Based on a critical review and integration of the extant literature, a model of self-other rating agreement and its antecedents and consequences is developed. Forty propositions are asserted that link biographical and personality characteristics, cognitive processes, job-relevant experiences, and contextual factors to self-perceptions and the self-rating and other rating processes. Approaches in which self-ratings are assessed relative to other ratings are reviewed, and four categories of self-raters are specified: over-estimators (who rate themselves higher than others do); under-estimators (who rate themselves lower than others do); in-agreement/good raters (who rate themselves favorably and similar to others' ratings); and in-agreement/poor raters (who rate themselves unfavorably and similar to others' ratings).
Twenty-four propositions concerning relationships between different categories of self-raters and individual and organizational outcomes are then presented. The propositions and model developed here can be clarified to enhance understanding of self-other rating agreement and its implications for human resource management research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Career-related continuous learning (CRCL) is defined as an individual-level process characterized by a self-initiated, discretionary, planned, and proactive pattern of formal or informal activities that are sustained over time for the purpose of applying or transporting knowledge for career development. A theoretical stage model of career-related continuous learning is described. Central components of the model are pre-learning (recognizing the need for CRCL), learning (acquiring new skills and knowledge and monitoring learning), and application of learning (using, evaluating, and reaping the benefits of learning). The model draws on goal setting, control, and self-determination theories to explain learning processes. Research and practical implications of continuous learning for key human resource functions, including job analysis, personnel selection, training and performance appraisal, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the literature on newcomer socialization and identifies important issues and directions for future research. In particular, it addresses issues related to socialization in the context of 3 trends: the increasing cultural diversity of the workforce, the changing nature of employment to more temporary relationships, and downsizing. We begin by providing a synopsis of C. D. Fisher's (1986) review of the socialization literature. We then discuss the progress that has been made in the subsequent decade, and provide a review of the empirical research literature over the course of that time. We conclude with a demonstration of how scholars can better understand socialization by considering it in the context of each of the trends we have identified. We offer several testable propositions to stimulate and guide research, along with a discussion of methodological issues that we believe could help generate a broader understanding of the socialization process. An appendix of socialization study design summaries is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This chapter seeks to begin discussion concerning the role of employee jealousy and envy. In the following sections, we consider the definition of jealousy and envy in the workplace, consequences of these emotions, the utility of existing organizational theories for understanding these emotions, their measurement, the generation of specific hypotheses that pertain to these emotion experiences, some preliminary evidence on several of the hypotheses, the management of negative emotions, and further issues associated with the organizational and cross-cultural aspects of these emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Research and theory on leader-member exchange (LMX) is reviewed and categorized according to antecedents and consequences of LMX. The review demonstrates that LMX is determined by a number of antecedents, and in turn, influences a wide range of individual and organizational outcomes. Despite the importance of LMX research to the literature, the authors identify a number of ways in which theory and empirical research on LMX can be enhanced. In terms of theory, it is argued that although role theory has provided the framework for LMX research, much can be gained by introducing concepts from social exchange theory. Using a reciprocity in social exchange framework allows for an examination of the way in which LMXs are embedded in a larger network of exchange relationships.
This leads to a 2nd extension of LMX theory, which is the examination of LMX context. In terms of empirical research, the authors contend that LMX measurement can be improved. First, in order to capture the complexity of LMX, the authors provide support for a new multidimensional measure of the construct. Second, in conjunction with theory development concerning the larger context in which LMXs are embedded, the development of a supplemental LMX measure based on reciprocation in social exchanges is suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Selection theory typically considers person–job fit as the basis for selecting job applicants. This chapter suggests that selection theory should consider making fit assessments based on person–job fit, person–organization fit, and person–workgroup fit. Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be used to evaluate person–job fit. Values and needs should be used to assess person–organization fit. Interpersonal attributes and broad-based proficiencies should be used to assess person–workgroup fit. A facet model of selection decisions is developed that outlines the predictor and criterion variables in the selection process associated with each type of fit assessment. Predictor variables include work experience, educational experience, values, needs, broad-based proficiencies, and interpersonal attributes. Criterion measures include performance, motivation, extra-role behaviors, work attitudes, retention, group cooperation, and group performance. Research related to the predictor and criterion domains is examined. Propositions are developed to suggest when a type of fit assessment is most appropriate to use with different organizational conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Although the nonprofit sector is enormous, we know little about how workers there are compensated. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the literature is scattered across many fields including Human Resources Management, Accounting, Economics, Finance, Organizational Behavior, Political Science, and Sociology. The paper aims to synthesize the research on nonprofits from an economics point of view, while carefully considering the work in the many other areas. In addition to using data from the U.S. census to provide a description of employment and wages in the nonprofit sector as well as a comparison with the for-profit sector, this paper describes institutional details in nonprofits, considers why organizations form as nonprofits, reviews possible theories for a for-profit / nonprofit wage gap, performance pay in nonprofits, management compensation in nonprofits, gender issues, and international research.
We describe and use two theoretical frameworks, the resource-based view of the firm and institutional theory, as lenses for examining three promising areas of compensation research. First, we examine the nature of the relationship between pay and effectiveness. Does pay typically have a main effect or, instead, does the relationship depend on other human resource activities and organization characteristics? If the latter is true, then there are synergies between pay and these other factors and thus, conclusions drawn from main effects models may be misleading. Second, we discuss a relatively neglected issue in pay research, the concept of risk as it applies to investments in pay programs. Although firms and researchers tend to focus on expected returns from compensation interventions, analysis of the risk, or variability, associated with these returns may be essential for effective decision-making. Finally ,pay program survival, which has been virtually ignored in systematic pay research, is investigated. Survival appears to have important consequences for estimating pay plan risk and returns, and is also integral to the discussion of pay synergies. Based upon our two theoretical frameworks, we suggest specific research directions for pay program synergies, risk, and survival.
This paper is an investigation of the pay-for-performance link in executive compensation. In particular we document main issues in the pay-performance debate and explain practical issues in setting pay as well as data issues including how pay is disclosed and how that has changed over time. We also provide a summary of the state of CEO pay levels and pay mix in 2009 using a sample of over 2,000 companies and describe main data sources for researchers. We also investigate what we believe to be at the root of fundamental confusion in the literature across disciplines – methodological issues. In exploring methodological issues, we focus on empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first- differencing and instrumental variables issues. We then discuss two important but not yet well explored areas; international issues and compensation in nonprofits. We conclude by examining a series of research areas where further work can be done, within and across disciplines.
Book synopsis: Designed as a forum for the presentation of conceptual and methodological issues in the field of personnel and human resources management, this title covers such topics as the role of domain specific measures, and emotionality and job performance.
For decades organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been of interest to scholars and practitioners alike, generating a significant amount of research exploring the concept of what citizenship behavior is, and its antecedents, correlates, and consequences. While these behaviors have been and will continue to be valuable, there are changes in the workplace that have the potential to alter what types of OCBs will remain important for organizations in the future, as well as what types of opportunities for OCB exist for employees. In this chapter we consider the influence of 10 workplace trends related to human resource management that have the potential to influence both what types of citizenship behaviors employees engage in and how often they may engage in them. We build on these 10 trends that others have identified as having the potential to shape the workplace of the future, which include labor shortages, globalization, immigration, knowledge-based workers, increase use of technology, gig work, diversity, changing work values, the skills gap, and employer brands. Based on these 10 trends, we develop propositions about how each trend may impact OCB. We consider not only how these trends will influence the types of citizenship and opportunities for citizenship that employees can engage in, but also how they may shape the experiences of others related to OCB, including organizations and managers.
The common use of generic strategy typologies in strategic human resource management (SHRM), such as the typology proposed by Michael Porter (1980), is inaccurate and probably obsolete. SHRM research that examines the performance effects of human resource (HR) systems does not need to invoke the strategy construct in order to fulfill its goals. SHRM research that uses organizations ' strategies to predict their HR practices or which explore the effects of fit between HR systems and strategies should use measures of strategic content which are well grounded in issues pertinent to their specific empirical contexts. Alternatively, SHRM research can embrace dynamic perspectives of strategy, which will shed light on how human resource systems become strategically valuable organizational capabilities. Alternatives to Generic Typologies in SHRM 4 It is fashionable to raise questions about the viability of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) as a research field because, while the topic is