Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0742-7301
Publications
Article
Based on a critical review and integration of the extant literature, a model of self-other rating agreement and its antecedents and consequences is developed. Forty propositions are asserted that link biographical and personality characteristics, cognitive processes, job-relevant experiences, and contextual factors to self-perceptions and the self-rating and other rating processes. Approaches in which self-ratings are assessed relative to other ratings are reviewed, and four categories of self-raters are specified: over-estimators (who rate themselves higher than others do); under-estimators (who rate themselves lower than others do); in-agreement/good raters (who rate themselves favorably and similar to others' ratings); and in-agreement/poor raters (who rate themselves unfavorably and similar to others' ratings). Twenty-four propositions concerning relationships between different categories of self-raters and individual and organizational outcomes are then presented. The propositions and model developed here can be clarified to enhance understanding of self-other rating agreement and its implications for human resource management research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Career-related continuous learning (CRCL) is defined as an individual-level process characterized by a self-initiated, discretionary, planned, and proactive pattern of formal or informal activities that are sustained over time for the purpose of applying or transporting knowledge for career development. A theoretical stage model of career-related continuous learning is described. Central components of the model are pre-learning (recognizing the need for CRCL), learning (acquiring new skills and knowledge and monitoring learning), and application of learning (using, evaluating, and reaping the benefits of learning). The model draws on goal setting, control, and self-determination theories to explain learning processes. Research and practical implications of continuous learning for key human resource functions, including job analysis, personnel selection, training and performance appraisal, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the literature on newcomer socialization and identifies important issues and directions for future research. In particular, it addresses issues related to socialization in the context of 3 trends: the increasing cultural diversity of the workforce, the changing nature of employment to more temporary relationships, and downsizing. We begin by providing a synopsis of C. D. Fisher's (1986) review of the socialization literature. We then discuss the progress that has been made in the subsequent decade, and provide a review of the empirical research literature over the course of that time. We conclude with a demonstration of how scholars can better understand socialization by considering it in the context of each of the trends we have identified. We offer several testable propositions to stimulate and guide research, along with a discussion of methodological issues that we believe could help generate a broader understanding of the socialization process. An appendix of socialization study design summaries is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This chapter seeks to begin discussion concerning the role of employee jealousy and envy. In the following sections, we consider the definition of jealousy and envy in the workplace, consequences of these emotions, the utility of existing organizational theories for understanding these emotions, their measurement, the generation of specific hypotheses that pertain to these emotion experiences, some preliminary evidence on several of the hypotheses, the management of negative emotions, and further issues associated with the organizational and cross-cultural aspects of these emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Research and theory on leader-member exchange (LMX) is reviewed and categorized according to antecedents and consequences of LMX. The review demonstrates that LMX is determined by a number of antecedents, and in turn, influences a wide range of individual and organizational outcomes. Despite the importance of LMX research to the literature, the authors identify a number of ways in which theory and empirical research on LMX can be enhanced. In terms of theory, it is argued that although role theory has provided the framework for LMX research, much can be gained by introducing concepts from social exchange theory. Using a reciprocity in social exchange framework allows for an examination of the way in which LMXs are embedded in a larger network of exchange relationships. This leads to a 2nd extension of LMX theory, which is the examination of LMX context. In terms of empirical research, the authors contend that LMX measurement can be improved. First, in order to capture the complexity of LMX, the authors provide support for a new multidimensional measure of the construct. Second, in conjunction with theory development concerning the larger context in which LMXs are embedded, the development of a supplemental LMX measure based on reciprocation in social exchanges is suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Selection theory typically considers person–job fit as the basis for selecting job applicants. This chapter suggests that selection theory should consider making fit assessments based on person–job fit, person–organization fit, and person–workgroup fit. Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be used to evaluate person–job fit. Values and needs should be used to assess person–organization fit. Interpersonal attributes and broad-based proficiencies should be used to assess person–workgroup fit. A facet model of selection decisions is developed that outlines the predictor and criterion variables in the selection process associated with each type of fit assessment. Predictor variables include work experience, educational experience, values, needs, broad-based proficiencies, and interpersonal attributes. Criterion measures include performance, motivation, extra-role behaviors, work attitudes, retention, group cooperation, and group performance. Research related to the predictor and criterion domains is examined. Propositions are developed to suggest when a type of fit assessment is most appropriate to use with different organizational conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although the nonprofit sector is enormous, we know little about how workers there are compensated. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the literature is scattered across many fields including Human Resources Management, Accounting, Economics, Finance, Organizational Behavior, Political Science, and Sociology. The paper aims to synthesize the research on nonprofits from an economics point of view, while carefully considering the work in the many other areas. In addition to using data from the U.S. census to provide a description of employment and wages in the nonprofit sector as well as a comparison with the for-profit sector, this paper describes institutional details in nonprofits, considers why organizations form as nonprofits, reviews possible theories for a for-profit / nonprofit wage gap, performance pay in nonprofits, management compensation in nonprofits, gender issues, and international research.
 
A Comparison of Resource-Based Theory and Institutional Theory
Ideal Knowledge Base for Making Compensation Program Investment Decisions
Article
We describe and use two theoretical frameworks, the resource-based view of the firm and institutional theory, as lenses for examining three promising areas of compensation research. First, we examine the nature of the relationship between pay and effectiveness. Does pay typically have a main effect or, instead, does the relationship depend on other human resource activities and organization characteristics? If the latter is true, then there are synergies between pay and these other factors and thus, conclusions drawn from main effects models may be misleading. Second, we discuss a relatively neglected issue in pay research, the concept of risk as it applies to investments in pay programs. Although firms and researchers tend to focus on expected returns from compensation interventions, analysis of the risk, or variability, associated with these returns may be essential for effective decision-making. Finally ,pay program survival, which has been virtually ignored in systematic pay research, is investigated. Survival appears to have important consequences for estimating pay plan risk and returns, and is also integral to the discussion of pay synergies. Based upon our two theoretical frameworks, we suggest specific research directions for pay program synergies, risk, and survival.
 
Article
This paper is an investigation of the pay-for-performance link in executive compensation. In particular we document main issues in the pay-performance debate and explain practical issues in setting pay as well as data issues including how pay is disclosed and how that has changed over time. We also provide a summary of the state of CEO pay levels and pay mix in 2009 using a sample of over 2,000 companies and describe main data sources for researchers. We also investigate what we believe to be at the root of fundamental confusion in the literature across disciplines – methodological issues. In exploring methodological issues, we focus on empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first- differencing and instrumental variables issues. We then discuss two important but not yet well explored areas; international issues and compensation in nonprofits. We conclude by examining a series of research areas where further work can be done, within and across disciplines.
 
Article
Book synopsis: Designed as a forum for the presentation of conceptual and methodological issues in the field of personnel and human resources management, this title covers such topics as the role of domain specific measures, and emotionality and job performance.
 
Chapter
For decades organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been of interest to scholars and practitioners alike, generating a significant amount of research exploring the concept of what citizenship behavior is, and its antecedents, correlates, and consequences. While these behaviors have been and will continue to be valuable, there are changes in the workplace that have the potential to alter what types of OCBs will remain important for organizations in the future, as well as what types of opportunities for OCB exist for employees. In this chapter we consider the influence of 10 workplace trends related to human resource management that have the potential to influence both what types of citizenship behaviors employees engage in and how often they may engage in them. We build on these 10 trends that others have identified as having the potential to shape the workplace of the future, which include labor shortages, globalization, immigration, knowledge-based workers, increase use of technology, gig work, diversity, changing work values, the skills gap, and employer brands. Based on these 10 trends, we develop propositions about how each trend may impact OCB. We consider not only how these trends will influence the types of citizenship and opportunities for citizenship that employees can engage in, but also how they may shape the experiences of others related to OCB, including organizations and managers.
 
Meta-Analytic Estimates of Relationships of Climate and Leadership with Safety and Mistreatment Outcomes. 
Workplace Hazards and Associated Health Outcomes.  
An Integrative Framework of Accidents/Injuries and Mistreatment.  
Meta-Analytic Estimates of Individual DifferenceÀMistreatment Relationships. 
Article
The modern workplace contains many physical and interpersonal hazards to employee physical and psychological health/well-being. This chapter integrates the literatures on occupational safety (i.e., accidents and injuries) and mistreatment (physical violence and psychological abuse). A model is provided linking environmental (climate and leadership), individual differences (demographics and personality), motivation, behavior, and outcomes. It notes that some of the same variables have been linked to both safety and mistreatment, such as safety climate, mistreatment climate, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. Copyright © 2015 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
 
is a correlation matrix showing the Porter generic strategies and
Porter Generic Strategies and Establishment Performance Dependent Variables: Log of Sales Revenue and Log of Gross Margin on Sales
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Article
The common use of generic strategy typologies in strategic human resource management (SHRM), such as the typology proposed by Michael Porter (1980), is inaccurate and probably obsolete. SHRM research that examines the performance effects of human resource (HR) systems does not need to invoke the strategy construct in order to fulfill its goals. SHRM research that uses organizations ' strategies to predict their HR practices or which explore the effects of fit between HR systems and strategies should use measures of strategic content which are well grounded in issues pertinent to their specific empirical contexts. Alternatively, SHRM research can embrace dynamic perspectives of strategy, which will shed light on how human resource systems become strategically valuable organizational capabilities. Alternatives to Generic Typologies in SHRM 4 It is fashionable to raise questions about the viability of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) as a research field because, while the topic is
 
Article
In this chapter we argue that self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) provides a useful conceptual tool for organizational researchers, one that complements traditional work motivation theories. First, we review SDT, showing that it has gone far beyond the "intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation" dichotomy with which it began. Then we show how the theory might be applied to better understand a variety of organizational phenomena, including the positive effects of transformational leadership, the nature of "true" goal-commitment, the determinants of employees' training motivation, and the positive impact of certain human resource practices. We note that SDT may yield significant new understanding of work motivation, and suggest opportunities to refine the theory for research on work-related phenomena.
 
Chapter
Searching for a job is an important process that influences short-and long-term career outcomes as well as well-being and psychological health. As such, job search research has grown tremendously over the last two decades. In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of prior research, discuss important trends in current research, and suggest areas for future research. The authors conceptualize the job search as an unfolding process (i.e., a process through which job seekers navigate through stages to achieve their goal of finding and accepting a job) in which job seekers engage in self-regulation behaviors. The authors contrast research that has taken a between-person, static approach with research that has taken a within-person, dynamic approach and highlight the importance of combining between-and within-person designs in order to have a more holistic understanding of the job search process. Finally, authors provide some recommendations for future research. Much remains to be learned about what influences job search self-regulation, and how job self-regulation influences job search and employment outcomes depending on individual, contextual, and environmental factors.
 
Article
In response to demands and opportunities of the labor market, contemporary employers and employees voluntarily are entering into highly customized agreements regarding nonstandard employment terms. We refer to such idiosyncratic deals as "i-deals," acknowledging that these arrangements are intended to benefit all parties. Examples of i-deals include an employee with highly coveted skills who is compensated more generously than other employees doing comparable work, and an employee who is granted atypically flexible working hours to accommodate certain personal life demands. The nonstandard nature of i-deals is likely to prompt questions about the fairness of the arrangement among three principal stakeholders - employees who receive the i-deal, managers with whom the i-deal is negotiated, and the co-workers of these employees and managers. We analyze issues of fairness that arise in the relationships among all three pairings of these stakeholders through the lenses of four established forms of organizational justice - distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Our discussion sheds light on previously unexplored nuances of i-deals and identifies several neglected theoretical issues of organizational justice. In addition to highlighting these conceptual advances, we also discuss methods by which the fairness of i-deals can be promoted.
 
Chapter
This chapter discusses how attachment theory, a theory that provides insight into the processes through which psychological and emotional bonds are developed in relationships, can be useful for understanding mentoring relationships. We develop a conceptual model emphasizing how attachmentrelated constructs and their relationships with mentors' and protégés' behaviors and emotions influence each phase of a mentoring relationship. Recognizing reciprocity in the mentoring process, the model also explains how the interpersonal dynamics of the mentor-protégé relationship influence the benefits gained by both partners. Propositions for future research on mentoring relationships are provided. We contend that examining mentoring through the lens of attachment theory can increase our understanding of the underlying factors or mechanisms that determine individuals' involvement in mentoring relationships and differentiate successful from unsuccessful mentoring relationships. The research and practical implications are discussed..
 
Chapter
Academic and practitioner attention to the constructs of authentic leadership and work engagement and their implications for organizations has grown dramatically over the past decade. Consideration of the implications of these constructs for high-performance human resource practices (HPHRP) is limited, however. In this monograph, we present a conceptual model that integrates authentic leadership/followership theory with theory and research on HPHRP. Then, we apply this model to systematically consider the implications of skill-enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing HR practices in combination with authentic leadership for authentic followership, follower work engagement, and follower performance. We contend that authentic leadership, through various influences processes, promotes HPHRP, and vice versa, to help foster enhanced work engagement. By cultivating greater work engagement, individuals are motivated to bring their best, most authentic selves to the workplace and are more likely to achieve higher levels of both well-being and performance..
 
Chapter
Decision-making in human resources management is done at both the micro and macro level of organizations. Unfortunately, the decisions at each level are often executed without consideration of the other, and current theory reflects this issue. In response to a call for integration of micro- and macrolevel processes by Huselid and Becker (2011), we review the extant literature on strategic human resources and high-performance work systems to provide recommendations for both research and practice. We aimed to contribute to the literature by proposing the incorporation of the situation awareness literature into the high-performance work systems framework to encourage the alignment of human resources efforts. In addition, we provide practical recommendations for integrating situation awareness and strategic decision-making. We discuss a process for the employment of situation awareness in organizations that might not only streamline human resources management but also result in more effective decisions. Additional considerations include implications for teams, boundary conditions (e.g., individual differences), and measurement..
 
Article
Although a significant body of work has amassed that explores the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of employee turnover in organizations, little is known about how employees go about quitting once they have made the decision to leave. That is, after the decision to voluntarily quit their job is made, employees must then navigate through the process of planning for their exit, announcing their resignation, and potentially working at their company for weeks after their plans to resign have been made public. Our lack of understanding of the resignation process is important as how employees quit their jobs has the potential to impact the performance and turnover intentions of other organizational members, as well as to harm or benefit the reputation of the organization, overall. Moreover, voluntary turnover is likely to increase in the coming decades. In this chapter, we unpack the resignation process. Specifically, drawing from the communication literature and prior work on employee socialization, we develop a three-stage model of the resignation process that captures the activities and decisions employees face as they quit their jobs, and how individual differences may influence how they behave in each of these three stages. In doing so, we develop a foundation upon which researchers can begin to build a better understanding of what employees go through after they have decided to quit but before they have exited their organization for the final time. Copyright r 2015 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
 
Chapter
Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during pregnancy has been shown consistently to lead to detrimental consequences for the mother and her baby. Using job stress theories, we develop an expanded theoretical model of experienced stress during pregnancy and the potential detrimental health outcomes for the mother and her baby. Our theoretical model includes factors from multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, sociocultural, and community) and the role they play on the health and well-being of the pregnant employee and her baby. In order to gain a deeper understanding of job stress during pregnancy, we examine three pregnancy-specific organizational stressors (i.e., perceived pregnancy discrimination, pregnancy disclosure, and identity-role conflict) that are unique to pregnant employees. These stressors are argued to be over and above the normal job stressors experienced and they are proposed to result in elevated levels of experienced stress leading to detrimental health outcomes for the mother and baby. The role of resilience resources and learning in reducing some of the negative outcomes from job stressors is also explored.
 
Chapter
Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify their workplaces, it is incumbent upon the management field to offer insights that address obstacles to work. Although barriers to employment have been addressed in various fields such as psychology and economics, management scholars have addressed this issue in a piecemeal fashion. As such, our review will offer a comprehensive, integrative model of barriers to employment that addresses both individual and organizational perspectives. We will also address societal-level concerns involving these barriers. An integrative perspective is necessary for research to progress in this area because many individuals with barriers to employment face multiple challenges that prevent them from obtaining and maintaining full employment. While the additive, or possibly multiplicative, effect of employment barriers have been acknowledged in related fields like rehabilitation counseling and vocational psychology, the Human Resource Management (HRM) literature has virtually ignored this issue. We discuss suggestions for the reduction or elimination of barriers to employment. We also provide an integrative model of employment barriers that addresses the mutable (amenable to change) nature of some barriers, while acknowledging the less mutable nature of others.
 
Chapter
Research in strategic human resource management (SHRM) has evolved over the past 30 years to become more theory based and to exhibit greater empirical rigor. However, much has changed in the external environment that makes the existing theories, approaches, and methodologies inappropriate for addressing the questions that organizations face in managing their human resources today. In this chapter we discuss a number of environmental changes impacting organizations and identify tensions that researchers have faced in exploring how firms seek to manage their people as a source of competitive advantage. We argue that past research has focused on only one side of the tension at a time, thus limiting the usefulness of the answers that research provides. We advocate for research that simultaneously addresses both sides of the tensions in a way that can revolutionize research in SHRM.
 
Top-cited authors
Robert C Liden
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
Sandy Wayne
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
David P. Lepak
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Hui Liao
  • University of Maryland, College Park
Yunhyung Chung
  • University of Idaho