Review of General Psychology

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-1552
Publications
Article
This paper examines three common explanations for human characteristics: genes, the environment, and choice. Based on data from a representative sample of White and Black Americans, respondents indicated how much they believed each factor influenced individual differences in athleticism, nurturance, drive, math ability, violence, intelligence, and sexual orientation. Results show that across traits: 1) Black respondents generally favor choice and reject genetic explanations, whereas White respondents indicate less causal consistency; 2) although a sizeable subset of respondents endorse just one factor, most report multiple factors as at least partly influential; and 3) among White respondents greater endorsement of genetic explanations is associated with less acceptance of choice and the environment, although among Black respondents a negative relationship holds only between genes and choice. The social relevance of these findings is discussed within the context of the attribution, essentialism and lay theory literature. The results underscore the need to consider more complex and nuanced issues than are implied by the simplistic, unidimensional character of the nature/nurture and determinism/free will debates - perennial controversies that have significance in the current genomic era.
 
Article
The use of growth modeling analysis (GMA)--particularly multilevel analysis and latent growth modeling--to test the significance of intervention effects has increased exponentially in prevention science, clinical psychology, and psychiatry over the past 15 years. Model-based effect sizes for differences in means between two independent groups in GMA can be expressed in the same metric (Cohen's d) commonly used in classical analysis and meta-analysis. This article first reviews conceptual issues regarding calculation of d for findings from GMA and then introduces an integrative framework for effect size assessments that subsumes GMA. The new approach uses the structure of the linear regression model, from which effect sizes for findings from diverse cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses can be calculated with familiar statistics, such as the regression coefficient, the standard deviation of the dependent measure, and study duration.
 
Article
Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have often considered it a disorder involving both emotional and behavioral dysregulation (Linehan, 1993), yet the connection between these phenomena has been elusive. The following paper proposes the Emotional Cascade Model, a model that attempts to establish a clear relationship between emotional dysregulation and the wide array of dysregulated behaviors found in BPD. In this model, subsequent to an emotional stimulus, ruminative processes result in a positive feedback loop that increases emotional intensity, and this emotional intensity leads to ensuing behavioral dysregulation. These behaviors then provide negative feedback, in the form of distraction, which induces temporary reduction of negative emotion and thus relief. The model is presented in a framework in which BPD is considered an emergent phenomenon (Lewin, 1992), where the disorder arises from the total interactions of a network containing emotional cascades and other important factors. The model is then evaluated in light of various theories and therapeutic traditions, including both cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic, indicating that it is a model that may transcend traditional theoretical and therapeutic doctrines.
 
Article
"Hookups," or uncommitted sexual encounters, are becoming progressively more engrained in popular culture, reflecting both evolved sexual predilections and changing social and sexual scripts. Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. However, these encounters often transpire without any promise of, or desire for, a more traditional romantic relationship. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. We reviewed the current literature on sexual hookups and considered the multiple forces influencing hookup culture, using examples from popular culture to place hooking up in context. We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. We suggest that researchers must consider both evolutionary mechanisms and social processes, and be considerate of the contemporary popular cultural climate in which hookups occur, in order to provide a comprehensive and synergistic biopsychosocial view of "casual sex" among emerging adults today.
 
Article
This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
 
Article
Meta-analysis is now the accepted procedure for summarizing research literatures in areas of applied psychology. Because of the bias for publishing statistically significant findings, while usually rejecting nonsignificant results, our research literatures yield misleading answers to important quantitative questions (e.g., How much better is the average psychotherapy patient relative to a comparable group of untreated controls? How much more aggressive are children who watch a great deal of violent TV than children who watch little or no violence on TV?). While all such research literatures provide overly optimistic meta-analytic estimates, exactly how practically important are these overestimates? Three studies testing the literature on implementation intentions finds only slightly elevated effectiveness estimates. Conversely, in three studies another growing research literature (the efficacy of remote intercessory prayer) is found to be misleading and is in all likelihood not a real effect (i.e., our three studies suggest the literature likely consists of Type I errors). Rules of thumb to predict which research literatures are likely invalid are offered. Finally, revised publication and data analysis procedures to generate unbiased research literatures in the future are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
R. W. White (1959) proposed that certain motives, such as curiosity, autonomy, and play (called intrinsic motives, or IMs), have common characteristics that distinguish them from drives. The evidence that mastery is common to IMs is anecdotal, not scientific. The assertion that "intrinsic enjoyment" is common to IMs exaggerates the significance of pleasure in human motivation and expresses the hedonistic fallacy of confusing consequence for cause. Nothing has been shown scientifically to be common to IMs that differentiates them from drives. An empirically testable theory of 16 basic desires is put forth based on psychometric research and subsequent behavior validation. The desires are largely unrelated to each other and may have different evolutionary histories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article argues to replace individualistic explanations of behavior with descriptions of social and historical context. Eighteen ways are outlined that playing a guitar alone in a room can be thought of as socially controlled rather than dispositionally controlled. Despite having a skin containing a body, a "person" for the social sciences is a conglomerate of social relationships or interactions that spans space and time. Thinking of people and causes as within a body shapes individualistic biases in our explanations and interventions. Rather than propose a new philosophy, this article reviews 18 concrete ways to begin thinking about people as social interactions and not agentic individuals. This changes the interventions we propose, alters how we view cultural practices, prevents some perennial problems of psychology, and leads the way to integrate psychology in the social sciences. Moving from dispositional explanations to study the historical and social context of social relationships also requires that psychology seriously adapt some of the more intensive research methods from other social sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Articles in encyclopedias represented 1 of several avenues that the new experimental psychologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries had to portray their science to the public, and as such, these entries are important documents in understanding the agenda of the psychologist authors and the bases for the public's understanding of psychology. This article describes a content analysis of the psychology entries from 174 American encyclopedias published between 1880 and 1940. The analysis focuses on the changes in this content over time and the correspondence of those changes to the evolution of American psychology. The data show that the encyclopedia entries were slow in reporting changes in psychology and often promoted a singular view of the subject matter of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A cross-temporal meta-analysis of 530 studies (N = 269,649) showed that young people's sexual attitudes and behavior changed substantially between 1943 and 1999, with the largest shifts occurring among girls and young women. Both young men and women became more sexually active over time, as measured by age at first intercourse (decreasing from 19 to 15 years among young women) and percentage sexually active (increasing from 13% to 47% among young women). Attitudes toward premarital intercourse became more lenient, with approval increasing from 12% to 73% among young women and from 40% to 79% among young men. Feelings of sexual guilt decreased. The correlation between attitudes and behaviors was stronger among young women. These data support theories positing that culture has a larger effect on women's sexuality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In 1945 Frederick Thorne, editor of the Journal of Clinical Psychology, proposed to limit the acceptance of Jewish applicants to clinical psychology graduate schools. A public scandal erupted over this proposed limit, which was modeled on Jewish quotas in medical education. Criticized by the mass media and most psychologists, Thorne’s proposal was repudiated by the Eastern Psychological Association and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Using private correspondence, oral histories, and published articles, this mostly forgotten episode in the history of clinical psychology is recreated. It is argued that the 1945 campaign against Jewish quotas prepared activists for the 1950s campaign against racial segregation and the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case. Because the participants in 1945 came from all specialties in psychology, it is suggested that this story is of significance to the field as a whole, rather than just to historians of social issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Two experiments replicated Bruner and Postman (1949), on which Kuhn (1962, 1970) relied in his argument that humans resist experience that is incongruous with their expectations—an argument essential to Kuhn's thesis of scientific revolutions. The first experiment measured reaction times for identifying playing card stimuli in three conditions: (a) where all the stimuli were standard playing cards, (b) where stimuli had color reversed (trick), or (c) which included both regular and trick card stimuli (mixed set). Participants were equally adept at identifying regular and trick stimuli in homogenous sets but took longer to identify the same stimuli in a mixed set. The second experiment, a conceptual replication of Bruner and Postman's original experiment, obtained recognition thresholds for regular and trick stimuli while measuring participants' frustration. Participants responded similarly to procedural difficulties for both trick and regular stimuli. An analysis of participants' responses shows that participants used systematic trial-and-error strategy to identify any ambiguous stimulus. These findings are inconsistent with an interpretation of resistance to incongruities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article assesses and extends Campbell's (1960) classic theory that creativity and discovery depend on blind variation and selective retention (BVSR), with special attention given to blind variations (BVs). The treatment begins by defining creativity and discovery, variant blindness versus sightedness, variant utility and selection, and ideational variants versus creative products. These definitions lead to BV identification criteria: (a) intended BV, which entails both systematic and stochastic combinatorial procedures; and (b) implied BV, which involves both variations with properties of blindness (variation superfluity and backtracking) and processes that should yield variant blindness (associative richness, defocused attention, behavioral tinkering, and heuristic search). These conceptual definitions and identification criteria then have implications for four persistent issues, namely, domain expertise, ideational randomness, analogical equivalence, and personal volition. Once BV is suitably conceptualized, Campbell's theory continues to provide a fruitful approach to the understanding of both creativity and discovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Three meta-analyses find increases over the generations in Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) scores between 1988 and 2008 among American middle school ( d = 0.78, n = 10,119), high school ( d = 0.39, n = 16,669), and college students ( d = 0.30, n = 28,918). The changes are consistent with an increasing emphasis on self-worth in American culture and, for high school students, with small increases in academic competence over time. College students' scores change only when the RSE is administered with a 4-point Likert scale with no midpoint. By 2008, a score of 40 (perfect self-esteem) was the modal response of college students, chosen by 18% of participants; 51% scored 35 or over. Given these shifts in responses, the possibility of revising the RSE is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Boag (see record 2006-05484-005) holds that many psychologists misinterpret Freud's concept of repression as chiefly concerning motivated forgetting of trauma. He characterizes the persistence of this alleged error as an instance of "pathological science" whereby the field's self-correcting mechanisms fail to function properly. The purpose of this comment is to provide an alternative, nonpathological account situated within the context of the recovered memory debate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Yanchar, Slife, and Warne (see record 2008-11592-004) recently contrasted core assumptions of the method-centered, scientific analytic reasoning approach to critical thinking that is dominant in psychology with their own alternative approach emphasizing integration of information from multiple perspectives. They contended that emphasis on the scientific analytic approach is associated with justification and neglects other strategies such as more open-minded and respectful dialogue that could promote innovation and theory development. This commentary on their article examines these claims in light of research on critical-thinking dispositions and scientific discovery. Their claims received mixed support, prompting recommendations for additional research and using the research evidence to revise the psychological claims of their alternative approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this methodological commentary, we use Bem's (2011) recent article reporting experimental evidence for psi as a case study for discussing important deficiencies in modal research practice in empirical psychology. We focus on (a) overemphasis on conceptual rather than close replication, (b) insufficient attention to verifying the soundness of measurement and experimental procedures, and (c) flawed implementation of null hypothesis significance testing. We argue that these deficiencies contribute to weak method-relevant beliefs that, in conjunction with overly strong theory-relevant beliefs, lead to a systemic and pernicious bias in the interpretation of data that favors a researcher's theory. Ultimately, this interpretation bias increases the risk of drawing incorrect conclusions about human psychology. Our analysis points to concrete recommendations for improving research practice in empirical psychology. We recommend (a) a stronger emphasis on close replication, (b) routinely verifying the integrity of measurement instruments and experimental procedures, and (c) using stronger, more diagnostic forms of null hypothesis testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Empirical evidence for effects of moods (both naturally occurring and experimentally manipulated) on behavior is reviewed in terms of an integrative theory: the mood-behavior model (MBM). It is posited that moods can influence behavior via 2 processes: (a) by informational effects on behavior-related judgments and appraisals, which in turn will result in behavioral adjustments (i.e., the informational mood impact on behavior), and (b) by influencing behavioral preferences and interests in compliance with a hedonic motive (i.e., the directive mood impact on behavior). The strength of the informational mood impact depends on moods' effective informational weight for behavior-related judgments and on mood-primed associations. The strength of the directive mood impact is predicted to be jointly determined by 2 variables: the strength of a hedonic motive and the instrumentality of possible acts for affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The long-term influence of 54 highly eminent psychologists was hypothesized to be a function of their methodological and theoretical orientation. Individual differences in impact were gauged via the Social Sciences Citation Index for 1976-1980 and 1986-1990. Orientation was assessed along 6 dimensions: objectivistic versus subjectivistic, quantitative versus qualitative, elementaristic versus holistic, impersonal versus personal, static versus dynamic, and exogenist versus endogenist (R. W. Coan, 1979). Correlation and regression analyses revealed that long-term influence could be predicted by both method and theory measures. Especially significant was the curvilinear backward-J curve between total citations and a general factor defined by all 6 bipolar dimensions. The most influential psychologists tend to take extreme positions on the controversies that have characterized the history of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Transformational, developmental process theories of African-U.S. racial identity development are flawed because they conceptualize ontogenetic experience without embedding it in phylogenetic dictates. As a result, culminating psychological states are not depicting identity progression but actually mask a sophisticated regression to a "deracinated," psychologically misoriented orientation. Therefore, African-U.S. racial identity development is reconceptualized as an abnormal psychology feature of the behavior of otherwise normal persons. This thesis is supported empirically by survey research showing that low identity statuses and purported high identity states evince similar anti-African/Black correlation patterns. African-U.S. identity metamorphosis appears to be a process of identity diffusion, not identity progression. Recommendations for racial identity theory and research and counseling and clinical practice are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Meta-analytic estimates of the absolute efficacy of psychotherapy indicate an effect size of approximately 0.80. However, various biases in primary and meta-analytic studies may have influenced this estimate. This study examines 4 nonsystematic biases that increase error variance (i.e., nonrandomized designs, methodological deficiencies, failure to use the study as the unit of analysis, and violations of homogeneity), 4 underestimation biases that primarily concern psychometric issues (i.e., unreliability of outcome measures, failure to report nonsignificant effect sizes, nonoptimal composite outcome measures, and nonstandardized outcome measures), and 8 overestimation biases (i.e., excluding nonsignificant effects from calculations of effect size estimates, failure to adjust for small sample bias, failure to separate studies using single-group pre-post designs vs. control group designs, using unweighted average effect sizes, analyzing biased partial samples that reflect treatment dropout and research attrition, researcher allegiance bias, publication bias, and wait-list control group bias). Wherever possible, evidence regarding the magnitude of these biases is presented, and methods for addressing these biases separately and collectively are discussed. Implications of the meta-analytic evidence on psychotherapy for the effect sizes of other psychological interventions are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A central theoretical assumption in classical psychophysics is that people judge the intensities of stimulus elements; for example, observers directly report the loudness of a tone or the intensity of a shock. A methodological assumption in classical psychophysics is that averaged data demonstrate this theoretical view. It is shown in this article that both assumptions are wrong and that the psychophysical laws of Weber, Fechner, and Stevens are not general. Rather, psychophysical judgments are made in relation to contexts and memories, measures of which provide new information about psychophysical judgments and new understandings of channel capacity, the local-global distinction, and the source of noise in signal detection theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although the understanding of the development of infants' social cognition and cooperative reasoning has progressed significantly, to date, it has yet to be worked through in any detail how this knowledge interacts with and constrains emerging syntactic representations. This review is a step in that direction, aiming to offer a more integrated account of the learning mechanisms that support linguistic generalizations. First, I review the developmental literature that suggests social–cognitive foundations get linguistic constructions “off the ground.” Second, I focus on building layers of abstractions on top of this foundation and the kind of cognitive processes that are involved. Crucially important in this explanation will be the fact that humans possess a unique set of social–cognitive and social motivational-skills that allows language to happen. Furthermore, early linguistic categories are formed around the underlying functional core of concepts and on the basis of their communicative discourse function. This, combined with powerful pattern-detection skills, enables distributional regularities in the input to be paired with what the speakers intend to communicate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although the literature indicates that there is an association of victimization with substance abuse, there has been limited research focused on understanding and synthesizing the factors that have been identified as contributing to victimization and substance abuse and on interventions designed to address these contributing factors. The purposes of this article are to (a) review the literature on factors related to victimization and substance abuse, (b) review interventions and outcomes, and (c) discuss clinical implications for interventions and research. Results suggest that there is a high rate of co-occurrence of victimization and substance abuse among women, that the factors contributing to victimization and substance abuse are complex, and that there is a lack of treatment models addressing victimization and substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article presents a theory of the long-term effects of child abuse that emphasizes the development of internal working models of protection. The theory proposes that abused children do not receive adequate caregiver protection and do not form internal representations of an effective protector. As a result, they have ongoing difficulty defending themselves against interpersonal aggression and internal self-criticism. The model integrates current research and theory in attachment behavior, developmental psychopathology, trauma, dissociation, and experiential psychotherapy. It accounts for many of the clinical symptoms presented by adult survivors of child abuse and suggests specific strategies for treatment. The author provides 3 examples of psychotherapy interventions derived from the model, distinguishes protection and "rescuing", and suggests directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This review summarizes the research literature on the academic socialization of children within the family context. A conceptual model is introduced that describes the process of academic socialization, including parental experiences in school, parental school-related cognitions, and specific parenting behaviors. Parental attitudes and practices provide the foundation for children's development of schemas about school performance and thus are critical determinants of children's early school experiences. In addition, recent efforts to understand the role of transition practices aimed at facilitating children's early adjustment in school are described. The present review extends the transition practices literature by providing a developmental perspective on parenting influences on children's academic socialization, within an ecological systems perspective. The authors describe academic socialization as a process that occurs under the broad umbrella of socioeconomic and cultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Representing identification with academics. 
Precursors to and consequences of identification with academics. 
Article
The goal of this article is to present a theoretical model integrating identification with academics, motivation and engagement behaviors, academic outcomes, and violent or deviant behavior. Four different scenarios are presented in which students might be prone to engage in violent or undesirable behavior as a consequence of low or maladaptively high levels of identification with academics. The types of violent behavior likely to result from each scenario are discussed. Because domain identification has been shown to be malleable, this theoretical perspective leads directly to specific actions that might reduce the probability of undesirable behavior, and these actions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The central thesis of this article is that all gossip involves social comparison. Research on social comparison is applied toward understanding motivations for gossip. In addition, the authors address why gossip tends to be negative and make predictions about factors that trigger especially negative talk about others. Factors such as need for moral information, powerlessness, formation and maintenance of in-groups and out-groups, and situations that bring on perceptions of injustice or feelings of jealousy, envy, and resentment all contribute to malicious gossip. Finally, the morality of gossip is considered, especially as it relates to the misuse or overuse of social comparison. Gossip is purposeful and, perhaps, necessary for healthy social functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Subjective correlations that exaggerate objectively presented contingencies are usually referred to as illusory correlations. An empirical review reveals 3 major paradigms of illusory correlations, drawing on 2 prominent but conflicting gestalt principles, congruency and distinctiveness. Congruency accounts for expectancy-based illusory correlations, whereas distinctiveness is relevant to illusions resulting from the asymmetry of positive and negative attributes and from infrequency. The congruency principle implies a processing advantage for expected stimuli, whereas distinctiveness assumes enhanced processing of unexpected events. This apparent conflict is resolved, and an integrative account is offered within a simple connectionist framework (BIAS) of correlation assessment. The basic algorithm is outlined, empirical findings are simulated, new theoretical distinctions are introduced, and analogies to related paradigms are explained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Conceptual schematic of the fourfold taxonomy. Positive and negative responses concerning the minority culture M and the dominant culture D create four generic types of acculturation.
Chronological Summary of Acculturation Taxonomies
(continued)
Article
The psychology of intercultural adaptation was first discussed by Plato. Many modern enculturation theories claim that ethnic minorities (including aboriginal natives, immigrants, refugees, and sojourners) can favor either the dominant culture, or their own minority culture, or both, or neither. Between 1918 and 1984, 68 such theories showed varied and inconsistent terminology, poor citation of earlier research, conflicting and poorly tested predictions of acculturative stress, and lack of logic, for example, 2 cultures in contact logically allow 16 types of acculturation, not just 4. Logic explains why assimilation = negative chauvinism = marginality, why measures of incompatible acculturative attitudes can be positively correlated, and why bicultural integration and marginalisation are confounded constructs. There is no robust evidence that biculturalism is most adaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
How is introspection related to accurate self-perception? Self-focused attention is said to facilitate accurate judgments of cognitive aspects (attitudes, standards, and attributions) and somatic aspects (sensations, arousal, physical symptoms, emotions) of self. The present skeptical review concludes that the "perceptual accuracy hypothesis" is unsupported. There is simply little direct evidence, and the indirect evidence is better explained by objective self-awareness theory's core tenet: Self-focus increases consistency motivation. Most studies have also failed to appreciate the complexity of establishing the accuracy of self-judgment. The authors discuss some conceptual issues that future work should recognize, such as the logics of accuracy research, the role of honesty standards in accurate self-reports, differences in self-perception and object perception, and the implications of different self-theories for accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Personality Traits That Increase Interest in. . .
Structural Model of Scientific Eminence. In Feist (1993). Model of scientific eminence. Psychological Science, 4, 366-371. Copyright Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted with permission.  
Growth Curve Models of Scientific Productivity. In Feist (in press). The development of scientific talent in Westinghouse finalists and members of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Adult Development, Fig. 1. Copyright Springer Publishing. Reprinted with kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media.  
Article
In the present article, I review and summarize two subdisciplines of the psychology of science, namely development and personality. In the first section concerning developmental psychology of science, I review three major developmental topics: 1) the literature on the developmental and familial influences behind scientific interest and scientific talent (e.g., birth-order and theory acceptance, immigrant status and scientific talent); 2) gender and scientific interest and talent; and lastly, 3) age and scientific interest and productivity. In the second section concerning personality psychology of science, I organize the review around four major topics: 1) which traits make scientific interest in general more likely; 2) which traits make interest in specific domains of science more likely (especially social and physical science); 3) which traits make different theoretical orientations more likely; and finally, 4) which traits make scientific achievement and creativity more likely. From the empirical evidence reviewed, it is quite clear that developmental and personality factors impact directly and indirectly scientific thought, interest, and achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Men and women score similarly in most areas of mathematics, but a gap favoring men is consistently found at the high end of performance. One explanation for this gap, stereotype threat, was first proposed by Spencer, Steele, and Quinn (1999) and has received much attention. We discuss merits and shortcomings of this study and review replication attempts. Only 55% of the articles with experimental designs that could have replicated the original results did so. But half of these were confounded by statistical adjustment of preexisting mathematics exam scores. Of the unconfounded experiments, only 30% replicated the original. A meta-analysis of these effects confirmed that only the group of studies with adjusted mathematics scores displayed the stereotype threat effect. We conclude that although stereotype threat may affect some women, the existing state of knowledge does not support the current level of enthusiasm for this as a mechanism underlying the gender gap in mathematics. We argue there are many reasons to close this gap, and that too much weight on the stereotype explanation may hamper research and implementation of effective interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
By combining a life perspective with a life span perspective, the authors present a basic framework for extending the study of autobiographical memory. The life perspective suggests not only the consideration of individual episodes of memory but how they are strung together into a life. The life span perspective takes into account the chronological age and life context of individuals and how these factors might affect abilities and motivations related to the use of autobiographical memory. The authors discuss how these 2 perspectives are combined to yield a useful framework for studying autobiographical memory and present 2 examples of work done using this framework. Full text: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1037/1089-2680.5.2.135
 
Article
Positive psychology needs an agreed-upon way of classifying positive traits as a backbone for research, diagnosis, and intervention. As a 1st step toward classification, the authors examined philosophical and religious traditions in China (Confucianism and Taoism), South Asia (Buddhism and Hinduism), and the West (Athenian philosophy, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) for the answers each provided to questions of moral behavior and the good life. The authors found that 6 core virtues recurred in these writings: courage, justice, humanity, temperance, wisdom, and transcendence. This convergence suggests a nonarbitrary foundation for the classification of human strengths and virtues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Choosing to smoke in different normative contexts.
Students' intention to get a flu shot as a function of perceived behavioral norm on campus and message frame. Higher values of intention indicate a greater likelihood of getting a shot.  
Effect of message frame on behavioral norm (prevalence estimate) as a function of previous uncertainty about the norm.
Degree of association between peer group opinions and participants' own intentions as a function of norms within the peer group and norms on campus. Higher values indicate greater conformity to the opinions of peers.
Article
The authors propose a behavioral decision theory relevant to the maintenance of desirable identities. The theory, termed deviance regulation theory (DRT), predicts that actions translate into meaningful identities to the extent that they cause the individual to deviate from reference group norms. This straightforward proposition is used to predict the patterning of behavior across a wide array of social contexts. The authors present evidence that predictions generalize across Eastern and Western cultures and to both personal and collective identities. Finally, they show how DRT alters current theoretical assumptions about social motives and social and cultural influence, and they illustrate how it can help explain the structure of both informal and formal social forces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Psychology has increasingly turned to the study of psychosocial resources in the examination of well-being. How resources are being studied and resource models that have been proffered are considered, and an attempt is made to examine elements that bridge across models. As resource models span health, community, cognitive, and clinical psychology, the question is raised of whether there is overuse of the resource metaphor or whether there exists some underlying principles that can be gleaned and incorporated to advance research. The contribution of resources for understanding multicultural and pan-historical adaptation in the face of challenge is considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article examines applications of complexity theory within the behavioral and social sciences. Specific attention is given to the fundamental characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS)—such as individuals, groups, and societies—including the underlying structure of CAS, the internal dynamics of evolving CAS, and how CAS respond to their environment. Examples drawn from psychology, sociology, economics, and political science include attitude formation, majority-minority relations, social networks, family systems, psychotherapy, norm formation, organizational development, coalition formation, economic instabilities, urban development, the electoral process, political transitions, international relations, social movements, drug policy, and criminal behavior. The discussion also addresses the obstacles to implementing the CAS perspective in the behavioral and social sciences and implications for research methodology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
By concentrating on the unconscious processes driving evolutionary mechanisms, evolutionary psychology has neglected the role of consciousness in generating human adaptations. The authors argue that there exist several "Darwinian algorithms" that are grounded in a novel representational system. Among such adaptations are information-retention homicide, the killing of others who are believed to possess information about the self that has the potential to jeopardize inclusive fitness, and those generating suicide, which may necessitate the capacity for self-referential emotions such as shame. The authors offer these examples to support their argument that human psychology is characterized by a representational system in which conscious motives have inserted themselves at the level of the gene and have fundamentally changed the nature of hominid evolution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Classes of data are often distinguished according to whether the person produces them, as is the case with self-report data or according to the type of test that produces them, for example, ability or personality tests. In a new classification system, data about personality are first divided according to whether they originate outside of the personality system (external source data) or inside it (personal report data). Personal report data are divided into life, world, self, and process report data. Data are further subdivided by the mental processes that produce each type (convergent thinking, divergent thinking, etc.) and then are connected to the measurement procedures that elicit the specific type. The new classification regularizes terminology and encourages new ways to think about data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administrators must sometimes choose between a less delayed but ultimately less valued outcome (impulsiveness) and a more delayed but ultimately more valued outcome (self-control). Which choice is made can affect the long-term health of an administrator's organization. Self-control laboratory research and analysis can be useful in understanding and possibly modifying these choices. This article describes some of the extensive basic laboratory research and analysis concerning self-control and applies this information to specific situations in administration, particularly higher education administration. It discusses the various factors that affect self-control and examines choices between negative, as well as positive, outcomes. Laboratory and nonlaboratory investigations can benefit from attending to information obtained from the other domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
College admissions testing typically focuses on grade point average (GPA) and SAT scores. Without disputing the importance of these predictors, one may wonder whether they are enough by themselves to determine eventual academic success. One possible additional construct, creativity, is examined via the lens of nonbiased assessment. It is argued that creativity can help reduce bias in two ways. First, adding creativity as a supplement to current assessments would present a truer reflection of a person's overall intellectual abilities. Second, most studies have found that different ethnicities perform comparably on creativity tasks, and some minority groups may be more likely to see themselves as creative. Including creativity as a component of standardized tests may, therefore, reduce stereotype threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The adolescent identity, media, and sociocognitive schema (AIMSS) framework offers a theoretical understanding of adolescent consumption and cognitive processing of media entertainment. Review and integration of mass communication theory, developmental theory, and ecological theory serves as the conceptual foundation. The framework outlines linkages between media exposure and adolescent development, in particular adolescent identity formation and social competence. A key contribution of the model is consideration of the positive and negative aspects of adolescent cognition and behavioral functioning. The present article offers several recommendations for testing the utility of the AIMSS framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Youth tobacco use has increased substantially in the United States during the past decade. This increase can be attributed, in part, to the potency of cigarette advertising and relative ineffectiveness of antismoking advertising. In this article, the authors argue that an understanding of the effects of these 2 competing forms of advertising on youth smoking is limited in current theoretical treatments and that an integrative theoretical perspective has yet to be advanced. The authors argue that the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986) offers a framework with sufficient explanatory power in this domain. Prevention and legislative interventions may benefit from this analysis, which ultimately may help to decrease youth tobacco use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The decision-making process and motivational dynamics.  
Summer 1942: The grasp for oil.  
Decision making and motivational dynamics. The straight arrows indicate a temporal sequence. The cambered arrows indicate effects of variables on each other. A minus sign (-) means a variable "influences negatively," for example, The more problems accumulate, the lower the certainty. A plus sign () means a variable "influences positively," for example, the higher the certainty, the higher the competence.
Article
This study is an attempt to analyze Hitler's decision making during World War II. Based on detailed historical sources, we specifically analyzed Hitler's decision-making failures and investigated the possible causes for these failures following theories on cognition, motivation, and action regulation. Failures such as underestimation of an opponent and overestimation of one's own capabilities, the displacement of responsibility for failures on scapegoats, the substitution of easily solvable problems for difficult ones, methodism in decision making, and lack of self-reflection are discussed and detailed examples are provided. These failures ultimately functioned to maintain Hitler's self-confidence. We integrate the failures into a model that explains the origins of Hitler's decision making. Although Hitler's behavior could certainly be judged as “evil,” the analysis goes further and thus can help leaders learn from these failures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The field of psychology has a long history of attempting to make its basic science relevant to the analysis and solution of social problems. Some psychologists claim that it has been successful at this goal, but others are not convinced. Historically, the field has followed a linear model in its attempts at being relevant: Basic science is somehow developed first, and later someone comes along to apply it to solve problems in real-world settings. This model is now undergoing serious reconsideration in the physical and biological sciences. An alternative model in which science and practice develop seamlessly is represented in the remarkable career of Louis Pasteur. This article discusses both of these models in the context of psychological science and practice. Three fundamental principles underlying Pasteur's way of doing science and practice are presented. Adopting a Pasteurian framework should help resolve at least some of the debates about our science and practice linkage, but this will require a change in how professionals function and how future generations of professionals are trained. Suggestions are presented for making psychology more Pasteurian to help it achieve its stated goal "as a science, as a profession, and as a means of promoting human welfare." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The authors review the theory of romantic, or pair-bond, attachment as it was originally formulated by C. Hazan and P. R. Shaver in 1987 and describe how it has evolved over more than a decade. In addition, they discuss 5 issues related to the theory that need further clarification: (a) the nature of attachment relationships, (b) the evolution and function of attachment in adulthood, (c) models of individual differences in attachment, (d) continuity and change in attachment security, and (e) the integration of attachment, sex, and caregiving. In discussing these issues, they provide leads for future research and outline a more complete theory of romantic attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Crying is one of the most powerfully compelling forms of human emotional expression, and yet, until recently, crying has received little attention from behavioral scientists. In this article, a model of adult crying is presented that describes the situations and emotions that elicit crying and characterizes the possible moderating effects of environmental, personal, and cultural factors on crying. Empirical data relevant to the model are summarized, and areas in need of further investigation are identified. In addition, the question of whether and how crying may affect mood and health is considered. It is concluded that the literature is full of ungrounded speculation and that research until now has been rather unsystematic and not sufficiently theory driven. Recently available data, however, pave the way for formulating a more comprehensive theoretical framework for generating testable hypotheses about crying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Attachment theory has, since its inception, contained the proposition that long-term adult romantic relationships (i.e., relationships described by ethologists as "pair bond") are generally attachments. In this article, the possibility that individual differences in adult romantic attachments may emerge, in part, from individual differences in childhood attachments is discussed. The article begins with an examination of the developmental precursors of individual differences in two of the behavioral systems prominent in adult romantic relationships: the attachment system and the caregiving system. For each of these behavioral systems, theory is discussed and the empirical literature is reviewed. The remainder of the article addresses the mechanisms of both continuity across development (i.e., factors that may account for the influences of early attachments on later romantic relationships) and discontinuity (i.e., factors that may account for change in the quality of attachments from childhood to adulthood). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Attachment theory provides a model for understanding how the attachment styles formed in infancy systematically affect subsequent psychological functioning across the life span. Attachment styles provide the cognitive schemas, or working models, through which individuals perceive and relate to their worlds. In turn, these schemas predispose the development of psychopathologies and influence outcomes when people undergo psychotherapy. After reviewing recent empirical findings, the authors conclude that an understanding of attachment theory facilitates the conceptualization of clients' problems and the selection of appropriate interventions. Accordingly, attachment styles should be assessed as a standard part of treatment planning. Furthermore, the authors propose that attachment styles should be assessed as individual difference variables in psychotherapy outcome research because adult attachment styles dictate how people perceive and respond to their environments and, therefore, how clients respond differentially to various treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Raymond Nickerson
  • Tufts University
James C. Kaufman
  • University of Connecticut
John Archer
  • University of Central Lancashire
Shelly L Gable
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
Jonathan Haidt
  • New York University