Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento

Online ISSN: 1852-4206
Publications
Article
Endogenous opioid systems are implicated in the reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating the central reinforcing effects of ethanol early in ontogeny. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an olfactory conditioning paradigm with centrally administered ethanol serving as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In Experiment 1, newborn rat pups were treated with either a selective mu antagonist CTOP or kappa selective antagonist nor-BNI prior to olfactory conditioning. Experiment 2 tested the effectiveness of an alternative, shorter-duration kappa opioid antagonist GNTI in altering ethanol reinforcement. Experiment 3 investigated whether the effectiveness of pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors was due to the disruption of learning per se using an olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm with intraoral quinine serving as a US. Central administration of either mu or kappa opioid antagonists prior to conditioning disrupted the reinforcing effects of ethanol in newborn rats. The kappa opioid antagonist GNTI was as effective as nor-BNI. These effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol reinforcement are unlikely to be due to a disruption of all types of conditioning, since CTOP did not affect aversive reinforcement to intraoral infusions of quinine. The present results support the hypothesis that in newborn rats, the reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the endogenous activity at mu and kappa opioid receptors.
 
Article
The present review is focused on animal models for the study of alcohol use, abuse and dependence. These models have helped to understand several features of alcohol consumption, ranging from genetic influences to environmental factors such us early experiences with the drug. Additionally, animal models have been useful tools to assess the efficacy of pharmacological treatments as well as alcohol associated phenomena, such as craving, tolerance and reinstatement. First we introduce a short description of the neurobiological basis of alcohol reinforcement, focused on the opiate system. Then we cover several animal models, from genetic models, and models focused on the study of alcohol related disorders to animal models that emphasize the importance of early experiences with the drug in the development of alcohol use and alcohol related disorders.
 
Article
The present investigation aimed to study the impact of self-concept and environment of the classroom in disruptive behaviors, as well as the influence of these behaviors on grades in two state schools in the north of Portugal, through 3 questionnaires (PHCSCS-2, APSA and EDEP) to 425 students of the compulsory Portuguese schooling. It was found that with the increase of self-concept and improve the environment of the classroom are less frequent disruptive behaviors, increasing thus the academic achievement of students (Portuguese language and mathematics), which stresses the importance of these constructs in the success school. Educational implications are discussed at these levels of education.
 
Screen capture of the on-line recognition task 
Response errors frequency patterns for DeMorgan´s laws
Article
The aim of this contribution is to propose a preliminary account for the intuitive recognition of the logical equivalences attributed to Augustus DeMorgan. Such equivalences concerned with the negation of conjunctions and disjunctions have been previoulsy studied only in the context of syllogistic tasks, but not from the perspective of decision making. An on-line exploratory study was conducted to test two hypotheses. The first hypothesis states that DeMorgan´s law for the negation of conjunctions is easier to recognize than the corresponding law for the disjunctions case. The second hypothesis states that spontaneous errors in the recognition of DeMorgan´s laws follow a cognitive pattern. The results obtained for the first hypothesis suggest that the disjunctions case is more intuitive than the conjunctions case. An heuristic explanation for such unexpected result is suggested. The second hypothesis testing results suggest that the observed errors are not random. Suggestions for future research are proposed.
 
Consumption scores of water (ml/10g of animal body weight) during the adaptation period, as a function of genotype (WT, HT and KO) and day of evaluation (1-4). Values are represented as mean ± SEM.
Article
Rewarding effects of ethanol may be mediated in part by endogenous opioids. Ethanol alters β-endorphin synthesis and release. β-endorphin heterozygous (HT) and knockout (KO) mice consume higher levels of a low-concentrated alcohol solution and show heightened predisposition to self-administer ethanol in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice (Grisel et al., 1999). This study was conducted in order to: i) re-analyze and extend previous results in terms of ethanol consumption profiles of β-endorphin deficient mice; and ii) analyze conditioned aversive learning mediated by ethanol postabsorptive effects as a function of genetic capabilities to synthesize β-endorphin. In Experiment 1, mice were evaluated in terms of consumption of a low (7%) ethanol solution in a two-bottle free choice paradigm. Ethanol concentration was then increased to 10 % and voluntary intake consumption was tested. WT mice displayed significantly higher consumption levels and ethanol-preference scores than did KO mice, independently from ethanol concentration. HT mice drank more ethanol than did KO mice. In Experiment 2, mice (KO, HT and WT) were tested in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm in which a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was paired with a 2-g/kg ethanol dose. Only HT and KO displayed a conditioned aversion when using 2-g/kg ethanol as unconditioned stimulus. The present results indicate that total or partial deficiency of β-endorphin synthesis reduces ethanol preference and consumption. Furthermore, this study indicates that the lack of β-endorphin synthesis exacerbates ethanol’s aversive postabsorptive effects which can in turn modulate self-administration patterns of the drug.
 
Article
This review presents different problems related to executive functions (EF) assessment with neuropsychological tests. It shows an overview of EF definitions and theoreticals models created to overcome the problem of inductive lists. Also EF tests history and their emerging contexts are reviewed, to hypothetisize about its consequences over actual conditions of EF assessment practice. Later, an EF tests classification is proposed, taking into account criterias like tests origins, constructs relates and systemic or simple forms of aplication. Finally the idea of a new generation of tests supported by theoreticals and technological advances was analyzed. This includes the development of EF scientifical ontologies, reverse inferences analysis and ecological and etological validity studies.
 
Article
Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.
 
Article
Se construyó y validó un nuevo cuestionario de contextos de consumo de alcohol para adolescentes. Estudio 1: 212 participantes completaron tres preguntas estructuradas de final abierto para obtener información sobre motivos, personas presentes y lugares de consumo de alcohol. Los registros obtenidos fueron analizados por tres jueces en función de su correspondencia al modelo teórico y a su claridad semántica. Tras analizar el acuerdo entre jueces se obtuvo un conjunto de 47 ítems. Estudio 2: 275 adolescentes completaron el Cuestionario de Contextos de Consumo de Alcohol para Adolescentes (CCCA-A). El análisis de la estructura interna mediante un análisis factorial exploratorio utilizando el método de componentes principales con rotación oblicua mostró una solución de 3 factores. El análisis de la confiabilidad mostró muy buen valor de confiabilidad para las tres escalas: facilitación social, aceptación grupo de pares y control parental. Estos resultados indican que el CCCA-A es un instrumento válido y confiable para la valoración de los contextos de uso de alcohol de los adolescentes de nuestro medio.
 
Article
A new measure of drinking contexts in adolescents was developed and validated. Phase 1: 212 participants answered three structured open format questions to gather information regarding why, with whom and where adolescents drink alcohol. The pool of items was analyzed by a group of three experts according to the following criteria: item correspondence with two different theoretical models and item semantic correctness. According with the evaluation of the agreement between judges, a set of 47 items was obtained. Phase 2: 275 participants answered the Drinking Contexts Questionnaire –Adolescent form (CCCA-A). Internal structure was analyzed through the use of exploratory factor analysis. A principal component analysis with oblimin rotation (promax) yielded a four factor structure. The measure was found to demonstrate very good internal consistency for the four scales: social facilitation, peer pressure, stress control and parental control. These results indicate that CCCA-A is a valid and reliable measure to assess drinking contexts in Argentinean adolescents.
 
Article
The principal goal of this study was to evaluate the neuropsychological performance in Executive Function (EF) tasks in adolescents with different patterns of alcohol use. An ex � post facto simple prospective design was used and three groups were identified in regard to alcohol drinking patterns (DP): light drinkers, moderate drinkers, and Binge drinkers. No differences were found in neuropsychological performance in EF tasks related to DP. Results of the present work highlights relevant issues that need to be considered in future works, like the importance of a better assessment of DP among Argentinean adolescents and the implementation of neuropsychological tasks developed to assess emotional aspects of EF, such us the decision making tasks. El presente trabajo tuvo como principal objetivo evaluar el desempeño en pruebas neuropsicológicas que evalúan la Función Ejecutiva en adolescentes con diferente patrón de consumo de alcohol. Se planteó un diseño Ex Post Facto Prospectivo Simple a través del cual se identificaron tres grupos en función del patrón de consumo (PC) de alcohol: Consumidores Leves, (N=24), Consumidores Moderados, (N=28) y Consumidores Binge, (N= 43). Las puntuaciones originales obtenidas fueron analizadas a través de la prueba no paramétrica H de Kruskal-Walli. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes PC. Los resultados de la presente investigación ponen de manifiesto algunas consideraciones para futuros estudios como avanzar en una mejor determinación de los patrones de consumo de alcohol en población adolescente local y elegir pruebas neuropsicológicas y cognitivas más sensible quizá de carácter más ecológico que incluyan tanto aspectos cognitivos como emocionales en la evaluación.
 
Article
Empirical evidence suggests that human beings develop the capacity to ascribe mental states (as false beliefs) at the age of four or five years old. This has been demonstrated through the use of different tests (appearance – reality, representational change and false belief tests). Three year old infants commit serious mistakes in such tests. Perner (1994; 1995) suggests that such capacities depend on the metacognitive skills that permits the comprehension of the mind as a representational structure. But its are not developed until the age of four or five. Leslie (1987; 1988; 1994b) sustains that such capacity depends on the ontogenetic development of a “paraintentional” modular structure in the brain. Leslie think that around the second year of life children express “mentalist” abilities. For Leslie, lack of executives capacities and lack of a mechanism responsible for coordination of inferences explain the difficulties of children in false belief tests. The objective of this work is to inquire why 3 years old children can not attribute false beliefs, in “false belief test”. The data shows that children are capable of solving problems that require mental adscription at 3 years old, as long as problems are simplified. This indicates that the reported low performance of 3 year old children can be explained in terms of general skills to compute information.
 
Article
This review aims to provide an integrating framework of the basic processes studied by the Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience that are involved in the ability of people to understand and interact with others. For this, are reviewed the main findings about cognitive, social and emotional processes, by indicating the brain areas where they are located, and are analyzed according if are automatic or controlled processes, if they focus on internal or external characteristics of individuals, and if they are simple or complex processes. This article proposes a functional-anatomic distribution where automatic and controlled processes are located on ventral and dorsal areas respectively, externally and internally focused processes in lateral and medial areas, respectively, and simple and complex processes in the caudal and rostral areas respectively. Finally, limitations and future directions of research are discussed.
 
Article
There are stressors arising in the workplace that influence emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal fulfillment of workers; the most vulnerable populations are those who have contact with the public. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and burnout syndrome in staff of the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery. The Burnout Inventory (MBI-HS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied. Secretarial staff presented the higher rate of depressive symptoms. Concerning the MBI-HS differences were found regarding the lack of personal accomplishment and feelings towards patients according to the different categories of workers.
 
Article
This pioneering study aims to associate the quality of the therapeutic alliance between therapist and parents with the quality of the therapeutic relationship between the child and the therapist. The goal is to understand how these two variables are connected. The sample was composed of 21 dyads father/mother-child. They assessed individually the therapeutic relationship established with the therapist. The assessed dimensions were the quality of relationship, objectives and tasks of the therapeutic process. Results not found an association between the overall therapeutic relationships of parents and children with therapist. However, some secondary correlations were found. Guidelines and recommendations for future replication of this study are discussed.
 
Descriptivo del test Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). Percentiles para " no universitarios " : Cansancio Emocional (55), Despersonalización (80) y Realización Personal (50). Percentiles para " universitarios " : Cansancio Emocional (60), Despersonalización (70) y Realización Personal (55). Detengámonos en los modelos predictivos (análisis multivariado). Para ambos grupos se encontró una vinculación entre la dimensión Cansancio emocional y el nivel de Burnout Measure, resultado interesante en tanto indicaría la asociación de dos instrumentos de medición del síndrome: el Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986) y el Burnout Measure (Pines & Aronson, 1988). Así, el modelo predictivo para los " no universitarios " indica que el Cansancio emocional (R 2 = .72) puede predecirse por un aumento en el nivel de desgaste medido por el Burnout Measure (β = .78) y, en menor medida, por un mayor uso de la estrategia Resolver problemas (β = .30), es decir, concentrarse en solucionar la situación conflictiva aumentaría el agotamiento emocional. Para el grupo de " universitarios " el Cansancio emocional (R 2 = .57), tal como anticipamos, también se encuentra vinculado con el aumento en el nivel de desgaste (medido por el Burnout Measure, β = .61).  
Esquema del modelo multivariado según el Maslach Burnout Inventory 4. Discuciones Las condiciones laborales actuales presentan constantes desafíos para los trabajadores, generando con frecuencia patologías de distinto grado. En nuestro caso y contra lo esperado, globalmente, no hemos hallado elevados niveles de burnout en sujetos que se desempeñan en un ámbito estatal poco propicio al desarrollo. Tampoco el síndrome emerge entre quienes han alcanzado un nivel de instrucción universitario y que, por alentar mayores expectativas, podrían haber sufrido particularmente el síndrome ante la imposibilidad de alcanzar sus metas. Antes bien, hemos hallado una población en riesgo. Asociado al resultado, estimamos, se halla la presencia de particulares estrategias de afrontamiento, lo que les habría permitido sobrellevar la adversidad sin caer en la enfermedad.  
Article
The objective of this paper is to study Coping Strategies as explanatory variables of Job Burnout, in employees (University graduates vs. non-university graduates) working at government offices in Mendoza Argentina. In order to develop a more comprehensive approach to this issue, the methodology used includes quantitative techniques and qualitative techniques. The research entailed a comparative study. The results obtained from the quantitative data, show significant differences between “university” graduates – who use strategies that seem to be closer to action and problem solving; and “non-university” graduates – who use strategies linked to emotion. From an applied point of view, it is expected that the results may generate Ongoing Training Programs focusing on burnout and stress related to the development of positive Coping Strategies.
 
Teoría Bifactorial de la Inteligencia de Spearman (Adaptado de Cohen y Swerdlik, 2006).  
Gráfico de Sedimentación (Scree Test) En la figura 2 se presenta el gráfico de sedimentación obtenido del AFE del Inventario de Autoeficacia para Inteligencias Múltiples (Pérez, Beltramino y Cupani, 2003). En general, se recomienda inspeccionar el gráfico de izquierda a derecha hasta localizar el punto de inflexión en que los autovalores  
Article
The present work reviews the foundations and principal procedures of exploratory factor analysis conceived as an essential method for the construction, adjustment and validation of psychological tests. The article, first, considers the principal strategic decisions that researcher�s must make during the implementation of this methodology. Additionally, this work presents discussions regarding different conceptual and methodological considerations that exploratory factor analysis presents in each phase of methodology�s application. En el presente trabajo se realiza una revisión de los fundamentos y principales procedimientos del análisis factorial exploratorio, un método esencial para la construcción, adaptación y validación de tests psicológicos. El artículo se presenta considerando las principales decisiones estratégicas que debe tomar el investigador durante la implementación del método. Se discuten además las distintas opciones conceptuales y metodológicas que se plantean en cada fase de la aplicación del Análisis Factorial Exploratorio.
 
Olfactory IC conditioning: Design for paired and unpaired procedures used in Experiments 1 and 2. IC = into cisterna magna.
Total time attached (A) and mean grasp duration (B) on a surrogate nipple providing water in the presence of lemon odor. One hour prior to testing subjects were injected IC with saline, 1μg of CTOP or 1μg of nor-BNI and then exposed to lemon odor either explicitly paired or unpaired with central injections of 100 mg% ethanol. Bars represent mean values; vertical lines depict the standard error of the mean. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference from all other groups. 
Total time attached (A) and mean grasp duration (B) on a surrogate nipple providing water in the presence of lemon odor. One hour prior to testing subjects were injected IC with one of the 4 doses of GNTI (0, 0.0174, 0.174 or 0.348 μ g) and then exposed to lemon odor either explicitly paired or unpaired with central injections of 100 mg% ethanol. Bars represent mean values; vertical lines depict the standard error of the mean. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference from control and both the paired and unpaired GNTI 0.174 and GNTI 0.348 μ g groups. 
Classical olfactory conditioning: design for paired and unpaired procedures used in Experiments 1 and 2. IC = into cisterna magna
Total time attached (A) and mean grasp duration (B) on a surrogate nipple providing water in the presence of lemon odor. One hour prior to testing subjects were injected IC with either saline or 1.0 μ g CTOP and then exposed to lemon odor while receiving intraoral infusions of 0.1% quinine (paired) or exposed to lemon odor 5 min prior to intraoral quinine infusions (unpaired) in Experiment 3. Bars represent mean values; vertical lines depict the standard error of the means. There was a significant main effect of conditioning. Unpaired subjects attached for both longer periods of time and longer bouts than paired rat pups which indicates an aversion. 
Article
Endogenous opioid systems are implicated in the reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating the central reinforcing effects of ethanol early in ontogeny. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an olfactory conditioning paradigm with centrally administered ethanol serving as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In Experiment 1, newborn rat pups were treated with either a selective mu antagonist CTOP or kappa selective antagonist nor-BNI prior to olfactory conditioning. Experiment 2 tested the effectiveness of an alternative, shorter-duration kappa opioid antagonist GNTI in altering ethanol reinforcement. Experiment 3 investigated whether the effectiveness of pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors was due to the disruption of learning per se using an olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm with intraoral quinine serving as a US. Central administration of either mu or kappa opioid antagonists prior to conditioning disrupted the reinforcing effects of ethanol in newborn rats. The kappa opioid antagonist GNTI was as effective as nor-BNI. These effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol reinforcement are unlikely to be due to a disruption of all types of conditioning, since CTOP did not affect aversive reinforcement to intraoral infusions of quinine. The present results support the hypothesis that in newborn rats, the reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the endogenous activity at mu and kappa opioid receptors.
 
Article
This paper analyzes the development of psychology as a behavioral science within the framework of the Psychology Program in San Luis (Argentina) between 1958 and 1982. The process of gestation and development of the community of behavioral psychologists is described. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the incidence of this model in the Psychology Program between 1958 and 1982 was made. The incidence was measured in the factors: teaching, research and services to the community, because they were considered the main objectives of a university. To this purpose, indicators of these factors were built. In contrast to the rest of the psychology programs at national universities in that period, it is concluded that behavioral psychology had a considerable incidence in the psychology program of San Luis. Se analiza el desarrollo de la psicología entendida como ciencia del comportamiento, en el marco de los primeros veinticinco años de la carrera de psicología en San Luis (Argentina): 1958-1982. Se explican los procesos de gestación y evolución de la comunidad de psicólogos que sustentaron un modelo comportamental. Se realiza un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo del impacto de dicho modelo en la carrera de psicología de San Luis: 1958 - 1982, en base a la construcción de indicadores de tres aspectos esenciales de la vida universitaria: investigación, docencia y servicio. En contraste al resto de universidades nacionales donde hubo carreras de psicología en ese período, se demuestra el significativo impacto de la psicología comportamental en la carrera de psicología de San Luis en el período investigado.
 
Modelo biopsicosocial del dolor crónico.  
Variables cognitivas asociadas al dolor crónico.
Article
Since the creation of gate control theory, the importance of psychological variables in chronic pain has emerged. Thus, the cognitive variables are emphasized in between behaviors, emotions and social factors for the explanation of chronic pain. Considering the gate control theory, cognitive variables modulate the other two dimensions of the chronic pain experience: the motivational-afective dimension and the sensory-discriminative dimension (Camacho Martel & Anarte Ortiz, 2001; Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs & Turk, 2007). The aim of this work is to review the main cognitive variables implicated in the chronic pain experience. Moreover, empirical evidence that support the importance of these variables is presented. Furthermore, it is discussed the clinical implications and the importance of this area in the local context.
 
Article
The objective of this work was to analyze the influence of cognitive and personality variables in the Decision Making (DM) construct, evaluated by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). For this propose, a battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to 116 individuals of both genders between 18 and 35 years olds. The results showed that the IGT performance was not associated to the cognitive variables evaluated, only it has been found moderated relationship between working memory and DM. These outcomes suggest that DM seems to be an independent construct of the “cool” cognitive functions and could be influenced for the emotional or motivational aspects related to “hot” cognitive process. Finally, the DM process seems to be more associated to the ability to avoid punishment than the capacity of evaluate long term benefits.
 
Consumo grupo 1 (G1) antes y después del condicionamiento. Medias de registros de consumo (2) en gramos antes y después del periodo ± desvío estándar.
Consumo del control (G2) antes y después del condicionamiento. Medias de registros de consumo (2) en gramos antes y después del periodo ± desvío estándar. No se encontró diferencias significativas: t (1) = 1.8, p = .15.
Grupo A y B antes de la socialización. Promedio de registros de consumo (2) en gramos antes del periodo. Barras con letras iguales no difieren significativamente: t (1) = .87, p = .42.
Article
Conditioning of food consumption induced by Lithium Chloride (LiCl) treatment has been reported in different animal species. In ruminants, older animals are capable of transferring selective food aversion to the youngers. The objetive of this study was to determine whether food aversion in adult sheep induced by LiCl can be transmitted to non-relative lambs. Twelve animals, four adult ewes and eight lambs were used. Three ewes were conditioned with LiCl 200 mg/kg BW (orally) to avoid concentrate consumption, while the other one acted as a control. Food consumption of lambs was recorded prior to the trial, to define pre-conditioned basal consumption. After that, animals were assigned to four groups of one sheep and two lambs each, whose food consumption was recorded for a 20-day period in lairage. Concentrate consumption decreased significantly in those lambs that were grouped with conditioned ewes (p < .01). These results suggest that hierarchical conditioning in sheep would be a useful tool to control diet and consumption of potentially harmful food like toxic plants.
 
Article
In factorial designs, the study of the interaction allows the researcher to determine whether the effect of one factor depends on the level of the other factors. In order to do so, the usual method is to consider the differences among the mean values resulting from each single-factor experiment. The present article proposes that the ratio among the mean values should also be considered, when the level of measurement of the dependant variable allows it. This makes possible the study of a kind of interaction that has not been considered so far, which is described under the name of ratio interaction. This paper discusses the usefulness of considering the ratio interaction.
 
Article
In factorial designs, the study of the interaction allows the researcher to determine whether the effect of one factor depends on the level of the other factors. In order to do so, the usual method is to consider the differences among the mean values resulting from each single-factor experiment. The present article proposes that the ratio among the mean values should also be considered, when the level of measurement of the dependant variable allows it. This makes possible the study of a kind of interaction that has not been considered so far, which is described under the name of ratio interaction. This paper discusses the usefulness of considering the ratio interaction.
 
Article
This review is focused and tries to introduce the reader in the basic concepts of the epilepsy, specially of the temporal lobe epilepsy. From the knowledge provided by different animal models, it’s introduced to the physiopathology of this type of epilepsy recognizing the participation of two systems of neurotransmition: the gabaergic and glutamatergic. It is known that an excess of glutamate has as a consequence neuronal death, this is the excitotoxicity. It’s enumerated different reports that, although they sometimes proved contradictory results, the majority find neuronal death in areas of the limbic system after a status epilepticus in experimental animals.Finally, since the brain is not immutable to this death, the principal concepts of the neuroplasticidad are review, providing reports that demonstrate that plastic processes happen in epileptic brains, both in the hippocampus and in the amygdala.
 
Imagen general de la interfaz de ViSta y cuadros de diálogo del programa ViSta-CITA. 3) Simplicidad. ViSta-CITA se integra completamente a la interfaz gráfica de ViSta, puede ejecutarse mediante menús, cuadros de diálogos, etc. La Figura 1 muestra el entorno de trabajo del programa ViSta y ejemplos de cuadros  
Imagen de spreadplot especializado del programa ViSta-CITA  
Imagen de spreadplot especializado del programa ViSta-CITA  
Imagen de la salida numérica del programa ViSta- CITA 4) Potencia gráfica. ViSta-CITA ofrece salidas numéricas convencionales para cada análisis (ver figura 2), pero también complementa estas salidas con " spreadplots " (gráficos extendidos) especializados. Las figuras 3 y 4 ilustran el concepto de los spreadplots, aplicados en este caso a la visualización de resultados de análisis psicométricos. El primer caso ofrece apoyo gráfico para visualizar propiedades básicas de los ítems y aspectos de fiabilidad de la prueba, mientras el segundo muestra el spreadplot asociado al Análisis Factorial Exploratorio. ViSta-CITA incluye otras siete visualizaciones de este tipo para diferentes tipos de análisis psicométricos. En nuestra experiencia, este tipo de representaciones gráficas, utilizadas en combinación con las salidas numéricas convencionales, ayudan a lograr una mejor comprensión de los análisis y de los  
Article
Nowadays, teaching statistics is almost undisputedly always done using some sort of software for carrying out the computations. Indeed, the range of choices available for that purpose is wide and with a lot of variety. The present work describes the capabilities of one of the systems currently available for teaching of statistics: ViSta, the Visual Statistics System. As ViSta’s developers, we wish to point out the following features as specially appealing for using it at the classroom: a) price and availability, it is free and can be downloaded on-line; b) flexibility, it is an open system, extensible and adaptable for different users and needs; c) simplicity, it has a simple and intuitive user interface that facilitates the management, transformation and data analysis; and d) its graphical power, as it implements visualization methods that allow carrying out demonstrations of concepts and data analysis techniques. These capabilities are illustrated using a specific application to the teaching of psychometrics. The limitations and perspectives of development of the system are finally discussed.
 
Article
The main feature shared by the phenomena involving unexpected changes of reinforcement is that there is a discrepancy between expected and received reward. Consequently, the behavior is modified according to this difference; the animals have an emotional response to the surprising reward change, called frustration. Some of the paradigms that are commonly used to study these problems are: consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and consummatory Extinction. This review describes the major works that investigate the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms involved in these studies, and the main tasks related with the administration of drugs that modulate the memory of the surprising reward changes.
 
Article
The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21). Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999) and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
 
Article
Claudio Bermann: his role in the configuration of the profile of the psychologist in Córdoba, Argentina (1958-1978). The objective of this work is to perform an historical reconstruction of the intellectual biography of Claudio Bermann and to establish the place that he had in the configuration of the profile of the psychologist in Córdoba, Argentina (1950-1978). For this purpose, we proceeded to the analysis of a corpus conformed by the totality of the written work of Claudio Bermann, documents of the archive of the Faculty of Psychology and material of its personal archive. We use the methodological resources of intellectual history and the theory of the reception of ideas. The work shows the way in which Claudio Bermann deploys his activities in a network of professionals linked to Córdoba's "psi" field. Establishing links between the psychiatric field, psychoanalysis and psychology as a career.
 
Article
One experiment used a free operant procedure with rats to evaluate renewal of a response previously eliminated by using omission training or by using an extinction treatment. All rats were trained to press a lever for food in context A. Then, the operant responses were eliminated in a second context. In this phase, half of the subjects received an omission training (i. e., delivery of food for withholding responding), while the other half received an extinction procedure. Finally, a within-subject ABC renewal test was conducted. The results demonstrated that all rats showed higher levels of responding when they were tested outside extinction context, regardless the procedure used during the elimination phase. © 2018 Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - Facultad de Psicologia. All rights reserved.
 
Article
El objetivo del presente trabajo fue explorar la existencia de diferencias significativas en autoeficacia en la vida académica entre sujetos con rasgos psicopatológicos y sujetos que no presentan rasgos psicopatológicos en el contexto universitario mexicano, utilizando la Escala de Autoeficacia en la Vida Académica (EAVA) y el Inventario Multifásico de Personalidad de Minnesota (MMPI-2). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 251 estudiantes universitarios. Considerando los antecedentes, los sujetos con rasgos psicopatológicos obtuvieron puntuaciones más bajas en autoeficacia en la vida académica en comparación con sujetos que no presentan rasgos psicopatológicos. Destacaron las escalas asociadas a la integración social. En particular, Introversión social presentó puntuaciones más bajas en la mayoría de las sub-escalas EAVA, en especial: Liderazgo, Socialización y compañerismo, Logros profesionales, Creatividad e Innovación y Exposición frente a grupo. La investigación aportó evidencia sobre la importancia de la relación entre autoeficacia en la vida académica y rasgos psicopatológicos.
 
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Existe evidencia de que los estilos parentales de crianza tienen relación con el rendimiento académico de los niños, sin embargo no ha sido evidenciado por análisis de sincronía interaccional en diadas madre-hijo. Considerando esta brecha, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar los procesos de intercambio conductual sincrónico y asincrónico en dos muestras de niños con alto y bajo rendimiento académico, a partir de los registros conductuales segundo a segundo en dos condiciones: actividad lúdica y académica. Los resultados indican que las diadas con niños de alto rendimiento académico presentaron una mayor frecuencia de intercambios sincrónicos con sus madres durante la actividad lúdica, en tanto que las madres de niños con bajo rendimiento fueron más coercitivas y menos interactivas. Estos resultados sugieren que los procesos sincrónicos pueden ser un mecanismo importante que propicie el desarrollo de habilidades y el mantenimiento en actividades académicas, lo cual podría contribuir a promover el rendimiento académico.
 
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Se exponen los resultados de una capacitación en primera ayuda psicológica para entrenar voluntarios encargados de dar respuesta a afectados en las fases iniciales de un desastre. Asimismo, se analiza la relación entre la tendencia individual a tomar decisiones y la efectividad. Se realizaron cinco capacitaciones -115 voluntarios- en distintas instituciones pertenecientes a la provincia de Buenos Aires de la República Argentina. El efecto de la capacitación sobre la efectividad en la toma de decisiones de los voluntarios fue evaluado a través de la aplicación de un software. La comparación del grupo capacitado con otro sin entrenamiento evidenció la eficacia de la capacitación. También, se encontró una asociación inversa entre la tendencia individual afectiva a tomar decisiones y la efectividad. Se concluye que la capacitación tiene un efecto optimizador de la efectividad mientras que la tendencia a tomar decisiones urgentes afectivas, por el contrario, impacta negativamente.
 
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Debido a la pandemia por COVID-19, el 20 de marzo en Argentina se decretó el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio. El objetivo fue analizar las actitudes hacia la cuarentena y relacionarlas con variables sociodemográficas y psicológicas, en 1066 adultos. Se utilizaron la Escala de Actitudes Negativas hacia la cuarentena (AN), Escala de Intolerancia a la Frustración (IF), Escala de Regulación Emocional Cognitiva (CERQ) y un cuestionario sociodemográfico ad-hoc. Las encuestas se enviaron online durante el primer mes del aislamiento obligatorio. Se encontró que el 80% informó cumplir con la cuarentena y las AN aumentaron en función de: mayores niveles de IF y RE no adaptativa, días de confinamiento, género, edad, en los que no cumplían el 100% con el aislamiento y en desempleados, corroborando las hipótesis planteadas. Los resultados sugieren que si bien se encontraron asociaciones, son necesarios estudios longitudinales en etapas posteriores a la primera fase de la cuarentena.
 
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Varios estudios han comprobado que la calidad del ambiente del hogar tiene efectos en el desempeño de niñas y niños. Por ejemplo, se ha reportado que los niños que más se involucran en actividades lúdicas con contenido numérico suelen tener mejor rendimiento en el área de las matemáticas. En este estudio participaron 37 díadas madre-hijo que asistían a un centro educativo de educación preescolar. Se recogieron datos sobre la frecuencia de realización de actividades numéricas en el hogar, nivel socioeconómico y expectativas y actitudes de los padres hacia la matemática. Se evaluaron las habilidades matemáticas de los/as niños/as y la capacidad de estimación no simbólica. Los resultados muestran una correlación positiva significativa entre la frecuencia de realización de actividades numéricas en el hogar y el desempeño matemático de los niños. Se discuten posibles influencias del nivel socioeconómico y de la capacidad de estimación de los niños.
 
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En el ámbito de la psicología educacional el constructo de Autoeficacia ha recibido especial atención. Se ha demostrado que aquellos estudiantes que confían en sus propias capacidades obtienen un mejor rendimiento académico. Sin embargo, pocos estudios indagan sobre las fuentes causantes de las creencias de autoeficacia. Éstas se desarrollan según como los individuos interpreten la información proveniente de cuatro fuentes: Experiencia de Maestría, Aprendizaje Vicario, Persuasión Social y Estados Fisiológicos (Bandura, 1987). Recientemente Usher & Pajares (2009) desarrollaron una escala para medir Fuentes de Autoeficacia en Matemática. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de esta escala en una muestra de adolescentes entre 13 y 15 años de nuestro medio. En líneas generales, podemos concluir que este instrumento puede ser una adecuada opción para medir este constructo. No obstante, se recomienda realizar nuevos estudios con el fin de poder obtener una escala contextualizada al ámbito educacional de nuestros estudiantes.
 
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The aim of this research is the analysis of the influences of dimensions such as perfectionism and expression anger on self-esteem, pillar on which personality is built. 229 athletes, male, football (N = 130) and basketball players (N = 99), aged between 13 and 17 years (M = 14.43; DS = 1.367), took part in this research. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-NA), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and socio-demographic questionnaires were distributed. The results of correlational analyses show how the dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism are associated with lower self-esteem; in contrast, some dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism were found. Anger feature dimension is correlated in reverse order to self-esteem. Moreover, the indicators of adaptative perfectionism –Organization and Personal Standards- associate a higher sense of self-steem; as opposed to maladaptive perfectionist tendencies. The evaluation of such variables in sports allows to design prevention programs health and/or stimulation of adaptive behaviors for team sports.
 
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Se reporta la construcción del Cuestionario de Participación Comunitaria (CPC) para población adulta urbana. Para el análisis de ítems, la estructura interna del constructo y la confiabilidad se utilizó una muestra aleatoria de 255 residentes en el distrito Villa El Salvador (Lima), con edades de 18 a 59 años, de estratos socioeconómicos medios bajos o bajos. Para examinar validez relacionada con otras variables se consideró otra muestra de 51 pobladores. El CPC posee 32 ítems y 8 dimensiones. En la validación de contenido participaron 16 jueces y los valores V de Aiken (? .94) resultaron satisfactorios. El análisis factorial exploratorio presentó una varianza total acumulada de 69.7%, con cargas mayores a .35; asimismo, el análisis factorial confirmatorio evidenció muy buen ajuste (CFI= .96; GFI = .98; X2/gl = 1.35; RMSEA = .03). Los coeficientes (> .95) theta, omega, H y compuesta evidencian la alta confiabilidad del CPC.
 
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El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de continuar con la validación del Sistema Internacional de Imágenes Afectivas (IAPS), una técnica de inducción de emociones en contexto experimental, y así aportar los datos normativos obtenidos en población argentina. En el presente trabajo se presentan los puntajes de los estímulos que forman los sets 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 y 15 del IAPS, que suman un total 412 imágenes pertenecientes a diversos campos semánticos. De este modo, el presente trabajo complementa la validación de los sets 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 y 14 ya publicada (Irrazabal, Aranguren, Zaldua, & Di Giuliano, 2015). Participaron 646 estudiantes universitarios puntuando en las tres dimensiones emocionales (valencia, activación y control) un total 412 imágenes pertenecientes a diversos campos semánticos. De manera similar a estudios anteriores, las imágenes se distribuyen en el espacio afectivo en forma de boomerang, mostrando resultados consistentes con la versión original del IAPS así como las validaciones publicadas en varios países.
 
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La pérdida perinatal, genera problemas psicopatológicos en algunas mujeres. Para elaborar el duelo se activan recursos psicológicos, tales como los estilos de afrontamiento. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la relación entre el tipo de afrontamiento y la intensidad del duelo, y conocer los estilos de afrontamiento que resultaron predictores confiables para la intensidad del duelo perinatal. Se realizó un estudio no experimental, transversal, correlacional con 100 mujeres mexicanas que tuvieron pérdida perinatal; se aplicó la Perinatal Grief Scale traducida al español y la Escala de Estilos de Afrontamiento de Lazarus y Folkman. Resultaron predictores confiables de la intensidad del duelo: la edad gestacional del bebé, el tiempo transcurrido desde la pérdida y los estilos de afrontamiento confrontativo, escape-evitación y resolución de problemas. Se concluye que los estilos de afrontamiento impactan en la intensidad del duelo, de ahí la importancia de centrar la intervención psicológica en ellos.
 
Top-cited authors
Leonardo Adrián Medrano
  • Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21
M Teresa Anguera
  • University of Barcelona
Angel Blanco Villaseñor
  • University of Barcelona
José Luis Losada
  • University of Barcelona
Sergio Dominguez Lara
  • University of San Martín de Porres