Revue Française de Sociologie

Online ISSN: 0035-2969
Publications
Article
PIP: Differential mortality in France is examined by sex, with a focus on the excess mortality among men during the period 1906-1980, using data from official and other published sources. The effects of occupation, social class, quality of medical care, and consumption of alchohol and tobacco are considered. The author finds that since 1976, life expectancy has been eight years higher for women than for men. While men employed in executive and white collar positions tend to live longer than their working-class counterparts, the situation is reversed for women, with executive women showing a higher mortality rate than other female employees and workers.
 
Article
PIP: This work, based on census data and survey results, argues that the apparent trend toward nuclear household forms in urban areas of Algeria after independence represented in fact not a convergence to a "modern" or "western" family structure but a temporary phase in the adjustment of migrant families to their new living conditions in the cities. Census data from the years 1948-87 indicate that the tendency toward nuclear households evident from 1954-66 did not continue thereafter. Since the 1970s, there has been an increase in the number of families per household, and the number has tended to stabilize at about the same level as in 1948. Increasing urbanization, contrary to expectations, has not caused a decline in extended families. Comparison of the distribution of household types in 1966, 1977, and 1983 shows that the differences between rural and urban proportions of each type of household declined regularly after 1966. During the entire period, Algeria's urban population increased primarily because of a massive influx of rural migrants. Data from a 1975-76 retrospective survey of urban household structures of migrants and nonmigrants conducted by the Algerian Association for Demographic, Economic, and Social Research indicated that less than 4% of nonmigrant vs. 7% of migrant households contained a single person. The proportion of nuclear households was about the same for migrants and nonmigrants of the same age and almost independent of the time of migration. The relative importance of extended households containing parents and their married children increased with the duration of the stay in the city. The general process of household composition revealed by the longitudinal study from the most recent to the most distant time periods corresponded to a structure of transformation of migrant families. The newest arrivals tended to live in single-person or nuclear households. After 10-15 years in the city, differences in household structure in similar age groups declined between rural migrants, migrants from other cities, and natives. In the years after 1966, the relative contribution of families of new migrants to urban growth tended to decline because of the already large size of the urban population, and consequently the tendency of new migrants to live in nuclear households had less weight in the overall structure of urban households.
 
Article
The authors attempt to extend Thelot's analysis of social mobility in France between 1953 and 1970. In particular, they examine "whether observed changes in mobility rates are entirely attributable to 'structural' influences. [They conclude] that while (as Thelot has suggested) the evolution of the occupational structure has been of major importance in altering the amount and pattern of mobility, changes of a systematic kind are none the less still evident when mobility is assessed independently of all structural effects." Data are from two surveys conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (SUMMARY IN ENG, GER, RUS,) excerpt
 
Article
PIP: A summary of articles published in the journal Population and other INED publications between 1970 and 1981 on abortion and contraception topics is presented. Topics covered include how to measure the number of abortions, public attitudes toward contraception, the need for legislative reform on abortion, the impact of abortion law reform on practices and attitudes, and how French legislation compares with other laws around the world.
 
Article
PIP: The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely defined social and family policy. Issues raised in the testimony of representatives of Protestant groups included the idea that each person is responsible for interpreting the will of God in complex situations, limits to the idea that life is a blessing of God, the right of women and couples to control their fertility, and abortion as a last resort. The Protestant position in favor of liberalization of the law held that existing repressive laws were untenable given the perils of illegal abortions and the fundamental modifications in relations between man and nature brought about by science. The Protestant church, a minority in France, took a more active role than the Catholic in suggesting specific legislation.
 
Article
PIP: Abortion is a thorny problem whose study is problematic because it is a source of social and juridical discord, of moral incertitude, of medical and psychiatric confusion, and of personal anguish. The question arises of whether a single perspective can be found which allows comprehension of the entire phenomenon. This work uses published sources to examine the abortion debate, beginning with the varying views of abortion expressed in the struggles to liberalize abortion legislation in France, Europe, and the US. 4 particular views of abortion were identified in the Paris press; the traditional religious view, which condemns abortion because the fetus is regarded as fully human from conception; the view of abortion as a means of fertility regulation; the view of abortion as a cause of public health problems that could be alleviated through legalization and medical control; and the view that abortion allows women to control their own bodies. The law is obliged to reconcile these diverse positions. Abortion legislation in different countries ranges along a continuum from severe to lenient, but regional variations are also evident. Abortion trials in the US and France shortly before liberalization of the laws of either country showed striking similarities but also notable differences due largely to dissimilarities in the social structures of the 2 countries. The relations between the individual and the state, morality, and the law, as reflected in the abortion debate, rested on inverse bases in the 2 countries. The typically American doctrine of privacy occupied a prominent place in the American legislation, while the French was more concerned with the humanitarian goal of reducing health damage from illegal abortions. Tension and ambiguity nevertheless unavoidably characterize the abortion regulations in the 2 countries. Abortion as an institution is a controlled and practical compromise between 2 poles, those giving primacy to individual interests, as in the US, and those giving primacy to collective interests, as in France.
 
Article
PIP: A detailed chronology is provided of events, social movements, and legislative actions taken from the initiation of debate on the liberatlization of abortion legislation in 1970 to the enaction of the permanent law in January 1980. The table is accompanied by a brief text which provides background on the alterations in public perceptions of abortion which preceded efforts to liberalize the abortion laws. Another set of tables refers to the hearings held by the Commission of Cultural, Familial, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly in 1974, at which 154 individuals and representatives of interested organizations aired their views. The tables identify the areas of expertise of the individuals and organizations, the pages in the published report covering their remarks, and the number of speakers representing each medical, juridical, religious, and other organization. A separate table presents the same information for organizations and associations concerning women, the family, procreation, and contraception, while the following table concerns the contents of the 77 pages devoted to "respect for life" organizations. The final table identifies the professions and the pages in the corresponding report of the 15 speakers who represented medical organizations, 11 who represented associations of marriage counselors, family planning workers, and other groups, 7 who represented religious groups, 5 from public agencies, 2 from the National Institute for Demographic Studies, and 2 physicians speaking on their own account at the 1979 hearings to determine whether the law enacted in 1975 should be amended or made permanent.
 
Article
PIP: A selective bibliography on abortion is presented. The bibliography is unannotated and consists primarily of French-language citations.
 
Article
PIP: This article examines the process by which the control and suppression of abortion shifted from the judicial domain to become an object of medical control in France. Abortion was a crime under the Napoleonic Code of 1810 and remained severely punishable for a century, but the law was regarded as too severe and prosecution was lax. The prescribed punishments became less stringent in 1923 but were later toughened again. Laws against abortion did not seem fair to much of the population concerned or to many of those charged with enforcing the laws, and they did not seem to uphold any inviolable moral principle. Increasing discontent with existing abortion laws, which were felt no longer to reflect the needs or mores of the society, and moreover to penalize poor women, who could not afford medically safe abortions abroad, and a belief that the law was doing nothing to reduce the numbers of abortions were among the stimuli that prompted the search for improved legislation. The public debate about the revised abortion law and the proper role of physicians and magistrates in determing access to abortion are traced though an exposition of opinions and quotations of the major participants in the controversy. The law of 1975 removed abortion from the control of magistrates and thereby liberalized access to it, but by entrusting access to abortion to the medical profession, the law embodied a bias toward preventing abortion. New social forces were behind the 1975 law, including pressure from women's groups which were developing a new consciousness of their rights and place in society, and a new role of medical practitioners, who occupy a privileged position in a social system based on knowledge rather than property. The new law still regards abortion as an evil and attempts to discourage it by imposing numerous constraints concerning when, where, and by whom it can be performed, by not requiring health personnel or facilities to make abortion available and by limiting the number that can be performed in any 1 establishment, and by obliging the abortion seeker to complete a maze of preliminary requirements. The law, by its own inner contradictions in authorizing and at the same time condemning and attempting to suppress abortion, and by granting control of access to the medical system despite the fact that abortion is not an illness, carries the seeds of its own ultimate failure.
 
Article
PIP: Reasons why some women repeatedly resort to abortion are examined. The author suggests that the refusal to practice the alternative of contraception on a regular basis indicates uncertainty over choices in sexual life rather than irrational or pathological behavior. The primary focus of this article is on France. (summary in ENG, GER, SPA)
 
Article
The academic success of migrants' children in France is explored, with an emphasis on the family characteristics that may determine such an outcome. "How can the surprising academic achievement of a minority of migrants' children who gain admission to university be explained? According to our hypothesis, such an explanation should be found in the families' migration trajectories. Taking them into account allows one to correct the well-known deficient indicator of social origin: father's occupation when in France. Families' strategies and mobilization toward an educational project, part and parcel of their migration project, can thus be explained. This hypothesis has been tested through the interviewing of two [predominantly Algerian] groups of migrants' children of the Lille region, one having experienced school failure, the second having gained admittance to university." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
 
Article
PIP: 263 females aged 14-17 were surveyed in 1980 in Lille and Tourcoing, France, in family planning centers offering free confidential contraceptive consultations to adolescents, in order to assess their level of contraceptive usage. 56% were 17 and 11% were under 16. 97% were French and 88% were students. 7% worked and 5% were unemployed. Compared to the general population, the middle class overrepresented and the lower class was underrepresented. The average age of 1st intercourse was 15.6 years and varied by the educational level of the respondents and the occupations of their fathers. 1 of the 263 reported having had a child and 7 had had abortions; 5 had used no contraception and 2 had forgotten to take pills. 55% stated they wanted to marry in the future and 34% wanted to live with a man outside marriage. The less educated tended to favor marriage or the single state more than the others. 81% of those who reported themselves to be very religious or of average religiousness wanted to marry. 1/2 of all respondents wanted 2 children, 15% wanted 3 or more and 11% wanted one. 40 of the 263 respondents had never received any information about contraception; 105 had learned about it from the mass media, 62 from their families, 149 from friends, school, or workplaces; and 82 from specialists. Fewer than 10% had never had sexual relations and were seeking contraception in anticipation of future relations. Slightly over 30% stated they had used contraception since their 1st relations, and about 40% said their 1st use of contraception occurred after their 1st relations. Use of contraception at 1st intercourse was more likely the higher the age at which it occurred. Over 80% began using contraception as a conscious personal decision because of the risk of pregnancy, 15% because of pressure from the partner, and 3% because of parental pressure. 35% chose a method themselves, 43% chose with the partner's help, 21% with a friend's help, 6% with a parent, and 2% with a physician. Only 20% of the parents knew about their daughters' contraceptive usage. 40% had already tried withdrawal and 30% the pill. 91% had come to request pills, 4% IUDs, and 2% other methods.
 
Article
PIP: This essay discusses the career and ideas of Adolphe Landry, on the occasion of the republication of his 1934 work, "The Demographic Revolution," by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques in Paris. In different capacities Landry contributed to the creation and development of family allowances, and, always concerned with the falling French birth rate, he never ceased to work in favor of the family. The major themes of his work were already present in his 1st important publication, his doctoral dissertation of 1901, in which he argued that all factors which tend to increase the needs of workers also promote raising of salaries and decline of population. The problem as he saw it was to identify means of counteracting the natality decline through legislation without threatening the regime of private property. The concerns expressed in Landry's early work endured throughout his career: preoccupation with the general welfare and attention to longterm goals. In "The Demographic Revolution," Landry suggested the existence of 3 types of demographic regime. Careful empirical studies of population dynamics were pursued by Landry and were 1 basis for the work's value. Landry's demographic history of France remains valid today. He did not consider the use of contraception to limit family size to be immoral in itself, but he saw the dearth of children as a grave peril for the collective future. Like others of his time, he was unable to foresee the astoundingly rapid mortality decline and subsequent huge growth of population in the developing world. His perspective was of the 19th century, when the peoples of Europe were extending their empires throughout the world. His fear was of a repetition of the fate of the Greek and Roman empires. "The Demographic Revolution" ended with some reflections on moral philosophy, progress, and decadence.
 
Article
The merits of a biographical approach to demographic analysis are examined using survey data. "The analysis of complex interaction between diverse phenomena, using bivariate or multivariate models has been elaborated, and it allows the discovery of various types of dependence between events (reciprocal or unilateral) or of their independence. At this stage, heterogeneity of the observed populations was introduced, with the help of parametric or semi-parametric models, which point out the different strategies followed. The problems caused by non-observed heterogeneity have been partially solved but interdisciplinary collaboration would now appear to be necessary." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER AND SPA) excerpt
 
Article
PIP: An analysis of recent rural migrants in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, is presented. The focus of the study is on the impact of rural-urban migration on social class. The author concludes that in contrast to Europe, where the assimilation of rural migrants has been the norm, migrants in Monterrey are in the process of establishing original and distinct social and economic structures in the city. (summary in ENG, GER, SPA)
 
Article
PIP: The process of leaving the parental home on reaching adulthood is analyzed using data for two cohorts of French women, those born in 1947 and those born in 1959, who were surveyed in 1986. Two alternative ways of establishing adulthood are considered, namely, marriage and the achievement of an academic or professional qualification. The tendency of unmarried adult women to return to the family home is considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER AND SPA)
 
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PIP: The authors focus on theoretical and empirical bases for the use of household classifications in studies in the social sciences. Using a life cycle approach, they develop a typology that aims to provide complete coverage for all forms of family composition.
 
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PIP: Methodological problems involved in the demographic study of the Jews of the diaspora are reviewed. The author notes that since there is no accepted legal or religious definition of a Jew, the statistical measurement of this subpopulation is complicated by the fact that it is self-selecting. Consideration is given to the applicability of methods of demographic analysis of the Jews to other subpopulations.
 
Article
PIP: The importance of ethnicity in the economic behavior of immigrants to France is examined, with particular reference to immigrant salesmen working in the underground corridors of the Paris metro. The results indicate that having the necessary business skills and initiatives required to survive in this environment are far more important than belonging to a particular ethnic group. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER AND SPA)
 
Article
PIP: Developments in survey techniques that have occurred in France since the end of World War II are reviewed, with an emphasis on improvements in the availability of demographic data. The author describes changes in vital statistics, the development of permanent surveys, and specific surveys carried out since 1970. Some consideration is also given to plans for future surveys. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)
 
Article
The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/or waterjets as propulsion means. In accordance with the invention the bow has a fillet radius of at least 1 % of the beam.
 
Article
L'article se propose de mesurer et dinterpr�ter la progression des scolarit�s et de l'activit� f�minines en France et en Allemagne, pays pour lesquels les comparaisons des relations entre l'�ducation et le travail ont surtout port� sur les hommes. Il met au jour, sur la base de grandes enqu�tes nationales, des avanc�es de plus grande ampleur en France. En 1971 comme en 1991, les in�galit�s sexu�es d'�ducation sont plus fortes en Allemagne et � tous les �ges et � tous les niveaux de dipl�me, les femmes allemandes, d�s lors quelles sont m�res sont moins pr�sentes sur le march� du travail. Ces diff�rences renverraient � une histoire �conomique et de l'�ducation plus marqu�e au masculin en Allemagne. La pr��minence dans ce pays d'un syst�me corporatiste des formations et des professions entra�nerait une plus grande rigidit� de la division sexuelle que celle de la forme scolaire et du rang atteint dans l'enseignement g�n�ral en France
 
Article
Cet article traite la question de savoir si une tendance de long terme peut être identifiée dans le régime de mobilité sociale de la société française depuis le milieu du siècle. Il s'ouvre par une revue de la littérature internationale sur les tendances temporelles de la fluidité sociale au sein des sociétés modernes. Analysant les recherches françaises récentes qui ont conclu à la stabilité de l'inégalité des chances sociales dans la France des deux dernières décennies, il argumente que cette conclusion pourrait n'être liée qu'à un manque de puissance des techniques statistiques mises en œuvre. La suite de l'article est consacrée à une analyse des tables de mobilité sociale père-fils et père-fille tirées d'enquêtes nationales représentatives conduites en 1953, 1970, 1977, 1985 et 1993 (N = 35 741 pour les hommes et 18 484 pour les femmes). L'usage de modèles log-linéaires et log-multiplicatifs révèle que l'association statistique (mesurée par le logarithme des odds ratios) entre origine et position sociales a diminué au rythme régulier de 0,5% par an durant quarante ans. Ce résultat correspond à une tendance lente, mais continue, à la réduction de l'inégalité des chances sociales depuis le milieu du siècle. Parmi les douze millions de Français, hommes et femmes, de 35 à 59 ans qui ont un emploi en 1993, près d'un demi-million occupent ainsi des positions sociales qui n'auraient pas été les leurs en l'absence de cette augmentation de la fluidité sociale en quarante ans. L'article conclut que la thèse de l'invariance temporelle du régime de mobilité entre générations ne peut être soutenue pour la société française et que les causes de cette évolution restent à préciser. /// The aim of this paper is to examine whether a long-term trend can be identified in the mobility regime of French society from the middle of the century. Its begins with a review of the international literature on temporal trends in social fluidity within modern societies. Analysing recent French research which has concluded that inequality of opportunity has remained unchanged in France during the last two decades, the paper argues that such a conclusion can only have resulted from the use of insufficiently powerful statistical techniques. The second part of the paper analyses father-son and father-daughter mobility tables drawn from national representative surveys carried out in 1953, 1970, 1977, 1985 and 1993 (N = 35, 741 for males and 18, 484 for females). The use of log-linear and log-multiplicative models reveals that the statistical association (as measured with the logarithm of the odds ratio) between social origin and destination has declined steadily by 0.5% a year over a period of forty years. This finding highlights a slow but continuous trend towards a reduction in inequality of opportunity from the middle of the century. Of the twelve million French men and women between the ages of 35 and 59 who were in employment in 1993, nearly half a million would have belonged to different classes without this forty-year increase in social fluidity. The paper concludes that the thesis of temporal invariance in the intergenerational mobility regime cannot be maintained for France, but that the reasons of this change still remain to be ascertained. /// Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, ob im Regim der sozialen Mobilität der französischen Gesellschaft seit Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts eine Langzeittendenz festgestellt werden kann. Er beginnt mit einer Überschau der internationalen Literatur zu den zeitlichen Tendenzen der sozialen Durchlässigkeit innerhalb der modernen Gesellschaften. Durch eine Analyse der kürzlichen französischen Forschungen, die auf die Stabilität der Ungleichheit der sozialen Chancen in Frankreich über die letzten zwanzig Jahre schließt, argumentiert der Aufsatz, daß diese Schlußfolgerung lediglich mit zu schwachen angewendeten statistischen Techniken zusammenhängen könnte. Der weitere Verlauf des Artikels beschäftigt sich mit einer Analyse der Tabellen der sozialen Mobilität Vater-Sohn und Vater-Tochter, die aus repräsentativen nationalen Umfragen aus den Jahren 1953, 1970, 1977, 1985 und 1993 (N = 35 741 für die Männer und 18 484 für die Frauen). Die Verwendung von log-linearen und log-multiplikativen Modellen zeigt, daß die statistische Verbindung (gemessen mit dem Logarithmus der odds ratios) zwischen sozialen Herkunft und sozialen Stellung regelmäßig um 0,5% pro Jahr in den letzten vierzig Jahren abgenommen hat. Dieses Ergebnis entspricht einer langsamen jedoch andauernden Tendenz zur Verminderung der Ungleichheit der sozialen Chancen seit der Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts. Von den zwölf Millionen Franzosen, Männer und Frauen, zwischen 35 und 59 Jahre, die 1993 eine Beschäftigung hatten, nimmt fast eine halbe Million soziale Stellungen ein, die sie nicht gehabt hätten, wenn die soziale Durchlässigkeit der letzten vierzig Jahren nicht zugenommen hätte. Der Aufsatz schließt mit der Feststellung, daß die These der zeitlichen Unveränderlichkeit des Regims der Mobilität zwischen Generationen für die französische Gesellschaft nicht aufgestellt werden kann und, daß die Gründe zu dieser Entwicklung noch festgelegt werden müßen. /// Este artículo trata de hacer conocer si una tendencia en el regimen de movilidad social de la sociedad francesa puede ser identificada a partir de la mitad del siglo a largo plazo. Comienza por una revisión de la literatura internacional sobre las tendencias temporales de la fluidéz social dentro de las sociedades modernas. Analizando las últimas investigaciones francesas que han concluído a una estabilidad de la desiguladad de las oportunidades sociales en las dos últimas décadas en este país, se argumenta que esta conclusión podría ser una consecuencia de la falta de rigor de las técnicas estadísticas utilizadas. A continuación el artículo analiza los cuadros de movilidad social padre-hijo y padre-hija, extraídas de encuestas nacionales representativas efectuadas en 1953, 1970, 1977, 1985 y 1993 (N= 35 741 para los hombres y 18 484 para las mujeres). La utilización de los modelos log-lineales y de los modelos log-multiplicativos revela que la asociación estadística (medida por el logaritmo de los odds ratios) entre origen y posición social en esos cuarenta años ha disminuído a un ritmo anual de 0,5%. A partir de mediados de este siglo este resultado corresponde a una tendencia lenta, pero contínua de la reducción de la desigualdad de las oportunidades sociales. De los doce millones de franceses, hombres y mujeres, entre 35 y 59 años con empleo en 1993, cerca de medio millón ocupan de este modo posiciones sociales que no habrían sido las suyas sin la presencia de este incremento de la fluidéz social en los últimos cuarenta años. El artículo concluye con la tesis de la invariabilidad temporal del regimen de la movilidad entre generaciones es insostenible para la sociedad francesa y que las causas de esta evolución quedan sin precisar.
 
Article
Coleman’s social theory – too parsimonious? James S. Coleman affirmed that his theory follows the principle of parsimony: it uses a minimum numberofbasicconcept toaccount for social phenomena. Hejustifies parsimonyitself as a means of unifying sociological theory on individualistic grounds, and set outs to use the model of an actor rationally pursuing self-interest to derive all consequences. This is clearly a very narrow starting ground, perhaps too narrow. In fact, it is not clear that he manages to draw all consequences from his nearly contractual model of society, as this model could have led to recognizing the existence of collective entities. Moreover, he ends up introducing an additional principle which exceeds the limits of rational choice theory – namely, actor’s ability to identify with others – and is then led to analyze the concept of the identity of the «self », thus considerably extending the limits of classical methodological individualism.
 
Article
Concern with conformity is not new on the American scene. What is new is the ever-growing body of experimental evidence on the subject, a direct result of the pioneering work of Solomon Asch and Muzafer Sherif. Accordingly, a symposium on conformity and deviation was organized with the aim of presenting the latest theoretical and experimental contributions of leaders in this area of research, including pioneers Asch and Sherif. The symposium was held at Louisiana State University in March, 1960, and the present book is the result. This collection of hitherto unpublished papers includes the most recent research developments in the social psychological facets of conformity and deviation as a matter of course and, as a matter of increasing significance, certain clinical-experimental investigations as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Based on the author's thesis, Göttingen. Bibliography: p. [302]-305.
 
Article
Research in France on possible prejudice on the part of the police or criminal court is scarce, surprisingly scarce given the explosive nature of the question that the November 2005 riots recently illustrated. The present research is an analysis of discrimination founded on the defendants' origins in criminal and civil affairs, taking as base all those defendants tried for offences against police officers by a Paris-area criminal court between 1965 and 2005. The defendants in the "North African" group and the "Black" group (defined on the basis of their birthplace and surname) are roughly twice as likely as the "European" group of defendants to be imprisoned; they are sentenced to longer prison terms, and run a greater risk of having the police officer involved sue for damages. Multivariate analysis, however, indicates that the court's discriminatory decisions can be attributed to technical and procedural factors alone that launch court machinery into over-penalization of its "regular customers" among which the two groups mentioned above are overrepresented. This does jiot seem to be the case, however when it comes to the police officer's individual decision as to whether or not to press charges for damages.
 
Article
313 p. Les questions prioritaires du temps inoccupé (chômages manifestes et cachés) ne dissimulent-elles pas les nouveaux problèmes généraux de l'éthique sociale soulevés par l'influence accrue des pratiques et des valeurs du temps libéré à la fin de la journée, de la semaine, de l'année et de la vie de travail? Le rapport à soi-même, à autrui, à la nature n'est plus vécu comme dans les années 60. 1968, qui a eu des effets plus culturels que politiques, a accéléré des changements d'attitudes qui débordent le loisir pour placer une révolution culturelle au cœur de la vie quotidienne de chacun à tous les âges de la vie, dans un cycle de vie allongé. Ce n'est pas la fin du travail, de l'éducation, de la famille ou de la politique mais leurs métamorphoses. Les théories institutionnalistes d'hier, les théories utopiennes d'aujourd'hui ont de la difficulté à la saisir à la fois dans son étendue et sa limite réelles.
 
Article
L’article analyse la façon dont les normes d’assurance qualité « ISO 9000 » affectent l’entreprise en partant d’une expérience particulière. On constate qu’en prescrivant l’écriture systématique des pratiques de travail à l’ensemble des membres de l’organisation, le référentiel ISO 9000 ouvre la voie à une certaine redistribution des cartes dans l’organisation mais aussi à un renouvellement plus général de la production normative. Le système d’assurance qualité modifie l’équilibre des relations de travail, ne serait-ce qu’en associant l’ensemble des personnels au « travail d’organisation », c’est-à-dire à un type de tâches jusque-là réservé à l’encadrement. Mais il met aussi chaque acteur face au dilemme qui oppose, d’un côté, l’obtention d’une reconnaissance écrite de son domaine de responsabilité et, de l’autre, l’émergence d’une possibilité de contrôle accru s’appuyant sur la consignation écrite des pratiques de travail.
 
Article
Introduction -- From sin to social peace: the origins of the modern treatments of industrial accidents -- From peace to rupture: development and crisis of modern solutions -- A sociological theory of industrial accidents -- Methods and research design -- Testing the sociological theory -- Readjusting the prism: remaking the modern? -- Afterword
 
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Proefschrift Parijs. Hiervan verscheen ook een handelsuitg. o.d.t.: Les religions africaines au Brésil. Vers une sociologie des interpénétrations de civilisations.
 
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Incl. bibl., index.
 
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"Structure and Sentiment is an important book. Reading it may make an anthropologist more keenly aware of certain issues that are crucial in social anthropology, and this awareness may make one's field work as well as one's reading of published ethnographies more perceptive."—F. G. Lounsbury, American Anthropologist "A theoretical and methodological essay of first importance. As such, the book should be of interest to all social scientists interested in the development of specific and general theory in social anthropology."—Southwestern Social Science Quarterly
 
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Incl. bibl., résumé. L'objectif de cette étude est de théoriser les règles, systèmes et comportements ruraux au Cameroun dans un contexte de mutations des systèmes productifs. Ces derniers ne reposent plus seulement sur une agriculture rentière d'exportation. L'inégalité dans l'acquisition du capital social se traduit par des choix différents de modes de production domestique : monoculture de rente ou diversification-innovation. Ces stratégies s'inscrivent dans une redistribution des rôles sociaux entre aînés et cadets, hommes et femmes, et préfigurent un individualisme social axé sur de nouvelles formes de solidarité. [INIST]
 
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218 p. En mai 2007, Alexis arrive d'une république d'Asie pour visiter le Pays de l'Utopie Rustique qui s'est développé dans le Massif central et le Sud-Ouest de la France. Il espère y trouver un modèle pour l'avenir de sa nation. Mais il s'étonne de voir que ce PURfonctionne à contretemps dans le monde industriel et urbain dont il fait partie. La culture, intellectuelle et esthétique, constitue en effet le fondement de cette société qui vit grâce à une économie d'autosubsistance bien équilibrée. Alexis s'interroge : est-il possible de partager ce rêve ? Sans doute, puisque le PURexiste, puisqu'il l'a visité... A la fin de son rapport, Alexis annonce qu'il a découvert en passant une pensée d'un certain Montesquieu, pensée qu'il dédie aux technocrates de son pays : "La gravité est le bouclier des sots." Voilà qui donne le ton d'un petit livre d'humeur dont les réflexions, savantes et drôles, rebondissent d'ailleurs dans un ajout composé de "retouches" écrites, treize ans après, pour cette nouvelle édition.
 
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