Research in Higher Education

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Conceptual model of faculty motivation and research success
Structural Model of Faculty Motivation and Research Success. Bold paths and coefficients are significant at * p < .05, ** p < .01
Histograms with tables showing actual and predicted values for regression models
How are university faculty members in STEM disciplines motivated to conduct research, and how does motivation predict their success? The current study assessed how multiple types of self-determined motivation predict research productivity in a sample of 651 faculty from 10 US institutions. Using structural equation modeling, the basic psychological needs of autonomy and competence predicted autonomous motivation (enjoyment, value) that, in turn, was the strongest predictor of self-reported research productivity. Using negative binomial regression, autonomous motivation was the strongest predictor of faculty publications and citations, with a one-standard deviation increase in autonomous motivation (approximately a half response option on a 1–5 Likert scale) corresponding to an 11.63% increase in publications and a 22.57% increase in citations over a three-year period. Occupational and social-environmental background variables (e.g., research percentage on contract, career age, balance, collegiality), as well as controlled motivation (guilt, rewards), had comparatively limited predictive effects. These results are of relevance to higher education institutions aiming to support scholarly productivity in STEM faculty in identifying specific beneficial and detrimental aspects of faculty motivation that contribute to measurable gains in research activity.
 
A well-established banking zone is more vital for a rich economy. The downfall of the banking zone may keep an adverse impact on other sectors. A banker shall be very watchful in advancing, because banker is not lending money out of his own capital. A major portion of the money lent comes from the deposits received from the public and government portion. At present NPA in the banking sector is discussion issue because NPA is growing year by year mainly in nationalized banks The Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPAs) of Nationalized Banks as on December 2018 were Rs.6,97,409 crore which amount to 9.3% of Gross Advances. That is why this paper is undertaken to study the causes for advances converting into NPA in Commercial banking zone in India and did efforts to render valuable suggestion to overcome the stated problem.
 
The college-educated are more likely to vote than are those with less education. Prior research suggests that the effect of college attendance on voting operates directly, by increasing an individual’s interest and engagement in politics through social networks or human capital accumulation. College may also increase voting indirectly by leading to degree attainment and increasing socioeconomic status, thus facilitating political participation. However, few studies have empirically tested these direct and indirect pathways or examined how these effects vary across individuals. To bridge this gap, we employ a nonparametric causal mediation analysis to examine the total, direct, and indirect effects of college attendance on voting and how these effects differ across individuals with different propensities of attending college. Using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, we find large direct effects of college on self-reported voting and comparably smaller indirect effects that operate through degree completion and socioeconomic attainment. We find the largest impact of college on voting for individuals unlikely to attend, a pattern due primarily to heterogeneity in the direct effect of college. Our findings suggest that civic returns to college are not contingent upon degree completion or socioeconomic returns. An exclusive focus on the economic returns to college can mask the broader societal benefits of expanding higher education to disadvantaged youth.
 
As colleges and universities strive to increase persistence and aid students in reaching graduation, they are utilizing alternative communication strategies like text messaging. Behavioral economics researchers suggest personalized, regular nudges can help college students make decisions that positively impact their college career and keep them on track for graduation. The current study presents the results of a randomized field experiment where a text messaging program was implemented in a large college at a public university. The intervention utilized a mixture of automated and personalized text messages from academic advisors and allowed for two-way communication between individual students and their major advisor. Mulitvariate analyses revealed the intervention had no impact on university persistence, but it did increase the odds of persisting in the college to the end of the semester, moving the average, overall college persistence rate from 93 to 95%. Effects were concentrated on underclass students, whose persistence rate moved from 87 to 93% at the college level. Underclass students also showed statistically significant university persistence effects, moving from 90 to 95%. Students who received texts but never engaged with the texting program were significantly less likely to request an advising appointment or to apply to be a student ambassador than were students in the control group. More research is needed to understand what motivates a student to engage with the texting software and to identify what the longer-term consequences of using text messaging to communicate with students might be. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11162-022-09678-8.
 
The Mediation of College Completion (standardized coefficients and 95% CI’s)
This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine the effect of childhood trauma experiences on college graduation rates. A longitudinal mediation path analysis with a binary logistic regression is performed using trauma as a mediator between race, gender, first-generation status and college completion. The analysis reveals that being female and a continuing-generation student are both associated with greater likelihood of graduating college and that trauma mediates the relationship between race, gender, first-generation status and college completion. The authors explore the implications for these findings for policy, practice, and future research.
 
Idaho’s direct admissions process
Generalized synthetic control plots, by institutional enrollment outcome
In 2015, Idaho adopted the nation’s first direct admissions system and proactively admitted all high school graduates to a set of public institutions. This reimagination of the admissions process may reduce barriers to students’ enrollment and improve access across geographic and socioeconomic contexts by removing many human capital, informational, and financial barriers in the college search and application process. Despite a lack of evidence on the efficacy of direct admissions systems, the policy has already been proposed or implemented in four other states. Using synthetic control methods, we estimate the first causal impacts of direct admissions on institutional enrollment outcomes. We find early evidence that direct admissions increased first-time undergraduate enrollments by 4–8% (50–100 students per campus on average) and in-state levels by approximately 8–15% (80–140 students) but had minimal-to-no impacts on the enrollment of Pell-eligible students. These enrollment gains were concentrated among 2-year, open-access institutions. We discuss these findings in relation to state contexts and policy design given the emergence of literature highlighting the varied efficacy of similar college access policies.
 
IBC margins: New branches and educational programs openings, per year, 1965–2015. Source: Own calculation with C-BERT data. Note The number of IBC prior to 1979 is zero
The international expansion of higher education has intensified in recent decades with a rapidly growing number of international branch campuses appearing on the scene. This study investigates the economic, cultural and institutional, and educational determinants of transnational higher education on both the extensive margin (number of international branch campuses), and the intensive margin (the total number of educational programmes offered). Using the gravity equation, we applied fixed-effect empirical methods to a panel dataset that combined and extended the raw data from campuses and master’s programmes in 33 source countries and 76 host countries in the period from 1948 to 2016. Estimates reveal that although cultural, economic and institutional ties foster cross-border educational relationships, their effect differs significantly from one margin to another. The study highlights the relevance of globalisation, research activities, and aggregate demand in international higher education.
 
Doctoral inbred rates in public universities by years
In this study, the effects of academic inbreeding on individual and institutional research productivity are examined to understand its impact as a recruitment policy. Over the past decade, in particular, there has been growing awareness of the problems posed by inbreeding in higher education. This study aims to expand on this awareness through an analysis of the prevalence of academic kinship in the Turkish higher education system, as well as the effects of inbreeding on the research productivity of academics and on their total research output. Unlike previous studies, the present study tests three distinct descriptions of inbreeding. The analyses in the study are performed on (1) the data records of 88,162 doctorate-holding faculty members’ nationally published articles and internationally published articles publications (Web of Science) from 203 Turkish universities; (2) their international citations; and (3) the projects they managed during the 2020–2021 academic year. Random effects estimator analyses were used the with multivariate negative binomial logit hurdle to account for institutional and individual differences. The findings indicate a high level of academic inbreeding in Turkish higher education. More specifically, the level was found to be 41%, which is one of the highest rates reported in the literature. Moreover, the findings suggest a negative impact of academic inbreeding on individual and institutional research productivity. In this respect, regardless of the field of study, inbred academics have lower number of national and internationally published articles, citations, and project management experiences than non-inbred researchers. In addition, it was found that the rate of academic inbreeding has a significant effect on universities’ research productivity. Given these results, it can be stated that academic inbreeding has a detrimental effect on higher education.
 
a Comparison of High School GPA for unmatched and matched sample, all students. b Comparison of High School GPA for unmatched and matched sample, students that graduated within 6 years
While some stakeholders presume that studying abroad distracts students from efficient pursuit of their programs of study, others regard education abroad as a high impact practice that fosters student engagement and hence college completion. The Consortium for Analysis of Student Success through International Education (CASSIE), compiled semester-by-semester records from 221,981 students across 35 institutions. Of those students, 30,549 had studied abroad. Using nearest-neighbor matching techniques that accounted for a myriad of potentially confounding variables along with matching on institution, the analysis found positive impacts of education abroad on graduation within 4 and 6 years and on cumulative GPA at graduation. A very small increase in credit hours earned emerged, counterbalanced by a small decrease in time-to-degree associated with studying abroad. Overall, the results warrant conclusions that studying abroad does not impede timely graduation. To the contrary, encouraging students to study abroad promotes college completion. These results held similarly for students who had multiple study abroad experiences, and who have studied abroad for varying program lengths.
 
Federal financial aid policies for higher education may be classified based on their “for-purchase” and “post-purchase” natures. The former include grants, loans, and work-study and intend to help students finance or afford college attendance, persistence, and graduation. Post-purchase policies are designed to minimize financial burdens associated with having invested in college attendance and are granted as tax incentives/expenditures. One of these expenditures is the IRS’s Student Loan Interest Deduction (SLID)—which offers up to $2,500 as an adjustment for taxable income based on having paid interest on student loans and has an annual cost of $12.81 billion—about 45.7% of the Pell grant cost. Despite this high cost, SLID has remained virtually unstudied. Accordingly, the study’s purpose is to assess how (in)effective SLID may be in reaching lower-income taxpayers. To address this purpose, we relied on an innovative analytic framework “multilevel modelling with spatial interaction effects” that allowed controlling for contextual and systemic observed and unobserved factors that may both affect college participation and may be related with SLID disbursements over and above income prospects. Data sources included the IRS, ACS, FBI, IPEDS, and the NPSAS:2015-16. Findings revealed that SLID is regressive at the top, wealthier taxpayers and students attending more expensive colleges realize higher tax benefits than lower income taxpayers and students. Indeed, 75% of community college students were found to not be eligible to receive SLID—data and replication code are provided. Is this the best use of this multibillion tax incentive? Is SLID designed to exclude the poorest, neediest students? A policy similar to Education Credits, focused on outstanding debt rather than on interest, that targets below-poverty line students with up to $5,000 in debt, would represent a true commitment, and better use of public funds, to close socioeconomic gaps, by helping those more prone to default.
 
A primary focus among colleges implementing student success reforms has been to increase overall rates of completing any credential and to reduce racial and socioeconomic equity gaps in such completion rates. The focus on general completion may overlook inequities in the type of program students complete, which is particularly significant given the wide variety of credentials offered at community colleges and the resulting variation in labor market returns among completers. Our study examines racial/ethnic stratification among community college students as they enter and progress through programs leading to higher or lower opportunities in the labor market. Using a discrete-time survival analysis and longitudinal enrollment and transcript data. We track enrollment, completion, and transfer for up to 9 years. We also measure achievement of academic milestones (such as credit accrual) along educational pathways associated with higher rates of credential completion and transfer over the long term. Results suggest that a significant gap in the likelihood of bachelor’s degree completion between Black and White students emerges episodically, while the gap between Hispanic and White students develops earlier and remains consistent over time. Results also suggest that, while all students generally benefit from attainment of academic milestones, doing so disproportionately benefits Black and Hispanic students.
 
Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNSLAE), this study considered institutions as “incubators,” where institutions develop students by providing them with essential resources and services to thrive. This approach also recognizes the importance of institutional norms and identities in shaping students’ social and cultural competencies. Moreover, we used a person-centered approach to identify students’ participation patterns in high-impact practices (HIPs). Instead of examining relations among variables—as with variable-centered approaches—person-centered approaches find similarities in a collection of variables to identify distinct student types. This approach allows us to understand the interconnections between students and their college environment through their participation patterns in HIPs. We identified five student types based on their participation patterns in HIPs: nonparticipant, career focused, experiential learner, academically oriented, and active engager. Almost 23% of the variance in students’ patterns in HIP participation lies across institutions. Controlling for a host of student-level characteristics and college experiences marginally accounted for this institution-level variance. Instead, institution type accounted for the largest share of the variance, which is consistent with an institutional identity and norms of liberal education.
 
Conceptual model of conscientiousness mediating the gender-achievement relation
Standardized parameter estimates of the SEM of conscientiousness mediating the gender-achievement relation for all students, *p < .001
Standardized parameter estimates by ethnicity of the SEM of conscientiousness mediating the gender-achievement relation (left estimates of students with a dominant ethnic background, right estimates of students with a non-dominant ethnic background which differ due to differences in variances; the estimates of the indirect effect are not significantly different), *p < .001
In recent decades, female students have been more successful in higher education than their male counterparts in the United States and other industrialized countries. A promising explanation for this gender gap are differences in personality, particularly higher levels of conscientiousness among women. Using Structural Equation Modeling on data from 4719 Dutch university students, this study examined to what extent conscientiousness can account for the gender gap in achievement. We also examined whether the role of conscientiousness in accounting for the gender gap differed for students with a non-dominant ethnic background compared to students with a dominant ethnic background. In line with our expectations, we found that conscientiousness fully mediated the gender gap in achievement, even when controlling for prior achievement in high school. This was the case among both groups of students. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the gender gap in achievement in postsecondary education settings. The current study suggests that the use of conscientiousness measures in university admission procedures may disadvantage male students. Instead, the use of such measures may be a fruitful way to identify those students who may benefit from interventions to improve their conscientiousness. Future research could examine how conscientiousness can be fostered among students who are low in conscientiousness.
 
Although research has revealed many factors that predict faculty turnover, the literature is often limited by using intent to leave as a proxy for actual turnover, and further by consolidating faculty who leave institutions with faculty who leave the occupation. We resolve these limitations and advance the faculty mobility literature by studying faculty who actually left their higher education institution for both academic and non-academic jobs. Drawing on a survey of 773 departing faculty respondents, we employed structural topic modeling and logistic regression to understand whether or not academic and non-academic leavers had statistically different reasons for leaving. Structural topic modeling revealed 12 dominant reasons why faculty leave, but none of these reasons were unique to those who left academia. Regression results show that gender, tenure status, and salary increase were significant drivers of leaving the academic profession. We provide implications for future studies of faculty departure and for faculty retention.
 
Expanded SCCT model
Computing career opportunities are increasing across all sectors of the U.S. economy, yet there remains a serious shortage of college graduates to fill these jobs. This problem has fueled a nationwide effort to expand and diversify the computing career pipeline. Guided by social cognitive career theory (SCCT), this study used logistic regression to examine college students’ interest in a computing career and how that changes over time. Drawing from a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of introductory computing course students, this study extends prior literature by examining a broad group of potential computing career aspirants (i.e., computing and non-computing majors). Results indicate that, two years after the introductory course, 53.5% of students indicated an interest in a computing career. Notably, this interest changed significantly over time, and our findings indicate that students in this sample were more likely to leave the computing career pipeline than to be recruited to it. Positive predictors of computing career interest include initial computing career interest, family support, and time spent in computing-related student groups. Additional positive predictors such as sense of belonging in computing and computing self-efficacy underscore the importance of psychosocial attributes in shaping this career interest. Beyond individual characteristics, this study reveals key areas where faculty and institutions can better address elements of the college experience to bolster students’ interest and confidence in pursuing computing careers. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
 
Scholars have advocated for further investigation of the campus climate for diversity and students’ attitudes and behaviors surrounding diversity, and there appears to be an increasing responsibility for higher education professionals to consider ways to encourage students’ awareness and acceptance of difference. Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study examined the relationship between students’ perceptions of faculty practices and student-faculty interactions and two measures of students’ attitudes toward diversity, and whether these relationships were moderated by race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that several perceptions of faculty practices and student-faculty interactions were positively associated with students’ fourth-year diversity attitudes, including: (a) quality of faculty contact; (b) faculty interest in teaching and student development; (c) how often students had discussions with faculty whose political, social, or religious opinions were different from their own; (d) how often faculty engaged students in cooperative learning activities; (e) whether courses helped students see connections between intended careers and how they affect society; and (f) whether courses helped students understand the historical, political, and social connections of past events. Overall, findings suggest that the type and quality of each faculty practice or measure of interaction with students may be significant in terms of fostering positive diversity attitudes among students. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
 
Density plot of propensity scores
This study examines relationships between dual enrollment and high school graduation, college enrollment, college choice (2-year or 4-year), and persistence in college among Nebraska’s 2018 high school graduating class. Unlike previous studies that focus on states where dual enrollment is standardized and subsidized by state policy, the Nebraska context offers an opportunity to study potentially heterogeneous effects of dual enrollment where implementation is devolved to the local level. Using propensity score matching, we find that taking at least one dual enrollment course was positively associated with graduating from high school, going to college, choosing a 4-year college over a 2-year college, and re-enrolling in college in the second year. More importantly, the positive association was greater for racial minority students, first-generation students, and low-income students. Our findings suggest that dual enrollment may help close achievement gaps for historically underrepresented students. We provide policy implications on how states can use dual enrollment to improve higher education access and success.
 
Although the low level of tuition fees and the absence of other access barriers, Italy is characterized by low educational attainments at the university level. This work models the choice of young Italians to attend university or leave education and enter the labor market, by making use of an agent-based model that reproduces the Italian higher education and policy system. The aim is to analyze the determinants behind university enrollment decisions possibly causing the low level of attainment and explore three alternative scenarios that propose the expansion of financial support and the increase in the average income gap between skilled and unskilled individuals. The model implies that the individual preference to enroll at university depends upon (i) economic motivations, represented by the expectations on future income, which are formed through interaction within individuals’ social network; (ii) influence from peers; (iii) effort of obtaining a university degree. Results show that the model can reproduce observable features of the Italian system, and highlights low income levels and the following full resort to regional scholarships. Experimented scenarios show that policies expanding financial support to education are ineffective, while an increase in the gap between average income of skilled and unskilled workers leads to an increase in enrollment in university, signaling that labor market policies may be more effective than educational policies in raising the number of students in higher education.
 
Fixed effects plot of Burnout on BRIBE, by treatment
Bribery is a complex and critical issue in higher education (HE), causing severe economic and societal harm. Traditionally, most scholarship on HE corruption has focused on institutional factors in developing countries and insights into the psychological and motivational factors that drive HE bribery on the micro-level mechanisms are virtually non-existent. To close this research gap, this study investigates the connection between study-related burnout and university students’ willingness to offer bribes to their lecturers to pass important exams. Conducting a vignette-based quasi-experimental replication study with 624 university students in Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands we find that university students in three countries differentiate sharply between different shades of bribery and that a majority accept using emotional influence tactics to pass (failed) exams. In contrast, offering a helping hand or money (i.e., darker shades of bribery) to their lecturer was less acceptable. Study-related burnout is associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in these darker shades of bribery and students’ commitment to the public interest is but a weak factor in preventing unethical behavior. In summary, this study provides solid empirical evidence that university students are likely to use emotional influence tactics violating both the ethical codes of conduct and the formalized bureaucratic procedures of HE examination, particularly if they suffer from study-related burnout. However, the accelerating effect of burnout on bribery is conditional in that it only holds for darker shades of bribery. HE institutions may benefit from implementing the four-eye principle and from launching awareness campaigns that enable lecturers to better recognize these tactics and engage students in creating a transparent environment for testing, grading, and collaboration that is resistant to bribery.
 
Accepted model. Robust standardized coefficients reported in Table 5
Postsecondary institutions’ responses to COVID-19 are a topic of immediate relevance. Emergent research suggests that partisanship was more strongly linked to institutions offering in-person instruction for Fall 2020 than was COVID-19. Using data from the College Crisis Initiative and a multiple group structural equation modeling approach, we tested the relationships between our outcome of interest (in-person instruction in Fall 2020) and state and county sociopolitical features, state and county COVID-19 rates, and state revenue losses. Our full-sample model suggested that County Political Preferences had the strongest association with in-person instruction, followed by Pandemic Severity and State Sociopolitical Features. Because institutional sectors may be uniquely sensitive to these factors, we tested our models separately on 4-year public, 4-year private, and 2-year public and 2-year private institutions. State Sociopolitical Features were significantly related to in-person instruction for 4-year private and 2-year public institutions but were strongest for 4-year public institutions. For 4-year private and 2-year public institutions, County Political Preferences’ effect sizes were 2–3 times stronger than effects from State Sociopolitical Features. Pandemic Severity was significantly, negatively related to in-person instruction for 4-year private and 2-year public institutions–similar in magnitude to State Sociopolitical Features. Our analysis revealed that COVID-19 played a stronger role in determining in-person instruction in Fall 2020 than initial research using less sophisticated methods suggested—and while State Sociopolitical Features may have played a role in the decision, 4-year private and 2-year public institutions were more sensitive to county-level preferences.
 
Accuracy of revealed grades. The figure illustrates that the majority of students (82 students) accurately knows the grades their friends received. 16 students thought their friends had higher grades than they actually did, while 6 thought their friends did worse than they actually did
Informational effect conditional on accuracy. Figure displays the marginal effects of grade difference conditional on accuracy of grades. The informational mechanism operates with honest and humble Alters, but not with show-offs who are inflating their grades. Note, these estimates stem from a single underlying regression model using a three-category dummy. The figure displays the marginal effects of these categories. 95% confidence intervals
Student characteristics. The findings suggest that the informational mechanism operates irrespective of the number of friends or the frequency of interaction among friends. Also, the effect appears strongest within social sciences and business students, but absent among students of natural sciences and engineering. Note, the figure summarizes the findings from three separate regression models. Each of the regressions utilizes a dummy with three, two, and five categories respectively. The estimates displayed represent the marginal effects for each category. 95% confidence intervals
Friendship characteristics. The findings indicate that the informational mechanism is strongest among friends where the Alter is more able than the Ego, but not the opposite. Homophility measures, in contrast, have no discernable effect on effect size. Note, the Figure summarizes the findings from six separate regression models. Each of the regressions utilizes a dummy with two or three categories respectively. The estimates displayed represent the marginal effects for each category. 95% confidence intervals
When students are aware of the exam grades of their peers, does this information affect their subsequent exam performance? For example, knowing that my friend scored a higher grade on Exam 1 than myself might motivate me to improve my performance on Exam 2, or might frustrate me such that I stop trying to catch up. We analyze whether students’ performance is shaped by the grades of their classmates. To answer this question, we use survey-based data on students’ connections to other students with the grades that students obtained in a class. We find that a peer effect on grades does exist, where students who know that the grades of their friends were higher than their own on the first exam are motivated to improve their score on the following exam.
 
This study presents the results of a regression discontinuity empirical approach to investigate the effects of postseason bowl game participation on student-athlete academic outcomes and subsequent football team success. The practice expectations for student-athletes on football teams that participate in a bowl game increase by between two and four weeks relative to student-athletes on teams that do not participate in a bowl game. Prior research has been inconclusive on whether this increased practice intensity is associated with academic or athletic outcomes. The sample includes 130 NCAA football bowl subdivision (FBS) teams between the years 2003 through 2018. We apply a fuzzy regression discontinuity design by exploiting the fact that teams in the NCAA FBS become eligible to participate in a bowl game when their regular season winning percentage is greater than 0.50. The results suggest that bowl game participation increased the team’s eligibility rate by 0.8 percentage points, the team’s Academic Progress Rate by 4.6 points, but had no effect on the team’s retention rate. Bowl game participation was not found to affect the subsequent year’s winning percentage or likelihood of bowl game participation. Athletic programs that are undecided about whether the costs, in finances or time, of participating in a bowl game are worthwhile might benefit from these findings. In particular, the results reveal that bowl game participation does not come as a detriment to the academic outcomes of their student-athletes.
 
This study reports on the development and validation of a new construct of application orientation (AO), which we defined as a vocational orientation concerning the interest for certain principles, values, and activities that are common for university graduates working in applied (i.e., industrial) fields. Using a multi-study program with different samples, the new construct was conceptualized (Study 1) and validated (Studies 2–4). In a qualitative content analysis with N = 102 professionals (all of them having an academic degree mostly in the STEM disciplines), four central facets of applied (i.e., industrial) work were identified ( process orientation , customer focus , product focus , and economic focus ). In a study with N = 200 university students and professionals with mixed disciplinary backgrounds (i.e., STEM but also non-STEM fields), the AO facets correlated with the RIASEC dimensions (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional; Holland, 1997) mostly as expected, and the AO facet product focus was predictive of the preference for applied work settings, supporting convergent validity assumptions. Discriminant validity of the AO facets was largely supported, examining average variance extracted by the AO factors compared to the RIASEC factors. In a known-groups validation study, AO was higher in N = 108 professionals from industry compared with N = 40 scientists (all from STEM fields) working at a university. In a sample of N = 128 early career scientists from the STEM fields, the AO facet product focus predicted applied work behavior in an assessment center.
 
Revenue and faculty employment, 2002–2003 to 2016–2017. Prior to 2013, faculty were defined as those whose primary occupation included instruction and/or research and/or public service. After 2013, faculty were defined as all individuals whose primary occupation includes instruction
Mean full-time tenure line and full-time NTT faculty hires, 2002–2003 to 2016–2017. Data is reported for years in which the new hires data collection in IPEDS was mandatory. Prior to 2013, faculty were defined as those whose primary occupation included instruction and/or research and/or public service. After 2013, faculty were defined as all individuals whose primary occupation includes instruction. Prior to 2016, full-time faculty hires were counted across the 4-month period July 1 to October 31. After 2016, full-time faculty hires were counted for the 12-month period November 1 to October 31
Mean full-time freshmen enrollment by tuition residency status, 2002–2003 to 2016–2017
Declines in state appropriations have decreased the ability of public research universities to hire faculty, particularly tenure line faculty. Many universities have grown nonresident enrollment as a substitute for state funding. This study investigates whether faculty hiring was associated differently with nonresident enrollment growth versus resident enrollment growth. Grounded in labor demand theory, to study this relationship we estimate institution-level panel statistical models for the academic years 2002–2003 to 2016–2017. Results indicate that nonresident enrollment growth had a stronger positive association with full-time tenure line hires than resident enrollment growth. In contrast, employment of full-time and part-time non-tenure track faculty was not associated differently to nonresident versus resident enrollment growth. The institutional policy implication is that nonresident enrollment growth may be a viable strategy to finance tenure line faculty hires. However, state policymakers should recognize that many public research universities and most regional public universities face weak nonresident enrollment demand and are unlikely to compensate for declines in state funding by growing nonresident enrollment.
 
Conceptual model of relationships among self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived cost, and student engagement in IGW
Structural equation model of self-efficacy, costs, and benefits effecting engagement IGW. All shown paths are significant (p < .001). All coefficients are standardized. Model fit: RMSEA = 0.024 [90% CI = 0.022, 0.027], CFI = 0.925, SRMR = 0.058]. R²: Behavioral engagement = 0.463, and cognitive engagement = 0.740
Intercultural group work (IGW) is a valuable learning strategy to enhance deep learning and prepare university students to participate in a globalized world, so more insight is needed into what motivates students to engage actively in IGW. Using an expectancy–value theory framework, this study investigates the extent to which the different components of this theory (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived benefit, and perceived cost) relate to each other and contribute to student engagement in IGW. Responses to a questionnaire, gathered from 846 bachelor’s students from six universities in the Netherlands and Canada, reveal that strong self-efficacy for IGW, high perceived benefit of IGW, and low perceived cost of IGW correlate. In structural equation modeling analyses, self-efficacy and emotional cost emerge as important predictors of behavioral and cognitive engagement; intercultural benefit is critical for cognitive engagement. As a prerequisite of cognitive engagement, behavioral engagement also mediates the effects of self-efficacy, costs, and benefits. Therefore, developing students’ self-efficacy, increasing perceived benefits of IGW, and decreasing perceived costs of IGW can promote student engagement and deeper learning. Universities thus should prepare students for IGW and provide support and feedback during group work process. Based on the results, we theorize about the relationships among the components of the expectancy–value theory.
 
Theory- and evidence-based factors connecting undergraduate experiences to post-college intellectual and civic outcomes in college alumni
Scholars and the public alike have questioned the benefits of obtaining an undergraduate education. Although research has extensively examined short-term outcomes associated with college experiences, relatively few studies have investigated non-economic outcomes beyond graduation. This paper explored the link between college experiences and post-college outcomes among 21,716 bachelor’s degree recipients from 68 private institutions. Although some variation across demographics was observed, good teaching, academic challenge, and diversity experiences were consistently—and often strongly—related to alumni’s perceptions of intellectual and civic growth.
 
Social disparities in theoretical predictors. Notes: Linear regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals from M = 100 imputed datasets. Coefficients represent standard deviations. Confidence intervals are based on robust standard errors. Models include controls for type of entrance certificate, type of higher education institution, field of studies, pursued degree, migration background, gender, and age
Students from a lower socioeconomic background have a higher risk of dropping out of higher education. The underlying mechanisms of this association between socioeconomic background and higher education dropout are not well understood. Previous research in higher education has followed Tinto’s model of academic and social integration to explain dropout but has largely neglected social inequality therein. In contrast, social stratification research draws on rational choice theory to explain social inequality in educational attainment but has rarely been applied to explain dropout from higher education. In our paper, we combine these two strands of research. Utilizing data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), we draw on a largescale, representative sample of students in Germany to quantify the relative contribution of each theoretical approach for explaining social inequality in dropout from higher education. Binary logistic regression models reveal that both students’ integration and costs-benefit considerations are associated with their dropout risk net of each other. While academic and social integration appears to better predict dropout, rational choice theory accounts for a larger proportion of social inequality therein. We conclude that combining Tinto’s model and rational choice theory provides a more comprehensive perspective of dropouts from higher education and social inequality therein.
 
Horizontal and Vertical Course Repetitions in Mathematics. Figure shows names and course numbers for 12 types of college-level math offered at public institutions of higher education in Texas. Horizontal repetition occurs when students complete an introductory math course and then enroll in a different introductory math course (i.e., it only occurs among introductory coursework). Vertical repetition occurs when students repeat a math course in the same sequence (repeating the same specific course or one earlier in the same sequence).
Delays in meeting math requirements can impede the progress among community college students who aspire to earn a baccalaureate degree. To investigate this issue, we used state administrative data from Texas to examine the prevalence and predictors of math course repetition and how math course repetition predicts transfer students’ outcomes. More than a third of community college transfer students take additional introductory mathematics coursework despite having fulfilled the requirement—a phenomenon we referred to as “horizontal repetition”—and one sixth of community college students take redundant coursework within a given mathematics course sequence, referred to as “vertical repetition.” Using regression models controlling for student backgrounds, academic experiences, and institutional fixed effects, we found that horizontal repetition was linked to lower GPA and, among degree recipients, increased time to degree and excess credits. Vertical repetition was negatively associated with GPA and degree completion and positively linked to increased time to degree and excess credits. Location of course repetition shaped student outcomes, where math course repetitions occurring at the university appear to drive many of the negative associations between both horizontal and vertical repetition and student outcomes. As community colleges and universities across the country consider the efficacy of course sequences and transfer pathways, our research offers insights into patterns and implications of course repetition in core math courses.
 
Interfaith learning and development framework
The purpose of this study was to examine first-year change in appreciative attitudes toward Muslims by non-Muslim students. To this end, we longitudinally assessed 6229 undergraduate students at the beginning and end of their first year in college. We performed a hierarchical linear modeling analysis and found evidence that Muslim appreciation can change as a result of exposure to and participation in the first year in college, specifically through provocative encounters that are adequately supported by administrative practices designed for helping students interact productively. Implications are discussed.
 
Theoretical model with hypothesized paths
Final structural model significant paths
This study’s purpose is to examine whether resilience, conceptualized by Connor and Davidson (2003) as one’s capacity to persevere and rebound under adversity, was a potential mitigating and/or moderating factor in the dynamic between both psychological distress and academic burnout, and student attrition. We concurrently distributed a survey containing a series of psychometric instruments to a convenience sample of 1,119 students pursuing various business majors at four geographically diverse U.S. universities. Via structural equations modeling analysis, we measured the associations between psychological distress, academic burnout, and departure intentions, and investigated whether student resilience levels are associated with lower distress, burnout, and departure intentions levels. The results indicated significant positive associations between psychological distress and each of the elements of academic burnout, and significant positive associations between the academic burnout elements and departure intentions. However, while resilience did not moderate those associations, it did attenuate them through its direct negative associations with both psychological distress and the cynicism and academic inefficacy elements of academic burnout. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for business educators seeking to enhance individual resilience levels as a coping strategy to combat voluntary student turnover, and better prepare students for the demands of the workplace.
 
6-year BA completion rates by selectivity of first college attended, full bps sample vs. main analytic sample. Source. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996/01 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:96/01), 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), and 2012/17 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/17)
There is a well-documented relationship between academic match and bachelor’s degree completion; students who undermatch are less likely to complete a BA than those who match or overmatch, net of academic qualifications and demographic characteristics. Little is known, however, about whether this association has changed over time. I argue that recent trends in U.S. higher education may have altered this association. Thus, while prior research has documented gaps in outcomes between undermatched, matched, and overmatched students, it is important to understand how these gaps may be evolving. The present study uses nationally representative data from three cohorts of first-time college students—students who began college in 1995, 2003, and 2011—to examine this question. Findings show that, in some ways, the association between academic match and BA completion has remained stable over time; across all three cohorts, undermatched students are less likely to graduate than matched and overmatched students, after controlling for academic qualifications and demographic characteristics. In other ways, the association may be evolving; overall, overmatched students’ odds of graduation have increased over time, while matched and undermatched students’ have not. There are multiple possible explanations for this, including the fact that graduation rates in recent years have become increasingly stratified by college selectivity. The study concludes with recommendations for policy and practice, as well as suggestions for future research.
 
Conceptual model of adult students’ course outcomes in college math and English
Students 25 years of age and older comprise one-third of the population in public two-year institutions, and these students face significant disadvantages in first-year retention and eventual graduation. Successfully passing college math and college English are important steps for adult students in building momentum toward a degree. Classroom context and classroom experiences play important roles in students' likelihood of passing college math and English. However, little is known about how the contextual features and experiences that are associated with the likelihood of passing differ depending on students’ age. Using multilevel models and statewide administrative data, we examine variation by age in relationships between students’ likelihood of passing a college math or English course and the characteristics of the course itself, peers in the course, the instructor teaching the course, and student behaviors that may bear on course outcomes.
 
Standardized coefficients for initial structural equation model predicting positive perceptions of diversity climate without encounters with racism on campus. For simplicity of presentation, disturbances to latent factors with the exception of the pair for the correlational path are not shown. Bi-directional arrows indicate a correlational path. “D” signifies a disturbance. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Standardized coefficients for initial structural equation model predicting positive perceptions of diversity climate including encounters with racism on campus. For simplicity of presentation, disturbances to latent factors with the exception of the pair for the correlational path are not shown. Bi-directional arrows indicate a correlational path. “D” signifies a disturbance. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
The purpose of this study was to use structural equation modeling to examine how the experience of racialized aggressions on social media influenced the perceptions of campus racial climate for undergraduate students of color (n = 771). Findings suggest that students who experienced racialized aggressions on social media did report less positive perceptions of campus diversity climate. Given that in-person and online environments are growing evermore seamless for students, this has implications for campus climate and diversity programming.
 
Standardized estimates of associations between critical reflection of societal inequality, hostile campus climate, positive and informal experiences with peers and faculty, collective student efficacy and GPA, while accounting for student gender on critical reflection of societal inequality. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Standardized estimates of alternative structural equation modeling testing associations between positive and informal experiences with peers and faculty, critical reflection of societal inequality, hostile campus climate, collective student efficacy and GPA, while accounting for student gender on critical reflection of societal inequality. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Guided by Critical Consciousness Theory and the Multicontextual Model for Diverse Learning Environments, this research explored whether a critical reflection of societal inequality and a hostile campus climate were associated with collective student efficacy and grade point average (GPA) among racially/ethnically diverse students. We examined whether these relationships were mediated by positive and informal experiences with peers or faculty. Multiple indicator multiple causes models indicated that there were no latent mean differences or differential item functioning based on students’ race/ethnicity, indicating that study measures were not biased against Students of Color or white students. There was one latent mean difference based on gender, such that women were more likely than men to endorse a critical reflection of societal inequality. Structural equation modeling indicated that a critical reflection of societal inequality was positively associated with collective student efficacy and GPA. In contrast, a hostile campus climate was negatively associated with collective student efficacy, GPA, and positive and informal experiences with peers or faculty. Negative experiences with faculty mediated the association between a hostile campus climate and collective student efficacy, such that a more hostile campus climate was associated with fewer positive and informal experiences with faculty and these negative experiences, in turn, were associated with less collective student efficacy. These findings suggest that a critical reflection of societal inequality promotes positive civic and academic capacities among college students, and that support from campus members (e.g., faculty) is key to achieve these positive outcomes.
 
of SEM results from women only. N = 453. χ2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\chi }^{2}$$\end{document}(468) = 674.19, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.966; TLI = 0.954; RMSEA = 0.031; SRMR = 0.051
This study examines how collegiate climates and practices can promote innovation capacities among an international longitudinal sample of undergraduate women. Using a pre-test/post-test quantitative design with a reliable and valid dependent measure of innovation capacities, this study employs structural equation modeling to robustly estimate collegiate effects over-and-above students’ entry characteristics and personality traits. Results indicate that curricular practices (e.g., faculty challenge, course-taking patterns) and co-curricular engagement (e.g., connecting experiences) spur the development of innovation capacities among our sample of women. Findings are discussed and implications for theory, research, and practice are provided.
 
Cumulative TFP change and its components for traditional advantaged and disadvantaged universities, 2009 to 2016. Data
source: Input and output data from Council for Higher Education report 2019
Recent high dropout and low graduation rates in the South African higher education institutions as well as government funding cuts and the economic uncertainty due to COVID-19 pandemic have heightened the urgency for the higher education sector to improve its productivity. However, empirical evidence on the productivity growth of the sector remains unexplored. To address this gap, we applied a Färe-Primont index approach to a panel data of 22 public universities over an 8-year period to measure total factor productivity (TFP) and its components—technological change, technical, scale and mix efficiency changes. We also used a feasible generalised least squares model to assess the determinants of productivity and efficiency growth. The results show that the average TFP of the sector for the study period was 0.631, led by historically advantaged universities (0.894), whilst historically disadvantaged universities had lower average TFP (0.823). During the period, TFP increased by 3.43%, largely driven by scale and mix efficiency changes (5.32%) and technical efficiency change (0.83%), whilst technical change declined by 1.80%. In terms of university types, the comprehensive universities achieved the largest TFP growth (6.13%) followed by traditional universities (4.85%), and technology universities by 1.41%. TFP growth was positively influenced by student graduation rates, quality of academics and academic-student ratios. Therefore, policy considerations to improve the sector’s productivity and efficiency should consider investment on research and development, adoption of teaching and research innovations, re-skilling through training and education and aligning admission policies with staffing.
 
Pre-treatment trends for removed institutions in medical expense models
Pre-treatment trends for institutions remaining in medical expense models
Pre-treatment trends for institutions in student aid models
SCM medical expense results for Cal-Berkeley and UCLA
SCM student aid results for Cal-Berkeley and UCLA
Many college athletes suffer career-ending injuries that leave them with expensive medical bills and lost scholarship opportunities. California’s 2012 student athlete bill of rights mandated that the state’s universities continue to care for college athletes by providing access to medical care and equivalent scholarships even if they were injured and could no longer participate in athletics. We analyzed publicly available data from the college athletics financial information database using multiple quasi-experimental approaches, including difference-in-differences with propensity score weights and synthetic control methods. We found evidence that Cal-Berkeley and UCLA increased medical expenditures but not student aid. Our findings were robust across both types of analyses. We discuss implications and offer directions for future research related to policy implementation.
 
Probability densities for pooled sample before and after propensity score weighting (Color figure online)
Probability densities for underserved sample before and after propensity score weighting (Color figure online)
Roughly half of 4-year students who begin as STEM majors either change to non-STEM majors or drop out of college altogether. STEM attrition is especially disconcerting for underserved students, such as people of color or individuals from low-income families, who are significantly less likely to persist in or graduate from a STEM degree program when compared to their White or higher-income peers. Previous researchers have reported that co-enrolling at more than one institution (or swirling between institutions) can be associated with higher rates of persistence and graduation. In this study, we leverage student-level transcript data from a high enrollment, broad-access university to examine the influence of math swirling on underserved students’ academic outcomes within high-demand STEM degree programs. We find that math swirling is positively related to persistence to upper-division math courses and bachelor’s degree completion in non-STEM degree programs, but math swirling has no influence on students' likelihood of bachelor’s degree completion in high-demand STEM fields.
 
Comparison of the kernel density estimates in NEPS for the outcome variable Gross Income
Log Normal Models predicting: Monthly Gross Income in 100 Euro – NEPS. Note: Reference category for Training Qualification is Bachelor; Reference category for University is University of applied sciences; Reference category for fields of study is Linguistics and Cultural Studies; Reference category for the educational level of father/mother is low and intermediate secondary school certificate; 89% highest posterior density intervals are presented; See Table 2 for the intercepts and family specific parameters
Research estimating the outcomes of higher education in Germany has widely ignored the private educational sector. This study focuses on labour market returns in terms of the income of graduates from private higher education institutions in Germany. Using data from the National Education Panel Study (NEPS) the results of the Bayesian regression analysis indicate a moderate wage premium for private students compared to students who are enrolled in public higher education institutions regarding the first employment. Despite the predominant role of public universities in Germany, graduates of private higher education institutions receive similar advantages on the labour market as their counterparts in other countries, although private education in other countries is more prestigious.
 
Conceptual model for the role of social class on timely bachelor’s degree completion. Expected relationships are marked positive (+) or negative (−). Timely first enrollment and course load mediate the social class effect on timely degree completion. Timely first enrollment is defined as matriculating with a full course load during the same calendar year as high school graduation, while timely degree completion occurs by the fifth calendar year from first full-time enrollment.
Cox regression failure functions for college pathway milestones. Top row (panels a, c, e, g) = first full-time enrollment risk for full analytic sample (n = 3388); bottom row (panels b, d, f, h) = bachelor’s degree completion risk for all full-time enrollees (n = 1899). Panels a and b show the cumulative proportions of milestone achievement for the unstratified sample. Panels c–h show the same for the sample stratified by parental education level, tercile of household net worth in 1997, and household structure, respectively. Vertical dashed lines in panels a and b indicate the number of years until half of the sample enrolled. All results are based on data conditioned for sex and self-rated health in 1997, reweighted using custom NLSY97 person-weights for the 1998–2011 observation window.
Although the positive relationship between social determinants and college attainment is well established, less is known about how social class specifically relates to the linear and timely completion of postsecondary degrees. In this paper, we empirically examine on-time completion of bachelor’s degrees using social class proxies for a national sample of U.S. high school graduates, using the life course perspective and social selection hypothesis to contextualize social effects on the two key transitions—timely full-time enrollment and timely degree completion—that bound the traditional 4-year college pathway. We find strongly positive associations between several social indicators and attainment of both transition events, although effects are larger and more numerous for the initial transition, indicating social selection may be more influential in launching the 4-year college pathway than in completing it. Gradients of social advantage also appear more complexly gendered and racialized at the start of the college pathway than at the end. Finally, we confirm that parenthood is highly incompatible with a 4-year path to a degree regardless of social class and conspicuously more likely to interfere with the timely completion of a bachelor’s degree than other major life transitions.
 
EIOp in tertiary education: variation from 2005 to 2011
EIOp and GDP per capita. Blue bullets refer to the observation in 2005, red bullets refer to the observation in 2011
Inequality of opportunity in tertiary education and inequality of opportunity in income, 2005 and 2011. Blue bullets refer to the observation in 2005, red bullets refer to the observation in 2011
This study provides comparable lower-bound estimates of inequality of opportunity for tertiary education (EIOp) for 31 countries in Europe, by using the two EU-SILC waves for which information on family background is available (2005 and 2011). The results reveal an important degree of heterogeneity, with Northern European countries showing low levels of inequality of opportunity and Mediterranean and Eastern European countries characterized by significant degrees of unfair educational inequalities. Parental education and occupation are the most relevant circumstances in the great majority of the countries considered. This study also exploits the two point-in-time observations available and analyses the relationship between some country-specific characteristics and inequality of opportunity in tertiary education. The analysis documents a negative association between EIOp and real GDP per capita, possibly indicating that higher equality of opportunity in tertiary education and economic growth are complementary objectives. Two results emerge as especially robust: in all the specifications we find a positive association between EIOp and the students/teacher ratio, and a negative one between EIOp and public spending in tertiary education. While we do not claim that such correlations should be interpreted causally, we think that they might indicate a meaningful underlying relationship between equality of opportunity in tertiary education and the availability of financial and non-financial resources.
 
Conceptual model predicting transfer and withdrawal from bachelor’s granting institutions
This study models reverse transfer, lateral transfer, and college withdrawal behavior for a national sample of students who began college at bachelor’s granting institutions. Descriptive data illustrate statistical differences in the characteristics, habitus, early college experiences and supports, and institutional characteristics of students who do not transfer when compared to students who reverse transfer, laterally transfer, or drop out before the third year of college. Additionally, multi-level regression findings advance theoretical understanding of the ways in which predictors of reverse transfer, lateral transfer, and withdrawal from bachelor’s granting institutions are both similar and different. Implications for research, theory, and practice are offered.
 
Density checks and McCrary density test. Notes: Test scores are standardized for each cohort to a mean of zero and a variance of 1. The McCrary density test combines cohorts 2010 through 2014. Sample includes first-time Duoc UC students with a math diagnostic test score at any of the 16 Duoc UC campuses between Fall 2010 and Fall 2014 in the Business & Administration, Engineering, and Informatics & Telecommunications departments
Predicted probability of enrollment in a corequisite math course
Graphical representation of RD results
For countries concerned about equity and access to higher education, providing support services for academically underprepared students is critical to increasing their probabilities of success. Corequisite math courses provide opportunities for underprepared students to develop their basic math skills through simultaneous enrollment in college-level and developmental courses. However, adding the additional developmental course also increases students’ academic workload, potentially impeding their progress early in their college journey. Our study explores the effects of being assigned to this additional developmental math class at one of the largest technical colleges in Chile. Few remedial studies have examined the effects of corequisite courses in the technical college context, either in the United States or abroad. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find that for students attending a technical college and scoring close to the cutoff on a standardized mathematics placement exam, being assigned to a corequisite math course increases the grades in their college-level math course and marginally decreases their likelihood of withdrawing during the first semester, compared to students assigned to a single college-level math course. The effects on credits earned and first semester grades are driven by those pursuing less advanced technical degrees.
 
Mean retention rates at community colleges, 2004–2017 (Source: IPEDS). Figure created using MS Excel
Distribution of retention rates at community colleges in 2004 and 2017. Source: IPEDS. Figure created using Stata
Distribution of change in retention rates at community colleges between 2004 and 2017. Source: IPEDS. Figure created using Stata
Community colleges have been under pressure for years to improve retention rates. Considering well-publicized reductions in state funding during and after the Great Recession, progress in this area is unexpected. And yet this is precisely what we find. Using the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), we find an average increase in retention of nearly 5 percentage points, or 9 percent, across the sector from 2004 to 2017. Over 70% of institutions posted retention gains, and average improvement occurred yearly over the period excepting a reversal at the height of the Great Recession. Gains were smaller on average at schools with higher tuition and that serve more disadvantaged populations, and larger at institutions with lower student-faculty ratios and higher per-student instructional spending. Fixed-effects regression and Oaxaca decomposition analyses demonstrate that these gains were not caused by observable changes in student body composition or in institutional characteristics such as increased per-student instructional spending.
 
Conceptual model of the leadership labyrinth.
Adapted from Leadership Theory and Practice, by P. G. Northouse, 2016, 7th ed., Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publishing, p. 400
Love plot of covariate balance before and after matching
Kernel densities of probability of participating in ECMT before and after matching
While gender diversity in leadership has been shown to benefit organizations and promote innovations, women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions in the industry sector. With increasing numbers of women pursuing PhDs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, it is critical to examine how PhD programs contribute to the career paths of PhDs. This study examines the role of doctoral education preparation in communication, management, and technical skills, as well as post-PhD early career management training (ECMT), on PhDs’ attainment of leadership positions in industry. Data come from the National Science Foundation Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Science Foundation Survey of Earned Doctorates, and National Research Council Rankings of PhD programs. Using regression analyses, results indicate that ECMT is associated with a higher likelihood of attainment of leadership positions. PhD preparation in management skills also contributes to the attainment of leadership positions. Previous literature has shown that structural inequities and workplace bias contribute to limiting women’s progress to leadership positions and that it is critical to address systemic and workplace biases. Research findings suggest that PhD program preparation and increased access to professional development opportunities can help contribute to the enhancement of women’s pathways to leadership roles. Structural changes in doctoral education preparation in management skills and increases in ECMT opportunities offered by employers also have the potential to increase the participation of STEM PhDs in leadership roles in industry.
 
AP exam cost-sharing in the 2018–2019 academic year. Notes the “Gap Remaining” is the difference between the total cost of the exam and expected subsidies from College Board and Michigan. Included in “Gap Remaining” are the state-stipulated $5 student contribution and a $9 College Board rebate schools forgo for subsidized students. Contribution information from Information about the Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Reduction Grant for 2018–2019 School Year by Michigan Department of Education, 2018 (https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/AP_Test_Fees_636911_7.pdf) and Exam Fees by College Board (https://apstudents.collegeboard.org/exam-policies-guidelines/exam-fees)
As part of their strategies to increase college readiness and reduce educational inequalities, at least 29 states subsidize Advanced Placement (AP) exam fees for low-income students. However, while Michigan’s state-level policy subsidized low-income student exams to $5 per exam, we found wide-ranging fee structures at high schools—from $0 to $50. Through a lens of policy implementation theory and using an embedded case study approach, this study examined this disjuncture between the state and school policies using interview data from 33 school personnel—counselors, AP Coordinators, administrators—in 31 high schools and state personnel in Michigan; state policy artifacts; and publicly available school data. We identified three major challenges—many schools hedged and set higher fees because they were unsure how much the legislature would approve each year; the state subsidy did not account for additional exam costs (e.g., exam proctors) that were passed down to the student; and the policy as written lacked enforceability and accountability. Policymakers were largely unaware of the amount schools ultimately charged low-income students. In the presence of an ambiguous policy and constrained resources, school personnel relied on their personal perspectives on fees and behavior (e.g., the need to reduce moral hazard and increase “skin in the game”) to rationalize low-income students fees. Together, these findings help explain how low-income students pay vastly different AP exam fees depending on the high school they attend in Michigan—with some schools severely impeding low-income students’ college preparatory opportunities.
 
This paper investigates the effect of university prestige stratification on scholars’ career achievements. We focus on 766 STEM PhD graduates hired by Mexican universities between 1992 and 2016. We rank university according to their prestige based on the pairwise assessment of quality contained in the PhD hiring networks. Further, we use a quasi-experimental design matching pairs of individuals with the same characteristics, PhD training or first job experience. Our results challenge the positive association between prestige and academic performance as predicted by the ‘Matthew effect’. Scholars hired internally sustain higher performance over their careers in comparison to those who move up or down the prestige hierarchy. Further, we find a positive (negative) relation between downward (upward) prestige mobility and performance that relates to the “big-fish-little-pond” effect (BFLPE). The evidence of a BFLPE-like effect has policy implications because hinders the knowledge flows throughout the science system and individual achievements.
 
This research explored the role of a hub of innovation in spreading changes that support at-promise (low-income, first-generation, racially minoritized) students from smaller programs to the broader campus environment. The study has several important insights, including the ability of a hub to spread innovations, supportive mechanisms that can assist in knowledge transfer from the hub to the overall campus, and the ways these support mechanisms can overcome the isolation that typically plagues hubs and have long made them less successful models for innovation.
 
Top-cited authors
Victor M. H. Borden
  • Indiana University Bloomington
Josipa Roksa
  • University of Virginia
Stephen L. DesJardins
  • University of Michigan
Hugo Horta
  • The University of Hong Kong
João M. Santos
  • ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa