Revista de Historia de la Psicología

Published by Universitat de Valencia
Publications
The aim of this paper is to provide an approach to the process of introduction of modern psychology in Spain from the point of view of three journals published in Madrid that were to play an essential role in it: Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, Archivos de Neurobiología and Revista de Organización Científica. By giving shelter to the early Spanish psychological production, these three journals were able to reflect, as well as efficiently contribute to, its development. Also, through the information offered to their readers and the publication of papers by relevant foreign authors, they succeeded in facilitating the dissemination of the psychology being made abroad. The study of these journals will thus allow us to identify those who were mainly responsible for Spanish psychological research at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The issues considered, the influences received, and the basically applied direction consequently taken by our psychology will also be acknowledged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Identified the principal groups of authors or "invisible colleges" active in American psychology before the end of World War II through a bibliometric analysis of authors publishing articles in Psychological Review. The distribution of authors in terms of their productivity and collaboration in Psychological Review is presented. A series of graphs visually outlines the most important invisible colleges based on the analysis in Psychological Review. (English abstract) (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents an overview of E. Mira's contributions to psychotechnics and vocational guidance during his stay (1918–1939) in the Instituto de Orientación Profesional de Barcelona. Intellectual and motor abilities, character, and personality were the main subjects of his research. (English abstract) (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The sudden growth of industrial psychology in Spain in the early decades of the 20th century may be viewed as a result of two basic factors: 1) the great concern felt at the time by those professionals interested in psychology about social and economic reform; and 2) professional involvement in the various political structures of the Spanish Republican government. In the U.S., much of the work carried out in this area was grounded in Scientific Management--an empirical, applied, multidisciplinary field stemming from the ideas and research expounded in the book Principles and Methods of Scientific Management (1911), by F.W. Taylor. On the basis of similar principles, a number of associations and institutions dealing with the promotion of this new field are seen to emerge in Europe during the 1920s. In Spain, significant milestones evidencing this process were the constitution of the National Committee for Scientific Management and the foundation of the Journal of Scientific Organization (1928). This paper studies the history, structure and contents of the Journal to achieve an overview of the Spanish scientific management movement and help illuminate the presence of psychology and its relationships with other disciplines within this general area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Studied the development of the Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada between 1946 and 1970 in terms of the most productive authors, rate of collaboration, predominant subject categories (e.g., methodology and industrial psychology), and proportion of citations in articles published by Spanish authors. (English abstract) (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Spanish neo-scholastic from the beginning of the 20th century made an effort to take into account the new investigations in psychological topics and to integrate them in its spiritualist perspective. Largely, the works of authors like M. Arnáiz, F. Dalmau and F. Barbens are an attempt to respond the psyco-physical parallelism, monism and phenomenism of conscience's problems. In this article we have made an approach to this question and, more specifically, to the discussions around mental pathology; for some supporters of phenomenism, personality alterations would be the most appropiate argument to reflect on the unity of self and to demonstrate the falseness of the substancial soul. Although the neo-scholastics did not ever resign to their rational premises, they had no alternative but to accept, to a certain extent, a physiological determinism which would reduce human will and modify the faculties granted by God. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This paper focuses on the the theoretical and applied academic activities carried out by Emilio Mira y López from 1931 to 1939. These were to be the last years he spent in Spain. After taking into account all available data, a reconstruction of Mira's professional career from the proclamation of the II Republic to the end of the civil war was attempted here. Also his work during the Spanish civil war, when he was requested for the organization of the psychiatric services of the republican faction, has been examined. This survey was further completed with an analysis of Mira's major works concerning his war experience, which were published in exile. Emilio Mira's work can be taken as representative of the extraordinarily fruitful period Spanish psychology, particularly applied psychology, was going through during the early decades of the 20th century, before the outbreak of the civil war. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
As a result of increasing industrialization, work accidents had become to be a very serious social and economic problem in Spain at the beginning of the 20th century. In order to alleviate its severity, new laws were made for their prevention. The creation of new institutions devised to cope with the problem was also envisaged by the law. Principal among these was the Institute for the Professional Reeducation of Disabled Workers, founded in Madrid in 1922, whose main aim was the training of workers suffering from work injuries. One of the Sections of the Institute was a Department of Professional Guidance, which was to become a separate Institute in 1928. In these and other related institutions -such as the Committee for Scientific Management, or the various Laboratories for Professional Guidance spread about the country-, many dedicated professionals faced the problem, approaching the prevention of work accidents from its many different sides. An important place in this process was occupied by the making of posters and other graphic means (such as postcards or stamps) specifically designed for the prevention of work accidents and the spreading of safety measures. The aim of this paper is to examine the main initiatives taken in this respect, both in their theoretical and practical aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In his theoretical articles, C. L. Hull emphasized the difference between the individual "pure stimulus acts" and those of social communication. While the former were the physical basis of mental imagery, the latter became the basis of conceptual thinking. The paper analyzes Hull's theory of language and thought, as it appears in his unpublished memoranda of the seminars of the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This paper presents a theoretical model to study historical developments and takes into consideration its scientific and professional dimensions. Such a model is used to study the historical evolution of Work, Organizational, and Personnel Psychology in Spain during the last decades of the 20th century. Recent research, teaching of the discipline, and professional development are reviewed. In addition, the results of a research program addressing these issues are briefly presented using the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the debate about modularity of mind in the cognitive sciences. Examen de Ingenios (Huarte, 1575) constitutes a predecessor of the theory of the modularity of mind. The biological thesis about the mind/body problem was censured by the Inquisition in the publication of 1594. Huarte maintained his psychobiological and neuropsychological thesis in Philosophia Naturalis, against metaphysical philosophy and theology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In this paper, we explore the interactions between a psychiatrist, Adolf Meyer, and an architect, Grosvenor Atterbury, in the design of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, and how the ideas of Meyer helped Atterbury to figure out the details of this new building. Although barely mentioned in the History of Psychology textbooks, Phipps Clinic still remains as one of the most important institutions for the launching of modern American psychiatry and clinical psychology. Since its inception in 1913, after the American philanthropist Henry Phipps donated one million and a half dollars, Phipps Clinic embodied Adolf Meyers psychobiological ideas, and was the first inpatient facility in the States for the mental patients constructed as a part of a general hospital -the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This new clinic was conceived by the American Architect Grosvenor Atterbury, who was inspired by Meyer's ideas. So, Atterbury designed a building well integrated with the rest of facilities of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and that permitted to accomplish the three functions that Meyer envisioned in his psychobiological approach: research, teaching and prevention. Thus, Phipps Clinic included three laboratories, library, conference hall, classrooms and seminar rooms, and an outpatient clinic as well. Besides, Atterbury encouraged by Meyer's psychobiology also defended the importance of the setting and the esthetics for the cure of the patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Oral history, memoirs, epistolary, letters, biography, and even autobiographies of scientists form a habitual practice in present psychological historiography. Amongst these, to be emphasized is the enormous success of the analysis of biographies and autobiographies which are experiencing new historiography uses. The autobiography provides the historian with a unique material, a professional and personal lifetime contemplated and recreated by oneself. Accounts are written with a retrospective point of view by somebody who recaptures and interprets--thus reconstructs--their personal and professional past. The form and content of the account depend greatly on the present state of the person who is remembering, and a major part of his function will be to conserve and make that reality credible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
An overview of the development of Latin-American psychology is offered here, organized according the principles and methods of the generational theory of social dynamics, as developed by Spanish philosopher J. Marías. The resulting image seems to indicate the presence of a strong similitude in the national developments that have taken place in those countries, although they have been spaced out along the century. The process would have been initiated very early in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, and then spread out to the rest of the countries at a later time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
B.F. Skinner began to research into the behavior of organisms in 1930 and continued to publish the results of his work over a span of six decades, until his death. During that time he created methods and apparatus, such as the Skinner box, which were a great step forward in the research and application of behavioral science. In this work, a bibliometric approach is used to analyze the influence exerted by this author in behavior analysis. To measure his impact on psychology, we created a bibliographical database from the Social Sciences Citation Index, from 1956 to 2002, and selected the number of times he was cited in four psychology journals. The two main operants were the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, which was founded in 1958 and is dedicated to basic research, and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, which was first published in 1968 as an outlet for applied behavior research. We also took one publication on experimental research, the Journal of Experimental Psychology (which later split into different publications and became the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition). The fourth publication was a journal on clinical psychology called the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (which changed its name to the Journal of Abnormal Psychology in 1965). The indicators that were considered in this study were the following: The number of times this author is cited in the four journals, how this developed over time, his most frequently cited works. We also determined which authors cited him on most occasions and his citations. Finally, we carried out a comparative analysis of the data obtained from these publications with the aim of analyzing the contribution made by Skinner to the development of behavior analysis and to ascertain whether a Skinnerian tradition exists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The work which we present in this Monograph about the introduction of the psychological ideas shows the analysis of the introduction and the diffusion of psychology through the revision of main Catalan periodic publications. Due to the absence of Psychology journals until 1933, studies had to be made from all other journals published such as educational, medical, vocational orientation and personnel selection. The Quaderns d'Estudi, Butlletí dels Mestres, Gaceta Médica Catalana, Annals de Medicina, Monografies Mèdiques, Anals de l'Institut d'Orientació Professional, Anales de la Sección de Orientación Profesional de la Escuela del Trabajo, Revista de Psicologia y Pedagogía and Ibérica are analysed. Through the study of the different sections from these magazines: commentaries of books and articles; translated articles and articles of own production, we conclude that the reception of ideas in the studied period (1914-1937) are more focused on applied psychology than that of theoretical or experimental psychology. In the studied period the ideas of the American and European functionalism, behaviourism, gestalt theories and psychoanalysis ideas were introduced in Spain normally, as well as organisational psychology and psychology of education and evolutionary and... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The German logician and mathematician Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) is an outstanding figure in the history of Logic. His contributions, since the last quarter of XIX century, until the second decade of XX century, constitute the bases of modern Symbolic Logic. In this article, we would like to highlight his main work: an attempt for a logical foundation of Mathematics (also known as Logicist Program). This project was initiated in 1879 with his book: Begriffstchrift, eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formelsprache des reinen Denkens. However, the foundational text of Logicist Program was Frege's Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik, published in 1884. His program, that constitutes a refoundation of Logic, was fundamental for later developments of Computation Theory (e.g., Davis, 2002; Mosterin, 2000). Mathematical logic was fundamental for the growth of the Cognitive perspective in Psychology, as it was shown in previous works (Moro, 2003a; 2003b). Together with Frege, other authors, especially those who developed Arithmetic foundations and Sets Theory, as Georg Cantor, Richard Dedekind, David Hilbert or Giuseppe Peano were emphasized in this respect. This article has two aims. First, to show how the representation notion which Cognitive Psychology uses is logically incorrect. This will be demonstrated with a logical argument. Second, to offer a new reading of the representation notion following the notion of function by Frege. This aim is developed through a description of mental processes and representations as functions and arguments of Frege's logic. It is concluded that this new reading allows a genuine computational perspective for cognitive sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Terms such as hybrid or cyborg are used to account for the current difficulties—caused by the advances in genetic and robotic engineering—in classifying a particular living being as member of a species or to establish clear boundaries between the domains of nature and technology or organism and environment. Notwithstanding this, I believe that such a terminology might be useful to analyse events from the past. Ilya I. Ivanov (1870-1932) was a Soviet biologist who specialised in artificial insemination and animal interspecific hybridization, domains in which he achieved great success during a time where knowledge of genetics was scarce. In 1926, funded by the Pasteur Institute and the Soviet government, Ivanov travelled to Kindia's primate centre (in French Guinea) to set off an ambitious and polemical project: ape and human hybridization. After unsuccessful trials to inseminate female chimpanzees with human semen, he returned to Sukhumi (USSR) where he would try the opposite process. However, as a result of the new Stalinist policies, the experiment was cancelled before even getting started. The details of this episode in Soviet history have not been fully unraveled yet. Some people have said that they were part of a Stalinist plan to create an army of apemen. But it might be more realistic to think that Ivanov—devoted supporter of Darwinist theses—was willing to demonstrate drastically that humans and apes shared a strongly related phylogenetic lineage. Departing from this not very known case, the present work aims at reflecting on the role of great apes in the construction of our identity as humans. Being configured as bordering entities between the animal and the human, they have turned into the centre of attention of discussions in psychology and other neighbouring areas. In that vein, in such domains there is an attempt to give some evidence on evolutionary continuities and discontinuities of human beings and the rest of the living organisms, either in physiological, cognitive or behavioural terms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Although G. W. Leibniz's (1702, 1708 [1890, 1962]) famous aphorism, "… there is nothing in the mind that was not first in the sense," has been persistently regarded as a rejoinder to J. Locke's supposed sensualism, its 1st use was in a context that made no reference to Locke. The 2nd (and best known) use was accompanied by an acknowledgement that it did not conflict with Locke's views; and the 3rd time, after Locke's death, was in a context that charged him with insufficient recognition of aspects of "the mind itself" but not with ignoring its existence. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In our earlier works, we have analyzed the evolution and current state of the psychology of attention. This paper centers on the contribution that psychology of attention makes to the psychology of driving. Works registered in PsycLit containing some term related to attention and some term related to driving, were submitted to a bibliometric analysis. Here we show the results relative to temporal distribution, geographical origin and authorship of the papers. Geographical origin is considered by continents and countries. With respect to authors, we consider the most productive ones, examining which other persons integrate their research groups, and which are the main topics of their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The study of the development of a scientific discipline usually reveals the existence of several topics that are frequently revisited, although they are sometimes disguised for the different terminology is used. In the case of the psychology of attention, this might have led some investigators in this field to believe that no conceptual advance has been reached in this discipline. In this article we do not aim to review the most important theories or models of attention have been proposed along its history, but to analyse how the concept of attention has evolved from being used to account for the boundaries of cognitive processing to become a control processing mechanism, independent of processing systems, that has to be accounted for. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In this paper, we design an interactive network environment intended to facilitate the learning of History of Psychology. The design is implemented through a multimedia Internet platform called WebCT ( World Wide Web Course Tools), that offers several tools adaptable to any educational innovation project. We describe the use and implementation of these tools to a semi face-to-face learning project, specific for History of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The author traces his development in the field of psychology from his early student years in Madrid through his postgraduate years at Catholic University and the University of Chicago. Yela was heavily influenced by the work of L. L. Thurstone, and he worked closely with J. Germain upon his return to Spain. First-hand information about the development of contemporary scientific psychology in Spain, Yela's personal views on psychology, and the main results of his research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The aim of this paper is to provide a view of the Revista de Historia de la Psicología's life from the perspective of Helio Carpintero, its founder and director. In this autobiographical interview, Professor Carpintero critically reflects on the circumstances of the Revista's birth, its guiding purposes, the facilities and difficuties found throughout its 25-years existence, as well as its achievements and failures. The present challenges of the Revista are also dealt with. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the book entitled Introduction to Experimental Psychology, which was originally written in Spanish by M. Barbado-Viejo in 1928. The book is his most complete and well-known work and has influenced Spanish psychology and philosophy. (English abstract) (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This paper describes Maria Montessori's incorporation of ideas in Catalunya, and her stay at Barcelona. And we are also analyzing the influence of her theories and her pedagogical method in Catalan psychology. On the other hand, the work of Montessori during this period is examined and her labor facing the seminar of pedagogy laboratory of the Mancomunitat of Cataluña is explained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Provides an overview of the development of scientific psychology in Spain via bibliometric analysis, providing data concerning publications and authors quoted in journals and books. These citations demonstrate the changing influences upon Spanish psychology, the effects of the civil war on Spanish psychology, and recent trends in quantitative and experimental psychological research. (Spanish abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The article reflects on the need for the use of the history of the psychology to move away from erroneous conceptualizations that have been come transmitting of authors and theories with the risk to fall at a schematic comprehension of the proper evolution of a field of investigation. To demonstrate this question, the study of the memory and the specific case of Hermann Ebbinghaus and his work "Über das Gedäschtnis" of 1885, is used, showing a series of remarks and "lapsus" that can provide a more complete vision of this author. Using the classic confrontation between Ebbinghaus and Bartlett, offer a series of considerations that they center and they explain better the theoretical positions of both authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The aim of this paper is to approach the origins and early development of scientific psychology in Spain from the point of view of the theory of generations as sketched by the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset, and later developed by some of his disciples, particularly Julian Marias, who turned it into a valuable tool for social and historical analysis. A generation, according to the theory, is a group of individuals who were born within a common "zone of dates", and whose biographies share a number of features resulting from their living at the same level of historical time. Such zone or range of dates, it is further hypothesized, is of approximately 15 years length, being 1856, 1871, 1886, 1901, and 1916 their central dates (to mention only the period covered here), according to the scale established by Marias. On the basis of these assumptions, an analysis of the features and contributions of five generations of Spanish scientific psychologists is here attempted, from the usually considered as "foundational" generation of 1856, to the, in a way, no less foundational generation of 1916, responsible for the relaunching of scientific psychology after the civil war. It is thus aimed to show the relevance and fruitfulness of a theory and method allowing to introduce a "Galilean perspective)) (Lewin) into the field of Spanish history of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
European universities are nowadays experiencing a transformation process that not only seeks the European curriculum homologation of the several university studies, but also attempts to design a new professional type provided with a maximum flexibility that make him adaptable to a labor market that is likewise foreseen as subjected to a new and unusual versatility. In order to achieve such flexibility, they specially seek to train students in some supposed "competences, abilities and skills" that are mainly "generic and transverse", and that should serve as base for the new evaluation and curriculum homologation forms. This work seeks to demonstrate that the only possible and genuine professional flexibility is the one that comes from the "totalizing knowledges of second grade" unfolded in-between and depending of those "particular knowledges of first grade", which is the case par excellence of the family of humanistic knowledges insofar as historiographic knowledges, of the said family history of human sciences and of psychology is a part in a specially significant way. However, and in contrast, the flexibility and the subjective abilities that the ongoing university reformation seeks to promote would be entirely illusory inasmuch as they are unviable, because the supposedly generic and traverse character of such abilities is in fact understood making abstraction of the cognitive contents of the effective particular knowledges, that is to say, it is thought by means of the psychological formalism that supposes that human individual subjective activity can take place outside the configurations of objective human culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Contends that the Spanish Civil War had an impact on the development of Spanish culture, science, and technology as a result of both the destruction of humans and social institutions and the totalitarian regime that emerged from it. In the case of psychology, the discipline had to submit itself to a scholastic philosophical orthodoxy in order to become acceptable. Reconstruction of Spanish psychology had to be based on a conception of psychology as a scientific enterprise. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviel Netz has proposed a cognitive history to explain how deduction was shaped in Greek mathematics. The point of his book is that deduction emerged from practices of those first mathematicians. That practices were built using two essential cognitive tools: the lettered diagram and a very specific kind of language. The deductive principles of necessity and generality associated with deduction were too built in those practices. Netz suggest that cognitive history is necessary to explain what Fodor says is out of scope for cognitive science: central processes. He argues that if central processes are out of scope of scientific research on cognition, then what must be done is to study reasoning in some concrete historical circumstances. Here, nevertheless, we suggest that what Netz offers as an example of cognitive history is all about a beautiful example of some ideas from Vygotsky. Using some symbolic tools externalizes, make explicit and permits control about deductive processes of thinking. Using psychological tools was the basic mechanism that Vygotsky defended to explain the development from basic to more advanced psychological processes. The history of deduction that Netz proposes is, we suggest, a very fitting and clear example of that theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents the conceptualization of comparative psychology as proposed by J. Ingenieros, an Argentine psychologist whose views are best represented by his Principios de psicología (1919). His concepts are based on a "genetic" view, an idea of gradual change derived from evolutionary biology. Comparative psychology should be based on the study of behaviors—the expression of psychological processes not directly accessible to study in animals. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Suggests that critical history involves traditional sources and authorities, the assumptions and commitments of the historian, and a conscious attempt to avoid taking current biases for granted. The traditional way of treating the historical succession of psychological objects as a sequence of natural events overlooks the complex constructive activity taking place behind the scenes. When examining object-generating activities, problem situations that generated these activities must be examined. The definition of critical history can be undertaken in terms of the definition of its tasks and challenges. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents the proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Psychology, which was interrupted in Madrid with the beginning of the Spanish Civil War and later transferred to Paris. (English abstract) (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Francisco M Tortosa
  • University of Valencia
Hugo Klappenbach
  • Universidad Nacional de San Luis
Jose M. Peiro
  • University of Valencia
Vicenta Mestre
  • University of Valencia
Kurt Danziger
  • York University