Review of Religious Research

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 0034-673X
Publications
Article
Although there are a few studies of pastors' attitudes toward abortion, they have not included women pastors, nor have there been many studies of gender issues in the seminary student population. In this study, data from a sample of 81 Master of Divinity students at a Presbyterian seminary are used to compare the attitudes toward abortion of men and women. It is found that the men are more conservative on this issue than the general public, while the women are more liberal than average. This may reflect a differential "selection" into the ministry of men and women in terms of values about feminist issues. The increase in women in ministry may thus have an influence on the church's position on abortion and similar issues.
 
Article
The relationships among religious preference, church attendance, and the consequences of religion are explored in terms of the acceptance/rejection of the legalization of abortion. The analysis focuses upon the attitudinal consequences of religious preference and participation in religious services among a representative sample of white Protestant and Catholic adults. The findings indicate that religious preference and church attendance are not always mutually reinforcing in their consequences for secular life. Individuals who rank high on attendance tend to be members of "moral communities" reflecting anti-abortion positions, regardless of the degree of liberal ideologies normally associated with certain church or denominational preferences.
 
Article
Opposition to legalized abortion is related to religious preferences of a stratified national sample of entering college freshmen (n = 18,004). Categories of preference ranked from high to low opposition are: Latter-Day Saints, Roman Catholics, Adventist, small Protestant denominations, Baptist, Hispanic R. Catholic, other religions (not listed), Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Muslim, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, Episcopalian, Quaker, none/no preference, Jewish, and Unitarian. The relationship between attitude toward abortion and religious preference is not spurious when additive relationships of both with attendance at religious services, region and mother's education are controlled. However, significant first-order interactions of preference with attendance, region and mother's education are observed. Results suggest that the relationship between religion and opposition to abortion may be more complicated than previous research has indicated.
 
Article
Prior research indicates religious variables and moral attitudes toward sexuality powerfully affect abortion attitudes. This study addresses why religious variables are so influential for abortion attitudes. These patterns are particularly significant at present because legal restrictions on abortion are changing and the object of much controversy. This study reexamines several religious and other influences on abortion attitudes with original survey data. Demographic variables are moderately strong predictors in the sample. Religious variables, especially conservative church membership and personal piety, are more strongly associated with abortion dispositions than political variables. Sexual moralism is the strongest predictor in our data. Absence of consensus on the morality of abortion in the larger society maximizes the influence of religion on this attitude. Although attitudes toward abortion are sometimes presented in popular media as polarized, with pro-life and pro-choice activists asserting uncompromising positions on each side, we conclude that polarization does not characterize the general public's abortion attitudes. Our findings suggest instead that most persons are deeply ambivalent about abortion. Sociological factors influencing that ambivalence are discussed as well as political prospects for the controversy.
 
Article
Tolerance for the conventional political activities of the pro-life movement is analyzed with data from a survey conducted in Lexington, Kentucky. In the context of the abortion issue domain, secularists, fundamentalists, and Catholics exhibit high tolerance. This finding persists even when attitudes toward the pro-life movement, frequency of church attendance, and a number of other predictors of tolerance are included in the analysis.
 
Article
Attitudes of clergymen toward homosexuality and abortion are examined vis-a-vis two main variables: orthodoxy and the often experienced contradictory implications of clergymen's moral and civil views. The relationship between orthodoxy and attitudes toward homosexuality and abortion is controlled for size of city of upbringing, age, and political party preference. The results indicate a moderately negative relationship between orthodoxy and acceptance of homosexuality and abortion; the relationship holds in the face of the controls. It was also found that those clergymen with a less unidimensional approach to life--i.e., who distinguish between what they feel is right from a moral, religious standpoint and what is right from a civil standpoint--are the most accepting of the two social issues. The significance of religious orientation in determining attitudes toward social issues is noted.
 
Article
This paper uses the Churches' responses to the controversy over abortion as a measure of the internalization of ecumenism. The data used in the essay include interviews with ecumenical officers and the minutes of the American Bishops Pro-life Committee. The main conclusion is that during the controversy "mainstream" Protestantism and Roman Catholicism reverted to post-Reformation and pre-Vatican II ideological roles, with Catholicism opposing under the banner of objective moral truth the legalization of abortion and liberal Protestantism under the banner of subjective conscience providing a belated religious justification to the legalization promoted first by secularist activists. This reversal to historic ideological roles actually distorted the more nuanced positions of these Churches in the controversy, but the lack of an ecumenical context obscured these shared tensions and prevented the Churches from contributing to a better public structuring of the moral ambiguities most Americans felt and still experience about abortion and the extent of its legalization. The essay concludes that only in an ecumenical context can religious pluralism lead to more inclusive moral commitments rather than to a further privatization of religion.
 
Discordance between mothers and adolescents within each profile, expressed as the absolute value of the standardized estimated mean scores  
Descriptive statistics for demographic and analysis variables
Post-hoc tests of profile differences in marginal means of adolescent/mother relations
Article
This research note describes the use of latent class analysis to examine how three dimensions of religiosity-the importance of religion (religious salience), attendance at religious services, and frequency of prayer-cluster together to form unique profiles. Building upon recent research identifying different profiles of religiosity at the level of the individual, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to identify dyadic profiles of religious concordance or discordance between 14,202 adolescents and their mothers. We identified five profiles: one concordant (27% of sample), two discordant (25% of sample), and two of mixed concordance/discordance (49%). The profiles distinguish between various levels of adolescent/mother relations, suggesting that they may represent distinct family dynamics. They also distinguish between several variables (race, adolescent age, geographical region) in predictable ways, providing additional demonstration of the categories' meaningfulness.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans.
 
Article
The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion and post death contact among older Mexican Americans. Four major themes emerged from 52 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Older Mexican Americans residing in Texas. First, many older study participants told us they had contact with the dead, but others indicated this was not possible. Second, the form in which contact with the dead was made varied greatly. Some older Mexican Americans reported they had visual contact with the dead, while others said they only made contact with the dead through dreams. Third, although some older Mexican American study participants believed that it was in the best interests of the dead to contact the living, others felt the dead should instead be in Heaven with God. Fourth, the participants in our study reported that having contact with the dead provides a number of important social and psychological benefits. In the process of discussing these themes, an emphasis is placed on how beliefs and experiences with the dead interface with religion. In addition, we also explore how post death contact may be associated with health and well-being in late life.
 
Main effects of ill-health constructs and other predictors on subsequent religiosity 
Article
This study assesses variation among Black and White Americans in the impact of ill-health on public and subjective religiosity. It is the first longitudinal assessment of race-based variation in "religious consolation." The under-explored consolation thesis anticipates ill-health influencing religiosity rather than the reverse, with religiosity functioning as a coping resource marshaled by the ill. Effects across races of physical ill-health indicators (chronic illnesses and impaired functioning) on religiosity outcomes are the main focus; but across-race variation in psychological distress-induced "consolation" is also assessed. Findings yield only limited evidence of consolation in each race, and restricted variation across races: Change in impaired functioning slightly enhances Whites' subjective religiosity; but that effect does not significantly eclipse the impact among Blacks. There is no evidence of physical illness-induced consolation among Blacks; and the proposition that Blacks are more inclined toward consolation than Whites is affirmed only for psychological distress. There are no signs in either race that consolation is intensified by aging or higher religiosity, and no significant across-race differentials in effects of these illness-age and illness-religiosity interactions on subsequent religiosity. The multi-population model utilizes Americans' Changing Lives data.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between contact with the dead and death anxiety. The data come from an ongoing nationwide survey of older adults. A conceptual model is developed that contains the following theoretical linkages: (1) making contact with the dead instills a deeper appreciation of the connection that exists among all people; (2) this fundamental sense of connectedness with others fosters a deeper sense of religious meaning in life; and (3) individuals with a deeper sense of religious meaning in life are less likely to experience feelings of death anxiety than people who have not been able to find meaning in life through religion. The findings from this study provide support for each of these relationships. The theoretical implications of these hypotheses are discussed.
 
Impact of worship-based discourse on support for race-based policies: logit regression analyses: odds ratios 
Article
The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality.
 
Article
This study examined demographic and denominational differences in religious involvement (i.e., organizational, non-organizational, subjective) among Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) residing in the U.S. using data from the National Survey of American Life. Caribbean Blacks who were born in the U.S. had lower levels of religious involvement than those who immigrated and respondents originating from Haiti (as compared to Jamaica) had higher levels of religious involvement, while persons from Trinidad-Tobago reported lower service attendance than did Jamaicans. Older persons, women and married persons generally demonstrated greater religious involvement than their counterparts, while highly educated respondents expressed lower levels of self-rated religiosity. Denominational differences indicated that Baptists reported high levels of religious involvement; however, in several cases, Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists reported greater involvement.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is associated with self-forgiveness in late life. The data come from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults. An effort is made to contribute to the literature by comparing and contrasting the effects of two church-based support measures: the amount of emotional support that is provided by fellow church members and satisfaction with emotional support from co-religionists. The findings suggest that older study participants who are more satisfied with the emotional support they have received from the members of their church are more likely to forgive themselves than older people who are not satisfied with the emotional support they have received in church. In contrast, significant effects failed to emerge with the measure of the amount of received emotional support.
 
Article
This study has two principal aims. The first goal is to empirically evaluate new measures of close companion friendships that arise in church. The second goal is to embed these measures in a conceptual model that seeks to assess the relationship between close companion friends at church and health. Based on data from a nationwide sample of older people, the findings reveal that the newly devised measures are psychometrically sound. In addition, the results provide empirical support for the following linkages that are contained in our conceptual model: older people who have a close companion friend at church are more likely to feel they belong in their congregation; old adults who believe they belong in their congregation are more likely to feel grateful to God; and older individuals who feel grateful to God tend to rate their health more favorably.
 
Article
A growing literature examines the correlates and sequelae of spiritual struggles, such as religious doubts. To date, however, this literature has focused primarily on a handful of mental health outcomes (e.g., symptoms of depression, anxiety, negative affect), while the possible links with other aspects of health and well-being, such as poor or disrupted sleep, have received much less attention. After reviewing relevant theory and previous studies, we analyze data from a nationwide sample of Presbyterian Church (USA) members to test the hypothesis that religious doubts will be inversely associated with overall self-rated sleep quality, and positively associated with the frequency of sleep problems and the use of sleep medications. We also hypothesize that part of this association will be explained by the link between religious doubts and psychological distress. Results offer moderate but consistent support for these predictions. We end with a discussion of the implications of these findings, a brief mention of study limitations, and some suggestions for future research.
 
Article
I challenge the scholarly contention that increases in education uniformly lead to declines in religious participation, belief, and affiliation. I argue that education influences strategies of action, and these strategies of action are relevant to some religious beliefs and activities but not others. Analysis of survey data shows that (1) education negatively affects exclusivist religious viewpoints and biblical literalism but not belief in God or the afterlife; (2) education positively affects religious participation, devotional activities, and emphasizing the importance of religion in daily life; (3) education positively affects switching religious affiliations, particularly to a mainline Protestant denomination, but not disaffiliation; (4) education is positively associated with questioning the role of religion in secular society but not with support for curbing the public opinions of religious leaders; and (5) the effects of education on religious beliefs and participation vary across religious traditions. Education does influence Americans’ religious beliefs and activities, but the effects of education on religion are complex. KeywordsEducation–Social class–Culture–Religious tradition
 
Article
Forced termination of clergy involves constant negativity found in personal attacks and criticism from a small congregational faction. The minister feels psychologically pressured to step down from the ministry position and this process is often demeaning to the emotional and physical well-being of the minister. The prevalence of forced termination among clergy has ranged from 25% among many denominations to 41% among Assemblies of God ministers. Forced termination and its effects are serious problems that have yet to be adequately addressed by scholars in social science research. The lack of scholarly research in this area called for a large national study from a reputable research institution. This online study shows that 28% of ministers among 39 denominations experienced a forced termination. Forced termination was associated with high levels of depression, stress, and physical health problems. Forced termination was also associated with low levels of self-efficacy, and self-esteem. KeywordsClergy–Families and work–Forced termination–Occupational stress–Mental health
 
Article
The family is an important setting for the transmission of values and traditions, and parents have a significant influence on the religious involvement of their children. The family typically provides an initial religious identity and introduces children to religious beliefs, practices and a network of adherents. For both scholars and practitioners, the question of how religion does or does not come to be passed on in families is of crucial importance. In this study we use data from the 2001 International Congregational Life Survey to examine church attendance across three generations in England and Australia. In both England and Australia there is a strong tendency for couples to attend church together; they are making joint decisions and, when churchgoing is favored, encouraging each other in religious practice. The impact of two churchgoing parents on their children is considerably stronger than that of one alone. Our analysis shows that not only parental but also grandparental religious activity has a significant effect. While much of their influence simply results from the upbringing they gave their own children, a substantial proportion of it seems likely to be a direct, unmediated effect on grandchildren. KeywordsChurch attendance–Grandparents–Surveys–Religiosity–Socialization
 
Descriptive statistics for variables used in the analyses
Article
Most of the previous research on religion and mental health has focused solely on Western, predominantly Christian societies. Using a 2004 national survey of 1,881 adults in Taiwan, this study investigates the relationships between multidimensional measures of religiousness/spirituality and psychological distress in an Eastern context. Our findings differ from previous studies in the West, showing that: (1) religious-based supernatural beliefs are associated with more distress; (2) daily prayer is associated with less distress; (3) engaging in secular-based supernatural activities like fortune-telling is related to more distress; and (4) the frequency of religious attendance is unrelated to levels of distress. Broader theoretical and empirical implications of these findings are discussed. KeywordsReligiousness–Spirituality–Psychological distress–Mental health–Taiwan
 
Article
In this wide-ranging survey Thomas Robbins assesses the state of the art in sociological and related work on new religious movements. Concentrating on research on movements in the USA and Western Europe, he analyzes theories relating the growth of new religions to sociocultural changes, the dynamics of conversion to and defection from movements, patterns of organization and institutionalization, and social controversies over cults. He also examines the impact of the study of new and deviant movements on the sociology of religion in general, and the implications of recent spiritual ferment for previous models of secularization and sect-church theory. The book concludes with a comprehensive bibliography. This text will be essential reading for all students and researchers in the sociology of religion and in religious studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although the bulk of this book is devoted to descriptive accounts of the treatment of 13 cases, it is considered by the author to be a preliminary study… based on her 15 years of work with clerical patients and religiously dedicated persons in psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and group therapy. Assuming that "the successful, well-functioning clergyman is one for whom theological truth and psychological truth coincide," she discusses the "major unconscious psychodynamics" in that field, distortions of religious ideas found in her patients, and treatment problems. Among other tentative conclusions, the author feels that the clinical findings support her "thesis that human experiencing of love is preliminary to and a prerequisite of the experiencing of God's love. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The book consists of a collection of recently published papers and lectures addressed primarily to psychologists and psychiatrists as well as to seminarians and clergymen. A major theme is the author's criticism of the emphasis upon the biological in Freudian psychoanalysis and its neglect of the social and moral in man's nature. The author states that guilt, which is the core of psychological distress, is real and must be accepted as such in order for therapy to produce beneficial results. Some of the 13 chapters deal with the following topics: some philosophical problems in psychological counseling; psychopathology and the problem of guilt, confession, and expiation; psychotherapy and the problem of values in historical perspective; footnotes to a theory of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a revision of the 1958 work, Religious Behaviour, including new data on the nature and origins of religious beliefs, behavior, and experience. The effect on religious activity of stress, drugs, meditation, evangelistic meetings, personality variables, social class, mental and physical health, political attitudes, racial prejudice, morals, scientific achievements, and sexual behavior are discussed. (34 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Demographic characteristics of the sample and distribution of study variables 
Correlates of Non-Organizational Religious Participation 
continued 
continued 
Article
This study examines the socio-demographic correlates of religious participation using data from the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003). Twelve indicators of organizational religiosity, non-organizational religiosity, subjective religiosity, religious non-involvement and religious identity are examined. Both standard (e.g., age, gender) and novel (e.g., incarceration history, military service, welfare history, co-habitation, remarriage) demographic variables are utilized. Female gender, older age, being in a first marriage and Southern residency are consistently associated with higher religious involvement. Three significant differences between urban Southerners and rural Southerners indicate that rural Southerners were more likely to be official members of their church, read religious materials more frequently, and felt that religion was more important in their home during childhood than their urban Southern counterparts. Persons in cohabiting relationships and those who have been incarcerated report lower levels of organizational religious participation and feel less close to religious people (but are similar to their counterparts for non-organizational and subjective religiosity). Persons with previous military service read religious materials, pray, and request prayer from others less frequently (but are similar to their counterparts for organizational and subjective religiosity). Findings suggest that for stigmatized life circumstances (incarceration and cohabitation), social processes within religious institutions may inhibit organizational religious participation. This study contributes to the broader literature by focusing on subgroup differences in diverse forms of religious involvement within a large and nationally representative sample of African Americans and provides a more nuanced portrait of African American religious participation.
 
Article
Either despite or because of their non-traditional approach, megachurches have grown significantly in the United States since 1980. This paper models religious participation as an imperfect public good which, absent intervention, yields suboptimal participation by members from the church’s perspective. Megachurches address this problem by employing secular based group activities to subsidize religious participation in an effort to increase attendees’ religious investment. This strategy not only allows megachurches to attract and retain new members when many traditional churches are losing members, but also results in higher levels of individual satisfaction thereby allowing the megachurch to raise levels of commitment and faith practices. Data from the FACT2000 survey provide evidence that megachurches employ groups more extensively than other churches and this approach is consistent with a strategy to use the provision of groups to help subsidize individuals’ religious investment. Religious capital rises among members of megachurches relative to members of non-megachurches as a result of this strategy.
 
Article
Jaroslav Pelikan begins this volume with the crisis of orthodoxy that confronted all Christian denominations by the beginning of the eighteenth century and continues through the twentieth century in its particular concerns with ecumenism. The modern period in the history of Christian doctrine, Pelikan demonstrates, may be defined as the time when doctrines that had been assumed more than debated for most of Christian history were themselves called into question: the idea of revelation, the uniqueness of Christ, the authority of Scripture, the expectation of life after death, even the very transcendence of God. "Knowledge of the immense intellectual effort invested in the construction of the edifice of Christian doctrine by the best minds of each successive generation is worth having. And there can hardly be a more lucid, readable and genial guide to it than this marvellous work."—Economist "This volume, like the series which it brings to a triumphant conclusion, may be unreservedly recommended as the best one-stop introduction currently available to its subject."—Alister E. McGrath, Times Higher Education Supplement "Professor Pelikan's series marks a significant departure, and in him we have at last a master teacher."—Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle, Commonweal "Pelikan's book marks not only the end of a dazzling scholarly effort but the end of an era as well. There is reason to suppose that nothing quite like it will be tried again."—Harvey Cox, Washington Post Book World
 
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Georgetown University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 240-269).
 
Article
Martin E. Marty argues that religion in twentieth-century America was essentially shaped by its encounter with modernity. In this first volume, he records and explores the diverse ways in which American religion embraced, rejected, or cautiously accepted the modern world. "Marty writes with the highest standards of scholarship and with his customary stylistic grace. No series of books is likely to tell us as much about the religious condition of our own time as "Modern American Religion."—Robert L. Spaeth, Minneapolis Star Tribune "The wealth of material and depth of insight are beyond reproach. This book will clearly stand as an important meteorological guide to the storm front of modernity as it swept Americans into the twentieth century."—Belden C. Lane, Review of Religions "Whatever one thinks about Marty's theological or philosophical position as a historian, the charm of his friendly circumspective approach to American religious history is irresistible."—John E. Wilson, Theological Studies "Marty attempts to impose historical order on the divergent ways a century of Americans have themselves tried to find order in their worlds. . . . [He] meets the challenge deftly. . . . It is a book relevant to our time. . . . Engages the heart and mind jointly."—Andy Solomon, Houston Post
 
Article
Using the European and World Value Surveys from 1981, 1990, and 2000, this paper examines trends in Christian beliefs, church attendance, and the relationship between believing and belonging. It further looks at the influence of religious pluralism on this relationship in Western Europe and North America. The main finding of this study is that in most countries there is no growing gap between Christian believing and Christian belonging. Indeed, the relationship between believing and belonging at the individual level has remained practically unchanged in the Western world over the past two decades. The slight weakening in the relation between believing and belonging measured for some countries stems from the fact that in those countries both believing and belonging declined, but the decline in belonging was stronger. Moreover, a higher degree of religious pluralism does not result in a stronger association between believing and belonging, as would be expected from supply-side theory.
 
Article
Typewritten manuscript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago, 1953. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [375-380].
 
Article
More Americans belong to religious congregations than to any other kind of voluntary association. What these vast numbers amount to--what people are doing in the over 300,000 churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples in the United States--is a question that resonates through every quarter of American society, particularly in these times of "faith-based initiatives," "moral majorities," and militant fundamentalism. And it is a question answered in depth and in detail in Congregations in America . Drawing on the 1998 National Congregations Study--the first systematic study of its kind--as well as a broad range of quantitative, qualitative, and historical evidence, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the most significant form of collective religious expression in American society: local congregations. Among its more surprising findings, Congregations in America reveals that, despite the media focus on the political and social activities of religious groups, the arts are actually far more central to the workings of congregations. Here we see how, far from emphasizing the pursuit of charity or justice through social services or politics, congregations mainly traffic in ritual, knowledge, and beauty through the cultural activities of worship, religious education, and the arts. Along with clarifying--and debunking--arguments on both sides of the debate over faith-based initiatives, the information presented here comprises a unique and invaluable resource, answering previously unanswerable questions about the size, nature, make-up, finances, activities, and proclivities of these organizations at the very center of American life. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments 1. What Do Congregations Do? 2. Members, Money, and Leaders 3. Social Services 4. Civic Engagement and Politics 5. Worship 6. The Arts 7. Culture in Congregations, Congregations in Culture 8. Beyond Congregations Appendix A: National Congregations Study Methodology Appendix B: Selected Summary Statistics from the National Congregations Study Notes References Index Reviews of this book: An unchurched observer might conclude that American congregational life centers on political or social service activities...[But] using his pioneering 1998 National Congregations Survey, the first study to delve into the specific activities of a truly representative sampling of the nation's religious congregations, [Chaves] finds that politics and service programs are not the main draws. Indeed, most congregations put little effort into community work...What congregations are most engaged in, Chaves reveals, are cultural activities. That includes education and the many components of worship, of course, but also the generally less-remarked-upon activities of producing and consuming art and culture, particularly musical and theatrical performances, outside of worship. --Jay Tolson, U.S. News and World Report
 
Article
A sample of 1,148 newly ordained male Anglican clergy in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales completed the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP). The data demonstrated that the male clergy recorded a characteristically feminine profile in terms of 16 of the 21 personality traits proposed by this questionnaire.
 
Descriptive Statistics and Mean Comparisons of Major Study Measures United States a Republic of Ireland b 
Article
Turning to religion to seek its social benefits has been associated with poor psychological well-being. Researchers have concluded that endorsing this extrinsic and social orientation toward religion is inauthentic and unhealthy. However, few studies have focused on extrinsic-social religious orientation’s negative relationship with well-being, leaving open the possibility that their relationship is spurious. The present study argues that people endorsing an extrinsic-social religious orientation also perceive lower levels of social support in their lives, thus their turning to religion to fill this social void. As social support is important for healthy psychological functioning, perceived social support may be the critical third variable explaining why extrinsic-social religious orientation appears to have psychological costs. This study supported our expectations among undergraduates in two countries: the United States (N = 156) and the Republic of Ireland (N = 255). There were negative bivariate associations between extrinsic-social religious orientation and both perceived social support and emotional well-being. Accounting for the effects of perceived social support, however, reduced the association between the extrinsic-social religious orientation and well-being to non-significance. Thus, people endorsing an extrinsic and social orientation toward religion tend to have poor well-being because they perceive less supportive relationships in their lives.
 
Article
Also published as thesis, Nijmegen, 1994. Includes bibliographical references (p. 301-310).
 
Article
Estudio que analiza el rol que las iglesias cristianas de Estados Unidos realizan en los medios de comunicación como la radio y la televisión, a través del estudio de los programas con contenido religiosos de finales de los años cincuenta.
 
Article
1st Issued as Paperback Bibliogr. s. 369-386
 
Article
The research on factors influencing member donations to churches is extensive. This paper uses unique data from South Carolina Baptists congregations to confirm much of the research, particularly including the potential for free-riding by members, but also extends that research by exploring the differential effect on donations of competition among Baptist congregations and competition between Baptist and non-Baptist congregations. The paper employs hierarchical linear modeling, rarely used in religious research but particularly well suited to the data, some of which is by congregation and some of which is by county. Previous empirical and theoretical work offers contradictory conclusions. We review the theory, clarifying some issues. Our results confirm that free riding increases as congregations grow larger, an effect mitigated by the increasing level of services offered as congregations grow. Importantly, competition between Baptist congregations reduces per member donations and competition with non-Baptist congregations increases per member donations. Copyright Religious Research Association, Inc. Archived with permission.
 
Article
We study differences in contributions of time and money to churches and non-religious nonprofit organizations between members of different religious denominations in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that contributions to religious organizations are based on involvement in the religious community, while contributions to non-religious organizations are more likely to be rooted in prosocial values such as altruism, equality, and responsibility for the common good, which are socialized in religious traditions. Data from the first wave of the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964) support the hypotheses. We find higher levels of volunteerism and generosity among members of Protestant churches than among Catholics and the non-religious. Higher contributions to church among members of Protestant churches are mostly due to higher levels of church attendance and social pressure to contribute. In contrast, higher contributions to non-religious organizations by members of Protestant churches, especially charitable donations, are mostly due to prosocial values.
 
Frequencies and Descriptives of Willingness to Donate in Different Countries 
LISREL Estimates (Gamma) on Intentional Donations, Controlled for Country and Missing Values 
Article
The relation between religiosity and donations to charity has frequently been subject of research. We analyzed effects of dimensions of individual religiosity (Glock and Stark 1966) on people's intention to donate to the poorest countries. We tested for cross-national effect differences in representative samples of seven European countries. Results turned out to be relatively robust across countries. We found that church attendance, dogmatic conviction and a consequential religious attitude affect intentional donations positively. The religiosity of one's network does have an additional effect. Partner's church attendance is positively related to willingness to donate. However, people with mainly friends with the same religious opinions are less willing to donate.
 
Article
How do children imagine God? Surprisingly, few researchers have asked this question. In crayon drawings, doll-play, letters, and carefully designed interviews, the forty children in David Heller's study reveal a rich array of spiritual imagery. Though Heller does find some differing views attributable to age, gender, and religious background (the children were Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and Hindu), he discovers to a surprising degree a common vision of God that cuts across ethnic and religious differences. He also considers related issues of school prayer and the psychology of religion.
 
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