Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia

Online ISSN: 0102-695X
Viabilities (%) of larval, pupal newly hatched larvae to adult development periods of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) topically treated with different concentrations of extracts from Pouteria sapota, Sapotaceae, leaves.
Larval weight (mg) of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) topically treated with different concentrations of extract from Pouteria sapota, Sapotaceae, leaves.
Chemical insecticides have been the main way to control synanthropic flies of medical and veterinary importance; however, residuals of these products have become a factor impacting on the environment, as well as the potential toxicological that they may cause damage to humans and domestic animals. Phytochemical screening carried out with the aqueous crude extract of Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn, Sapotaceae, leaves showed that coumarins, reducing sugars, flavonoids and cyanogenic glycosides were its most abundant metabolites. This study evaluated the activity of the crude aqueous extract of this plant on the post-embryonic development of Chrysomya putoria. Larvae treated with 5, 10 and 25% extract showed a decrease in the pupal period and in the newly-hatched larvae to adult period when compared to the control groups. Larvae from the 25% extract group were the lightest (45.8 mg) when compared with the control group (46.5 mg). The larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult stages were more sensitive to the leaf extract from P. sapota (5%) and the treated flies showed the low viability (47.5 and 45.5% respectively). The results demonstrated that topic treatment with P. sapota could alter C. putoria post embryonic development.
nhibition of cytotoxicity of PLA 2s Sm13-16, 23. Forty micrograms of each toxin and different w/w ratios were used, n = 6. Results are shown as mean ± SE. a Represents statistical differences regard to inhibition values 1:10 w/w ratio on cytotoxic activity induced by myotoxin I of B. atrox. b Represents statistical differences regard to inhibition values 1:10 w/w ratio on cytotoxic activity induced by Cdcum6. 
-Inhibition of PLA 2-induced myotoxicity by Sm1316, 23. A, Inhibition of myotoxicity in preincubation assay; B, Inhibition of myotoxic activity by locally administered fraction. Twenty μg of B. atrox myotoxin I and 3 μg of Cdcum6 and different w/w ratios were used, n = 6. Results are shown as mean ± SE. a Represents statistical differences regard to inhibition values 1:10 w/w ratio on cytotoxic activity induced by myotoxin I of B. atrox. b Represents statistical differences regard to inhibition values 1:10 w/w ratio on cytotoxic activity induced by Cdcum6. 
nhibition of anticoagulant activity of aan Asp49 PLA 2 by Sm13-16, 23. Ten micrograms of Cdcum6 and different w/w ratios were used, n = 6. a Represents statistical significant difference respect to toxin. Results are shown as mean ± SE. 
nhibition of edema-inducing activity of PLA 2 by Sm13-16, 23. Ten micrograms of Cdcum6 and 32 of B. atrox myotoxin I (equivalents to two minimum edematogenic doses) were used. 1/10 w/w ratio was tested, n = 6. a Represents statistical significant difference respect to each toxin at 2 h. Results are shown as mean ± SEM. 
nhibition of proteolytic activity by Sm13-16, 23. Twenty micrograms of each protease were used. 1:10 and 1:5 w/w ratios was tested, n = 6. a Represents statistical significant difference respect to each protease. Results are shown as mean ± SE. 
Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2), Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose dependent manner, the cytotoxicity, myotoxicity and edema induced by PLA2s, as well as the anticoagulant activity of Asp49 PLA2. Overall, this fraction exhibited a better inhibition of the toxic activities induced by the Lys49 PLA2 than those caused by the Asp49 PLA2. The spectral data of Sm13-16, 23 suggested the presence of aromatic compounds (UV λ max (nm) 655, 266, and 219; IR λ max KBr (cm−1): ~ 3600-3000 (OH), 2923.07 and 1438.90 (C-H), 1656.69 (C = O), 1618.63 and 1607.67 (C-O), 1285.47-772.60). We suggest that phenolic compounds could interact and inhibit the toxins by several mechanisms. Further analysis of the compounds present in the active fraction could be a relevant contribution in the treatment of accidents caused by snake envenomation.
HPLC chromatogram of fraction 15% ACN BuOH from EB689 (obtained from Abarema auriculata), at 254 nm. (18-30% de ACN t 0 → 30min , 30-50% ACN t 30 → 40min , 50%-100% ACN t40 → 50min. ) 1. eucryphin; 2. neoastilbin; 3. astilbin; 4. isoastilbin; 5. neoisoastilbin; 6. engeletin. Identification and elucidation of flavonones 2 to 6 can be found elsewhere (Gusmão et al., 2013). 
Experiment design diagram of the first and second stage. Behavioral effects of EB689 after intraperitoneal injection, in mice: time line related to the experimental design of first stage of experiments. OF, open field; EPM, elevated-plus maze. 
shows the results observed in the second stage of the experiments, and it's relation to the results of OF (n = 10), after administration of the non-lethal dose of 4.8 mg/ kg, in comparison to administration of diazepam 1 mg/kg. Considering locomotion frequency, treatment (F 3;140 = 14.69; p < 0.001; 12.55% influence on the total variance) and time (F 4;140 = 23.65; p < 0.0001; 26.93% influence on the total variance) have significantly affected the results, as well as did the interaction (F 12;140 = 3.49; p < 0.0001; 11.94% of total variance). Statistical differences in locomotion could be observed in the group treated with EB689, particularly at the 4 th and 5 th sessions. Treatment accounts for 15.19% of the total variance in rearing frequency and is considered extremely significant (F 3;140 = 10.24; p < 0.001) and interaction between treatment and time accounts for 11.20% of total variance (F 12;140 = 1.89; p < 0.05). Alterations in rearing were observed after administration of 1 mg/kg diazepam, compared to vehicle control group. Differently from stage 1 results, immobility time increased in stage 2: Treatment (F 3;140 = 18.36; p < 0.0001; 19.50% of the total variance), time (F 4;140 = 8.54; p < 0.001; 12.10% of the total variance) and interaction between factors (F 12;140 = 3.48; p < 0.001; 14.81% of the total variance). Differences in defecation could be observed between naïve control and EB689 groups (p < 0.05), and treatment was considered extremely significant (F 3;140 = 5.45; p < 0.001; 8.83% of the total variance), as well as did time (F 4;140 = 2.53; p < 0.001; 5.46% of the total variance). No significant differences were observed in grooming (p > 0.05). 
The organic extract EB689, obtained from the stem of Abarema auriculata (Benth.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes, Fabaceae, commonly known as “saboeiro-ferro”, was chemically studied, as well as its influence over behavioral effects such as locomotion, emotionality and anxiety, after intra-peritonial administration were assessed. The open-field and elevated-plus maze were used in experiments divided into two stages. The first stage aimed for the identification of the main effects over behavior using a reduced number of animals against half-fold diluted doses of EB689. The same variables were also tested in a second stage of the experiment using the non-lethal intra-peritoneal dose of 4.8 mg/kg in a larger number of animals. It was observed that EB689 clearly decreased locomotion, which was probably caused by internal hemorrhage causing hypovolemic shock. Although it is the first time lupeol and eucryphin are described in A. auriculata, it is still not clear if they are involved in the toxicology of A. auriculata. The undesirable effects of EB689 are better understood, the basis for further pharmacological assays aiming antitumor activity are supported.
– COSY () and HMBC () correlations of 1.
– Key NOESY () of 1.
– Mass fragmentation pattern of 1.
The Abutilon genus from the Malvaceae family is of medicinal importance, and members of this genus are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and other parts of the world. Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri & Ali is mainly found in Pakistan. It has been used by different systems of traditional medicines to treat different diseases. Pakistamide C, a new sphingolipid, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of A. pakistanicum. Different spectroscopic techniques such as NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) and Mass spectrometry (EI-MS, and FAB-MS experiments) were used to elucidate the structure of pakistamide C.
Isolation of bioactive compound through bioassay guided fractionation.
Rate of action of β-sitosterol-d-glucopyranoside (BS) on various pathogens (Time kill curves). Bactericidal activity of β-sitosterol-d-glucopyranoside at MBC against (a) Gram positive bacteria, (b) Gram negative bacteria. Most of the pathogens are killed within 5–8h for Gram positive except Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) which exhibits some kind of resistive patterns and takes longer duration to die. Gram negative organisms are mostly killed within 5–10h except Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis showing resistive configurations followed by Proteus vulgaris slightly showing late death.
Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf, Poaceae, or Kusha in Sanskrit, is a sacred grass used extensively in Indian Vedic practices. It is well known for its medicinal value and is used in traditional Indian medicine to treat microbial infection in combination with other herbs. An effort has been made to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds from the hydroalcoholic extract of D. bipinnata through bioassay guided fractionation, column chromatography. Their individual or combined antimicrobial properties were determined by the Resazurin Microtitre Assay, the checkerboard assay in combination with antibiotics, and by time kill curve analysis. β-Sitosterol-d-glucopyranoside was the bioactive compound identified to have the best antimicrobial activity (MIC 6–50 μg/ml) and it works synergistically with most antibiotics, especially with ciprofloxacin. Time kill curves showed that BS kills most of the pathogens within 5–10 h. To our knowledge at its best, this is the first time report of antibacterial synergy of β-sitosterol-d-glucopyranoside from D. bipinnata.
– LC50 values for the toxicities of S. brasiliensis hydroethanol extract (HEE) and its hexane (HxF), chloroform (ChlF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol (HMF) fractions against A. salina. Bars bearing the same lower case letters are not significantly different (ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD test at p < 0.05).
Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50 and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml), while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50 313 μg/ml); ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 μg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 μg/ml, respectively), while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90 values of 68 and 73 μg/ml, respectively). Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.
nteraction effect of population and harvesting time (A), simple effect of population (B) and simple effect of harvesting time (C) on the oil yield of Artemisia chamaemelifolia (In each graph, similar letter indicates a non significant effect at p ≤ 0.05). 
Dendrogram obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), based on the main compositions of the essential oils of Artemisia chamaemelifolia. 
Effect of harvesting time on various populations over antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Artemisia chamaemelifolia using DPPH assay The essential oils at concentrations of 16-500 μg/ml were mixed with an equal volume of methanol solution of DPPH. The disappearance of the DPPH was determined by spectrophotometry at 515 nm. The absorbance of the DPPH radical without antioxidant served as control. 
Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill., Asteraceae, has been used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumor. This study determined the variation in chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of A. chamaemelifolia collected at two phenological stages within five natural habitats in northern Iran. The highest oil yield was obtained from the Shahkoh population with 1.10 ml/100g dry matter harvested at the 50% flowering stage. The highest values of 1,8-cineole (31.82%) was obtained from the Pelor population at the 50% flowering stage. The highest percentages of artemisia ketone (12.27%), camphor (17.21%), and borneol (13.50%) were obtained from the Kandovan population, harvested before flowering. The highest content of chrysanthenone (18.14%) was obtained from the Gadok population before flowering. The essential oil of the Kandovan population harvested at the 50% flowering stage had the highest percentages of Davanone D (28.44%) and Davanone (28.88%). The A. chamaemelifolia oils inhibited the growth of four bacterial pathogens, while these same oils exhibit weak antioxidant (DPPH) activity. The results indicated A. chamaemelifolia contained three chemotypes: 1,8-cineole, davanone and/or Davanone D, and chrysanthenone. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils obtained from various populations of A. chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages may be significant from a pharmaceutical stand point.
Effect of Alafia barteri on pain induced responses in tail immersion test. a p < 0.05, b p < 0.01, c p < 0.001 indicates significant difference when compare with control using Twoway ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test.
– Effect of Alafia barteri on pain induced responses in tail immersion test. ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.001 indicates significant difference when compare with control using Two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test.
– Effect of Alafia barteri extract on xylene-induced mouse ear oedema test. Values are mean ± SEM, (n = 5). *p < 0.05 vs. control (One-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post test).
– Effect of Alafia barteri on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Values are mean ± SEM (n = 6). ***p < 0.001 compared to control (One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test).
This study analyzes the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Alafia barteri Oliv., Apocynaceae, based on its medicinal use in the treatment of toothaches, inflammation and fevers. The antinociceptive effect was assessed in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail clip, tail immersion and formalin assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats, and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently reduced pain by 35.04, 56.49 and 84.25%, respectively. The extract also significantly inhibited both the early and late phases of formalin-induced nociception in mice. In the tail immersion test, the extract caused a significant inhibition of pain (34.43% inhibition, after 90 min) at a dose of 200 mg/kg, while the effect of the extract in the tail clip test was only significant at the 100 mg/kg dose. A. barteri caused a significant inhibition of paw oedema development in the carrageenan and xylene-induced oedema tests. There was no mortality recorded following treatment with the extract (5 g/kg, p.o.). The results support the traditional use of A. barteri in the treatment of various diseases associated with pain and inflammation.
– Probability of hatching of Haemonchus contortus in different concentrations of the essential oil from leaves of Piper aduncum L.
Piper aduncum L., Piperaceae, has been used to treat mainly inflammatory diseases and has shown several biological activities such as insecticidal and larvicidal. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil of P. aduncum and its efficacy to egg-hatching inhibition of Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The essential oil was obtained from leaves and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It was possible to characterize 22 different substances, among them monoterpenes (80.6%) and sesquiterpenes (13.9%). The major compound was identified as 1,8-cineole (55.8%). Eggs of the nematode were exposed to four concentrations of the essential oil. Levamisole phosphate was used as positive control. The essential oil showed to be effective in inhibiting H. contortus hatchability and the LC90 was calculated as 8.9 These results can point out the P. aduncum essential oil and its chemical components as potential alternative to control of H. contortus.
Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.
Cluster analysis based on the Sørensen-Dice Coefficient for the species listed on studies in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Stalcup, 2000-Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Silvestre, 2000-Niterói and Rio de Janeiro; Parente and Rosa, 2001-Barra do Piraí, Leitão et al., 2013-several municipalities in the Rio de Janeiro; Azevedo and Silva, 2006-Rio de Janeiro; Maioli-Azevedo and Fonseca-Kruel, 2007Rio de Janeiro; Silva, 2008-Rio de Janeiro; Leitão et al., 2009-Petrópolis and Nova Friburgo; Lima et al., 2009-Duque de Caxias; Abreu, 2011-Angra dos Reis).
Map of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing the municipalities from which open-air market studies were found.
Cluster analysis based on the Sørensen-Dice Coefficient for the species listed on studies in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Stalcup, 2000 - Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Silvestre, 2000 - Niterói and Rio de Janeiro; Parente and Rosa, 2001 - Barra do Piraí, Leitão et al., 2013 - several municipalities in the Rio de Janeiro; Azevedo and Silva, 2006.
Medicinal plants have been used for many years and are the source of new active substances and new drugs of pharmaceutical interest. The popular knowledge contained in the open- air markets is studied through urban ethnobotany, and is a good source of information for ethnobotanical research. In this context, we surveyed the literature on works concerning open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro to gather knowledge of the commercialized plants therein. A literature search resulted in ten studies with 376 listed species, distributed in 94 families and 273 genera. Asteraceae family had the greater representation, followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae. Solanum was the most frequent genus. Two hundred and twenty four species could be considered potentially toxic or potentially interact with other drugs/medicines. Eighteen species are referred as “not for use during pregnancy”, and 3 “not for use while nursing”. These results are a source of concern since in Brazil, as it is worldwide, there is the notion that plants can never be harmful. The results for the Sørensen Coefficient showed greater similarity between works performed in very close study areas. Other studies presented low similarity, mainly because of the difficulty in plant identification or a very specific focus in methodology.
In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedicine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: “malva” (Malva sp.), 18%; “manzanilla” (Matricaria recutita), 13%; “tilo” (Tilia sp.), 12%; “cuasia” (Picrasma crenata), 8%; and “boldo” (Peumus boldus), 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.
The use of indigenous or remote popular knowledge to identify new drugs against diseases or infections is a well-known approach in medicine. The inhabitants of coastal regions are known to prepare algae extracts for the treatment of disorders and ailments such as wounds, fever and stomach aches, as for the prevention of arrhythmia. Recent trends in drug research from natural sources have indicated that marine algae are a promising source of novel biochemically active compounds, especially with antiprotozoal activity. Algae survive in a competitive environment and, therefore, developed defense strategies that have resulted in a significant level of chemical structural diversity in various metabolic pathways. The exploration of these organisms for pharmaceutical and medical purposes has provided important chemical candidates for the discovery of new agents against neglected tropical diseases, stimulating the use of sophisticated physical techniques. This current review describes the main substances biosynthesized by benthic marine algae with activity against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei; the causative agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and African trypanosomiasis, respectively. Emphasis is given to secondary metabolites and crude extracts prepared from marine algae.
Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of roots, stems and leaves of Limonium globuliferum Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, aqueous extracts were studied by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests. These are plant, bacterial and mammalian cell assays, respectively. The Allium test analyses showed that aqueous extracts of this species have dose-dependent toxicity and induce chromosomal anomalies based on defects in the spindle fibers. EC50 values of root stem and leaf aqueous extracts were 32.5, 50, and 50 g/l, respectively. It was observed that there was an inverse correlation between root growth and extract concentration. The lowest mitotic index value (22.72 %) was found in L. globuliferum root extract. As a result of the chromosome aberrations test, sticky chromosomes, anaphase bridges, laggard chromosomes, and anaphase-telophase disorders were highly detected especially in high concentration of the extract. In the Ames test, mutagenic effects were determined at all concentrations of stem and leaf aqueous extracts and only two concentrations of root extracts of L. globuliferum. Most of the extracts induced cytotoxic effects by the MTT test based on mitochondrial activity. Nevertheless, some of the extracts induced t cell proliferation.
n vitro effects of LA-EO on eggs development. Quantitative analysis of phenotype development. After treatment, the eggs were examined microscopically and scored as developed or undeveloped on the basis of the presence or absence of the miracidium. Data presented are the mean of the eggs developed from three separate experiments. Control, eggs in 0.1% DMSO. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001.
Effects of LA-EO on the viability of GM07492-A cells. *p < 0.001.
This paper reports on the chemical composition, the in vitro antischistosomal effects, and the cytotoxicity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae, grown in the Southeastern Brazil. Borneol (22.4%), epi-α-muurolol (13.4%), α-bisabolol (13.1%), precocene I (13.0%), and eucalyptol (7.9%) were the major essential oil constituents. Incubation with essential oil at 200 μg/ml killed all the adult S. mansoni worms after 24 h (LC50 117.7 and 103.9 μg/ml at 24 and 120 h of incubation, respectively). At a concentration of 50 μg/ ml, the essential oil significantly decreased the motor activity and reduced the percentage of egg development after 120 h. In addition, the essential oil separated all the coupled S. mansoni worm pairs into individual male and female at 25 and 50 μg/ml within 120 and 24 h, respectively. This oil was cytotoxic to GM07492-A cells at only concentrations higher than 200 μg/ml (IC50 243.7 μg/ml). These data indicate that LA-EO exhibits moderate in vitro activity against adult S. mansoni and exerts remarkable effects on eggs development.
Campomanesia velutina (Cambess) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, popularly known as “gabiroba” or “guavira”, is used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat several diseases, including inflammation and rheumatism. Extraction and isolation from leaves of the plant afforded the active compound myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, also known as myricitrin. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. velutina and its ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions were evaluated in inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw oedema) and analgesic models (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate test). Moreover, the ethanolic extract, its fractions and the isolated compound were also in vitro evaluated for their ability to modulate NO, TNF-α and IL-10 production from J774A.1 macrophages stimulated by LPS/IFN-γ. In vivo assays showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions. The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract and A was demonstrated in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. In vitro assays demonstrated that ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions fraction and myricitrin inhibited NO production from macrophages J774A.1. Also Myricitrin induced production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. None of the samples was able to inhibited TNF-α production. The results demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of C. velutina.
The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared questionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ≤ IC50 ≤ 500 μg/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ≤ IC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.
Photomicrographs of positive control rat skin after UV-B-induced psoriasis.
Histopathological features on UV-B-induced psoriasis in drug treated rats.
The plant Cassia tora L., Fabaceae, traditionally, is claimed to be useful in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases. In order to evaluate this information, antipsoriatic activity of three flavonoids, namely luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O-β-D- glucuronide (2) and formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (3), isolated from the ethanol extract of C. tora leaves were investigated using UV-B induced photodermatitis model. Further, the flavonoids present in the ethanol extract were identified using HPLC by comparing their retention time with known standard luteolin, quercetin and formononetin. In the UV induced photodermatitis model, histopathological analysis of the section revealed the absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), isolated compound 2, 3 and standard group. The ethanolic extract (400 mg/kg) and isolated compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited a significant (p < 0.01) percentage reduction of relative epidermal thickness when compared with a positive control. In the HPLC analysis, three flavonoids were identified by comparison of the retention times of standard marker, namely luteolin, quercetin and formononetin. We concluded, using animal model, that the flavonoids from Cassia tora leaves have significant antipsoriatic activity.
Foram coletadas sessenta e oito amostras em diferentes solos paraibanos, com o isolamento de quarenta e nove cepas de Streptomyces spp. Após triagem antimicrobiana, por meio da técnica de difusão em meio sólido com blocos de agar, foram preparados os extratos dos microrganismos produtores de metabólitos bioativos, respectivamente cepas SP1 e SP3, e em seguida avaliados quanto a atividade antifúngica frente a espécies de fungos filamentosos de origem clínica e ATCC. O antagonismo foi determinado através dos ensaios de difusão com discos em meio sólido, microdiluição e cinética de morte microbiana. Os halos de inibição obtidos a partir dos extratos Sp-1 e Sp-3 apresentaram efeito antagônico com valores superiores aos halos de inibição promovidos pela droga controle, frequentemente utilizada na terapêutica antifúngica. Os resultados das concentrações inibitórias mínimas na microdiluição foram expressivos com valores fungicidas variando entre 10 mg e 0,078125 mg. Na cinética de morte microbiana, as atividades dos extratos Sp-1 e Sp-3 resultaram em dados estatisticamente significativos frente às cepas testes.
– Identification of astragaloside IV-BSA by MALDI-TOF MS.
– Identification of BSA by MALDI-TOF MS.
– The results of non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
– Synthesis of hapten derivatives for astragaloside IV (R).
– Serum anti-AST-BSA antibody titers from immunized mice.
The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, Fabaceae) and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.
-Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Calotropis procera (Cp) on fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dl) of diabetic rats. NDC, non-diabetic control; DC, diabetic control, MTD, diabetic rats treated with metformin 500 mg/kg; Cp, diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Calotropis procera 300 and 600 mg/kg; ITD, diabetic rats treated with insulin 6 U. The results are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6/group). a Statistically different from DC and MTD. b Statistically different from DC (ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls, p < 0.05).  
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton, Apocynaceae, popularly known as “algodão-de-seda”, is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day), vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c.) or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day) were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group) for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg) reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.
Factors and levels investigated in the robustness test. 
Time-kill curves obtained for manool (A) and SODH2 (B) against Streptococcus mutans using CHD and 5% DMSO solution as positive and negative controls, respectively.
Typical SODH2 chromatogram obtained at established conditions (isocratic elution system of 90% acetonitrile in water with 0.1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1 , column temperature of 40°C, and detection at 201 nm). Insert: UV spectrum of MO.
Analytical parameters of LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy, and robustness obtained for the developed method. 
In this paper we screened the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, against a representative panel of microorganisms that cause caries, conducted a bioassay-guided fractionation to establish themselves the most active metabolite (manool) and determined the Salvia officinalis fraction with the manool highest concentration to be used to activate an ingredient in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes. Both manool and S. officinalis extract showed very promising minimal inhibitory concentration values (between 6.24 and 31.36 μ−1) and time kill curves against the primary causative agents of dental caries (Streptococcus mutans) revealed that, at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (12.48 μ−1), manool required 6 h to completely kill the bacteria. Salvia officinalis extract at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (31.36 μ−1) needed 12 h. The results achieved with Salvia officinalis extract motivated us to develop and validate an analytical RP-HPLC method to detect and determine manool in this extract. The validation parameters were satisfactorily met and evaluated allows us to consider the developed method suitable for use in different labs. In conclusion, our results evidenced that the manool-rich S. officinalis extract can be considered an analytically validated alternative to develop novel and effective antimicrobial agents against the main bacteria responsible for dental caries.
The appearance of resistant bacteria was found to reduce the efficiency of antimicrobial therapies with the current antibiotics, thereby increasing the need for more efficient drugs for the treatment of infections. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in antimicrobial activity following the interaction of several compounds with metal ions. The present study used a methodology adapted for antimicrobial bioassays using plant extracts, in compliance with the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results obtained were considered appropriate for determining MIC, MBC as for performing antimicrobial sensitivity testing with good efficiency and reproducibility. The bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited high sensitivity to the tested compounds, being efficient to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The bioassays with the metal complexes of flavonoid quercetin and Ga(III) ions, and synthetic ligand H2bbppd and Cu(II) ions showed a greater inhibitory effect than their individual ligands, thus, the addition indicated an increase in the antimicrobial activity after the coordination. Both metal complexes exhibit good antimicrobial performances, such as low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 250 μg/ml), bactericidal effect and a broad activity spectrum, which qualify these compounds as suitable candidates to the next step of drugs fabrication. Nevertheless, further studies on the mechanism of growth inhibition and toxicity are needed, in order to evaluate the potential of therapeutic application.
ABSTRACT Lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) from Lychnophora pinaster Mart (Asteraceae) aerial parts was evaluated in the search of possible biological activities. LAE exhibited trypanocidal activity (113.62 μg/mL), but could not inhibit 5-lipoxygenase in vitro (17% of inhibition). LAE chemical characterization by HPLC with UV-Diode Array Detector showed the presence of caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid, vitexin, isovitexin and quercetin, in comparison with authentic samples.
Relationship between the amount of total tannins and their Use Values (UV), of eleven medicinal tree species collected in the municipality of Currais, southern Piauí.
Due to the current predatory exploitation and consequent extinction of native medicinal plants around the world, strategies have been proposed aiming at the sustainable use of these resources. Accordingly, this study aims at verifying the differences in tannin compounds content in the bark of eleven species with high use value (UV) and also relating the amounts of tannins with their therapeutic indications. To quantify the total phenolic content in the samples the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used, and for total tannins chemical casein precipitation was applied. The amount of tannins ranged intra-specifically and the greater variation was found for Anadenanthera colubrina (angico) that displayed between 157.57 and 107.39 mg/g. The lowest variation occurred in Lafoensia replicata (mangabeira) with values ranging between 76.55 and 68.96 mg/g. There were significant differences between several of the eleven species and according to the simple regression analysis, the quantities of tannins found failed to justify their UV. Thus, it was not possible to establish whether the amount of total tannins influenced to a greater or lesser degree in the accumulation of knowledge. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between the amount of total tannins and local botanical knowledge expressed by the UV.
Localization of the communities in Crato (latitude - 07° 14’ 03” N, longitude - 39° 40’ 34” W) and Santana do Cariri cities (latitudes - 07° 11’ 18” N, longitudes - 39° 73’ 13” W).
Categories of medicinal uses of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium (barbatimão) in Santana do Cariri and Crato cities in Ceará, Brazil.
Knowledge measurements calculated for Stryphnodendron rotundifolium in Santana do Cariri and Crato cities, Ceará, Brazil.
This work describes the local knowledge of the medicinal use of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., Fabaceae, according to informants in two areas of the Araripe bioregion, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. We used interviews to investigate the ethnomedicinal use of the local species to determine the mode of use, frequency of administration, duration of treatment and restrictions of use. In traditional medicine, the use of S. rotundifolium is associated with the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The part of the plant most used was the stem bark (86.11%), the predominant mode of preparation was immersion in water (52.83%), and oral administration was the most cited (48.43%). For inflammatory and infectious diseases, the treatment lasted 3-10 days and the frequency of administration was 2-3 times/day. For gastroprotective effects, treatment lasted up to 30 days, and the herb was administered 1-3 times/day. For pain complaints, the therapy varied from 2-3 days to continuous administration. The informants (46.87%) did not mention restrictions of use, except for pregnant women, with a rate of 25%. A comparison of these results with the ethnopharmacological information from other studies showed that some of the traditional indications are scientifically supported by the literature or clinical studies. Nevertheless, the results showed that pharmacologists have not fully investigated all the possible bioactivities that healers credit to this plant.
Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.
– HPLC profile of Geissospermum laevis extract. The marker that elutes first, after two minutes, is codeine.
– HPLC profile of Aspidosperma subincanum extract. The marker that elutes first is codeine. The major peak, which elute last, is uleine.
– HPLC profile of Tabebuia impetiginosa extract. The marker that elutes in front is codeine.
The bark of the Brazilian tree Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. D.C., Apocynaceae, has been characterised, and its constituents concentrated to obtain an uleine-enriched extract with the aim to produce food supplements. The concentration of the contaminant alkaloid ellipticine was assessed, and its potential to elicit toxic effects on consumers evaluated. It was found that this alkaloid posited no danger. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Free-radical scavenging property of the HPLC fractions obtained from the active SPE fraction (50% MeOH in water). Each fraction collected refers to two minutes 1 = 0-2 min, 2 = 2-4 min, and 20 = 38-40 min. Fraction 8 (14-16 min) contains verbascoside (1).
Free-radical scavenging property of the HPLC fractions obtained from the active SPE fraction (50% MeOH in water). Each fraction collected refers to two minutes 1 = 0–2min, 2 = 2–4min, and 20 = 38–40min. Fraction 8 (14–16min) contains verbascoside (1).
Gypsophila pilulifera, Boiss & Heldr, Caryophyllaceae, is a perennial medicinal herb that grows in the southwestern region of Turkey. Except for only one report on the isolation of cytotoxic saponins from the underground parts of G. pilulifera, there are no published thorough phytochemical or bioactivity studies on this species. In the present study, the free-radical scavenging activity of extracts and fractions of the stems of G. pilulifera was evaluated, using a slightly modified and more precise version of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reported here for the first time. The DPPH assay-guided HPLC-PDA-purification of the active solid-phase extraction fraction (50% methanol in water) of the methanolic extract exhibited verbascoside as the main free-radical scavenger present in this species. The structure of this active compound was resolved by spectroscopy, and the free-radical scavenging potential of verbascoside was determined.
Augusta has traditionally been placed in the tribe Rondeletieae, subfamily Cinchonoideae: However, recent molecular phylogenies positioned it near to Wendlandia (Ixoroideae), but locate A. longifolia near to the clade Ixoroidinae II. The study of A. longifolia afforded two coumarins, five flavonoids, three triterpenoids and one benzoic acid derivative. These metabolites reinforce the separation of Augusta as a monospecific genus, and Lindenia as a genus of three species, closely related to Wendlandia.
- Numbers of plant species used in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, according to their probable origins (Aut = autochthonous; Alnz = naturalized allochthonous; Alcv = cultivated allochthonous) as cited in the five editions of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia (BP 1st Ed.; BP 2nd Ed.; BP 3rd Ed.; BP 4th Ed.; and BP 5th Ed.) and in six other documents of the Brazilian Health Ministry (Simplified Registration Species List – IN 05/08; Anvisa Registry; Herbal Medicine Compendium of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia; RDC 10/2010; National List of Plants of Interest to the SUS; Research Program of Medicinal Plants).
- Map of the location of the municipality of São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brazil. Source: Prefeitura de São Francisco do Conde, Bahia.
- Botanical families with the most cited species used for medicinal or mystical-religious purposes by informants in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, and the numbers of species listed in the 5 editions of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia and in the six documents of the Brazilian Health Ministry revised.
We investigated the knowledge and practices of local residents in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, regarding the use of medicinal and mystical plants with the aim of proposing strategies for the incorporation of phytotherapies into the local Unified Health System through local Basic Health Clinics. This municipality was founded during the early colonization of Brazil, introducing the monoculture of sugarcane and slave labor to the region, resulting in a currently largely Afro-Brazilian population. Key informants and local specialists were interviewed and workshops were undertaken at the Basic Health Clinics to collect data and information. The interviewees made 254 references to 126 plant species distributed among 107 genera and 50 families. Among the species cited with medicinal or mystical uses, 51.6% were considered autochtonous, and 42.8% were cited in at least one document of the Brazilian Health Ministry; of these, 11.1% were mentioned in four to eight documents, indicating potential for introduction to the local Unified Health System. The valorization of local knowledge and practices concerning the use of medicinal plants represents an important approach to public health efforts.
Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the trabecular bone tissue of the proximal epiphysis of the femur. The red arrows show the negative osteoblasts and the black arrows show the positive osteoblasts. A: Control group; B: Osteoporosis group; C: alendronate group; D: EGb1 group; E: EGb2 group. Original magnification 400×.
Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae (EGb) in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rats were divided into five groups: osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/kg); EGb2 (56 mg/kg); alendronate (0.2 mg/animal) and control. The treatments were conducted for 20 or 30 days. The Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts cells was evaluated in the femoral trabecular bone. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis-induced group (Student's t-test). The other groups were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The percentage of Bcl-2 expression was reduced, when the control group (17.95 ± 3.45 20 days; 21.11 ± 3.43 30 days) was compared with the osteoporosis group (10.64 ± 3.30 20 days; 9.72 ± 2.84 30 days). Nevertheless, this percentage increased in the EGb2 group (18.58 ± 3.41 20 days; 16.51 ± 1.80 30 days) when compared to the osteoporosis group. The EGb increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, suggesting a decrease in osteoblast apoptosis.
The treatment with bee venom [(BV), 0.1 mg/kg and 1.2 mg/kg, and melittin (0.1 mg/kg) decreased apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviors in mice. BV, melittin or saline (40 μl) were administered 30 min before apomorphine (20 mg/kg, s.c.), and the measurements were taken for 10 s in intervals of 10 min for 60 min. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of 10 s counts. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 from saline group (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test, n = 8-12).
Effect of the BV and melittin on the elevated plusmaze test. Mice received saline (40 μl), bee venom (BV) or melittin subcutaneous (s.c.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the test. The percentage of entries (A) and time spent (B) in open arms are registered. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to other groups (one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-test, n = 6-9).
Effect of the BV and melittin on the elevated plus-maze test. Mice received saline (40 μl), bee venom (BV) or melittin subcutaneous (s.c.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the test. The percentage of entries (A) and time spent (B) in open arms are registered. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.
The treatment with bee venom [(BV), 0.1mg/kg and 1.2mg/kg, and melittin (0.1mg/kg) decreased apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviors in mice. BV, melittin or saline (40μl) were administered 30min before apomorphine (20mg/kg, s.c.), and the measurements were taken for 10s in intervals of 10min for 60min. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of 10s counts.
The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control) or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol). The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol. These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.
Geographical data and seasonal climatic conditions of Hypericum montbretii growing localities in Turkey.
Chromatograms of Hypericum montbretii whole flowering shoots extract detected by HPLC-DAD at 270–360nm wavelength on SunFire C18 column for flavonoids, epicatechin and hyperforin, and on ACE C18 column for phenolic acids and (+)-catechin. Peaks identified: A: 1. (−)-epicatechin (16); 2. rutin (14); 3. hyperoside (9); 4. isoquercitrin (10); 5. avicularin (13); 6. quercitrin (11); 7. quercetin (12); 8. amentoflavone (8); 9. hyperforin (3); 10. adhyperforin (4); B: 11. 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (7); 12. (+)-catechin (15); C: 13. neochlorogenic acid (6); 14. chlorogenic acid (5); 15. caffeic acid (17); D: 16. pseudohypericin (2); 17. hypericin (1).
In the present study, we investigated the variation in the content of seventeen secondary metabolites among Hypericum montbretii Spach., Hypericaceae, populations from five different growing zones in Turkey for the first time. The plants were collected at full flowering, and after they were dried at room temperature, they were assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. Chemical constituents of plants varied significantly among populations except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid which was accumulated at similar levels. Plants from population - 1 yielded the highest amount of hypericin and pseudohypericin (1.27 and 2.97 mg/g, respectively) while hyperforin and adhyperforin accumulations were the highest in plants from population - 2 (6.64 and 1.24 mg/g, respectively). (+)-Catechin and (−)-epicatechin were accumulated at significantly higher levels by plants of population - 4 (1.54 and 4.35 mg/g, respectively). The highest accumulation level of the rest compounds namely, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin and rutin was reached in plants from population-5 (2.64, 4.37, 2.35, 10.26, 3.52, 4.37, 1.55, 1.56 and 20.54 mg/g, respectively). The pronounced chemical diversity between populations is discussed to possibly be the result of different environmental, morphological and genetic factors.
- The central region of São José da Figueira (A) and the Catholic Church (B).
Species of medicinal plants cited by women of the São José da Figueira community, Durandé, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
- Plant parts used in medicinal preparations by the women of the rural community of São José da Figueira.
- Two of the home gardens of the rural properties visited.
São José da Figueira is a rural community which economy is based on small-sized family- owned agricultural and dairy farms. Rural communities often possess medicinal plant knowledge because not only does the rural lifestyle promote this but also because these communities coexist with a wide variety of plants. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge of the community on plants and their medicinal uses. For data collection, semi- structured interviews and guided tours were carried out. Data were analyzed through the Major Use Agreement. All of the 34 informants were women. Plants were the first choice for use for primary health care by 75% of the interviewees. Of the total of 165 species identified, most species are exotic (45%), obtained by collection in home gardens (88%), and of herbaceous habits (65.7%). Leaves were the plant parts most often used (52%). Decoction was the most widely used form of preparation (41%), and oral intake was cited most often (66.4%). Leonurus sibiricus showed the highest value of Major Use Agreement (77.3%), in agreement with its popular use to treat diarrhea. The information obtained in this study showed that women in the community have extensive knowledge regarding medicinal plants. The home garden is a space where useful medicinal plants are maintained, and is the main location where these plants are gathered.
Representation of the amount of sarsaparilla indicated for tea preparation.
Pattern of genetic divergence among the Smilax brasiliensis population present in the CPQBA germplasm bank in Campinas-SP, Brazil, by UPGMA clustering, based on the genetic identity obtained using Rogers-W genetic distance. The cophenetic correlation was 0.876.
Quantitative representation of the twelve sarsaparilla distributors (A-L) regarding the presence of the company's name on the packaging or the number of times the distributors were named as wholesalers by the commercial establishments visited in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g) is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3–79.6 g). The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.
Native species used for pain-relief mentioned in ethnobotanical studies in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) - Brazil were distributed by family, part of plant used and preparation form reported by each studied region with references. The physiographic regions of RS territory: DC-Depressão Central; ES-Encosta do Sudeste; LT-Litoral; EN-Encosta Inferior do Nordeste; AU-Alto Uruguai; SS-Serra do Sudeste; MS-Missões; CS- Campos de Cima da Serra; PM-Planalto Médio.
Exotic and subspontaneous species used for pain relief mentioned in ethnobotanical studies in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Physiographic regions of the Rio Grande do Sul state (southern Brazil) defined by Fortes (1959). The number of studies found in each region is in parentheses.
Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil); we had access to nineteen studies. To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50%) of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil), being pain relief an important property.
Criteria to establish the risk of bias in ethnobotanical studies regarding medicinal plants performed in Brazil based on sampling quality.
This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-indications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).
– Effects of Carica papaya leaf chloroform extract on the body weight of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Area under the curve of body weight obtained after a 20-day treatment with chloroform extract of C. papaya in diabetic rats. Results are presented as mean ± S.E.M.; number of rats per groups n = 8; p < 0.05, acompared to non-diabetic rats; bcompared to control diabetic rats. VEH, vehicle.
The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes.This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further evaluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 μl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.
Henna leaves are the raw material of commercial body and hair dyes. According to historical and ethnobotanical information, henna was one of the first plants used for such purpose. However, differences can be observed between henna products by the origin of the raw material, the presence of other plants, or the addition of various contaminants that may cause allergies and permanent scarring. Nowadays henna is used everywhere but it lacks the necessary controls. We report a pharmacognostic study focused on quality control of henna's raw materials from different countries or based on other plants. The analytic approach based on High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was proposed as a reliable technique to evaluate natural products complex mixtures, as it is also the case of derived botanical marketed products.
It is well-known that humans have used medicinal plants for millennia, but as a defined field of scientific research called ethnopharmacology, it has a relatively short history. It is linked to the development of pharmacology in the 19th century (as exemplified in the work of Claude Bernard linking the explorers’ observations on traditional uses of medicines and toxins) and to fascination with psychoactive drugs in the 1960s. This fascination gave rise to what we now call ethnopharmacology, a term first used as recently as 1967. With thousands of ethnopharmacological articles published each year now, the field has expanded greatly. It nowadays covers a wide range of topics based on the anthropological, historical and other socio-cultural studies of local and traditional plants, fungi and animals; as well as the biological and clinical studies of resources used as medicines, toxins, foods, among other applications. It is one of the few fields in science truly transdisciplinary and it is a key bridge between socio-cultural and the natural/medical sciences. More importantly, ethnopharmacological research is crucial for the improvement of livelihood, health and wellbeing of humans.
Cluster analysis graph (select composition > 0.2%) of the essential oil from six different production areas.
Scree graph of essential oil from six different production areas.
Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae, from six different production areas of China and Pakistan were analyzed via gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and examined for their volatile constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). This procedure allowed the identification of 11 to 46 components among six production areas, representing 98.5% to 99.9% of the total oil extracted. The yields of the essential oil of the six production areas of O. vulgare ranged from 0.1 to 0.7%. The class of oxygenated monoterpenes was predominant in all the essential oils. However, samples S5 and S6 have high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (33.7 and 43.7%); while sample S6 is high on oxygenated sesquiterpene (32.9%). The principal component analysis of O. vulgare was employed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of essential oil components. The cluster analysis of O. vulgare was classified into three subsets, characterized according to the major essential oil components. The current study investigated the composition differences of essential oil among six production areas offering foundation for quality control, resource optimization, and clinical treatments.
A total of 139 batches of Chrysanthemum samples were randomly divided into calibration set (92 batches) and prediction set (47 batches). The near infrared diffuses reflectance spectra of Chrysanthemum varieties were preprocessed by a first order derivative (D1) and autoscaling, and a modelwas built using partial least squares analysis. In this study, three Chrysanthemum varieties were identified, the accuracy rates in calibration sets of Dabaiju, Huju, and Xiaobaiju are 97.60, 96.65, and 94.70%, respectively; And 95.16, 86.11, and 93.46% accuracy rate in prediction sets was obtained. The research results demonstrate that the qualitative analysis can be conducted by machine learning combined with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, which provides a new method for rapid and non-invasive identification of Chrysanthemum varieties.
– Gastric mucosal layer. A, Stomach mucosa of vehicle control animal without any lesion or redness. B, The severely hemorrhagic mucosal layer of indomethacin-induced ulcerated animal; C and D, Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) and hesperidin (450 mg/kg) significantly prevent hemorrhagic damage of the mucosa; E, Hypothermic Restraint Stress (HRS) induced moderate ulceration of the gastric tissue; F, The gastro-protective drug omeprazole (20 mg/kg) effectively normalizes damaged mucosal layer; G, The hesperidin (450 mg/kg) treated animal showed only some redness in gastric mucosa.
– Histopathologic photomicrograph of gastric mucosal layer. A, Stomach mucosa of vehicle control animals showed clear and proper arrangement of cells; B, The cells were damaged and created opaque regions in gastric mucosa of indomethacin-induced ulcer animal groups; C, The standard gastro-protective drug omeprazole (20 mg/kg) effectively restores damaged cells of gastric mucosa layer; D, The hesperidin (450 mg/kg) treated animal showed regeneration of ulcerative cells and moderately arranged layer in gastric mucosa; E, Degeneration, hemorrhage and edematous appearance of the gastric tissue in Hypothermic Restraint Stress (HRS) induced ulcer model were shown in figure. F and G, Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) and hesperidin (450 mg/kg) showed regeneration and prevented the formation of hemorrhagic damage and edema but with damaged mucosa.
Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001) increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p < 0.05-0.001) after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.
Prosthechea karwinskii in its habitat. Photo by R. Solano. 
Socioeconomic data from informants who provided information regarding the medicinal uses for Prosthechea karwinskii.
Prosthechea karwinskii in its habitat. Photo by R. Solano.
Summary of medicinal uses of the orchid Prosthechea karwinskii.
In Mexico, native orchids are appreciated for their ornamental value and traditional uses and in many indigenous communities they comprise part of a biocultural heritage. The orchid Prosthechea karwinskii (Mart.) J.M.H. Shaw, Orchidaceae, is particularly relevant in this context, although some of its traditional uses have been attributed to a very similar species, P. citrina. A recent study of P. karwinskii reported unknown medicinal and other traditional uses by the Mixtec community in Mexico. Unfortunately, increasing acculturation of indigenous communities has resulted in a loss of the community's traditional knowledge, thus, we herein documented the worldview and practices associated with the medicinal use of P. karwinskii as well as the socioeconomic aspects that characterize the holders of this knowledge. People with this knowledge are mainly indigenous women with little or no schooling, who learned the medicinal practices from family tradition. They use pseudobulbs, leaves, or flowers of the plant to treat coughs (infusions), wounds and burns (poultices), diabetes (tea or chewed), to prevent miscarriages and to assist in childbirth (infusions). These results show a promising future for ethnopharmacological research on P. karwinskii.
Cross-section of rat testis treated with Copaifera multijuga oil (Cm) for eight weeks. A, Control group (water); B, Cm 500 mg/kg and C) Cm 2500 mg/kg. Seminiferous tubule (ST), Germinal tissue (TG), Sperm (SP) and Leydig cells (L). Hematoxylin eosin (200 × magnification).
Chromatographic profile of Copaifera multijuga oil obtained by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer.
Copaiba oil, extracted from Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Fabaceae, is widely used for medicinal purposes, especially to treat inflammatory processes. However, there is no report regarding its effect on reproductive performance after used in repeated doses orally. The present study evaluated the effects of the oral administration of Copaiba oil (at doses of 200, 500 or 2500 mg/kg) or water (control) for eight weeks in male Wistar rats. Treated males mated untreated females, and parameters as fertility rates, absolute and relative mass of accessory sexual organs and histology and development of the offspring were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of 22 components accounting for 99.11% of the Copaiba oil. The main compounds identified were sesquisterpenes. The reproductive toxicology results indicate that there was no difference between the treated groups compared with the control group in any of the parameters, suggesting that the oral treatment with C. multijuga oil for eight weeks does not affect reproductive performance of male Wistar rats.
Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical approaches are described in the literature as efficient to identify plants of interest for phytochemical and pharmacological studies. In the present work, we reflect on the quality of the data collected in ethno- directed studies. In accordance to the problems identified in published studies, and their theoretical and methodological underpinnings, we believe that these studies are poorly suited to contribute to the advancement of research aimed at the development of novel drugs.
Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is popularly known as “camboim-amarelo” and was collected at Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ, Brazil). Leaves from this species were submitted to hydrodistillation to extract its essential oil. Monoterpenes were the main compounds found (53.9%), and 1,8-cineole was the major constituent (38.4%). Studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of this essential oil on the development of two species of agricultural pests (Oncopeltus fasciatus and Dysdercus peruvianus). The essential oil was considered effective against D. peruvianus and O. fasciatus, causing mortality in both insects. The LD50 values (μg/insect) observed were 112.44 μg/insect (O. fasciatus) and 309.64 μg/insect (D. peruvianus) after one day of treatment, and 72.18 μg/insect (O. fasciatus) and 94.42 μg/insect (D. peruvianus) after 22 days of treatment. The present study reports for the first time the bioinsecticidal activity of essential oil of Myrciaria floribunda leaves, and provides important data regarding the use of essential oils in complementary programs for pest control.
The cytotoxic effect, as a measurement of the OD values determined by the MTT assay, of the different concentrations (0.1-100 µg/ml) of L. sidoides, L. salviifolia and L. rotundifolia essential oils on CT26.WT cell line (A) and L. alba carvone chemotype essential oil on A549 cell line (B). The control samples contained 0.4% DMSO, which is equivalent to the percentage found in the highest concentration evaluated. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001 are significantly different from the control value. 
did not classify them as cytotoxic crude extracts by the National Cancer Institute. Besides the selectivity on colon tumor cell line, it was not observed 
Several Lippia species have been used in folk medicine mainly for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. Their biological properties have been partially associated to the terpenoids found in their essential oils. According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and is described as a complex group of diseases with several hallmarks. One of its acceptable defining features is the cell proliferation beyond their boundaries forming the tumors. Importantly, some drugs currently available were discovered by the investigation of plant secondary metabolites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effect of the essential oils extracted from five Lippia species against tumor cell lines. The results indicated that mouse colon carcinoma CT26.WT cell line viability was significantly reduced showing an IC50 of 19.05, 30.20 and 36.30 μg/ml when treated with the essential oils of L. sidoides, L. salviifolia and L. rotundifolia, respectively. Human lung carcinoma A549 cell line also had a compromised viability to the action of L. alba carvone chemotype essential oil. The tested essential oils did not compromise viability of the normal cell line CHO. These finds suggest that the studied Lippia essential oils might be good candidates for further in-depth studies.
Water and food consumption by female rats during 30 days of treatment with ethanol extract from leaves of Parkia platycephala Benth (Pp-EtOH) at different doses. 
The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Parkia platycephala Benth., Fabaceae, on systemic and reproductive parameters. In toxicity on the estrous cycle, four groups of not-pregnant Wistar rats received distilled water and the doses 250, 500 and 1000 of plant extract for thirty days, at the end of which they were examined as to the frequency of their phases. The systemic toxicity was assessed through the consumption of water and food and by measuring body mass. After the extract was administered, serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin (total, direct and indirect), urea and creatinine were dosed. The evaluation of the organs (brain, heart, hypophysis, adrenal glands, liver, spleen, uterus and ovaries) in their macroscopic aspects, relative and absolute masses and histological structure showed that the plant extract induced a decrease of water and food consumption and of body mass. It caused an increase in the luteal phase and a decrease in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and rose serum alkaline phosphatase levels. The data exhibit systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by plant extract in female Wistar rats.
Top-cited authors
Jose Maria Barbosa Filho
  • Universidade Federal da Paraíba
Maria De Fátima Agra
  • Universidade Federal da Paraíba
Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior
  • Universidade Federal de Sergipe
Leônia Batista
  • Universidade Federal da Paraíba
Satyajit Sarker
  • Liverpool John Moores University