Studied the development and validity of the Portuguese version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale in 133 adults (general population sample) and 298 university students (aged 18-62 yrs) in Portugal. Data on sociodemographic variables and clinical and psychological symptoms were obtained by questionnaire. Factorial analysis and other statistical tests were used. Three factors were identified: difficulty in identification of emotions and distinguishing body sensations from emotions, difficulty in describing emotions to others, and external thinking style. The result show adequate internal consistency, excellent test-retest reliability, and a factor structure similar to English versions of the instrument. Further studies on the convergent and discriminant validity are planned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relation of machismo, personality traits, and diagnosis of behavior disorders in 84 male adolescents (aged 17-18 yrs) with behavior disorders, 42 male adolescents (mean age 17.19 yrs), 24 male and 54 female adults (aged 24-68 yrs) (parents of adolescents with behavior disorders), and 67 male and 89 female adults (aged 29-61 yrs) (parents of adolescents from a general population sample; controls). Data on sociodemographic variables, family dynamics, psychological and behavioral symptoms, and personality traits were obtained by questionnaire. The Machismo Scale of the Inventory of Masculinity and Femininity (M. A. Lara, 1993) and the Social Disorder Symptom Questionnaire for Adolescents and a Social Disorder Symptom Questionnaire for Parents (C. Rey Anacona and F. Jiménez Gómez, 2001) were used. The results indicate that higher scores on the Masculinity scale between mothers of adolescents with behavior disorders r and control Ss but that scores on the Masculinity scale did not differ between fathers of adolescents with behavior disorders and control fathers. The role of gender stereotypes in the development and diagnosis of behavior disorders is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la utilidad de la escala Odecp de Nichols & Greene, (1991) en el MMPI-2. Para realizar este objetivo se crearon dos grupos, el denominado control, formado, a su vez, por dos subgrupos (clínico y normal) que contestan de forma honesta y sincera al cuestionario; y el denominado experimental, formado a su vez por dos subgrupos (buena imagen y mala imagen), integrado por personas consideradas como normales a quienes que se les instruyó para que contestaran presentando una buena o mala imagen de sí mismos. Finalmente se añadió un tercer grupo, denominado Inconsistente, al que se le pidió que contestaran de una forma incoherente sin tener en cuenta la información contenida en los ítems del cuestionario del MMPI-2. Los resultados demuestran que esta escala Odecp muestra una sensibilidad, especificidad y poder predictivo aceptable como escala detectora de fingimiento positivo. The aim of this study it’s to evaluate the utility of the Odecp Scale of Nichols & Greene (1991) in the MMPI-2. To make this possible, two groups were created; the control group, formed by two subgroups (clinical and normal), both integrated by subjects whom answered honestly and sincerely to the questionnaire. The experimental group, formed as well by two subgroups (good image and bad image), was integrated by people considered normal but who were instructed to answer displaying a good or bad image of themselves. Finally a third group was added, denominated Inconsistent, were subjects were requested to answer in an incoherent form regardless of the information contained in the items of the questionnaire of the MMPI-2. The results show that the Odecp Scale has an acceptable sensitivity, specificity and predictive power as a detection scale for positive feigning. k11
Arbisi, y Ben-Porath (1995, 1998) en su estudio con una muestra clínica proponen una nueva escala en el MMPI-2 para poder detectar a los simuladores. Los resultados aportados por dichos autores sobre esta nueva escala de validez, la escala Psiquiátrica Fp, permite distinguir, entre los pacientes psiquiátricos, aquellos que responden honestamente de los que intentan exagerar sus síntomas de forma intencionada. El objetivo de nuestra investigación consiste en experimentar esta escala Fp con diferentes tipos de participantes en la reciente adaptación española y reflejar su singular comportamiento. El estudio lo compone un número total de participantes de 3.035 sujetos de los cuales 1.723 son sujetos considerados como “normales” (grupo “normal”) que responden con sinceridad al cuestionario del MMPI-2 (forma estándar); un total de 561 participantes son sujetos considerados como “clínicos” (grupo “clínico”) que responden igualmente de forma sincera y honesta. A un grupo de 269 sujetos “normales” se les ha instruido para que muestren intencionadamente una imagen negativa de sí mismos (grupo “mala imagen”) y a otros 282 participantes, igualmente normales, se les instruyó para que mostraran una imagen positiva de sí mismo (grupo “buena imagen”); por fin un grupo de 200 participantes, utilizando diversas estrategias, contestaron al cuestionario sin atender a la información contenida en los ítems (grupo “Rtas. Inconsistentes”). Los resultados demuestran la sensibilidad de esta Escala Fp de Arbisi, y Ben-Porath a la detección de aquellos individuos que, de forma voluntaria y coherente, falsean sus respuestas al MMPI-2 intentando presentar su imagen más desfavorable al mismo tiempo que observamos dificultades para discriminar suficientemente a los sujetos que intentan presentar una buena imagen de sí mismos de aquellos otros que presentan problemas clínicos, al menos entre los varones. Arbisi, and Ben-Porath (1995, 1998) in their study with a clinical sample propose a new scale in the MMPI-2 to be able to detect to the simulators. The results contributed by this authors on this new scale of validity, the Psychiatric scale Fp, allows to distinguish, among the psychiatric patients, those that respond honestly of those that try to exaggerate its symptoms in a deliberate way. The objective of our investigation consists on to experience this scale Fp with different types of participants in the recent Spanish adaptation and to reflect its singular behavior. The study composes it a total number of participants of 3.035 subject of which 1.723 are subject considered as "normal" (group "normal") that respond with sincerity to the questionnaire of the MMPI-2 (it forms standard); a total of 561 participants is subject considered as "clinical" (group "clinical") that respond equally in a sincere and honest way. To a group of 269 fellows "normal" they have been instructed so that they show a negative image deliberately of themselves (group "bad image") and to other 282 participants, equally normal, they were instructed so that they showed a positive image of itself (group "good image"); finally a group of 200 participants, using diverse strategies, they answered to the questionnaire without assisting to the information contained in the articles (group "Rtas. Inconsistencies"). The results demonstrate the sensibility of this Scale Fp of Arbisi, and Ben-Porath to the detection of those individuals that, in a voluntary and coherent way, they falsify their answers to the MMPI-2 trying to present their more unfavorable image at the same time that we observe difficulties to discriminate against sufficiently the fellows that try to present a good image at least of themselves of those other ones that you/they present clinical problems, among the males. k11
The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor structure of the Duke-UNC-11 functional social support questionnaire of women in the general population and Chilean battered women. The first group consisted of 371 women (rank of ages = 18-80 years) and the second by 97 battered women (rank of ages = 29-69 years). Results confirm the dimensionality of the instrument and an adequate internal consistency for both groups, so that the questionnaire Duke-UNC-11 is reliable and valid. The validation of the questionnaire in Chilean women is considered important for the usefulness of the Duke-UNC-11 in different contexts and countries, which allow comparison of results with data found in other countries.
The social support is considered a fundamental mediating variable in the caregiver's stress process. The Duke-UNC-11 functional social support questionnaire evaluates the perceived social support and has been adapted to the Spanish population and widely used in general population and caregivers in Spain, although it has not been validated in caregiver population. DUKE-UNC was applied to 120 caregivers (Rank of age= 24-89 years; Mean= 54,9; SD=15,14). Results confirm the two-dimensionality of the instrument and an adequate internal consistency and construct validity, although they show the existence of variations in the items' distribution in the factors. The questionnaire is reliable and valid in caregivers in Spain, although it is recommended to consider the characteristics of this population when used.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the construct validity and the reliability of the official international Hispanic version of the YSR/11-18 in Mexican adolescents. A sample of 790 students aged 13 to IS years was intentionally recruited from public secondary and high schools in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City. This sample was divided in two parts or samples. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out with sample one and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with data from sample two. A structure of twelve Narrow Band factors was observed, eight original factors and four new factors. These were integrated in four Broad Band factors: Internalizing. Externalizing, and Mixed, and a new one of Positive Qualities, as reported in recent research. The factorial strucnire in this study presents adequate psychometric properties and seems to be useful both to evaluate mental health problems and adolescents" resources.
The main objective of the present study was to obtain a reliable self-report instrument to measure direct and indirect aggression in children. With this purpose in mind, we adapted and translated into Spanish the Aggression Scale developed by Little, Jones, Henrich and Hawley (2003). The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed in a sample of 613 Argentinean children aged 10 to 13. The instrument presented excellent internal consistency (α =.913) and all the items showed a high discriminative power. The fnal version of the questionnaire was a 22-item scale that comprised two dimensions of aggression: physical and verbal aggression, and relational aggression. These dimensions explained 49.10 % of total variance. In addition, convergent validity was supported with the Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale developed by Caprara and Pastorelli (1993). Sex differences were assessed in both scales. Boys obtained higher scores in physical and verbal aggression, but no sex differences were found in relational aggression.
Early identification of children who may have a mental health problem is essential to implement preventive and treatment actions. In order to do this, it is necessary to have valid instruments adapted to the characteristics of the population and the contexts in which they are applied. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to validate the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) in Chilean first grade elementary school students. A random sample of 5177 students participating in a national school mental health program was used. The children were evaluated by their parents or caregivers and their teachers. Results of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a three-factor structure composed of: internalizing, externalizing and attention difficulties. These findings are consistent with what has been reported in the literature, transforming the PSC-17 into a good screening tool for use in schools and health centers.
The Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) was developed to assess cognitive emotional regulation strategies against unpleasant events. It was recently developed a short version (CERQ-18) in Peru and the results were favorable to assess their factorial equivalence regard to CERQ. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of CERQ-18 with external and internal criteria. In 286 college students aged 18 to 30 years old, was used a correlational analysis with measures of depression and anxiety. The results showed that the correlation pattern CERQ-18 and these measures was theoretically coherent, and also equivalent to the CERQ with these variables. The reliability of the dimensions of CERQ-18 was adequate, and estimate of the measurement error was similar to the long version. Finally, was conducted a statistical comparison between reliability coefficients of different short versions found. The implications of the results are discussed.
The Covid-19 pandemic has forced the confinement of the population for prolonged periods of time. The possibility of leaving home after quarantine can produce anxiety and fear of contagion. The aim of the present study was to construct an instrument to assess the anxiety of being unconfined and to test its psychometric properties. The Disconfinement Anxiety Scale was administered online to 417 adults aged 18 years or older, men and women, living in Chile. An exploratory factor analysis was performed and found two dimensions: Contagion avoidance and emotional distress. The scale showed a positive correlation with general distress and a negative correlation with satisfaction with life. The total scale obtained a Cronbach's α of .92 and its subfactors explain 51.24% of the total variance. These results present a valid and reliable instrument to assess disconfinement anxiety, which can be used to detect people vulnerable to mental health problems during or after the pandemic.
The aim of this study it's to evaluate the utility of the Odecp Scale of Nichols & Greene (1991) in the MMPI-2. To make this possible, two groups were created; the control group, formed by two subgroups (clinical and normal), both integrated by subjects whom answered honestly and sincerely to the questionnaire. The experimental group, formed as well by two subgroups (good image and bad image), was integrated by people considered normal but who were instructed to answer displaying a good or bad image of themselves. Finally a third group was added, denominated Inconsistent, were subjects were requested to answer in an incoherent form regardless of the information contained in the items of the questionnaire of the MMPI-2. The results show that the Odecp Scale has an acceptable sensitivity, specificity and predictive power as a detection scale for positive feigning.
The aim this study is to contribute to the analysis of the likelihood that men and women have to have low performance (Level 1 and below) in the PISA assesses competencies 2012: Reading, Mathematics and Science. Methodology: No experimental or ex post facto, comparative-causal design. The predictor variables are grouped in four models: Biological, family resources, immigration and personal. The main independent variable sex was included in all models. The generator data sample consists of 24,932 young Spanish of both sexes, 15 years old. Outcome: They confirm that there is a significant relationship between gender and the likelihood of poor performance in PISA 2012 competencies, varying according the predictors variables.
The present instrumental study analyzes the psychometrics qualities of the brief scale of family functioning (FACES-20Esp). This scale was developed from the American scale "Family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scale. FACES II" (Olson, Portner and Bell, 1982) and adapted to the Spanish culture (MartinezPampliega, Iraurgi, Galindez y Sanz, 2006). A sample of 1530 students from 12 to 17 years-old (average: 14) that belongs to 19 school centers is used. The total sample is divided randomly in two halves, checking the factorial structure in an exploratory way in the first half and different structure models through confirmatory factorial analysis in the second one. The results confirm the psychometric soundness of the instrument, which possesses suitable indexes of reliability (internal consistent, alpha de Cronbach: 0,82 y 0,79, respectively for cohesion and adaptability) and a good construct validity, endorsed by the goodness of the indexes of adjustment obtained by proven models. An structure of two first order factors is retained as a more suitable model (CFI= 0,97; GFI= 0,94; SRMR= 0,038; RMSEA= 0,052), related to the theoretical dimensions, and a second order factor that explains a global dimension of family functioning.
This study shows the cultural adaptation carried out of the questionnaire CPIC (Children Perception of Interparental Conflict) developed by Grych, Seid and Fincham in 1992. This instrument has as conceptual endorsement the cognitive- contextual model. It is comprised of 49 items, which have to be answered by the children, organized around nine subscales into three sub-dimensions: properties of the conflict, perceived threat and guilt. To carry out the adaptation of the instrument to our country, a very rigorous retro-translation procedure and a subsequent empirical study of psychometric evaluation have been used, in which 638 adolescents of 11-17 years have participated. The resultant brief scale is comprised of only 36 items, four by each of the nine original subscales. The resultant reliability of the total scale was of 0.91, oscillating between 0.77 and 0.81 among the different subscales. The construct validity is endorsed through a confirmatory factor analysis, which threw suitable indices in relation to the dimensional structure established by the authors (GFI= 0.84; NFI= 0.83; RMSEA= 0.037). These results support the value of the CPIC for its use in the family research context.
In this paper we analyze the influence of mediating variables such as gender, duration of unemployment, the availability of economic resources and social support have on attitudes towards the employment of the unemployed people over 45 years of age in Portugal. These variables are considered the most important mediators in the answers to the unemployment situation. Using a qualitative methodology, the instrument chosen to this research is the interview of attitudes towards work, which has been validated for use with the target group. The qualitative analysis of these has been done with the software ATLAS.ti. Of the 131 collected interviews, the analyzed variables show that they are important mediators of attitudes towards the employment of the population studied. The results show the way to suggest specific activities within the professional guidance to improve the attitudinal component of the unemployed and suggestions new research.
In the present study, we adapted the Stage of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES, version 8D) to the European Portuguese and we examined its factor structure and psychometric properties. The scale was applied to a sample of 100 adults, mostly heroin addicts, in outpatient or inpatient treatment. A Principal Component Analysis applied to the data revealed three dimensions - Problem Recognition, Taking Steps and Ambivalence -, corresponding almost exactly to the factor structure originally proposed by Miller and Tonigan (1996). The reliability indices for SOCRATES three subscales (internal consistency and temporal stability) were adequate. External validity study showed that the subscales differentiated treatment contexts and were associated to the participants' evaluation regarding the treatment expectations and the technical team. Thus, the Portuguese version of SOCRATES 8D seems to possess the proper psychometric properties to evaluate drug addicts' treatment motivation.
The objective of the present work was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Scale of Attitudes toward Institutional Authority (AAI-A) in a sample of Chilean high school students. A sample of 1394 students of both sexes, aged between 12 and 20 years, from 11 secondary schools in the Region of La Araucania, Chile. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis show that the AAI-A maintains the originally proposed two-factor structure, also presenting adequate reliability indices of internal consistency and uniformity. Scale scores showed correlations AAI-A moderate, significant and in the expected direction with the Questionnaire for evaluating school social climate (CECSCE). We conclude that the AAI-A delivers various psychometric quality evidence for use in Chile.
This work examines preschool children competences about pre-reading abilities and knowledge. It pretends to identify cases which need specific intervention. We carried out a descriptive investigation using a screening test. This test examines the knowledge about Writing language, emergent writing and phonologic conscience. It takes ranking the weariness of children according to the step needy. Obtained results show homogeneity in pupil performance taking account of sex and classes. Considering children age, we note the best performance in Superior ages. We inform parents about good strategies when preschool children did not obtain the necessary competences.
Three hypotheses are tested. People who has a number of paranormal/anomalous experiences have a higher capacity for dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness than non-'-experients. These hypothesis were supported the mean for experients was significantly higher than for non experients. Five hundred sixty undergraduate students, 76% females and 24% males (age range 17-57), completed four scales: the Dissociative Experiences Scale, Tellegen Absorption Scale, Creative Experiences Questionnaire, and Paranormal Experiences Questionnaire. Experients scored higher on dissociation, absorption and fantasy proneness than non experients. Probably the present findings are reasonably representative of people who are not actively interested in paranormal phenomena, but many of these kind of experience reach predictable emotional reactions such as amazement, surprise, curiosity and puzzlement, and fear. On the other hand, some people are disturbed by psychic experiences and may need counseling, such as precognitive dreams, telepathy, poltergeist, perception of lights, out-of-the-body experiences, past lives memories, spiritual contacts, and mediumship. This study demonstrated the viability of adopting a psychological approach to better understand the anomalous/ paranormal experiences.
Factorial structure, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the Index of Spouse Abuse were examined. It was applied, together with the Double Standard Scale and Rape Supportive Attitude Scale, to a sample made up of 800 Brazilian women, selected by an incident sampling on general population. Four models from previous researches were tested through a confirmatory factor analysis. The best adjustment was showed by a model made up of 19 items divided up into two factors (Non-physical abuse and Physical abuse), which showed a good internal consistency reliability (.85 and .66, respectively). Scores from both subscales positively correlates with male sexist sexual attitudes.
A specific and multidimensional scale to evaluate locus of control for university students was developed, it includes two contexts (academic-interpersonal relations) and two dimensions (internality-externality), to evaluate to whom the Students assign the responsibility for the results of their acts. It was administered in several samples and the items were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation (both interitem and item-subscale); studies of internal consistency, convergent validity and a factorial study through an analysis of main components with rotation varimax were also made for the total scale. The factor analysis showed that the two variables (internality and externality) explained 36% of the total variance; high correlations with the Scale of Levenson adapted by Taricani were observed as an evidence of convergent validity; and a Study of internal consistency threw values of Alpha of Cronbach of 0,79 for the subscale of internality and 0,88 for the one of externality. The final version includes 32 four-point Likert scale items that throw partial qualifications for two dimensions.
The purpose of this investigation was: 1) to analyze the psychometric properties of the (EAPESA in a sample of 3250 adolescents of Chile, and 2) to determine to what extent perceived academic self-efficacy predicts high learning and strategies tested by LASSY-HS. According to outcomes of the first study, the scale has a unidimensional structure, as show the confirmatory factor analysis, with high levels of internal consistency (α = .88), as well as adequate psychometric properties for the ten items that compose it. Regarding the second study, the logistic regression analysis showed that perceived academic self-efficacy positively and significantly predicted high levels of attitude, motivation, time magement, concentration, info processing, select the main ideas, study AIDS, self-Testing and test strategies. Anxiety regarding, the results showed that the perceived academic self-efficacy predict anxiety negatively and significantly.
Today, teaching literacy is considered a lifelong process without a definite start or end point. A growing number of studies takes into account the importance of learning the written language in a highly literate society and the difficulties found at different levels in education. In addition, there have been increasing discussions regarding testing at various points of the learning process, in terms of the models and theoretical frameworks for teaching and learning. Disagreements center on possible definitions of reading and writing and the mutual relationship between spoken and written language, as well as their uses and functions. Part of the discussion focuses on determining the nature of the written language and identifying the elements of the spoken language it chooses to represent. Additionally, researchers attempt to delimit the units to be analyzed specifically within the written language system and also in terms of the ongoing process of text comprehension and production. Besides the relationship between these units, assessing the processes involved must clearly identify the different aspects in accordance with empirical evidence from research. We will discuss the current tools and reflect upon their scope. Only a precise evaluation in terms of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting relevant information about features of the skills and knowledge under scrutiny will allow solidly backed decision-making. Such decisions are key in establishing intervention strategies for normal learning environments as well as those where difficulties arise.
The present study analyses the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Scale in Academic Behaviors (EACA). The total sample comprised 592 participants; 143 women and 449 men, all of them freshman at Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua in the area of engineering, with a mean age of 18.16 years (DS= 0.72). Psychometric analysis showed that a three-factorial structure was viable and adequate according to the established psychometric requirements when the informers are the students themselves. The factor structure of the questionnaire was analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The structure of the three factors (Attention, Communication and Excellence), attending to substantive and statistic criteria, showed adequate indicators of adjustment, reliability and validity. In addition, factor analysis conducted with subsamples 1 and 2 indicated the presence of strong evidence of factor structure stability, until proven otherwise. Future research should replicate these findings in larger samples.
This is a comparative research, where the perceptions about academic problems during the last 12 months of high school and college students are analyzed. Coping to these problematic situations is also studied. Results are compared within five different groups (N= 444): students from an ordinary High School, pupils from a High School dependent from Buenos Aires University (UBA), college students of several careers (UBA), and two groups of college Psychology students (UBA and Tucuman National University, UNT). Differences by sex, age, parental education and occupations, are also analyzed.
This study aimed to design and validate an instrument to assess the three routes of access to the cognitive aspect of well-being in order to determine the contribution of each of the routes to the explanation of life satisfaction. Additionally, relations were established between hedonic and eudemonic well-being. 430 participants were included in this study, residing in the city of Buenos Aires (n 226 Women n 204 men). Instruments used: the scale of three routes of access to welfare (ERBIEN), the scale of Satisfaction with Life (SWLS), the Questionnaire of Meaning in Life, Personal Well-being Index (PWI) and the Inventory of Virtues and Strengths (IVIF). The results helped identify that pleasant life and meaningful life were the preferred routes for access to a fulfilling life. However, life satisfaction is explained better by the eudemonic than by hedonic well being.
Las creencias y actitudes permisivas hacia la violencia contra las mujeres en la pareja son importantes para su génesis y mantenimiento, por ello es necesario disponer de instrumentos de medida adecuados. El objetivo de este estudio es explorar las fortalezas y debilidades del Inventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB), aplicado a 733 estudiantes universitarios/as, junto al Inventario de Pensamientos Distorsionados sobre la Mujer y la Violencia (IPDMV). Los resultados muestran que el modelo con mejor ajuste y teóricamente más coherente para el IBWB conserva 16 ítems, agrupados en tres subescalas (responsabilidad de víctima, maltratador, y política), que correlacionan entre sí y con el resto de variables analizadas de modo teóricamente coherente y coincidente con la literatura científica, y generan diferencias por sexo y conocimiento previo similares a las descritas en dicha literatura. La mayor debilidad de esta nueva propuesta es la relativamente baja consistencia interna de algunas subescalas.
ABSTRACT: Permissive beliefs and attitudes towards violence against women in the couple are important for its genesis and maintenance, therefore it is necessary to have suitable measuring instruments. The objective of this study is to explore the strengths and weaknesses of the Inventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB), applied to 733 university students, along with the Inventory of Distorted Thoughts on Women and Violence (IPDMV). The results show that the model with the best fit and theoretically most coherent for the IBWB conserves 16 items, grouped into three subscales (victim responsibility, batterer, and policy), which correlate with each other and with the rest of the variables analyzed in a theoretically coherent manner and in line with the scientific literature, and which generate differences by sex and prior knowledge similar to those described in said literature. The greatest weakness of this new proposal is the relatively low internal consistency of some subscales.
We procured to investigate if exists differences in masculine and feminine effective leadership prototypes in different cultural regions. Participate 911 individuals, 46% male and 54% female (Age average=32,6 years). The majority (50%; n=459) resided in Buenos Aires city and Buenos Aires surroundings. 304 lived in Santa Fe city (33%). 148 (17%) resided in argentine northwest (Jujuy, Salta and Tucumán cities). They were subordinates. The data collection was realized by a survey designed ad hoc, in which the participants were requested to name two effective leaders (a man and a woman) and justify the election. The results show that exists bigger differences in masculine leadership prototypes in regions which are far away culturally (argentine northwest) than regions which are more similar (Buenos Aires and Santa Fe). We did not find differences in feminine leadership prototypes.
The objective of this research was tested in a structural equation model, the factorial validity of environmental self- efficacy, as well as the structural association on environmentally responsible behavior. The measure those constructs were in a survey into a sample formed by 300 youths between 12 and 28 (mean 16.77) years old, in México. The results indicated the factorial validity of environmental self- efficacy in this sample. As the authors hypothesize, the structural equation modeling analyses suggested the self- efficacy environmental is a predictor to the environmentally responsible behavior. The discussion analyzes the utility for assessment of self- efficacy and intervention development implications are suggested.
The aim of this study was to validate the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS) in Mexican male undergraduate students. A total of 148 students participated in the study (M=19.1, SD=2.14). A principal axes factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale resulting in a three factorial structure: Muscularity, Low body fat and Height. The internal consistency obtained was satisfactory MBAS (α=0.86), compared to the original version. Regarding the concurrent validation, the MBAS presented significant correlations with level of changes in eating behavior and the level of self and social perfectionism. Sensitivity to change was assessed through a pre-post preventive intervention in a subsample of 28 students and it showed a trend to significance for the overall scale of the MBAS and for the Height subscale. We concluded that it is an appropriate instrument to assess the body dissatisfaction among male adult young in Mexico.
La violencia filio-parental es un fenómeno de gran transcendencia social debido a su repercusión en las dinámicas familiares. La mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre este tema han sido realizadas en EEUU y España, siendo muy escasas en países de Latinoamérica, como por ejemplo, Chile. El objetivo del presente estudio fue adaptar y analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Violencia Filio-Parental, versión jóvenes (C-VIFIP) en una muestra de 823 estudiantes universitarios chilenos (M edad=20,59; DT=1,97). Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la estructura de cuatro factores de la versión original y muestran adecuadas propiedades psicométricas. Se concluye que este instrumento es útil para la evaluación de la violencia filio-parental en Chile y la alta prevalencia del fenómeno indica la necesidad de continuar la investigación sobre este tipo de violencia en este país.
El objetivo de este estudio fue la adaptación y validación del Inventario de Competencia Interpersonal ICQ-15 (Buhrmester, Furman, Wittenberg, & Reiss, 1988), probado con adultos, al caso de los adolescentes hispanohablantes(N=1060, edad=16,23 años).Se realizaron dos estudios: 1) se realizó la traducción del ICQ-15 al español y se evaluó su consistencia interna, estructura factorial y validez convergente; y 2) se realizó el análisis factorial confirmatorio del cuestionario. El análisis factorial exploratorio mostró claramente que los factores del ICQ-15 presentan una varianza acumulada del 64,88%, mostrando ser capaces de explicar la variación única de competencia interpersonal en adolescentes. Por su parte, el análisis factorial confirmatorio confirma la adecuación del modelo, con un modelo sustentable compuesto por los cinco factores identificados y 15 ítems. El ICQ-15 es un instrumento fácil de comprender y rápido de completar, por lo que se considera útil para la evaluación de la competencia interpersonal en adolescentes.
Este estudio tuvo como objetivo la adaptación al español de la Escala de Consideración de las Consecuencias Futuras de Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, (1994). Para ello se examinó a una muestra compuesta por 184 estudiantes universitarios quienes cumplimentaron dicho instrumento y el Inventario de Personalidad de los Cinco Grandes. Los resultados mostraron que la escala posee buenas propiedades psicométricas para ser utilizada con fines de investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró que se replica la estructura de dos factores compuesta por una subescala de Futuro y otra de Inmediatez. Se aprecian también que los hombres puntúan más alto que las mujeres en la sub-escala CFC-I y se revela que el ítem 5 no es adecuado para la versión en castellano. Finalmente se presentan las limitaciones y líneas futuras de investigación.
The study presents the adaptation and properties of the Psychological Inventory of Sports Performance (IPED to sports referee (IPEDA), which evaluates the psychological skills of the referee. The questionnaire is composed of 42 items divided into seven scales: self-confidence, negative coping control, attention control, visual and imaginative control, motivational level, positive coping control and attitudinal control. The sample consisted of 174 football referees, with a mean age of 22.41 years (SD=4.37). The scales have adequate internal consistency, the adjustment indexes (NFI, CFI, GFI and AGFI) are higher than .90, and the error rates (RMSEA, RMR and SRMR) around .08. In addition, through generalizability analysis the result is that sample is normal, linear and homoscedastic, with high levels of reliability (e2=1) and generalizability (Φ=1). These results indicate that the IPEDA is a valid and accurate instrument capable of providing reliable and generalizable results.
El objetivo del estudio es adaptar el cuestionario "Características Psicológicas relacionadas con el
Rendimiento Deportivo" (CPRD) para deportistas de montaña (CPRD-M), con el fin de disponer de medios
específicos para el análisis de factores psicológicos, en este ámbito deportivo. La muestra estuvo compuesta
por 497 deportistas, de siete modalidades deportivas, y con diferentes niveles de rendimiento deportivo. Se
obtuvieron datos óptimos para el Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO=.908) y la significación de Bartlett (p=.000).
Los análisis factoriales definieron el reparto de los 45 ítems, en 4 factores que analizan el Control del estrés,
la Influencia de factores externos en el rendimiento, la Autoconfianza y la Motivación; y posee una fiabilidad
adecuada (α=.904). Se concluye que el CPRD-M es un instrumento concreto y preciso, con adecuadas
propiedades psicométricas para el análisis de factores psicológicos que afectan a los deportistas de
modalidades de montaña, en su rendimiento.
The assessment of self-regulation during development needs reliable and valid measures, and even then it is a challenge to apply the scores to real-world competencies (Marlowe, 2000). The internal validity and reliability of procedures to measure executive performance were analyzed. These procedures were adapted to children in a low socioeconomic school environment for their use in an intervention program. The relationships between interference control and behavior were analyzed. The Simon-says and Sun-Moon Strooptasks, together with an observation scale, were used in a sample of 253 6-to-12 year-old children attending the first grade in a public school of Entre Rios (Argentina). No differences were found for age and gender. Low correlations were found between the two interference control tasks, and the effects of interference control on behavior. Results are discussed in the framework of neuropsychological and cognitive models.
This study firstly apply the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) in a context of job loss. Participants in this study were 217 unemployed in the city of Huelva. An items analysis and internal consistency reliability was computed obtaining alpha coefficients of .85 and .90 in each part of the instrument. The exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors similar to those in the original questionnaire. In order to obtain validity evidence, cluster analysis in two stages was performed, showing that participants fitted into two clusters, one associated with prolonged and the other with less intensity grief. No differences regarding age and sex in the intensity of grief was found, but regarding the length of unemployment and responsibility on the family income. An avoidant coping style was found in people with more intense grief.
In the context of the WHOQOL-OLD validation studies with Portuguese (Portugal) population, this paper describes the process and results from 8 focus groups (N=33). One group with professionals (N=4), one with caregivers (N=4), and six with older adults (N=25; four groups living in community; two groups living in institutional context) were conducted. The sampling procedure was done according to convenience. The results corroborate the multidimensional nature of QoL. In free-form QoL discussion all the WHOQOL-100 domains and facets were referred (except for Sexual activity), as well as the six facets of the WHOQOL- OLD. Older adults referred more frequently Quality of life and general health, and dimensions from Social relationships, Environment, Psychological, Spirituality and Autonomy; caregivers relate Autonomy, Health, Environment and Social relationships; and professionals relate Health, Independence, Environment and Social relationships. All the groups indicated the dimension "Family/Family life" that can likely constitute a new facet of the Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD module.
The main objective of this study is to analyze the psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Romanian people. The research was conducted with 806 participants, 16 to 78 years of age. Reliability analysis shows satisfactory results, with a Cronbach's alpha of ,70. The exploratory factor analysis extracted three factors, but the data obtained in the confirmatory factor analysis show that the unidimensional model fit better. The study results confirm that the GHQ-12 is an effective measure of screening for assessing the psychological and detecting nonpsychotic psychiatric problems in Romanian people. Validation of the questionnaire in Romanians is important due to the utility of the GHQ-12 in diverse contexts and countries. For the first time, this study assesses the dimensionality of the instrument in Romanian population, using confirmatory factor analysis.
There is clear evidence of the importance metacognitive skills and motivational aspects in problem solving, thus evaluation is necessary, especially in school context. O'Neil and colleagues made the Trait Thinking Questionnaire, considering the planning and monitoring in the metacognitive dimension, and the effort and self-efficacy in motivational dimension. The present study seeks to adapt and validate a questionnaire for children between 12 and 14 years of age. The instrument meets the criteria for content validity and construct, and with the psychometric properties of items; the reliability of the four components varies between 0.75 and 0.84.