Vilnius Academy reorganization which took place during the early years of the Commission of National Education activity resulted in establishing a school educating future midwives for the first time in the history of the city. The beginnings were extremely difficult. To run its activity efficiently this type of institution was missing appropriate base, study aids, teachers, and first of all, so called “clinical material” – women who would agree to give birth “publicly”. Despite many problems the school began its activity. Education level was not high. However, foundations to further development of this type of education were created. The article presents the beginnings and activity of the Vilnius midwives’ school between 1780 and 1803.
W opracowaniu przedstawiono drogę rozwoju zawodowego wybitnego polskiego andragoga Profesora Józefa Półturzyckiego. Celem analiz było przybliżenie jego sylwetki i osiągnięć naukowych na podstawie materiałów archiwalnych, wspomnień i nielicznych opracowań. Podjęto próbę ukazania jego aktywności zawodowej oraz obszarów zainteresowań naukowych. Wskazano na problematykę poruszaną w wybranych publikacjach.
The article presents issues relating to agricultural counselling as a form of out-of-school adult agricultural education in Poland in 1956–1970. In that time agricultural counselling was provided mainly by communal agronomists, instructors of National Councils and farmers’ associations. The press of that time informed about effects of farmers’ work, objectives and contents given to them, sometimes giving detailed information about agronomic services relating to counselling. Scientific monographs, textbooks and manuals developing the knowledge about counselling were also published. Some of those works were written by the best experts on agricultural andragogy of that time.
In 1971, upon the initiative of the United Polish Workers’ Party – the ruling force in the period of the Polish People’s Republic – there was established secondary technical school designed for leading workers. The Resolution No. 124 of the Council of Ministers of 1 July 1971 opened the possibility for workers to gain vocational qualifications and to obtain the certificate of secondary education after two years of studying. The students were recruited from workers who had completed basic vocational schools and distinguished themselves by being socially and professionally active. The goal of the newly-created educational institution was to prepare good specialists for the national economy and active party members. The schools began their didactic work in September 1971. Good conditions of studying were created in them for adult students who were also engaged in the ruling party’s activity. The students were able to fully take advantage of the education offered to them for their own individual development, their further vocational education, as well as social advancement.
The article is a review of the regulations of higher education legislation in Poland adopted by the parliament during the twenty years between the two World Wars and in the People’s Republic of Poland (1945–1989) that today could be treated as symptoms of the implementation of the concept of lifelong learning in Polish schools of higher education. An analysis of the relevant legislation was the main research method for the purpose of this article. The authors try to answer the question whether in the decades before the Third Republic of Poland there were legal solutions referring to the connections of higher education with practical implementation of the idea of lifelong education. And if, what were they? Today, when the tasks of higher education connected with the practical implementation of the idea of lifelong learning seem obvious in all European Union states, it is worth remembering that in many countries – including in Poland – the issue has a much longer tradition than just the last twenty five years. In the final parts of the article the authors also postulate comparative
The article is a review and its goal is to present the most typical views on the cultural education of adults developed by the Polish researchers since 1989 as well as to outline its empirical picture. In the first part of the article the author describes ways of understanding cultural education within the framework of Polish classical (traditional) and non-traditional concept of cultural education. Then it is shown that with the spreadof the broad way of understanding education as a lifelong process, adults appeared in the concepts of cultural education as its participants and addressees. However, none of the Polish concepts is focused on the adults only. In the second part of the article there are presented the characteristics and trends of cultural education of adults in Poland, reconstructed on the basis of studies conducted in recent years. In conclusion, the author emphasizes the need to develop research in this area, which after 1989 in Poland, was outside the mainstream of interest of researchers on adult education and requires in-depth test to identify and understand transformation taking place within it