Revista Brasileira de Zoologia

This study was designed to identify important food resource plants used by bee species in a Caatinga area, as well as describe the local patterns of floral use by bees. A total of 1,145 foraging bees, belonging to 60 species, were captured while visiting 50 plant species. Melochia tomentosa L., Sida galheirensis Ulbr., Erythroxylon catingae P. Cowan, and Ziziphus cotinifolia Reiss. were the most frequently visited plants. Melochia tomentosa, Solanum paniculatum L. and S. galheirensis were visited by larger number of bee species. Some oligolectic bees were identified. Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) had the largest trophic niche breadth (2.71 and 2.31). The trophic niche overlap was highest (0.52) between Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier, 1841 and Frieseomelitta silvestrii (Friese, 1902). The low trophic niche overlap between Apis mellifera and native stingless bees seems to be the result of intensive exploration of only a few flower sources by Africanized bees, not frequently visited by meliponids.
Atlantoscia floridana, infected and uninfected and cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp.: (1) live, unencysted cystacanth of Centrorhynchus sp., head with antennae and two unpigmented pereionites of A. floridana, bar = 1 mm; (2) fixed, infected specimen (left) showing pigmentation dystrophy and uninfected specimen (right) of A. floridana, bar = 2 mm; (3) live, infected specimen of A. floridana, showing pigmentation dystrophy, bar = 1 mm; (4) unencysted cystacanth of Centrorhynchus sp., from A. floridana, stained in Delafield's hematoxylin, bar = 1 mm; (5) encysted cystacanth of Centrorhynchus sp., cleared in Amann's lactophenol; (6) live, unstained, encysted cystacanth of Centrorhynchus sp., showing envelope of parasite origin (arrow), bars = 500 µm.  
Centrorhynchus sp. from Atlantoscia floridana: (7) proboscis, bar = 500 µm; (8) one longitudinal row with 9 hooks and 12 spines, bar = 100 µm.  
Centrorhynchus sp., from Atlantoscia floridana: (9-11) anterior, middle (inflated) and posterior thirds of proboscis, respectively (phase contrast), bars = 125 µm; (12) proboscis receptacle with proboscis ganglion (PG) and lemnisci (L); (13) middle portion of trunk, showing testes and hindtrunk (phase contrast); (14) distal portion of hindtrunk, showing invaginated copulatory bursa (phase contrast), bars = 500 µm.  
The observation of pigmentation alteration in isopod crustaceans induced by acanthocephalans, known as pigmentation dystrophy, has been documented in North America in species of the aquatic genera Asellus Geoffroy, 1764, Lirceus Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1820, and Caecidotea Packard, 1871, and in Europe, in Asellus. Recently, three depigmented specimens of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940), a terrestrial isopod, occurring from >Florida, USA to northern Argentina were found showing pigmentation dystrophy and harboring larval acanthocephalans. Photographic documentation of live and preserved, infected isopods is presented. Morphometric data and photomicrographs of the male, unencysted cystacanth specimen which allowed its placement in the genus Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are presented. This is the first record of the phenomenon of pigmentation dystrophy in terrestrial isopod crustaceans, the first record of A. floridana infected by an acanthocephalan and the first record of a species of Centrorhynchus in a terrestrial isopod.
Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae), Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959) and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965), both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921), Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904), Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950), and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day). Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.
Prevalence of feather mite genera on birds of the family Emberizidae captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin between August/1996 and July/1996.
The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87%) were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%), Proctophyllodes (56,52%) and Trouessartia (45,65%).
From July to September, 2000 (winter), and from January to March, 2001 (summer), 30 dust samples were collected for each season, from beds of rural dwellings located in farms in the geographical area named "Zona da Mata", Minas Gerais, Brazil. After being sorted, the mites were identified and quantified. The prevalence of mites in the samples was 100%. 891 mites were found in winter (22.97%), and 2988 in summer (77.03%). In winter, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) was the most prevalent (55.00%), followed by Blomia tropicalis (Bronswijk, Cock & Oshima, 1973) (27.06%), Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950) (8.85%), and predator mites from Cheyletidae family (8.07%). In summer, the most prevalent species was B. tropicalis (47.79%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (43.38%), Cheyletidae (6.87%), and E. maynei (1.28%). Few Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961), Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879), and mites from Tarsonemidae and Cunaxidae families were found, the last two occurring only in summer. No mites from Acaridae family were found. The greatest number of immature forms found in summer suggested a greater breeding activity in this season. It was also noted that different building materials and varied cleaning routines may influence the population size of domiciliary dust mites.
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) (Euphorbiaceae) is attacked by various species of phytophagous mites in Brazil. Studies conducted in the State of Mato Grosso showed the presence of Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae) on rubber trees, associated with the mite Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945. The aim of this work was to study the biology of that predator in the laboratory, when fed with T. heveae as prey. The study was started with 22 eggs, which resulted in 15 females reaching adult hood. To determine the effect of mating on oviposition, 30 females were used; half of those were maintained isolated and the remaining were maintained then with males during the whole adult stage. The stage of egg was the longest, with a duration of more than 4.0 days. The total duration of the immature phase was 10.2 days. Each female oviposited an average of 38.4 eggs, with a daily oviposition rate of 2.3 eggs per female. The duration of each adult phase, the daily oviposition rate and the longevity were different between the mated females and non-mated females. All eggs produced by non-mated originated males, characterizing, in this way, the development through arrhenothokous parthenogenesis. The results showed that A. floridanus has an innate increase capacity of 13.2 times in each generation, that the average duration of one generation is 19.2 days, that the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) is about 0.16 female per female per day and that the number of females added daily to the population is 1.1.
The standard length of 7610 specimens of 43 species from eight streams of rio Tibagi basin was obtained in order to analyze the means of fish sizes. The higher mean size was observed in Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (165,5 mm) and the smaller, in Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) (16,25 mm). Some fish like Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874), Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1836), Gymnotus carapo Linneus, 1758 and Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 can reach big or medium size when adults but were collected only young, evidencing they use some streams in beginning of life. The mean size of total species was 49,81mm, what shows the small size composition of fishes in the streams. The Kolmogov-Smirnov test comparing the mean size of all streams showed significant similar size both in upstream and downstream regions, independent to the different environmental conditions.
Trails distribution of L. praedator ( 
Two mantle shields against rain of L. praedator and some diet items of their colonies (Embrapa Cenargen, Brasilia). From left to right: aggregations of hundreds of individuals of L. praedator after heavy rain, under patches covered by a series of poorly developed cotton plants (2); ariled seeds of Matayba guianensis (3), pupa of A. argillacea (4) and Lepidopteran caterpillar (5) transported by L. praedator in the studied area.
New World army ants species have an important role in structuring invertebrate communities. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858) is a generalist top predator that can reduce pest densities in agroecosystems.The aim of this study was to describe behavioral attributes, diet composition and interspecific interactions of the ant L. praedator. We searched for army ant raids using standardized trail-walk surveys and plotted army ants raids positions on an aerial image. We photographed events at swarm raids of L praedator and recorded its diet items in basal columns near bivouacs. Six species from four Ecitoninae genera - Labidus (Jurine, 1807), Nomamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1936), Neivamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1940) and Eciton (Latreille, 1804) - were recorded. Caterpillars dominated the composition of the diet of L praedator. Flowers and diaspores of weeds and aril and flesh of fruits were also transported to bivouacs. One colony stopped foraging after intense rainfall and discrete groups of hundreds of L. praedator ants were separated under patches covered by shrubs. Groups of Crotophaginae birds, Sarcophaginae flies and Polistinae wasps followed L. praedator swarm raids. We discuss the importance of land-scape structure for agroecosystem colonization by Ecitoninae and the existence of chemical opportunism between army ants species through the reuse of unoccupied trails.
Cortes histológicos de ovários de A. brasiliensis corados com HE. (A) Ovário em maturação inicial (B1). Folículos ovarianos na fase I (seta), fase II (FII) e fase III (FIII) com envoltório espessado (*), escala = 90µm; (B) Ovário em maturação final (B2). Folículos ovarianos na fase II (FII) e fase III (FIII) com envoltório espessado (*), escala = 180µm; (C) Ovário maduro inicial (C1). Folículos ovarianos na fase II (FII), fase III (FIII), fase IV (FIV) e fase VI (FVI) (em início de hialinização), escala = 450µm.  
The present study investigated the reproductive biology of silverside, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) in a tidal flat of Paranaguá Bay, littoral of Paraná State, Brazil. Fish were captured monthly from November 1998 to October 1999 by the mean of a seine-net. For each individual, total body length, total weight, sex, and gonadal weight were recorded. Gonadal development stages were also defined based on the histological examination of the ovaries and on the visual aspects of the testes. It was defined that the reproductive period of A. brasiliensis extends from June to December, based on he analyses of individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) values distribution in relation to the sampling periods, on the monthly variation of the GSI mean values (Curve of Maturation), both for males and females, and on the monthly variation of the relative frequencies of the female maturation stages. During this period, matured, partially spawned and spent females were found in higher frequencies in comparison to the other months. The sizes at first maturation were defined as 7,61cm and 6,92cm for females and males, respectively.
From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815), was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277). Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1%) in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic) represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001), for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001), and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001), all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041), yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754). Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.
(1-2) Aegla serrana, dorsal and ventral views showing eggs of temnocephalans, bars = 10 mm; (3-4) eggs: (3) sessile eggs; (4) pedunculated eggs, bars = 200 µm; (5-9) Temnocephala cyanoglandula sp. nov.: (5) holotype, bar = 500 µm; (6) young specimen, showing the circular mass of vitellaria over the intestinal sac, bar = 250 µm; (7) live, adult specimen, showing red pigment of eyes and pattern of orange body pigment, bar = 800 µm; (8) syncytial 'excretory' plates seen in specimen stained with silver nitrate, with offcentered nephridiopores (arrows), bar = 500 µm; (9) syncytial 'excretory' plates seen in specimen stained with silver nitrate, bar = 125 µm. (N) Nephridiopore, arrow indicating sinuous perimeter of syncytial plate.  
Temnocephala cyanoglandula sp. nov. (10) Holotype, diagrammatic; (11) Cyanophilous glands and the main ducts; (12) Rhabdite glands extending to midlevel of the adhesive disk and its ducts entering the tentacles. (AD) adhesive disk), (AT) anterior testis, (CG) cyanophilous glands, (EA) excretory ampullae, (HC) Haswell´s cells, (I) intestinal sac, (PH) pharynx, (PB) prostatic bulb, (PT) posterior testis, (RG) rhabdite glands, (VV) vitellaria. Bars = 500 µm. 10 12 11  
Temnocephala cyanoglandula sp. nov., SEM. (13) Antero-lateral area showing leftmost tentacle and left dorso-lateral 'excretory' syncytial plate (N) nephridiopore, arrow showing sinuous perimeter, bar = 100 µm; (14) posterior portion of body showing adhesive disk (AD) and peduncle (P), bar = 50 µm.  
Temnocephala cyanoglandula sp. nov. (15-16) Photomicrographs of cirri, seen with Nomarski´s interference microscopy, showing the entire organ and the introvert, bars = 100µm and 25 µm, respectively; (17-18) line drawings of entire cirrus and introvert, respectively, bars = 100 µm and 25 µm; (19-21) intraspecific variation of the cirrus of three specimens, seen in phase contrast, bar = 100 µm. Arrows indicate proximal limit of introvert.  
Temnocephala cyanoglandula sp. nov. (22) Sagital, histological section, showing the genital capsule (head arrows) and a transversal section of the cirrus introvert (arrow), bar = 100 µm; (23) transversal section through the cirrus introvert (arrow), in higher magnification, where is possible to count 29 spine rows, bar = 25 µm; (24) mouth region, showing the Haswell's cells (HC – arrows) and ducts of the cyanophilous glands, bar = 200 µm; (25) pharynx (PH) and esophageal glands (arrows), bar = 100 µm; (26) lateral side of holotype showing the irregular-shaped, grape-like bunch of cyanophilous glands, its ducts, anterior testis (AT), vitellaria (V) over the intestinal sac and the rhabdite glands, bar = 200 µm; (27) excretory ampullae (EA) with the characteristic boomerang shape – arrow indicates the nephridiopore (N), bar = 100 µm; (28) posterior testis (PT) and one of the brownish, shell glands (SG – arrow), bar = 100 µm; (29) rhabdite glands extending to midlevel of the adhesive disk and its ducts entering the tentacles (arrow), bar = 500µm; (30) tegument bodies in the adhesive disc, showing irregular shape, bar = 20 µm.  
A new species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on Aegla serrana Buckup & Rossi, 1977, an anomuran crustacean, collected in a creek and a reservoir of the highlands in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. All crustaceans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried eggs in different regions of the ventral side: perioral area, pleural strips, esternal plates, pereiopods and chelipods; to a lesser extent in the dorsal side of the cephalothorax and dorsal side of the uropods; as well as adult and young specimens. The most distinctive characters of the new species are: 1) cyanophilous glands forming an irregular-shaped, grape-like, bunch of approximately 10-15 cells, deeply staining with hematoxylin; 2) shape and size of the cirrus and its introvert section; 3) number, size and distribution of the rhabdite glands and 4) shape and position of the post tentacular, 'excretory' syncytial plates, with the off-centered nephridiopore.
(1) Female excavating a nest burrow. (2) C. aenea nest architecture showing the main tunnel (arrow) that leads to the vertically orientated cells. (3) Centris aenea female gathering oil from a Byrsonima intermedia flower. Its mandibles are holding the flag petal while the flower anthers contact the thorax ventrally. (4) C. aenea cell. Arrow indicates the central process.  
Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia) and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo). Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.
The post-marsupial growth stages of the gammaridean ampithoid species Sunampithoe pelagica Milne-Edwards, 1830, six developmental stages for juveniles, three for females and at least seven for males, were described. The characterization was based on the increase of antennal article number, in the morphological modifications of gnathopods I and II, and on alteration of the number of setae.
Aglaenita similis sp. nov.: (1) cabeça, pronoto e escutelo, vista dorsal; (2) pigóforo, vista lateral; (3) placa subgenital, vista ventral; (4) edeago, vista lateral; (5) edeago, vista dorsal; (6) placa subgenital, vista lateral; (7) estilos e conetivo, vista dorsal; (8) estilo, vista lateral; (9) asa anterior.
(16-22) Aglaenita dubia sp. nov.: (16) cabeça, pronoto e escutelo, vista dorsal; (17) placa subgenital, vista ventral; (18) pigóforo, vista lateral; (19) estilos e conetivo, vista dorsal; (20) edeago, vista lateral; (21) estilo, vista lateral; (22) asa anterior; (23-24) Aglaenita bipunctata: (23) pigóforo-variante, vista lateral; (24) pigóforo-variante, vista lateral.
Three new species of Aglaenita Spinola, 1850 are described: Aglaenita similis sp. nov., Aglaenita elegans sp. nov. and Aglaenita dubia sp. nov. from Amazonas State, Mato Grosso State and Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, respectively. Illustrations and a key for the species and new occurrences for A. bipunctata Spinola, 1850 are presented. The three new species are similar among them, even so they can be distinguished by the aspect of the male genitalia, mainly by the aedeagus and pygofer.
Localização da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (ESECAE), Distrito Federal. Fonte: MARINHO-FILHO et al. (1998).  
Precipitação média dos anos de 1995-2003 e precipitação do ano de 2004 ao longo dos meses, na região de Brasília, DF. Fonte INMET, Brasília, DF.  
Foram investigadas, no presente estudo a composição de espécies e a abundância de uma comunidade de pequenos mamíferos presentes nos campos de murundus, um tipo fitofisionômico característico da região central dos Cerrados brasileiros. Duas grades de armadilhas do tipo Sherman foram montadas e oito espécies de roedores foram capturadas. Não foi registrada a presença de nenhum marsupial na região. As espécies mais abundantes foram Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841), Thalpomys lasiotis Thomas, 1916 e Calomys tener (Winge, 1888). Durante a estação chuvosa, B. lasiurus foi a espécie mais abundante, ao contrário de T. lasiotis que apresentou maior número de indivíduos durante o período seco. Esta distinção com relação à abundância dos indivíduos dessas duas espécies pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação que permite a coexistência nos mesmos habitats. _______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT In the present study we investigated the species composition and abundance of a small mammal community from a "campo de murundus", a characteristic vegetational type of Central Brazilian Cerrados. Two grids of Sherman traps were set and eight species of rodents was recorded. No marsupials were found in this habitat. The most abundant species were Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841), Thalpomys lasiotis Thomas, 1916 and Calomys tener (Winge, 1888). Bolomys lasiurus was the most abundant species during the rainy season and T. lasiotis was more common in dry season. This may be a mechanism allowing their coexistence in the same habitats.
Mapa das localidades de amostragem no Delta do Jacuí, Lago Guaíba e Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: (1) Ilha do Chico Inglês, em frente ao porto de Porto Alegre, localidade do primeiro registro de Limnoperna fortunei em 1998; (2) localidades do segundo registro, em 1999: (2a) canal da COPESUL, município de Triunfo, (2b) Vila de Itapuã, camping das Pombas e Praia da Pedreira, município de Viamão; (3) Arambaré, localidade do terceiro registro, em 2000; (4) desembocadura do Rio São Lourenço na Laguna dos Patos, localidade do quarto registro, em 2001.  
At the end of 1998 and the beginning of 1999, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), Mytilidae, originating from Southeast Asia, was registered for the first time in the Guaíba Lake Basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Quantitative samples were taken since the first register and for two years at various localities in the Jacuí Delta, northern limit of Guaíba Lake, and in the south limit of the later where it empties into Patos Lagoon. Samplings in Patos Lagoon revealed the presence of L. fortunei in October 2000 at Arambaré (30º54'S, 51º30'W) and in January 2001 at São Lourenço do Sul (31º20'S, 51º58'W). Quantitative samplings on roots of water hyacinths Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, on rhizomes of rushes Scirpus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Steud. and on trunks of Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng.) K. Schum, were made in Jacuí Delta and on the beaches of Vila de Itapuã and Pombas camping area, in the Municipality of Viamão. Limnoperna fortunei encreased in number to a maximum density of 27,275 individuals/m² one year and five months after the first register and 62,100 individuals/m² two years later. In November 2000, i.e., two years after the appearance of the species in Guaíba Lake, it was recorded the first macrofouling in the pipes catching water for the city of Porto Alegre and in filters and pipelines of the cellulose industry Riocell-Klabin, Municipality of Guaíba (30º06'S, 51º20'W). Limnoperna fortunei preferentially occur on rhizomes of rushes, initially forming flat clusters that grow to large mass. It also fix on the shells and soft parts of native bivalves and on shells and operculum of gastropods, prevening full closure of these mollusks. The recent decrease of rushy areas on the shores of Guaíba Lake is attributed to invasion of L. fortunei.
The feeding behavior and the food preference was studied in P. expansa (Schweigger, 1812) P. unifilis (Troschel, 1848) and P. sextuberculata (Cornalia, 1849). The method used for feeding behavior and food preference was the sampling of all occurrences. The Students' t test was applied on the food items, to compare differences during the development of each species. The main conclusions are: feeding behavior for food, except alive animals, is divided in foraging, approach, olfactory recognition, capture, laceration and ingestion; the persecution behavior was observed for prey activity; cleptoparasitism occurs in the three species and neustophagia mechanism was detected in P. unifilis; P. sextuberculata shows to be almost only carnivorous and P. expansa and P. unifilis show to be omnivorous; P. expansa can be considered more herbivorous in captivity than P. unifilis during the age between one and five years old and more than five years old; P. expansa is more sensitive than P. unifilis concerning the alteration of the food place, mainly the meat, decreasing its consumption, if it is put on a dry place.
Habitus. Rideriana amazonica sp. nov., holotype. Scale: 1 mm.
Rideriana amazonica sp. nov. (2-5) Pygophore: (2) dorsal, (3) ventral and (4) lateral view respectively, (5) right paramere: lateral view; (6-8) Phallus: (6) dorsal, (7) ventral and (8) lateral view respectively. (bp) basal plate, (dc) dorsal connectives, (dr) dorsal rim, (dsd) ductus seminis distalis, (gs) secundary gonopore, (hy) hypandrium, (me) membramblase, (pa) paramere, (pc) processus capitati, (ph) phallotheca, (prv1) processus vesicae 1, (prv2) processus vesicae 2, (vr) ventral rim, (v) vesica, (x) tenth segment. Scale: 1 mm.
A new Neotropical genus Rideriana gen. nov. is proposed to include R. amazonica sp. nov., from Cuzco (Peru), Acre (Brazil) and La Paz (Bolivia).
(1-15) Amicitia lucens, male (holotype): (1) head, lateral view; (2) apex of scutellum and post-scutellum; (3) katepisternum; (4) calypters; (5) abdomen of male, lateral view; (6) apex of abdomen of male, lateral view; (7) sternite 5 of male; (8) sternite 6 of male (from COURI & PONT 2000, modified); (9) hind tibia of male, lateral view (from EMDEN 1940, modified); (10) cercal plate; (11) phallic complex, dorsal view (from COURI & PONT 2000, modified); (12) phallic complex, lateral view; (13) ovipositor, dorsal view; (14) ovipositor, ventral view; (15) spermatheca. (6-18) Amicitia seclusa, holotype male: (16) apex of abdomen of male; (17) phallic complex, dorsal view; (18) phallic complex, lateral view.
Amicitia Emden, 1940 is an Afrotropical genus of Coenosiinae (Diptera, Muscidae), with four known species described by Emden (1940): A. insignis, A. lucens, A. modesta and A. seclusa. All examined holotypes are deposited at "The Natural History Museum" (London, UK). Notes on the species and illustrations, especially of the terminalia are presented.
-SUPERFíCIE -0,2 metros de profundidade  
SUPERFíCIE-0,2 metros de profundidade
MEIO-2 metros de profundidade
FUNDO-4 metros de profundidade
Para estudar a distribuição vertical de Teredinidae em Angras dos Reis, RJ, foram construídos 30 coletores de laminado de pinho (Araucária sp.), submersos (10 de cada) a profundidades de 0,2, 2 e 4 m, respectivamente. Das espécies coletadas, Lyrodus floridanus foi a única a diminuir em abundância com a profundidade. As outras espécies não apresentaram diferenças significantes no número de indivíduos em relação às três profundidades ensaiadas. _______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT In order to study the vertical distribution of Teredinidae at Angra dos Reis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 30 collectors of wood sheets (Araucária sp.) were submerged (10 at each depth) at 0,2, 2 and 4 m, respectively. Among the species collected, Lyrodus floridanus was the only one that did not whow significant variation in number of individuals in relation to depth. All the other species were unaffected, in number of individuals, by the different depths tested.
Polychaetes are metameric worms recognized for having parapodia, chaetae, and nuchal organs. Some authors have extended the Annelida to include Pogonophora, Echiura, and Clitellata. These suggestions are insufficient to generate a monophyletic group. They do not take into account two very large and important clades that in a cladistic analysis at a higher level are shown to be nested within the Annelida: the Ecdysozoa (arthropods and related taxa) and Enterocoela (deuterostomes and related taxa). Evolutionary histories of most characters across metazoan phyla are still very poorly known. Metameres and coeloms have been considered homoplastic in the literature, and yet the homeobox genes responsible for the expression of metamerism and of paired appendages, at least, are very largely distributed among the Metazoa. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for the ingroups of Polychaeta, including Clitellata, Enterocoela, and Ecdysozoa as terminal taxa. The remaining non-metameric phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Mollusca, and Sipuncula were included to root the tree within the Bilateria. Empirical data was obtained from the literature and run with the software Hennig86 with two comparative interpretations of a priori hypotheses of primary homology: one with negative characters (coding losses) and another considering only positive characters (without assumptions about losses). The most relevant conclusions are: (1) Annelida and Polychaeta are non-monophyletic, even when including Echiura, Clitellata, and Pogonophora; (2) Articulata, as traditionally circumscribed for Annelida and Arthropoda, is also not monophyletic; (3) Metameria becomes monophyletic only when Ecdysozoa and Enterocoela are included in addition to the traditional annelid taxa; (4) Ecdysozoa are the sister group of Aphrodita; (5) Clitellata are related to deposit-feeding sedentary polychaetes (scolecids), and Questidae represent their sister group; (6) Owenia plus Enterocoela form a monophyletic group related to the tubicolous polychaetes.
Distribution of territories in the non-reproductive (solid line polygons) and reproductive (shaded polygons) seasons of Thamnophilus caerulescens (3), Dysithamnus mentalis (4) and Pyriglena leucoptera (5) at a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. Numbers indicate territory owner and numbers followed by an asterisk indicate mated individuals. (White) Forest, (Black) Cerrado (Savanna),  
Territory sizes in the non-reproductive (1) and reproductive (2) seasons of Dysithamnus mentalis (DM), Thamnophilus
caerulescens (TC), and Pyriglena leucoptera (PL) at a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. Middle points and whiskers represent mean
and standard error, respectively.
Territory size is ail important ecological attribute Of Populations that has been considered a factor determines population density. Antbirds is a large group of mainly insectivorous Neotropical passerines, usually well represented in bird communities from forested landscapes in Neotropical region. Territory sizes for three Antbirds, Thamnophilus caerulescens (Vieillot, 1816) (Variable Antshrike), Dysithamnus mentalis (Temmink, 1823) (Plain Antvireo) e Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818) (White-shouldered Fire-eye), were mapped and their area estimated by the convex polygon method in a 50 ha forest fragment, in southeastern Brazil. The three species presented small territories of similar sizes (:5 2 ha) both during the non-reproductive and the reproductive seasons of 2000-2001. Territories overlapped considerably among species but not intraspecifically. Territory sizes increased with body mass of the three species studied (P. leucoptera > T. caerulescens > D. mentalis). We failed to find any effect on territory size for the three species associated with forest edge or distance to the dirt road.
A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863) collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S) where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm) and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm) and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%). twenty-five hosts (37.3%) showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5%) had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2), Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02) and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927) (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02). G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.
Thyridia psidii cetoides. (1-2) Macho: (1) vista dorsal, (2) vista ventral; (3-4) fêmea: (3) vista dorsal, (4) vista ventral.
A detailed study of the morphology of the head of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914) (Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) adults from both sexes is presented. The material was obtained at the city's plant nursery "Horto Florestal de Curitiba", Paraná, Brazil; mainly by rearing eggs and larvae collected there on Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles) Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae). When possible, all the results obtained were compared with those already available in the literature concerning external morphology studies pertinent to other Nymphalidae subfamilies (Brassolinae, Morphinae and Danainae).
The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919) and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae) in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars) and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars), maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.
The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia) scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.
Serra de Itabaiana, State of Sergipe, Brazil.
Schematic drawing with the location of P. rufonigrum in all the bromeliad plant area: (a) leaf surface, (b) external base of the plant with dry leaves.  
(2) Pachistopelma rufonigrum, adult female, marked; (3) silk retreat between two leaves of the Aechmea sp. bromeliad; (4) P. rufonigrum on external base of Hohenbergia sp. bromeliad, juvenile specimen; (5) P. rufonigrum on leaves of Aechmea sp. bromeliad, adult female.  
Aspects of the behavior of the theraphosid spider Pachistopelma rufonigrum, in two species of tank bromeliads in an area with white sands in the Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil, are described. Observations on habitat, microhabitat, foraging, ecdysis and reproduction, were made. Our data suggested that P. rufonigrum inhabits only these species of bromeliads, since all stages of the life cycle were observed in the plant. The relationships degrees between P. rufonigrum and the species of studied tank bromeliads are discussed.
This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%); Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761) (Diptera, Muscidae) (0.04%); Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera, Histeridae) (1.48%); Necrobia rufipes (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera, Cleridae) (0.45%); Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (0.02%); Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda, Porcellionidae) (0.02%) and Hadruroides lunatus (L. Koch, 1867) (Scorpionida, Iuridae) (0.02%). Larvae accounted for 76%, pupae 14% and adults 10% of the total collected. The arthropods were into three: necrophages (98.01%), predators (1.95%) and omnivorous (0.04%). C. macellaria were significantly higher during the decayed stage; by contrast D. maculatus was much higher in dry remains stage. The highest diversity with the Shannon-Weaver (H') and Pielou (J) index were found during the advanced decayed stage. The absence of species of genus Chrysomyia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is discussed.
The species Ophidascaris durissus sp. nov. is proposed with basis on specimens recovered from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus L., 1758 (type host) captured in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (type locality). By the lack of interlabia, the new species can be compared only to O. natricis Yamaguti, 1935 from Japan and O. freitasi Hoa & Lien, 1970, from Vietnam. However, O. durissus sp. nov. differs from O. natricis mainly by the absence of internal lip papillae, location of the vulvar aperture and length of the spicules; from O. freitasi mostly by the greater number of pre-cloacal and distribution of post-cloacal papillae.
Monthly numbers of captures in mist nets in Serra do Caraça Reserve. Bars: number of animals, line: precipitation.
The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour), distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species), Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species) and Molossidae (4.5%; three species). The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (n = 121, 60.5%), Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) (n = 21, 10.5%) and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (n = 10, 5.0%), and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826) (n = 2, 1.0%), Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821) (n = 2, 1.0%) e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843) (n = 1, 0.5%). The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Localities along the Brazilian coast where samples of Mabuya spp. were collected for nematode surveys: (1) Trancoso, Bahia (BA), (2) Abrolhos archipelago, Bahia (BA), (3) Grumari, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), (4) Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), (5) Caraguatatuba, São Paulo (SP), (6) Ilha da Queimada Grande, São Paulo (SP).
Nematode assemblages associated to three species of lizards of the genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 [M. agilis (Raddi, 1823), M. caissara Rebouças-spieker, 1974 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946] from three mainland sites and three island sites along the eastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. A total of six nematode species were recorded, with total nematode richness varying from one to four and overall nematode prevalences varying from 6.7% to 90.5% among host populations. Number of nematode species per host individual (including all hosts, infected and uninfected) varied among host populations from 0.07 to 1.05, but most infected lizards in all six host populations harbored a single nematode species. Both insular and continental populations of Mabuya spp. exhibited generally poor nematode assemblages, and no clear tendency for insular host populations to have more depauperate nematode faunas and/or lower infection rates compared to mainland ones (or vice versa) was evident on the basis of the present data.
Vegetation islands inside urban area can propitiate the formation of: a) adults refuge to many mosquitoes species, b) diversity of hosters, c) allows the proliferation of immature stages through naturals and artificial breeding, these ones were done by the interaction between antropic activity developed in these spaces or around areas. Considering the possibilities of contacts between the vector and the human population, the aim of this work was to verify the Culicidae species that can use man as blood source in the restricted areas of Botanical Garden, Curitiba. The capture of adults using the method of human bait at soil level, inside the forest, monthly during the period of October 13th 1998 to September 22nd 1999, from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. 312 Culicidae specimens were captured, and 15 species were found. The predomiant species belong to Culex (Culex) coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906 group. Others species found with potential epidemiological importance were: Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924), Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904) e Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root, 1926.
Several factors, including the site where the colony was established and number of active nests can influence directly or indirectly the breeding success of colonial birds. The red-rumped cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a passerine (Icteridae) that breeds in colonies in different environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the breeding success of red-rumped cacique in relation to three environments (lake edge, forest and swamp) in which colonies were established in an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeast Brazil. Seven colonies from the three environments were monitored during the breeding season of 2001. Overall probability of nest survival was 40.5%. We found that colonies established in the swamp presented higher nest survival than the others and the ones in the lake edge had lower survival. Nest predation was the most important Cause of nest failure, representing 46.5% of all nest losses. Other failure causes were abandonment and fall of nests, representing 6.6% and 6.1% of the losses, respectively. Red-rumped cacique had higher success breeding in colonies located in the swamp.
ABSTRACT: Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented. _______________________________________________________________________________ RESUMO São apresentados quinhentos e dezoito massas corporais de 74 pássaros da floresta, e as medidas da asa, cauda, tarso e bico de 14 espécies pouco conhecidas marcou em duas localidades na Mata Atlântica do leste do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil.
(1a) Distribuition of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest; (1b) capture in the State of Rio de Janeiro; (2) distribution of the investigated hosts in the different altitudinal levels of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. () Akodon cursor, () Didelphis aurita, () Nectomys squamipes, () Oligoryzomys eliurus, () Oryzomys intermedius, () Philander opossum.  
Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924) Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887), Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845) and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886): Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937) Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802) Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919) Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937) Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918) Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937) Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.
Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766), é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae) que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio) ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva obtiveram maior sucesso reprodutivo do que fêmeas que reproduziram mais tarde. A predação foi a principal causa de perda de ninhos (48,4%), sendo observado um aumento nas taxas de predação com o avanço da estação reprodutiva.
Tetilla radiata. (4) Specimen (MNRJ 2994) in its current state of preservation, after fixation in ethanol. Scale bar = 1 cm; (5) transversal section at the level of the oscule, scale bar = 100 µm; (6a) longitudinal section of the radial skeleton, scale bar = 100 µm; (6b) protriaenes piercing the surface, scale bar = 100 µm; (6c) a tuft of anatriaenes, scale bar = 100 µm; (7) megascleres: (a) oxea, (b) protriaenes, (c) anatriaenes, scale bar = 10 µm.  
(2) Former type locality, Botafogo cove (arrow; Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro), and the present state of urban development around the area; (3) Tetilla radiata; specimens in situ in the species´s typically patchy distribution: 50 m to the SW of Ilha da Prainha (23°51.232'S, 45°25.247'W).
The first redescription of T. radiata Selenka, 1879 based on study of a live population and material other than the type is presented. A neotype is proposed for the species, from a locality some 400 km to the southwest as it has not been found in its original type locality, Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State).
Eight cicada species were collected in an urban area of Brasília (Brazil). Their nymphal casts were characterized and a dichotomous key was prepared to identify cicada species.
(1-3) Omolon similis sp. nov., holótipo macho: (1) vista lateral esquerda; (2) vista frontal; (3) vista posterior; (4-6) Omolon tridens: (4) vista lateral esquerda; (5) vista frontal; (6) vista posterior.
Omolon similis sp. nov., from Caqueta, Florencia, Colombia, is described and illustrated.
Xenocoelidia sexguttata sp. nov.: (1) cabeça, pronoto e escutelo, vista dorsal; (2) pigóforo, vista lateral; (3) placas subgenitais, vista ventral; (4) estilos e conetivo, vista dorsal; (5) edeago, vista lateral; (6) ápice do edeago, vista dorsal; (7) edeago, vista dorsal.  
A new species of Xenocoelidia Kramer, 1959 is described from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This species can be distinguished by the aspect of the male genitalia, mainly by the aedeagus shape.
Potnia spatulata sp. nov., from Amazonas State, Brazil, is described and illustrated.
Study area showing its irregular boundaries, its division in quadrats (each one with a trap) for the study and the fruiting plant availability for opossums between February 1995 and January 1996. All quadrats (4.3 ha) represent quite the entire area of the fragment (5 ha). Only the two quadrats located at left (V V) show open areas and all remaining quadrats are located inside the Araucarian forest fragment. Dotted area indicates a creek. Fruiting plants are: () Solanum swartzianum, () S. granulosoleprosum, and () S. sanctaecathariane.
Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia) in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random) and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females) in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.
Mapa indicando a localização das ilhas estudadas.
Período de reprodução das aves marinhas insulares no litoral de Santa Catarina.
Studies involving the reproduction of seabirds in the Santa Catarina coast are scarce. From 1996 to 2002 a sampling program was implanted with the objectives of identifying the ranches, the species and to study some aspects of their reproductive cycle. Five species: Sula leucogaster Boddaert, 1783; Fregata magnificens Matheus, 1914; Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823; Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831; S. eurygnatha Sauders, 1876, breed in the islands of Santa Catarina, with the largest intensity in the period of May to December. The size of the colonies varied in function of the species and of the reproduction area.
Elaenia chiriquensis (Lawrence, 1865) é um Passeriforme abundante nos cerrados do Planalto Central entre os meses de setembro e dezembro, quando se reproduz. Este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever alguns aspectos de sua biologia reprodutiva. O estudo foi desenvolvido na área da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, Planaltina, Distrito Federal durante o período de agosto de 2002 a dezembro de 2003. Ninhos (n = 110) foram monitorados a cada 1-5 dias. Adultos (n = 285) foram individualmente marcados. O tamanho das ninhadas variou entre um (n = 14), dois (n = 88) ou três ovos (n = 1). Elaenia chiriquensis constrói ninhos abertos em forma de "taça", com ovos de coloração branco gelo a rosado e pequenas manchas de cor ferrugínea no pólo obtuso. Dimensões e forma dos ninhos foram comparáveis aos da mesma espécie na América do Sul. A reprodução ocorreu entre meados de setembro a fins de dezembro, com dois picos de ninhos ativos, meados de outubro e novembro. Estes dois picos podem ser explicados por uma segunda tentativa após o sucesso ou insucesso da primeira nidificação. Trinta e dois ninhos (30%) obtiveram sucesso, 70 foram predados (67%) e 4 abandonados (4%). O sucesso dos ovos foi de 28% e a taxa de eclosão de 0,96 ± 0,02. A produção anual de filhotes (0,48 filhotes/ninho), a taxa de fecundidade (1,1 filhotes/fêmea), bem como as demais taxas encontradas foram semelhantes para outros estudos sobre a espécie e para outros Passeriformes neotropicais em países da América do Sul.
Charadrius melodus Ord, 1824 were captured at Diamante Branco saline, at Galinhos municipal district in Rio Grande do Norte, at the Northeast coast of Brazil. Four individuals were captured in October and two in December. All of them were in adult phase, showing the intermediary plumage with moults of the outline feathers. One individual captured in October showed moult for the first primary pinion and other captured also in October showed moult in the second pair of rectrices. The captures of C. melodus in Rio Grande do Norte consist in the first record of the species for Brazil.
Croquis da situação aproximada dos seis talhões de essências florestais, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, segundo Dionísio Link.
As part of two surveys in the state of Paraná, Nyssodrysina lignaria (Bates, 1864) (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) was sampled using malaise traps. One of the surveys was developed in eight different sites (Antonina, São José dos Pinhais, Colombo, Ponta Grossa, Telêmaco Borba, Jundiaí do Sul, Guarapuava e Fênix) from August 1986 to July 1987 and another one in five areas in different conditions of forest conservation, all located at Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, from September 1999 to August 2000. The data indicate that the seasonality is congruent with the conditions found in temperate regions, with an activity peak in the spring-summer months. In the beginning of fall a second peak of abundance was observed, but not as high as in the spring-summer. These two peaks probably indicate the presence of two populations of N. lignaria associated to different fruit-ripening phases on diverse species of Inga Ph.Miller (Leguminosae, Mimosacea). The populational fluctuation observed in the various sites and the temperature and air humidity influences are discussed. Differences in the floristic conditions in Vila Velha (Ponta Grossa), as a cause of punctual differences in the populational fluctuation are also discussed. Finally, the results are compared with a study made with N. lignaria in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(1) Gap showing two individuals of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum (in the center and above), and Rubus rosifolium (below). (2) Immature fruit bunch of S. granulosoleprosum with dominance of unripe small and median sized-fruits. (3) Mature bunch with the last fruits but showing the general feature observed on plants: one big-yellowish fruit and the remaining smaller, green ones. Photographed by N.C. Cáceres.  
A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants), by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%). Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818), Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843) and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810). Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766). Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.
Study area, Sepetiba Bay, with indication of the zones and sampling sites. Beach seine: Outer zone-(1) Muriqui, (2) Itacuruça, (3) Coroa Grande; Inner zone-(4) Sepetiba, (5) Pedra de Guaratiba; Otter trawl-Outer, Central and Inner zones; (a) Itacuruça Isle; (b) Jaguanum Isle; (c) Marambaia Isle.
The length-weight relationship and spatial, temporal and ontogenetic changes in the condition factor of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823) were analyzed, from samples collected between October 1998 and September 1999, in the Sepetiba Bay, a coastal area with a wide communication with the sea (22º54'-23º04'S, 43º34'-44º10'W) at Southeast Brazil. The aim was to supply basic information on the form of growth of the population of M. furnieri that uses the bay, as well as to assess changes in the fish condition. Most fish were young and subadults. The length-weight equation, based on 2499 unsexed individuals, was Wt = 0.009095 * Lt2.99, where Wt is the total weight (g) and Lt is the total length (cm). The regression constant and the regression coefficient presented significant inverse relationship (p < 0.01), indicating that the regression coefficient from the length-weight relationship is not a good parameter for characterizing different populations, because its strong association between one another. The best condition was recorded in October/November and April, and the worst, between January and March. Spatially, the best condition was observed in the inner bay zone, where most fish were young-of-the-year, and in the outer zone where predominate larger sized fish, indicating that individuals of intermediary size could be allocating large amount of energy for growth, presenting, consequently, lowest condition. Isometry was detected for M. furnieri populations at Sepetiba Bay, and variations in physiologic condition could be associated to feeding availability, mainly in the inner zone, where the harsh water quality would not be constrained for development of this species.
Locations of the three beaches studied: Enseada, in Caraguatatuba Bay; and Barra Velha and Araçá, on the São Sebastião Channel, in São Paulo State, Brazil.  
Zonation of the most abundant species in all levels (lower, middle and upper) of the: (4) Enseada sector, (5) Barra Velha sector, (6) Araçá I sector, and (7) Araçá II sector.  
The spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone was examined monthly from August 1995 through July 1997, in Enseada, Barra Velha and Araçá beaches in southeastern of Brazil. One study sector was selected in Enseada and Barra Velha, and two sectors in Araçá (Araçá I and Araçá II). The sectors were 10 m wide and equivalent in length to the width of the intertidal zone. Each sector was divided into three horizontal levels: lower, middle and upper, where the samples were taken with a cylinder corer with a base area of 0.16 m². In order to characterize the intertidal environment in these areas, some environmental variables were analyzed. In general, the mollusks were distributed in the sectors as follows: Enseada - Olivella minuta (Link, 1807) in the lower level and Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) in the upper level; Araçá I - O. minuta in the lower level, Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) in the middle levels; Araçá II - Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778) in the lower level, O. minuta in the lower and middle levels, and A. brasiliana and Corbula caribaea Orbigny, 1842 in the middle level; Barra Velha - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794), Lucina pectinata (Gmelin, 1791) and Tellina versicolor De Kay, 1843 in the lower level, and A. brasiliana and Macoma constricta (Brugüìere, 1792) in the upper level. The intertidal zone of the study sectors could be divided into two biological zones: the upper zone, where T. plebeius, A. brasiliana and M. constricta were more abundant; and the lower zone, where O. minuta, C. atratum, T. lineata, T. versicolor, C. caribaea, T. divisus and L. pectinata were abundant.
Trypoxylon maidli, last instar larva. (1) Body, lateral view; (2) head with the mouthparts partially dissected, frontal view, showing distribution of setae; (3) labrum and epipharynx, frontal view; (4) dissected mandible, frontal view; (5) dissected labium, frontal view. 1 mm 50 µm
The last larval instar and the cocoon of Trypoxylon (Trypoxylon) maidli Richards, 1934 are described. This larva is apparently indistinguishable from that of T. clavicerum exiguum Tsuneki, 1956. They can be distinguished from larvae of other species in the subgenus by the following features: integument of body smooth, sensilla on both sensorial area and labrum, and distinct parietal bands. Notes on nesting site and preys from one nest are presented. Eurycoma insigne (Millidge, 1991) (Linyphiidae) and Argiope argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Araneidae) are reported as preys.
Top-cited authors
Roberto Pinto
  • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Branco Joaquim
  • Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Univali)
Fernando Passos
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tarso Chaves
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Wagner A. Pedro
  • São Paulo State University