Revista Mexicana de Sociología

Print ISSN: 0188-2503
PIP: This broad survey of the debate concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development discusses the history and current status of world population growth, summarizes several influential theoretical positions on the topic, and proposes that redefinition of women's social role is indispensable if worldwide control of population growth is to be achieved. The introductory section discusses the acceleration of population growth in the second half of the 20th century and the increasing concentration of growth in the poor and developing countries. The positions of those who see in population control a means of promoting economic development and political stability are contrasted to the positions of those who believe that a large and growing population is the key to achieving economic and political progress. The international community, facing great uncertainty about the size, distribution, and well-being of the future world population, is increasingly concerned about the effect of growing numbers on the environment and natural resources. The second section summarizes the works of Malthus, Julian Simon, and the Club of Rome, and analyzes the propositions of demographic transition theory. The conclusion notes that despite uncertainty about the future of world population, development, and health, most of the poorest countries have become aware of the desirability of slowing population growth. A broad redefinition of the social role of women will inevitably accompany the worldwide demographic transition.
"The purpose of this study is to adjust a mathematical function to population development in Mexico between 1940 and 1990 and to measure the degree of congruity between information from population censuses and statistics. The open expologistical function accurately reproduces the development of birth, death and international migration rates." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
"This study describes general links between economic development and urbanization in Mexico in the periods from 1960 to 1980 and 1980 to 1990. Changes observed in production structure are compared with the dynamics of urban development, according to the increase in the number of cities, modifications in urbanization levels and increases in absolute urban population size. During the [1980s], there seemed to be a change in Mexico's process of urbanization, characterized by a sudden deceleration and sharp fall in the power of the country's four main metropolitan areas to concentrate large populations as they had done up to 1980." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
"The author presents estimates of interstate migration [in Mexico] by age and gender for the country's overall internal migration and for each of the states, without specifying age or gender, for the five years leading up to the censuses carried out in 1970, 1980 and 1990. Estimates are based directly on census figures. On the whole, internal migration was lowest in the 80s and slightly higher in the 90s than in the 70s." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
"Mexico has seen drastic changes in the population's reproductive behavior due mainly to a rapid increase in the use of contraceptive methods and lower fertility rates. In order to analyze the factors contributing to this decrease, the study examines variations in desired family size between 1976 and 1986, using Bongaarts' methodology." The data are from both surveys and censuses and are for the period 1976-1986. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
"The study indicates certain differences in the amount and characteristics of Mexican migration to the United States in the period from 1964-1980 and from 1980-1990. Entry procedures to the United States, migrants' places of origin and destiny, their occupation in both Mexico and the United States, and the length of their stay there are analyzed. Migrants' age and relocation costs are also studied, although emphasis is placed on the need to systematize data from a conceptual and methodological point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
"This article summarizes some of the main changes that have taken place in employment [in Mexico] during the '80s by comparing information from the XIth Population Census with other sources. Changes in employment include the increasing number of women in the workplace, participation of the active population and the growth of small-scale economic activities, which in turn leads to a number of other factors." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
PIP: The author analyzes trends in female labor force participation by age in Mexico during the period 1978-1987, using data for Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara. Aspects considered include the increase in the number of employed married women, changes in type of occupational activity, and changes in the motivations for women seeking employment, especially changes due to the need for additional household income.
PIP: The authors review aspects of Mexico's demographic transition, with a focus on the 1980s. Population politics, contraceptive use patterns, changes in overall and infant mortality, and increased female labor force participation are considered as contributory factors to this transition.
PIP: The author attempts to determine whether the economic crisis of the 1980s has caused an increase or a decrease in population concentration in Mexico. Theories related to the topic are summarized, and data on past and current trends in population and economy in Mexico are analyzed. A forecast of future trends in population distribution and urbanization is also provided.
PIP: The author analyzes mortality levels in Mexico by age and sex according to selected socioeconomic and geographic variables for the period 1980-1985. Mortality in 1980 is first reviewed. Complete life tables are then provided for 1983-1985 for the whole country. Male mortality showed the greatest decline, due to a decrease in deaths from violence and accidents.
PIP: The authors present estimates of infant mortality in Mexico by state, using survey and census data for the 1970s and 1980s. They use an alternative method of calculating infant mortality which suggests that previous calculations have underestimated the level of both fertility and infant mortality. (SUMMARY IN ENG)
PIP: This study is concerned with the ways in which changes in the structure of rural life influence internal migration in Latin America. The author describes how changes such as the abolition of slavery affected Peru and Bolivia and how the expansion of the international grain market affected Argentina, particularly regarding migration. Recent changes considered include the mechanization of agriculture and the decline of immigration.
PIP: This article utilizes field data from Mexico City squatter settlements and personal interviews with employers to analyze some aspects of social relations between the informal sector and the formal urban sector, and compares the results with findings of other anthropologists in Mexico and elsewhere to derive a series of theoretical generalizations concerning mechanisms of articulation between the marginal sector and the formal economic and political institutions of the society. The formal sector is postulated to consist of the 3 subsectors of power, capital, and labor, which are in permanent conflict among themselves but all of which enjoy labor security and an assured minimal level of income. The marginal or informal sector lacks employment security, a minimal income level, and bargaining power. It is characterized by a small scale economy utilizing intensive familial labor. The informal sector is marginal to the dominant industrial system of production and the state apparatus, although it fulfills functions in terms of the national economy. 2 types of relationships may be distinguished in the social organization of the marginal sector: reciprocal relations between equals which form a network for the exchange of goods and services, or patron/client relations which are used, for example, in the case of petty entrepreneurs utilizing their relatives and acquaintances to create units of production. The functions of reciprocal relations are affected by social, physical, economic, and psychosocial distance or proximity and may result in exchanges of information, labor assistance, loans, services, or moral support. Patron/client relations may be direct, or the "patron" may be an intermediary. Some reciprocal networks display a pattern of incipient asymmetry leading to formation of true patron/client ties and some petty entrepreneurs or intermediaries manage to develop true patron/client networks; case histories are used to illustrate both phenomena. Intermediaries functioning in the system of production and the political process are discussed. It is concluded that as long as members of the informal sector continue to be excluded from local and national institutions, intermediaries will be required to link the 2 sectors. The patron superimposes an element of inequality in his network of reciprocal relations, but his economic utility makes it necessary. At the same time, the prevailing lack of social mobility means that his true class position will not improve significantly.
"The analysis of probable growth rates among families, based on census figures, proved that fertility rates in Mexico began to fall earlier and less selectively than suggested by previous studies. The first changes in reproductive patterns occurred prior to official family planning programs. A state-by-state probability analysis discovered the existence of three groups of states corresponding to the different stages of changing fertility rates." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
PIP: The author analyzes changes in the crude birth rate in Mexico between 1970 and 1987, with a focus on the impact of declining marital fertility, changes in the proportions of women in conjugal unions by age group, and changes in the age and sex distribution of the population. Data are from national fertility surveys conducted in Mexico in 1976, 1982, and 1987.
PIP: The author investigates trends in international migration along the southern border of Mexico, using data on the characteristics of temporary workers who provide labor for annual coffee harvests in Soconusco. Aspects considered include mechanisms of recruitment of human resources and the volume of labor migration. Data are from a survey of migrant workers employed in the coffee harvest in 1986 and 1987.
Una idea de G. Dumézil acerca del significado original de la tríada census, censor, censura y permite esbozar algunos elementos para el análisis sociológico de los censos y del campo de los acreedores de sentido demográfico. Los censos no son una fotografía de la "realidad", sino un conjunto de categorías de clasificación legitimadas que conforman un esquema de percepción donde deben ser pensadas las relaciones generales más importantes entre el Estado y los individuos, para los fines de gestión de una colectividad: son la normalización de un determinado juego de verdad. El censor, cuya autoridad le ha sido delegado por el Estado, es reclutado entre los agentes de varias disciplinas, especialmente de la demografía. Producción simbólica demográfica dominante, posiciones y disposiciones de los agentes sociales, individuos epistémicos, en el campo de los creadores de sentido demográfico constituyen algunas de las condiciones de posibilidad de una forma de censura.
PIP: Although domestic violence against women has a long history in Nicaragua, it did not receive national public attention until a 1985 study that was conducted by the Legal Office for Women (OLM) of the Sandinista Women¿s organization. AMNLAE showed that 51% of the cases in which women sought legal assistance, related to domestic violence. The Nicaraguan law does not specifically consider domestic violence, and no previous studies allow comparison with current statistics. This work describes two juridical strategies to resist violence against women: 1) an effort, largely initiated by lawyers and social scientists participating in the OLM, to reform the formal juridical system through new legislation making domestic violence a crime; 2) a strategy initiated by activists in poor urban barrios in the municipal districts north of Managua, who developed locally based informal mechanisms including a court of women, assignment of lawyers to work with battered women in the local police station, and organization of community networks of resistance by the lawyers. The development of the process during the Sandinista period of the 1980s and transformation under the Violeta Chamorros regime after 1990 are analyzed. The complex interaction of the AMNLAE with the Sandinista regime and the redefinition of the limits among private and public domains of urban neighborhoods are examined.
The author uses census data to analyze recent trends in nuptiality in Mexico. She notes that "the fact that census data include both married and common-law couples enables...[questions] to be answered at the same time as it allows one to trace the development of the main indexes of marriage rates from 1930 to 1990. Differences between the sexes are established to provide a fuller analysis and a distinction is made between changes experienced by common-law and married couples." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
PIP: The authors identify some variables associated with the adoption and continuation of contraception in Mexico. The focus is on determinants of choice of different methods, as well as the impact of selected socioeconomic and demographic factors and the influence of institutions providing family planning services on choice of method.
PIP: The family life cycle concept developed by Meyer Fortes is tested using data from the 1970 Mexican census. The results indicate that this concept is not wholly applicable because of the wide prevalence of extended family households and because childbearing in Mexico is spread over an extended period, with the result that childbearing periods for mother and older daughters may overlap.
PIP: The author analyzes the impact of temporary migration on the reproduction of households in agricultural communities in Malinalco, Mexico. The interrelationship between the demographic structure of households and trends in temporary migration is studied, and the role of different types of economic activity in households is considered.
PIP: Recent population trends in Mexico are explored. The authors note that population growth rates have begun to decline primarily because fertility has started to decline. The significance of rural-urban migration, particularly among the young, and of the rapid growth of the urban population is discussed.
PIP: The implications of U.S. migration policy are evaluated, with a focus on the demographic and sociological aspects, labor market effects, and economic implications of Mexican migration to the United States.
PIP: This study is concerned with differentials in infant and child mortality among low-income urban groups in Mexico. Mortality differentials within and among marginal socioeconomic groups in suburbs of Mexico City and Leon are analyzed and compared using data collected in interviews in 1980 and 1983. The results indicate that the health benefits associated with modernization, such as improved sanitation, can sometimes be offset by their negative impact on mortality, such as industrial accidents and environmental pollution.
PIP: The authors analyze trends in infant mortality and health in Mexico over the past three decades, using vital statistics data and national health surveys. They also explore trends and epidemiologic profiles in light of standards of living and recent scientific and technological developments. It is found that the probability of surviving during infancy has greatly increased; nevertheless, inequalities among social groups have become more acute.
PIP: The authors attempt to characterize the women who have played a pioneering role in changing reproductive patterns in Mexico. They investigate groups of women having high and low fertility, the importance of generational groups, and variations in the impact of age at first union. The effect of selected socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on reproductive behavior is explored.
PIP: The author analyzes the effects of levels and trends in fertility, mortality, and migration in Mexico during the period 1950-1985 on the volume, growth rate, and age structure of the population. In addition, the future consequences of recent demographic trends are considered, with a focus on the demand for primary education, the size of the economically active population, household size and structure, and the need for medical services.
PIP: The author reviews the history of population policy in Mexico. Sections are included on antecedents of official population policy; the radical change in orientation since the enactment of the third General Law of Population in 1973; institutional bases of Mexican population policy; the National Family Planning Plan, 1977-1982; and an evaluation of the results of the population policy.
PIP: Although Mexico has had high rates of population growth since the 1930s caused by continuing high fertility but declining infant and general mortality, and has undergone deep structural change including declining agricultural production, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and increasing urban umemployment, it was not until the 1970s that the government began to adopt measures aimed at controlling population growth. Opponents of family planning argued that economic and social development would lead to fertility decline, but its proponents believed that reducing population growth would free resources for productive investment that otherwise would have to be used to finance services for the ever-growing population. At the same time that the constitution and laws were changed to allow or promote family planning, Mexican civil and labor laws were changed to provide for equality of men and women. Some background is necessary to understand the effect of such changes in the role and status of the Mexican woman. A relationship has been noted between demographic models--the form in which a society reproduces over a given time--and the social condition of women. Women have generally been subordinated to men during known history, but recent research indicates that their history has not been as uniform as once supposed. The particular form in which each society defines the natural-biological basis of sex roles varies; social definitions of sex and gender vary depending on the extension of "natural-biological" character to specific areas and tasks. The cases of French women in the 16th-18th centuries and German women under Hitler illustrate different ways in which demographic models and the condition of women have varied within a general framework of subordination of women. But when attempts are made to change a given demographic model, the condition of women is redefined at the level of practice as well as of value orientations concerning motherhood, female labor force participation, and the role of women in society. Moreover, the literature concerning fertility decline contains numerous statements by both those opposed to and in favor of birth control, that improving the status of women is 1 of the most effective means of reducing population growth. It can then be asked what changes in the role of women in Mexico will attend application of a fertility reduction policy. The crude birth rate declined from 44.2 in 1970 to 34.4 in 1980, with fertility falling among all age groups but especially among women over 40. The decline occurred primarily among urban nonmanual occupations. More research must be done on recent fertility change in Mexico and on related changes in the role orientations of men and women in different classes and life cycle stages, that have occurred at various stages of the population debate.
PIP: The author presents a historical overview of the discipline of demography, beginning with the etymology of the word. A discussion of why the study of population came to be seen as important and a review of the various demographic schools of thought follow. The author concludes with a presentation of some modern approaches, including neo-Malthusianism. The geographical scope is worldwide, with some focus on Mexico.
Selected by the author, these essays illustrate the advances in anthropology during the past few decades [written in 1952]. Harvard Book List (edited) 1955 #416 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article examines how a political performance becomes a sphere of social effervescence that contributes to the creation of various binary discourses in an election and how this opens the door to political change. It thereby seeks to determine the strength of an event in the political structure and hierarchy, in other words, the influence that a performative situation can have on a broader social scale. It addresses the specific case of the university student movements called 131 and YoSoy132. The text shows how political performances can give rise to the creation of icons and symbols of social change D. R.
Many scholars of Latin America have argued that the introduction of coffee forced most people to become landless proletarians toiling on large plantations. Cultivating Coffee tells a different story: small and medium-sized growers in Nicaragua were a vital part of the economy, constituting the majority of the farmers and holding most of the land. Alongside these small commercial farmers was a group of subsistence farmers, created by the state’s commitment to supplying municipal lands to communities. These subsistence growers became the workforce for their coffee-growing neighbors, providing harvest labor three months a year. Mostly illiterate, perhaps largely indigenous, they nonetheless learned the functioning of the new political and economic systems and used them to acquire individual plots of land. Julie Charlip’s Cultivating Coffee joins the growing scholarship on rural Latin America that demonstrates the complexity of the processes of transition to expanded export agriculture in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, emphasizing the agency of actors at all levels of society. It also sheds new light on the controversy surrounding landholding in Nicaragua during the Sandinista revolution. Julie A. Charlip is an associate professor of history at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington. She is co-author of the seventh edition of Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History, originally written by the late E. Bradford Burns.
This article analyzes public formal art teaching institutions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the last quarter of the 19th century. It specifically analyzes the institutionalization of aesthetic issues and the creation of the art institution in Buenos Aires as part of the process of cultural modernization. To this end, the author analyzes the case of the Academia de Bellas Artes y Escuela de Artes Decorativas e Industriales at the time of its nationalization (1905) as part of the coordination and realization of the aesthetic, artistic and cultural project for the training of artists attached to the Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes. © 2014. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales.
This figure traces the process of  private Bank concentration in Costa Rica from 1980 to 2014
Private banking sector in Costa Rica (2012)
This paper analyzes the main changes suffered by the economic power groups (epg) in the last three decades. The paper also discusses the relations with the State since the civil war of 1948, as well as the changes and transformations experienced by these groups in times of trade openness and liberalization. It inquires about the impacts of openness on the financial sector and banking. Finally, it analyzes the consequence of the "buying and selling" of different epg in the last decade.
This article examines the emergence of the idea of civil society in the Mexican public sphere after the earthquake of 1985 as well as its popularization and the transformations of its meanings in subsequent decades. By analyzing journalistic accounts of the earthquake, the text argues that civil society replaced the people as the legitimate national collectivity in the context of the transition to neoliberalism. From being the symbol of the national collectivity, "the people" were redefined as an obsolete actor: the antithesis, and forerunner, of civil society.
coordinación estratégica, alianzas electorales, elecciones de gobernador, gobiernos divididos
FUENTE: adaptado de Van Cott, 2000.
El texto explora si existe alguna casualidad entre la presencia y relevancia de los partidos étnicos (PE) en seis países latinoamericanos y las "condiciones favorables" que indican diversas perspectivas de la literatura sobre acción colectiva. Para ello se realiza un análisis cualitativo multicausal orientado a los casos y a las variables que usa la lógica booleana para simplificar estructuras de datos complejos de forma sistemática. Con ello se trata de identificar la variedad de pautas causales de la presencia y éxito de los PE en Bolivia, Ecuador, y nicaragua y no en Guatemala, México y Perú. The text examines if there is a causal link between the presence of ethnic parties in six Latin American countries and the "favorable conditions" indicated by the literature on collective action. The author undertakes a multi-causal, qualitative analysis oriented towards cases and variables wich uses Boolean logic to siystematically simplyfy complex data structures. This is used to to identify the causal patterns why ethnic parties have been successful in Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua, but not in Guatemala, Mexico and Peru. k2
dinámicas electorales, organizaciones políticas confesionales, protestantismo, Colombia, competencia electoral
En este trabajo se analiza la relación entre valores y actitudes en torno a la contaminación ambiental en México con el cambio valoral asociado al tránsito materialismo-posmaterialismo. Los datos indican que la relación se presenta con mayor fuerza entre los sectores más acomodados; no obstante, hay una presencia de valores ambientales en grupos menos favorecidos, indicando que el imperativo ambiental también surge como una nueva preocupación asociada a las carencias materiales. Lo anterior, además, matiza la hipótesis clásica de Ronald Ingleharth.
México Esta investigación tuvo como propósito aportar conocimientos concretos sobre la dependencia cultural externa y el dominio cultural interno que ejercen las clases dominantes del país. Para esto se revisan las condiciones económicas, jurídicas, físicas y sociales de la prensa en México y sus fuentes de información. Se hace especial énfasis en el estudio de Excélsior.
A finales del siglo XX y compartiendo los mismos dogmas neoliberales, México y Colombia desarrollan políticas agrarias en parte opuestas, y conocen procesos de reafiliación de identidad diferenciados, que sin embargo coinciden sobre ciertos puntos, como la revalorización discursiva de las minorías étnicas en la sociedad nacional. La comparación de estos dos procesos en términos de cambios de afiliaciones de identidad permite re-evaluar el lugar respectivo de los actores locales - campesinos, indios, negros, Estado- y sus márgenes de maniobra frente a fenómenos de globalización que los obligan a redefinir sus relaciones en marcos ampliamente prefijados por las sociedades del Norte.
Although there has been very little research on black Mexican populations, recent years have seen an increase in this type of studies, which in turn has revealed a relatively unexplored field of study that is problematic in many respects. On the basis of the literature reviewed to date, I propose dealing with the theoretical and methodological issues concerning the double question: What place do Afro-Mexican studies occupy in the intellectual debate on black populations? How could this “social group” be analyzed?
En este artículo se examinan las convergencias en la práctica de la sociología en los Estados Unidos y América Latina, se discrepa de las grandes teorías del pasado y se propone una agenda de investigación basada en un conjunto de conceptos de alcance medio, que surgen de los acontecimientos recientes en la sociología económica. Se discuten las implicaciones para el futuro de la disciplina en ambas partes del continente.
Top-cited authors
Miguel Vite
  • Metropolitan Autonomous University
Miguel Ángel Vite Pérez
  • Metropolitan Autonomous University
Cristobal Kay
  • Erasmus University Rotterdam
T. K. Ahn
  • Seoul National University
Emile Durkheim
  • New York University