of non-communicable diseases in adulthood, the diets of investigated subjects need to be improved.
The aim of this study was the assessment of nutritional education of 13-15 year old adolescents with simple obesity in comparison to their normal weight peers. The studied group consisted of 25 obese and 31 normal weight children. The questionnaire method was used to collect the data. Obese adolescents, compared to the normal weight counterparts, showed higher level of education concerning principles of proper nutrition. Nevertheless, high level of obesity in this group of children indicates that they do not comply with these principles. The study results suggest that emphasis should be placed on the quantity of food in diet of overweight and obese adolescents.
Food intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) as basic indicator of nourishment of adolescents from a little town in Wielkopolska were evaluated. Triple 24 hour recall was conducted in group of 30 girls and 30 boys 13 years old. Quality and quantity of food rations consumed was evaluated. Energy and 20 nutrient in ratios were assessed. Mean food rations were compared with dietary standards for such adolescents in Poland. It was found that investigated group of adolescents has improper eating habits resulting unsatisfactory low energy, macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake. Results of anthropometric measurements have shown right body mass in 40% of adolescents, malnutrition in 37%, and tendency to overweight and obesity in 20% of boys and girls.
The authors carried out investigations for elucidating the distribution in the internal organs and tissues and the rate of the absorption from the digestive tract and elimination from the organism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid widely used in herbicides, to which man and animals are exposed. Radiometric investigations were carried out of the internal organs and tissues of male Wistar rats which were given one dose of the acid labelled with 14C one-third of LD-50/kg through an intragastric tube. The rats were killed at various time intervals for observing the rate of absorption and elimination of this compound. The measurements of radioactivity demonstrated high levels of the herbicide in the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and kidneys, and low levels in the adipose tissue and brain, with intermediate values in the adrenals and testicles. The compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract reaching its highest level in the tissues after 6-20 hours, and is eliminated nearly completely already on the second day. Small residues of the acid and its metabolites containing 14C were present in the tissues up to the 20th day of the experiment.
The aim of present studies was to describe the effect of two organochlorine pesticides: nuarimol and DDT on the changes in rat liver, proposed in the literature to be useful endpoints in screening of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens and/or liver tumor promoters. The effects on the following endpoints: mitogenesis (DNA synthesis and mitotic activity), hepatomegaly as well as histological changes in rat liver have been investigated. Male Wistar rats received nuarimol or DDT in one, five and fourteen daily oral administration of the doses of 125 and 12 mg/kg b.w. day-1 respectively. In the case of both pesticides the effects observed consisted of hepatomegaly and hepatocyte proliferation (DNA synthesis and mitotic activity), although our studies indicated several distinct differences in the hepatic response between nuarimol, on the one hand and DDT on the other. The differences were reflected in the character and the basal rate of hepatocyte proliferation. Nuarimol elicited rapid but transient wave of hepatocyte proliferation during the first day of exposure. As opposite to nuarimol, DDT induced sustained hepatocyte proliferation during experimental period (14 days). Moreover, DDT induced evident focal necrosis and abnormal mitoses whereas nuarimol caused only slight vacuolated cytoplasm. Thus it can be concluded that nuarimol induced in rat liver direct mitogenic effect. On the other hand, DDT which is well known hepatocarcinogen, was found to produce mitogenic effect appearing to be related to regenerative response, since histological signs of necrosis were apparent.
The aim of the survey was the evaluation of specific nourishment habits among 14-16 year-old teenagers of a different physical activity in the north-eastern Poland on the example of Sokolski district. The 14-16-year teenagers from secondary school, in Sokolski district (368 boys and 368 girls) were examined. They were chosen at random. The researches were carried out from November to December in 2006-2007 school year by the method of a diagnostic poll with the aid of the anonymous questionnaire. The low percentage of teenagers who declared the proper nourishment habits was stated, and it was observed that the more physically active teenagers were the more of them declared rational nourishment habits within the scope of analyzed nourishment habits.
On the basis of extended health balances of 3482 14-year old school children, the association between the incidence of chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and some circumstances of their living conditions was evaluated. Nasopharyngeal diseases were identified in 2.3% of children. Their incidence was unrelated to sex; it was similar in urban and rural environments. Some circumstances creating inferior living conditions were associated with higher incidence of these diseases; they included living in poverty, lack of central heating and covering by foot a large distance from home to school. Other circumstances, e.g. numerous family, crowding of the apartment, un-sanitary sleeping conditions, contrary to expectation failed to display such associations. Likewise, health-promoting behaviours (e.g. habit of teeth cleaning, practising sports) did not lead to lower incidence of these diseases. Consideration of the problem from standpoint of physical development showed that the proceeding of the maturation process failed to be paralleled by lower incidence of nasopharyngeal diseases. This incidence amounted in pupils with overweight to 4.1% of cases, and in the remaining ones to 2.0-2.3%. Nasopharyngeal diseases were recorded in 5.4-5.5% of pupils complaining of poor general feeling (headache, sleep disturbances), and in as many as 7.0% of those experiencing difficulties in falling asleep. As concerns the progress in learning, the difficulties between better and worse pupils in the incidence of nasopharyngeal diseases were insignificant. These diseases occurred somewhat more frequently in pupils with up to 14 days of justified non-attendance per semester, as compared with those without any non-attendance or with non-attendance lasting more than 14 days.
The subject of this work is to analyse means of nourishment and feeding preferences among the youths at the age of adolescence. The research comprises 165 girls and 123 boys. The results gathered in this work show the limited achievement of recommended rational nourishment among the youths of 14-18 years old. The dissemination of feeding errors indicates the necessity to monitor the ways of nourishment in this group of young people.
Escherichia coli O 157 is the G(-) bacteria, and belongs to the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). E. coli O 157 is a bacteria that is a common inhabitant of the ruminants, particularly cattle. These bacteria are expelled with animal excretions and can contaminate the soil. They are transferred by rain and melting snow into surface and underground water. The strain E. coli O 157 is dangerous for human, because of toxins, known as Shiga. In this study E. coli O 157 in the samples of surface and underground water was determined. It was shown that E. coli O 157 appears in natural waters very rare.
The study aimed at describing selected health behaviors of 470 subjects aged 7 to 16 years from Jedlina Zdrój. The frequency of the meals eaten and physical activity were estimated by means of a standardized multiple choice questionnaire. In both sexes the number of hours spent on physical activity rose significantly with age. The time of physical activity in older boys was significantly higher than in their female peers. Similarly, the percentage of children skipping breakfast and the second breakfast increased with age. The amount of fruit and vegetables eaten decreased with age of the subjects. At school milk was drunk by very few boys only.
The aim of the study was to analyze nutritional habits of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław. They are one of three elements shaping health attitude of girls. This research indicates mostly committing nutritional mistakes of the girls e.g.: irregularity of meals consumption 73% of girls, incorrect number of meals about 60% of girls, omission of breakfast about 15% of girls and lunch 20% of girls, movement of main meal up to late evening and night hours, and regular snaking meals 53.0% of girls.
The purpose of this work was an attempt to evaluate the way of group nourishment among the teenage youths on a summer sports camp with respect to quantity and quality of food. The distribution of BMI rate among 165 girls and 131 boys--the participants of the camp was also estimated. The research showed that the analyzed decade menus were typically correct considering the average energetic value, they contained the overstandard amounts of protein and phosphorus, insufficiency of calcium, iron, magnesium and group B and C vitamins as well. At qualitative evaluation the analyzed menus received 21 points according to Starzynska's scale (satisfactory grade).
The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.
The aim of this research was to assess the influence of dietary intervention on weight loss and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 20 obese and overweight adolescents (BMI = 29 +/- 3,8 kg/m2) aged 15-18 years. Nutritional habits and nutritional status were estimated before and after the introduction of low-calorie diet. Measurements of REE were carried out by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber Nutritional intervention had a significant influence in decreasing body weight (from 85 +/- 14.3 kg to 82.5 +/- 12.8 kg), BMI and fat mass. Muscle mass was found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.050). REE did not decline significantly due to nutritional intervention (p > 0.05; p = 0.84).
The examinations were carried out on meat of rabbits which had been being given therapeutical doses OTC (3 x 30 mg/kg i.m.). Rabbits were slaughtered after 4 hours since the last injection. The highest residues of OTC were found in kidneys, lower in liver and the lowest in muscles. The activity of OTC residues was observed in the kidneys, liver and muscles for 21 days stored at +2 degrees C and for 90 days at -18 degrees C. During the storage residues of OTC decreased more dynamically in kidneys and liver than in muscle tissue.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the way of nutrition and the status of nourishment among women aged 19-25 with different physical activity and gain the knowledge on the nourishing value of a daily food rations and the formation of basic anthropometric indicators of nourishment status depending of the lifestyle. Voluntary research was carried out in the years 2004-2005 on 180 women aged 19-25 in Bielsko-Biala. The group of females of low physical activity comprised of 100 students of Academy of Science and Arts and a group of high physical activity, 80 women attending regularly (at least twice a week throughout a year) fitness club classes. The way of nutrition was estimated by means of 24 hour nutritional interview. The received result after considering an unavoidable waste reduction were applied to the nutritional standard at the level of safe consumption for women aged 19-25 of low and moderate physical activity. In the evaluation of nourishment status BMI rate and the content of fat tissue was determined by the method of bioelectrical impedance. The quantitative assessment of the way of nutrition shows a lowered supply of energy derived from food, pointing out the lack of energetic balance in the tested persons aged 19-25. The average energetic daily food ration value in active women was 72.4% and physically non-active 84.7% of daily energetic demand. Daily nutritional rations were found to have nonbalanced content of basic nutritional ingredients. Relatively high supply of proteins and fat, especially among non-active women was accompanied by a lowered supply of carbohydrates (approx. 70% of recommended consumption). Furthermore, nonsufficient supply of nutritional fibre was also reported (approx. 70%). The research of nourishment status proves that the highest percentage of women irrespective of their physical activity shows the correct value of BMI rate. Physical activity level in women differentiates their body content in this way that the average level of fat tissue in physically active women is lower than in less active (17% vs 22%).