This paper discusses agricultural policies and their implications for food security in Ghana. Despite the availability of productive resources, Ghana was not spared the African agricultural crisis during the last two decades. The study finds that agricultural policies adopted under the structural adjustment program in 1983 have not addressed the long-term difficulties that farmers encounter in the agricultural sector. The difficulties of agricultural adjustment policies are traced to the complex and sometimes contradictory relations between the state and farmers concerning access to agricultural resources. In conclusion, the paper explores how the relationship among the state, agricultural policies and society can improve access to productive resources and enhance food security in Ghana.
This study examines a key moment in the “fight for fertility” in post-colonial Kenya: the large-scale reappropriation of land by landless people across Kenya in the new millennium. This rebirth of the 1950s Mau Mau armed struggle for “land and freedom” is pursued through the 4.5 million-strong Congress—Mungiki in Kikuyu—and the Organization of Villagers—Muungano wa Wanavijiji. It is a struggle between subsistence and commodification, which is conceptualized as a fight for control over fertility. Fertility is understood as the capacity to produce people, food, cultural expressions, social networks, and natural and built space. The fight for control over fertility is a three way struggle amongst i) women producers and their male allies who seek to defend and revive subsistence, ii) Kenyan “male dealers” who seek to control women's labour and other production resources within commodified capitalist relations, and iii) international capitalists and their governmental brokers. The study examines ten cases of land occupation and assesses the gains and losses to each of the three sets of actors in the fight for fertility. It concludes that women subsistence producers and their allies in gendered class alliances have gained much ground and that the Kenyan land occupations are part of the movement for globalization from below to rebuild the civil commons alternative to corporate rule.
This paper assesses the Zimbabwe government's efforts at poverty alleviation in the 1990s. Although it was once committed to reduce poverty in Zimbabwe, the various measures introduced since 1991 have either proven inadequate or failed completely. This poor record reflects the lack of interest on the part of the ruling elite, and the need to respond to societal pressures emanatingfiom those who are not among the poorest in Zimbabwe. ABSTRACT Cet article évalue les efforts du gouvernement zimbabwé à alléger la pauvreté au cours de la décennie 1990. Malgré son engagement à réduire la pauvreté au pays, les différentes mesures introduites depuis 1991 se sont révélées inefficaces ou complétement échouées. Ces résultats reflètent, d'une part, le manque d'intérêt de la part de l'élite au pouvoir, et d'autre part, le souci de répondre aux pressions de la sociéte de ceux qui ne font pas partie de la couche la plus pauvre de la population zimbabwéenne.
This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.
The relationship between economic development and urbanization in developing countries is reviewed. The authors conclude that urbanization is a necessary but not in itself a sufficient condition of development. They note that policies designed to either encourage or discourage urbanization have proved ineffective. Problems encountered are primarily due to the fact that, although urbanization is not occurring in developing countries at the same rate as it did previously in today's developed ones, the overall rate of population growth is much higher. "The degree of concentration of urban systems reflects a moving equilibrium between economies of agglomeration (centripetal), and diseconomies (centrifugal) and distance costs. Big city environmental costs are externalities not reflected in market prices, and which public authorities are called upon to manage. The choice of public investment in infrastructures can influence, marginally, the patterns of urban systems." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
The policies pursued in the promotion of economic development since WW II have apparently contributed to GNP growth but failed to reduce income inequalities and improve noticeably the condition of the poor. In the face of the expanding dimensions of poverty, people inspired by altruism began advocating the shifting of policies toward basic needs in an effort to eliminate absolute poverty and contribute to the development of the human potential. Although humanitarianism is the principal motive underlying basic needs policies, claims of growth enhancement, population control and popular participation have accompanied their advocacy. These claims, however, remain unsubstantiated. Notwithstanding their rhetoric, what remains from basic needs is the nobility of their purpose and a challenge to man's collective consciousness to deal with poverty as a universal problem.
"The primary objective of this paper is to examine the impact of migration, and ultimately remittances on economic development in an LDC [less-developed country] within the context of a two-sector development model. For this purpose we construct a two-period development model wherein the country loses professional workers in the first period, but receives foreign-exchange remittances in the second period. Then we derive the conditions under which the 'brain drain' phenomenon may promote social welfare gains over the two periods horizon." The results indicate that "emigration of skilled labor causes the real rate of return to capital to fall and the real wage to labor in the home country to rise. Emigration of skilled labor unambiguously causes a real income loss in less developed labor-exporting countries in the first period, but may cause a real income gain to the LDC in the long run. We also find that the per capita income in an LDC may rise as a consequence of emigration in the short-run, but in the long run capita income unambiguously rises." (SUMMARY IN FRE)
The authors outline a marketing approach for family planning programs in developing countries, with references to experiences in India. Following an overview of types of population programs, suggestions for strengthening program efforts are offered, and a framework for marketing birth control is described. "This approach was based on the recognition that acceptance of a small family norm is interwoven with the freedom to make that choice.... This framework suggests that marketing plans should be aimed at the three-dimensional goal of increasing the population's desire, ability, and capability toward acceptance of the small family norm and the practice of birth control [and] that in consideration of the wide geographical variations in population growth, per capita income, and the level of development in general, programs should be designed in a segmented manner to suit the socio-economic nature of each group."
"This article studies the 'brain drain' issue from the sociological perspective. It analyzes the various reasons why students from developing countries go to North American and European universities and why they decide either to return or not to return to their own country after graduation. The author...concludes that, although there are political, socioeconomic and academic factors, one's decision to return or not to return to one's country depends mainly on individual aspirations (personal and cultural development) and collective aspirations (perceived possibilities of playing a constructive role, political or otherwise, in one's native country)." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
Land titling the formal registration of land previously used without formal title, is a policy that is currently in vogue throughout the developing world. As part of this trend, Honduras undertook a land titling project in 1982. Expected outcomes of the project included increased access to credit for small farmers, and subsequently, increased on-farm investment and enhanced tenure security. Analysis of the survey data indicates that titling by itself did not bring the intended outcomes, and that institutional factors must be considered in policy design if policies are to have their intended effect.
"The urbanization process is not only global in scale, and thus subject to universal principles, but intensely specific in time and place. The former calls for research which is both transnational and comparative, the latter for analyses set in the appropriate socioeconomic and political circumstances. This paper outlines a conceptual framework, based on the theory of urban systems, that can accommodate both spatial scales as well as provide a bridge between research focusing on developed and developing countries. A developmental model of migration is introduced to illustrate the approach and the paper concludes with a series of challenges to future research."
Only recently have development studies begun to examine the complex set of relationships between urbanization, the growth of the informal sector, and internal migration in Latin America. This paper suggests that the economic crisis of the 1980s has resulted in significant changes in these phenomena and that 1 of the most important changes has been the growth of return international migration between Latin American countries. Also of importance are the continued migration flows to North America. The paper argues that the interconnectedness of these phenomena requires more multinational research efforts.
This article examines the development of timber-based industry in Indonesia and its constraints. It also discusses its prospect as one of the mainstay of Indonesia's non-oil exports in the near future. The main constraints faced by the timber-based industry in Indonesia result from inefficiencies, decreasing supply of raw materials and the changes in the international demand. The industry has weak linkages with the local economies in which the timber processing plants are located. These will diminish the industrial potential contribution to the country's future development.
This article explores the impact of globalization and neo-liberal reforms on the health of Venezuelans and Cubans during the 1980s and 1990s. It seeks to illustrate, through the lens of health care, how global economic forces affect national development and people's lives. Venezuela and Cuba struggled with severe economic crises and their health systems suffered. Cuba, however, was able to preserve a greater degree of control over its adjustment to the global economy and thus maintained a relatively good health system. Venezuela, on the other hand, embraced neo-liberal policies prescribed by the IMF and other international financial institutions, lost autonomy, and failed to protect its health care system adequately.
This essay argues on the basis of evidence from Northern Rwanda that economic theories of fertility which fail to take into account the value of children for reproducing a community's social relations are of limited value in traditional noncapitalist or peasant societies. Regarding the transition to low fertility as an adjustment of the population to available resources ignores the fact that many families in the developing world regard their children as absolute values, not values relative to other resources, and therefore the transition to lower fertility is a dramatic change rather than an adjustment. The Kiga of Rwanda have in the last 20 years or so become differentiated into a group of richer households with excess land and a labor shortage and poorer households with excess labor and a land shortage. In the face of severe material shortages, the poorer families continue to desire and have almost as many children as the richer. Among women aged 25-35, the poorer group had on average 5.5 children while the wealthier had 3.9 on average. Kiga families are embedded in larger social units which provide social insurance against misfortune, and having many children thus reconstitutes a social value which minimizes the impact of misfortune. High fertility appears to occur in social economies where there is no reasonable motivation for reducing family size; where high value is placed on the survival of the collectivity and on the reproduction of concrete social relations, the only rational behavior is to have many children.
"A factor analysis on twenty-six social and economic variables measured in the seventy-eight 'municipios' of [Puerto Rico] is used to build a socio-economic model that reveals regional disparities [in mortality]. Adult and infant mortality rates in the different regions are computed and show that disparities in public health do exist. In fact, it appears that the most developed urban areas have patterns of mortality similar to the more traditional rural areas. On the other hand the developing regions have pathogenic patterns." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
This article surveys interactions between migration and inequality, concentrating mainly on the impact on income inequality of rural to urban migration. To study the impact of migration requires a prior understanding of the processes determining income distribution, so the main theories of the latter are briefly surveyed, including subsistence, neoclassical, institutional, and structural models. In each case the main theme is labour market functioning. The impact of migration in each of these models is then discussed, partly in terms of the properties of the models themselves, partly in terms of plausible migration scenarios. The empirical literature is briefly surveyed, covering characteristics of migrants; integration of migrants in destination areas; urban-rural interactions in terms of remittances, terms of trade, and return-migration; and macro-economic issues. It is concluded that the impact of migration on inequality differs greatly according to the mode of production and the model used to describe it. On the basis of the evidence reviewed, the more common outcome seems to be for migration to reduce inequality overerall (mainly by reducing differentials between origin and destination areas), but migration can also help to perpetuate inegalitarian production systems. Finally it is commented that migration is endogenous to most production systems to that its effects cannot be adequately analysed without also examining its causes.
Our purpose in this paper is to establish stylized facts of the Turkish macroeconomic adjustments using data from 1969 to date. We adopt a traditional a-priori definition of business cycles as cyclical co-movements of economic variables such as public, private and construction investments, trade balance, labor productivity, wages and fiscal accounts with the cyclical component of real GDP. We also incorporate in our analysis an investigation of the cyclical components of exchange rates, interest rates, price inflation and the monetary aggregates. Our quantitative findings reveal a robust and significant positive relationship between public and private investments and real GDP growth, suggesting the presence of ?crowding in? effects of public investment. Trend growth of manufacturing wages and average labor productivity display a loose association over the whole period, and the rapid gains in productivity in the post-1980 reform era are not observed to be materialized as gains in remuneration of wage labor. We also find a significant negative correlation of manufacturing wages with merchandise exports and the exchange rate; and document further evidence on the strong negative correlation between variations in consumer prices and production.
The main rationale for the implementation of structural reforms favoring free markets is that they, through increased competition, are likely to create incentives to improve the way firms operate i.e. firm efficiency. In this study we measure and analyze total factor productivity and technical efficiency in a large sample of Nicaraguan manufacturing firms. Our analysis indicates that whereas structural reforms may be necessary conditions for the development of developing economies, their expected positive effects on sources of growth such as total factor productivity and technical efficiency could be so slow that it may be necessary to develop sufficient conditions or policy instruments for spurring economic growth in the short run.
The lack of consensus on the social impacts of access to land ownership continues to generate heated political and academic debates. This article elaborates a theoretical argument about opportunity costs and asset accumulation dynamics, factors that affect the potential benefits of gaining access to or increasing the size of agricultural land holdings in developing countries. It tests the theory using household data from Guatemala, and concludes that effective rural income generation policies should be flexible, where access to land can be the subject of support, and where business-related incentives are given to beneficiaries.
Résumé Le manque de consensus sur l'impact lié à l'accès à la terre continue de susciter des débats académiques très animés. Ce travail formule un argument théorique concernant d'une part les facteurs, les dynamiques du coût des opportunités et de l'accumulation des biens qui affectent les bénéfices potentiels provenant de l'accès à la terre et d'autre part, l'augmentation de la taille des propriétés terriennes dans les pays en voie de développement. Une validation de la théorie est menée en se basant sur les données de ménages du Guatemala et on déduit que les politiques effectives de création de revenue doivent être flexibles quand l'accès à la terre peut faire l'objet de soutien et que les bénéficiaires ont droit aux primes liées au commerce.
We use a dynamic general equilibrium model based on intertemporally optimizing agents to study alternative debt management policies for the Turkish economy. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory in its adjustment to steady state dynamics, and on Walrasian general equilibrium theory of a small open economy in attaining equilibrium in its commodity and factor markets. Key features of the model are its explicit recognition of the distortionary consequences of excessive borrowing requirements of the public sector through increased domestic interest costs; and endogenous determination of the private work force participation decisions in response to changing tax incidences. The model results suggest that reliance on indirect taxes, as in the current stance of the fiscal authority, has appealing results in terms of attaining fiscal targets, yet it suffers from distortionary consequences and loss of economic welfare.
Throughout the world, deep reforms are being implemented in telecommunications networks. Sub Saharan African Countries are not immune to the dispute of the way the sector has been managed to date, dominated as it was by a technological stability and bilateral institutional arrangements between public monopolies. The factors that are structuring the new landscape of the African telecommunication networks, lead to partial privatization of the national incumbent operator, but also to a greater competition through the fixed as well as cellular mobile networks. All these changes should help to provide more services and to promote a much-improved quality. However this outcome requires the establishment of a greater autonomy and more efficiency within the regulatory bodies. Some of the main institutional questions to solve are addressed in this paper, not only the way the openness of the telecommunication has to be realized, but also the interconnection of the networks as well as the universal access problems.
Tuition fees increased rapidly in the 1990s in most Canadian provinces raising concerns about access to post-secondary education. This paper examines the role of tuition fees in explaining participation in college and university programs from 1997 to 1999 in all provinces except Quebec and Ontario. Differentiated responses to tuition fees by family income and grades are explored. Information on participation patterns of high school graduates is derived from the new Youth in Transition Survey. Other datasets provide approximate measures of tuition and of respondents’ family earnings. The analysis suggests that PSE choices were not particularly sensitive to either tuition fees at their current levels or to family earnings at the time of enrolment. By contrast, academic preparation and parental education were critical in determining whether students enrolled in PSE and which type of program they chose. These conclusions hold for the whole sample as well as for students from low-income families or with average grades. Three interpretations are possible for the lack of influence of tuition fees: 1) government student loans were able to meet the growing financial needs of most students; 2) the wage premium associated with PSE may have increased sufficiently in the late 1990s to offset the higher tuition fees; and 3) academic rather than financial barriers at the time of enrolment are perhaps what most prevent low-income students from attending PSE programs (e.g. no high school diploma), particularly at the university level.
Les frais de scolarité au collège et à l’université ont augmenté substantiellement au cours des années 90 dans la plupart des provinces canadiennes. L’augmentation des frais de scolarité remet en question l’accessibilité aux EPS en général et à l’université en particulier. Cette étude examine le rôle des frais de scolarité dans les décisions de participation au collège et à l’université entre 1997 et 1999 dans toutes
This paper explores the relevance of the principal-agent model for analyzing development projects using data from World Bank-funded projects. After demonstrating that World Bank loan agreements can be viewed as principal-agent contracts, the paper explores the importance of the agency problem in determining project performance. Predictions from an adversarial model contrast with those of a cooperative model. The importance of information in the adversarial model links World Bank supervision to project performance. Data support the relevance of the agency problem and the role of supervision as monitoring. The paper concludes with suggestions for modifying project selection and implementation to reduce agency problems.
In this paper we show that, when endogenous fertility is considered via Cobb-Douglas preferences, public debt plays a clear-cut role on dynamic inefficiency (DI) of an OLG economy: in fact, for correcting the DI problem, debt must be increased (decreased) when the economy is overaccumulating (underaccumulating). The occurrence of overaccumulation, and, thus, the necessity of a positive level of debt, is favoured by a small capital income share, on the technological side, and a sufficiently high degree of patience and a low preference for children on preferences grounds. As for the optimal level of debt, our analysis shows that a high level ofdebt is more likely to be optimal for countries with a relatively low share of capital, with high costs for rearing children, with high individuals' degree of patience; as for individuals preference for children, as expected, the preference for a numerous family reduces the risk of overaccumulation and, thus, the optimal level of national debt. Moreover, interestingly, although in our model the occurrence of dynamic inefficiency (DI) does not depend on the level of the child rearing cost, such cost magnifies the degree of inefficiency and, therefore, a higher public debt is required for correcting DI. Finally, it is argued that such findings can provide useful criteria for assessing the optimality of public debt-cutting policies undertaken by several Europen countries.
A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is constructed for the Indonesian economy. The CGE model searches for the optimal log and plywood export taxes; simulates resource allocation and rates of return to sectoral fixed factors of production under different combinations of export taxes and constraints; estimates the welfare costs of reducing log production or increasing plywood production to a given target; and demonstrates numerically how the hardwood log exporting country should respond to a higher foreign plywood import tariff Several policy implications are drawn and applied to other cases of raw material processing and trade.
Since 1993, the prospects of intra-regional trade in West Africa have been strongly debated. Foroutan and Pritchett (1993) explain the low level of trade between Sub-Saharan African countries by structural factors. In opposite, Naudet (1993) shows that trade growth potential is important between west african countries. This question is of crucial interest because the seven countries of UEMOA have emphasized the willingness to strengthen their economic relationship in January 1994. The paper tries to highlight the different determinants of intra regional trade. Structural factors, national economic policies and regional cooperation are distinguished. It shows that effective regional cooperation is an important factor to intensify trade between developing countries. UEMOA could be hence in the future the cornerstone of the regional development in West Africa.
This paper examines the performance of balance sheet variables (in contrast with traditional macro-indicators) to predict the probability that a LDC will experience a price discount on its debt and the magnitude of this discount. Our results show that many of these variables are good predictors of the evolution of price discounts.
We present new estimates of the rentier share of national income for OECD countries for the years between 1960 and 2000. For most countries, the rentier share of income significantly increased during the last several decades, starting in the early 1980's and coinciding with the shift to neo-liberal monetary and financial policies initiated by Margaret Thatcher and Paul Volcker. There is no evidence of a negative correlation between rentier shares and non-financial corporate shares of income. However, rentier shares do decline in those semi-industrialized countries that experienced financial crises. These findings are consistent with the view that financial liberalization has been associated with the increased power of an international rentier class, whose interests are aligned with those of non-financial corporations in the richer countries, but whose interests conflict with rentiers in developing countries that experience financial crises.
The negotiation of contractual agreements between Aboriginal communities and mining companies is now standard practice in Australia and Canada and increasingly common in developing countries. The widespread use of such agreements indicates that they offer significant economic and social opportunities. However, such agreements also raise major issues for Aboriginal relations with other political actors and institutions, including government, environmental groups, and the judicial system. The paper considers these implications and identifies strategies to address them and so maximize the contribution of contractual agreements to community development. Yes Yes
Since its onset in the early 1960s, Development Studies (and International Development Studies) has been a field in search of a discipline, clearly subordinated to various governmental and international agencies' development policies and practices. Born during the Cold War in a post-colonial setting and under the confinements of a Western academic environment, the field has also carried some of the peculiar ideological traits of its founding disciplines: economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology. These historical traits have been compounded by a progressive closure of academic debate and critical analysis that have rendered the field increasingly void of critical content and ethical reflection. The essence of the current crisis of development studies has been the result of the convergence of two factors. One is the hegemony of an almost tautological paradigm: neo-liberal structural adjustment policies. The other is the transformation of academic institutions from a "critical outsider" role to that of bidder for development monies. In this context, the need to reformulate development thinking towards a more holistic, "outside the box," analytical and ethical perspective is both a practical and theoretical imperative.
During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Canadian government became a strong supporter of IFI-designed Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) for indebted Southern states, and altered its aid priorities accordingly. Despite the significance of this shift, however, little effort has been made to explain it theoretically. This paper addresses this gap through a case study of Canada's lead role in facilitating Structural Adjustment in Guyana. Several alternative theoretical explanations for Canada's role in North-South relations are set out. They are then applied to its role in Guyana. The authors argue that this case is best explained primarily through insights from a “historical materialist” approach, emphasizing the influence of hegemonic ideas and consensus, and secondarily a “middle power” approach, highlighting “niche-playing,” multilateralism, and “bridge-building.” RÉSUMÉ Dans les années 1980 et au début des années 1990, le gouvernement canadien est devenu un partisan convaincu des programmes d'ajustement structurel pour les pays du Sud ayant une dette très importante, et il a adapté ses politiques d'aide en conséquence. Bien qu'il s'agisse-là d'un changement politique important, peu d'études on été faites pour en expliquer les raisons théoriques et pratiques. Cette étude analyse la question par le biais d'une étude de cas portant sur la Guyane et le rôle prépondérant du Canada dans l'application de l'ajustement structurel dans ce pays. Les auteurs analysent le rôle du Canada dans les relations Nord-Sud à la lumière de plusieurs théories, qui sont ensuite appliquées au rôle qu'il a joué en Guyane. Ils suggèrent que le cas de la Guyane s'explique premièrement par un certain «multilatéralisme» et le désir de créer des ponts et de se créer une niche.
Uganda is a good example of the challenges facing a poor country attempting to achieve a measure of external and internal balance. The adjustment agenda has been a complex of strategies that have ranged from the revamping of the incentive structure to the reconstitution of the public service. Due to the depth of the earlier crisis and the severity of the continued external disturbances, results from the adjustment effort have been relatively meagre. RÉSUMÉ L'Ouganda est une bonne illustration d'un pays pauvre, ayant à faire face au défi d'instaurer un équilibre économique tant interne qu'externe. Le programme d'ajustement est composé d'une batterie de mesures allant de mesures incitatives d'ordre structurel à la reconstitution du service public. Du fait de la gravité des crises précédentes et des déséquilibres extérieurs, les résultats des efforts d'ajustement ont été, à ce jour, de faible ampleur.
This paper discusses Ghana's economic and industrial promotion efforts in the post-structural adjustment program (SAP) period. Although International Financial Institutions (IFIs) like the World Bank and IMF once hailed Ghana as an economic success after the implementation of the SAP, it later became obvious that the SAP did not improve the socio-economic condition of the country. To deal with Ghana's continued economic decline even after implementing the SAP, as well as get debt relief from its creditors, the government decided to opt for the Heavily Indebted and Poor Country (HIPC) status in March 2001. Despite the perceived benefits derived from joining the HIPC initiative, this paper argues that industrial and economic development will only be realized when a sound industrial development policy is put in place to complement the debt relief that Ghana will enjoy under the HIPC initiative.
Monitoring and evaluation activities have become an increasingly important part of government activities in recent years. This has happened in response to the need to be accountable for activities undertaken and to make ever more efficient and effective use of the available resources. In the international context monitoring and evaluation activity has also been promoted and/or required as a part of donor funded projects. In this paper, a central government agency (Ministry of Agriculture, Planning Division, Government of Zambia) is assessed over a period of two years with respect to its monitoring and evaluation activity. The standards focus on organizational performance, utility, accuracy, timeliness, and utilisation. While there were varying degrees of success in achieving the levels of performance suggested by the standards, the general approach to developing a set of standards and applying them to a monitoring and evaluation agency was found to be an effective way of reporting on the work of the Planning Division. The approach is recommended for other agencies performing central monitoring and evaluation functions.
Sport is seldom directly associated with international development, receiving scant attention in the literature. While numerous programs are directed towards the advancement of sport, few view it as a significant contributor to development itself. This paper offers an intriguing view of the relationship between sport and grassroots development through the case study of Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA), an innovative development organization in Nairobi, Kenya that links youth with sport and developmental initiatives. From humble beginnings, MYSA has come to be one of the largest grassroots organizations in Kenya. It brings some promising avenues for research, particularly on the role of youth in development, the ability of sport to challenge gender stereotypes, and the overarching question of the relationship between sport and development. While sport may allow grassroots organizations a point of entry into the development process, we should not expect too much from the essentially consensualist or functionalist perspectives on the role of sport in society.
All theoretical works conclude that education has a positive impact on the growth rate. Empirical works, however, which are less affirmative, show otherwise and lead us to characterize the nature of this relationship more carefully. It is impossible to give an account of this relationship without entering into the details of institutional configurations. On that basis, we have chosen to develop and enrich the analysis by exclusively considering the case of Morocco. The model was evaluated from 1976 to 1995 and temporal series confirm the positive effect of education (especially primary) on growth. Moreover, the model allows for the updating of certain national characteristics and the examination of the link between educational policy in Morocco and economic growth.
With the objective to make international aid more efficient, the Integrated Development Model (IDM) of the International Financial Institutions, demands the reform of all the mechanisms of development. The purpose of this article is to identify certain implications derived from harmonizing the strategic orientations of the international development community. We shall demonstrate that this reform, under the commendable pretense of reducing poverty, promotes a harmonization of development practices to allow a greater strategic selectivity. An analysis of this selectivity permits us to revisit the strategies promoted by the IDM and to observe that they are highly political.
This article studies the “brain drain” issue from the sociological perspective. It analyzes the various reasons why students from developing countries go to North American and European universities and why they decide either to return or not to return to their own country after graduation. The author analyzes the transformation of the “project” from the beginning to the end and concludes that, although there are political, socioeconomic and academic factors, one's decision to return or not to return to one's country depends mainly on individual aspirations (personal and cultural development) and collective aspirations (perceived possibilities of playing a constructive role, political or otherwise, in one's native country. RÉSUMÉ À l'heure où l'on parle beaucoup de «l'exode des cerveaux», cet articte analyse les raisons qui poussent les étudiants des pays en voie de développement à entreprendre une formation universitaire dans les pays développés et celles qui les incitent au retour ou au non-retour dans leur pays d'origine. L'auteur analyse chez les étudiants la transformation des projets initiaux de formation et leur aboutissement en terme de retour ou de non-retour. Bien que des facteurs politiques, socio-économiques et scolaires entrent en jeu, il appert que la décision de retour ou de non-retour d'un individu dépend surtout de ses propres aspirations, soit personnelles (telles que celles liées à l'épanouissement culturel et personnel) ou ayant trait à la collectivité (promotion sociale, possibilité d'action et de transformation de la société d'origine, projet idéologique et politique).
Incl. abstract, bibl. While aid agencies may remain sceptical about university projects, a review of 20 years of Canada-China higher education cooperation demonstrates that, when they are successful, higher education interventions can produce durable and far-reaching results. The review highlights the "knowledge advantage" of university cooperation, including the inherent results multipliers of teaching and research, and the multi-generational nature of project participants. CIDA and Canadian universities should move from a transactional to a strategic relationship. Engaging a new generation of faculty and students, renovating centres of expertise and building knowledge networks are important tasks for the future.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank recommended a structural adjustment program (SAP) in Ghana as a response to its economic crises. This paper examines educational and health policies under SAP and addresses the following issues: How did educational and health policies impact children? What are the implications of these impacts for the future of children and human capital formation? To answer these questions, we investigate the (1) availability and accessibility of schools and health facilities; (2) quality of schools and health care; (3) costs associated with schooling and using health facilities; and (4) factors that moderate the impact of education and health policies on the lives of children. The findings are that of (1) low educational attainment; (2) poor health, high morbidity and mortality levels; and (3) inequities based on geography, income, and gender. The implication for policy is that there is a need to promote human capital development by investing in it.
The relationship among globalization, inequality, and growth is currently a major focus of scholars and policy-makers around the world. The problem is that globalization engenders growing interdependence and a marked rise in international inequalities in income distribution, while inequality constrains economic growth and promotes social and political instability. A clear understanding of this dilemma is necessary in order to formulate better development theories and policies in the current era of globalization. Scholars and policy-makers in the English-speaking Caribbean have been drawn to these issues since the late 1980s through an intensive and extensive rethinking of development strategies pursued in the region that has resulted in four major sets of ideas on how the region could grow and develop. These are the competitive insertion and the strategic global repositioning of the region in the global economy, collective lobbying in global institutions, and strengthened governance. A close examination of these dominant ideas reveals that they merely echo the neoliberal views on globalization. Therefore, the main proposition of this paper is that the present course of economic, political, and social action proposed for growth and development in the Caribbean based on these four sets of ideas will only increase inequality in the region, in what the US neo-conservatives have called "the new American century".
This paper examines the important roles played by rural women in the development of China's local economy and provides an overview of the impact of the ongoing economic reform on their lives. The paper examines the active participation of women in the growing market economy, pinpoints the challenges that they confront, and discusses the function of non-formal education in rural women's development. Finally, the paper discusses problems that need to be addressed to fundamentally improve rural women's lives and social status and to protect their rights under the economic reform. RÉSUMÉ Cet article met en relief le rôle importunt des femmes des régions rurales dans le développement de l'économie locale en Chine et analyse les incidences des réformes économiques actuelles sur la vie de ces dernières. L'auteur examine la participation des femmes dans l'économie de marché, les défis que celles-ci rencontrent et l'influence de l'éducation non formelle sur leur développement. L'auteur conclut par une analyse des questions qui doivent être adressées pour que la réforme économique serve à améliorer le niveau de vie et le statut des femmes rurales ainsi que leurs droits.
This paper presents a review of the origins of the human resources development policies and activities of the Canadian International Development Agency. It then explores these policies through two cases studies of Canadian bilateral aid, in Zimbabwe and Zambia, between 1991 and 1993. RÉSUMÉ Cet article examine les origines des politiques du développement des ressources humaines et des activités de l'ACDI, pour ensuite analyser ces politiques duns deux études de cas portant sur l'aide bilatérale canadienne au Zimbabwe et en Zambie entre 1991 et 1993.
The Côte-d'Ivoire is undergoing a serious economic and financial crisis since the end of the seventies. Several structural adjustment plans, undertaken under the aegis of multilateral moneylenders (World Bank, IMF) have failed in curing the balance of payments and public finance deficits. The external debt of the country is still considerable and the restart of the production machinery did not occur. The purpose of this article is to bring to the fore the inner economical inconsistencies of the ivorian adjustment displays as well as constraints and social and political dimensions which enlighten the failure of the various economic reorganization and recovery attempts.
The heterogeneity of the socio-politico-economic environment of developing economies makes it difficult to analyze their informal sector and to design successful aid programs. This article suggests that both the shape and the stability of governmental structures are important sources of heterogeneity. A classification of informal enterprises taking these government structures into account is proposed, and recommendations on appropriate interventions are given. The issue of the role of informal enterprises in developing economies and of the appropriateness of their formalization are also addressed.
This article examines policy and programming frameworks and initiatives for gender in education from a perspective that is informed by conceptual shifts in development practice and theory from Women in Development (WID) to Gender and Development. It focuses on the linkages made between women teachers and girls' education and raises conceptual issues and challenges to these, especially regarding girls' and women teachers' bodies in schools. The article draws on experiences working with women teachers in Karachi, Pakistan, locating these within a broader context of development theory, policy, and practice. It problematizes WID approaches, and ends with some recommendations for alternative, embodied approaches to thinking about and working with girls and women in education.L'article examine les cadres et les initiatives en ce qui concerne les politiques et les programmes d'intégration du genre en éducation. Pour ce faire, l'auteure adopte une perspective qui tient compte des changements de concepts survenus dans les pratiques et les théories du développement, soit le passage de l'approche femme et développement (FED) à celle de genre et développement. Elle s'attarde aux liens établis entre les enseignantes et l'éducation des fillettes, puis soulève des questions et des défis que posent les concepts, en particulier l'effectif des fillettes et des enseignantes dans les écoles. L'auteure met à profit son expérience de travail avec des enseignantes à Karachi, au Pakistan, en l'inscrivant dans le contexte plus large des théories, des politiques et des pratiques du développement. Elle pose le problème des approches FED et formule, en terminant, certaines recommandations pour l'adoption d'autres approches intégrées pour réfléchir à la question des fillettes et des femmes en éducation ainsi que pour travailler avec elles.