Reviews Asian government's policies for achieving more balanced urban development. It first assesses the two major strategies that have dominated Asian urban development policies since the 1950s (urban and metropolitan growth control and urban diffusion) and then describes issues that are likely to shape urbanization policies during the 90s. There is a comment by M. Douglas on pp 52-59. -from Author
Discusses the analytical problem of assessing the impacts of mobility patterns on settlement systems, and provides a general framework for qualitative impact assessment of spatial policies in developing countries. After a critical discussion of some prevailing paradigms in this field, proposes a multidimensional profile approach for estimating in a coherent way by means of a systems approach the direct and indirect effects of public policies in a regional or urban setting. Special attention is given to the poor data base in many countries. To tackle this problem, proposes using a so-called qualitative impact analysis. -from Editor
"In this article, the general arguments about population redistribution are discussed within the context of [Pacific island nations]....A review of circular and permanent population movements in the Pacific Basin reveals the complexity of the networks of relations of multilocal people....A range of possible population policies to accomodate and correct migration problems is discussed. An analysis of the national development plans of Fiji, Kiribati, and the Solomon Islands illustrates the need for sustainable development and population redistribution policies which explicitly address: (a) nation-building with regional equity; (b) population growth control and native supremacy; and (c) population redistribution with ecological sustainability." Comments are included by A. Crosbie Walsh (pp. 102-6) and Antony J. Dolman (pp. 107-11).
"After briefly reviewing China's development strategy in the post-1949 period, this article describes the policies and programmes adopted by the Chinese government for controlling internal migration. The effects of those policies and programmes on total migration rates, rural-to-urban migration, interregional migration, interprovincial migration, and population distribution among cities of different size are also assessed. The increasing number of temporary migrants, including China's 'floating population,' will be examined as well, together with recent policy changes in population migration and movement." A comment by Lawrence J. C. Ma is included (pp. 188-91).
This article sets forth the hypothesis that lending forceful support to small rural settlements can become a fundamental means to redefining regional development, and thus to alleviating many of the acute problems facing today's cities. Identifying the role that rural settlements can play in population distribution and significantly raising the quality of life in Colombia is the result of more than twenty urban development and master plans in several regions of the country over a period of 15 yr. The cost studies and budgets developed as part of three case studies of physical development plans show that, per capita, it is considerably more cost-efficient to solve problems related to utilities, roadways, and housing in corregimientos and small towns than it is in large cities such as Cali. There is a comment on this article by J. Silas and R. Waterson on pp 81-84. -Author
Argues that past attempts to promote growth in small and intermediate-sized cities (SICs) have not been successful because they have lacked commitment, have been spread too thinly, and have lacked adequate time horizons. Neoclassical perspectives tend to regard the distribution of cities and towns that exists as optimal for the time and for the phase of national development, but large cities can become too big from both the economic and management viewpoints. There is a comment by P.M. Townroe, pp 77-79. -from Editor
"This article is divided into three sections. The first section analyses the transformation of Italy and other Southern European countries from nations of emigrants to nations of immigrants. In the second section, the volume and characteristics of immigration to Southern Europe are analysed in an attempt to point out, given the context of national characteristics, the similarities in the phenomenon of non-European migration. In the third section, an attempt is made to analyse the role played in the labour market by migrants from developing countries and to present evidence of the expansion of the underground Italian economy." Comments by R. Magni are included (pp. 113-4).
Comprises an account of population flows in and out of Japan, especially since WWII, which provides a reminder that, like many European countries, Japan was once a relatively poor, labour-exporting country. Currently there is a national shortage of labour (particularly unskilled labour), and Japan attracts legal and illegal workers from many countries as a result of wage levels many times higher than those of most developing Asian countries. The paper presents background information on the causes of recent increases in international migration, and draws demographic projections for the foreign populations of Japan. There are comments on the article by S. Hirashima and Y.-B. Park on pp 49-52. -P.Hardiman
First distinguishes between urban growth, urbanisation and urban structure, and then discusses structural economic change and its effects on population distribution, regional development and urbanisation policy. The main mechanism is the shift of labour out of agriculture, but the author argues that this does not necessarily lead to a rise in urbanisation. SE Asian countries should not try to hold back urbanisation, but should instead try to diversify employment in rural areas, and to control the pattern, rather than the level, of urbanisation. There is a comment by E.M. Pernia, pp 19- 22. -M.Amos
France, which has always extended itself towards the labour and dynamism of foreigners, conducts a decidedly ambiguous immigration policy. Even though immigration flows have accounted for nearly one-third of overall demographic growth in France between 1955 and 1980. France has never defined itself as a country of immigration. In recent years, France has experienced much repugnance when it has been compelled to explain its policies towards immigration and, more particularly, towards the immigrants residing on its territory. In fact, French immigration policy revolves around what is left unsaid and consists in accepting and, at times, encouraging migration without ever quite making it public. The French system of acquisition of citizenship is undoubtedly among the most open in the entire world. More than 100 000 foreigners acquire French citizenship each year. This implicit system, specific to France, has over the course of a century proven its integrative efficiency time and again. But at certain periods it does not work well; this is especially the case when, disoriented by internal and external events, French public opinion relinquishes all understanding of the rules of the game. -from Author
Presents a critical discussion of four major theoretical contributions to migration literature: the socioeconomic approach, the rural development approach, the sexually selective nature of migration flows, and the primary event approach. Shows the restricted validity of these theories for explaining migration patterns in Bangladesh. Concludes with a plea for a broader migration analysis in developing countries. Comments by J.Ledent and others.-from Editor
The author provides a brief overview of current international migration trends. Aspects considered include economic motives for migration, refugee migration, migration policies and human rights, and political factors. Comments by Jean-Yves Carlier are included (pp. 192-3).
Suggests that Japan's early experience with rapid urbanization may well provide useful insights for analysing and evaluating the urbanization process in other Asian countries. The rapid economic growth that began in about 1957 was made possible by concentrating and accumulating population and industries in a few urban areas, principally the large metropolitan zones of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. However, this phenomenon polarized Japan into one part that was densely crowded and another that was heavily depopulated. As early as 1962, the government recognized that excessive concentration of population and economic activity in large cities should be discouraged, and that a more balanced pattern of regional development should be promoted. It is too early to know what recent patterns imply for the future of population distribution within Japan, but in any case there seems to have been a shift in the nature of urbanization from a large-city oriented pattern to a medium-sized city oriented pattern. The Fourth Comprehensive National Development Plan, adopted in 1987, emphasizes the idea of integrated residence and environmental protection and aims at the development of smaller local communities through communication with large metropolitan centres. -from Editor
Rapid urbanization and industrialization over a relatively short period of time have had significant effects on the national settlement system: a high degree of concentration of population and economic activities into a few large cities, and an absolute decline in the rural population. Polarized urbanization and cityward migration widened the disparities between the urban and rural areas as well as among regions and social groups. Recognizing these serious problems of imbalances, the Korean government has attempted to alleviate the disparities through various policy efforts since the early 1960s. However the author argues that the population dispersal policies seem to have been neither appropriate nor feasible, although experience gained from the process of trial and error during the 1960s and 1970s constitute valuable lessons for formulating spatial policies in the decade to come. There is a comment by R. Mahidhara, pp 152-158. -from Author
The importance of treating urban populations as heterogeneous when making national population forecasts is the main theme of this paper. "It hypothesizes that large metropolitan areas exhibit specific patterns of migration, age composition, and fertility when compared with urban areas as a whole. In particular, such areas are characterized by relatively low levels of reproduction." The impact of the urbanization process on demographic change at the national level is emphasized. The authors examine the demographic structure of large metropolitan areas in highly urbanized countries and present comparisons with the structure of the total urban population. They then focus on the case of a developing country, the Republic of Korea, for which alternative patterns of urban development are considered. Issues concerning policies of urbanization and population redistribution are also discussed. Comments by T. R. Lakshmanan (pp. 39-41) and Ahmed Seifelnasr (pp. 42-3) are also included.
This article examines problems related to population growth and distribution, rapid urbanization, housing problems, and squatter settlements in Pakistan. It also considers policy implications of rapid urbanization and squatter settlement growth. The author estimates that by the year 2000, about 150 million people will be living in Pakistan, with almost half living in urban areas. The urban environment will be heavily overcrowded, with sprawling suburbs in every city. Squatter settlement policies and programmes need to be explicitly examined in the context of overall national resource allocation and development programmes. -from Author
Discusses five sets of issues relevant to NGO's contribution and strategic issues for NGOs' future development. Identifies three characteristics of current NGO growth: expansion of their numbers and constituencies; broadening functions; and more complex internal institutional structures. Deals with international resource transfer through NGOs for development purposes. Also discusses the nature, functions and types of NGOs vis-a-vis the local government and the state; analyzes the main patterns of NGO strengths and weaknesses in working for local development; discusses how international and bilateral development agencies can work with NGOs and strengthen their role, in light of the World Bank's recent experiences in cooperating with them; and outlines two strategic issues for furthur NGOs development: organizational build-up and the need for favorable policy and administrative environments. -from Author
Attempts to look at the Indian experience in order to draw lessons from it which could help identify some new policy directions. The main message being conveyed is that it is not sufficient to base a strategy for the alleviation of poverty and unemployment merely on urban and industrial centres but it is necessary to also include agriculture and the rural areas in the hinterlands of such centres since agricultural and rural areas can be the engines of growth and the basis of a new strategy for developing the overall regional economy. Comment by M.M.Karunanayake. -from Author
The country-specific training project for Lao People's Democratic Republic (hereinafter, Lao PDR), described in this article, originated from a proposal submitted by a group of officials from the State Planning Committee (SPC) who were alumni of the International Training Course in Regional Development (ITC) held annually by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan.1√ During a technical workshop, held jointly by UNCRD and the SPC in 1998 to commence a country-specific training project, a series of alternative training schemes was considered,2√ and eventually training-of-trainers (TOT) in provincial development planning and management was recommended as the focus of the project. The country-specific training project links the broad-based ITC with a series of complementary, more specialized, in-country programmes focusing on TOT.3√ This strategy is considered sustainable by virtue of its low cost and substantial multiplier effect as a result of reduced dependence on external technical assistance for training and the identification of appropriate capacity-building for local development needs. This article is divided into three sections. The first section presents the development context of Lao PDR and the changing planning tasks. Section two describes elements of the training strategy adopted by UNCRD, namely, training needs assessment (TNA), training curriculum development, and conduct of training workshops. The third and final section of the article reflects on the experience of training for provincial planning in Lao PDR to date, and identifies key issues central to achieving sustainable planning capacity.
The article begins with a discussion of broad trends in the environment and economy of Ghana over the past three decades, with particular reference to timber extraction and agriculture. This discussion serves to contextualize the events described within the specific research context. Following this discussion, a description is provided of the research context, and the environmental and economic changes taking place therein, to flesh out this migration not as the result of monolithic changes forcing residents to move, but as the result of a heterogeneous population making decisions based upon socially-situated strategies of negotiating the climate of uncertainty caused by these changes. Further, this migration is demonstrated as constituting part of a cycle of migration that also directly involves the urban-to-rural migration of actors living in urban areas more than 70 km away from the immediate research context. Following the description of this migration cycle, the article turns to the potential future ramifications of this cycle, including suggestions for ways to create a less uncertain environment which is likely to give the remaining residents of the area a chance to maintain their life-styles and homes in the future.
The article describes how an earthquake hit Sichuan Province, China, on May 12, 2008, claiming the lives of 69,227 people, with a further 17,923 reported as missing, and 374,643 injured. The earthquake left roughly 4.8 million people homeless. Apart from providing relief to disaster affected communities, the pilot project in Sichuan aimed to test and raise awareness of prefabricated engineered bamboo houses potential suitability as transitional shelters for disaster affected communities. The project received funding from the United Nations Common Fund for Commodities (UNCFC). The shelters produced through this project used light steel frames as load-bearing components, with bamboo-base panels as building enclosures, such as walls and roofs. All shelters were installed with the security door and two plastic steel-framed windows. In addition, one dedicated shelter unit within the shelter settlements was established to serve as a communal kitchen.
Possible ways to solve the problems of waste and resource inefficiency are through integrated approaches to waste and resource management based on the 3R. Two examples of these include integrated solid waste management (ISWM) and integrated water resource management (IWRM). The 3R is a process to minimize waste and the use of natural resources. Reduce calls for the reduction of waste by avoiding its generation both upstream and downstream, and by using items until the end of their life cycle. Water is no longer an abundant natural resource. Many countries have already felt the negative effects of water scarcity, and it is predicted that the situation will become increasingly dire as a result of climate change. The Regional 3R Forum in Asia is a joint initiative of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan and the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD).
Provides the case study of Metro Manila, in which three cities, viz., Quezon, Caloocan, and Pasay, and the municipality of Marikina have been selected for investigation. A sample of 120 urban poor households was employed to carry out the study of linkage patterns. The study reveals that because of the small and home-based nature of most of the poor enterprises, consumer linkages between the poor and the rich are not as strong as might be expected. Limited access to the capital market and a hostile working environment are other constraining factors to growth. However, production linkages prove to be strong between the FS and the IFS in recycling, food processing, and repair and construction services. They have been identified as worthy of further development. Technology assistance is also suggested as another lever for livelihood enhancement of the poor. Comment by Gonzalo M. Jurado. -Authors
Examines the pattern of linkages in the consumption and production activities of the urban poor in Metropolitan Dhaka. This is attempted within a broad framework of a research project on increasing the absorptive capacity of the urban economy of major cities in South and Southeast Asia. The main objectives of this study are to: (a) generate more information on the nature of the economic linkages between the poor and the rich/middle-income households in the city; (b) examine the activities of the poor as producers/entrepreneurs in terms of those linkages; and (c) study the status of the urban poor vis-a-vis development planning at the national or city level, and the role of city-level authorities and NGOs in employment and income-generating activities for the poor. Comment by A.T.M. Nurul Amin. -from Authors
The work of the Mahaweli Development Programme based on this Master Plan commenced in 1972, with the objectives of overcoming three major problems, namely, unemployment, constraints on balance of payments arising from large imports of food, and a shortage of power for industrial development and rural electrification. Its early success level is indicative of its potential to increase family incomes and the social status of the beneficiaries who were all of very low income levels when they were initially inducted into the project area. In this sense, the success of a settlement project should be primarily judged from the margin of the overall progress among beneficiaries in relation to their initial background rather than from the absolute return to investment on the project. There are comments by T.Scudder. -from Author
What can city planners and managers do to tackle the twin, but sometimes conflicting, goals: increase land supply for housing, particularly for the urban poor; and reorganize the spatial patterns of land use and activities of rapidly growing megacities in an economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable way? An important contribution which managers/planners can and should make would be research work on historical policy analysis, contemporary policy analysis, and land market analysis. This work should be operational in focus with a view to improving urban land policy-making and administrative practices and procedures. -from Authors
Addresses the problem of access to public services for the urban poor in developing countries and deals with the socioeconomic constraints which affect access. A case study in Singapore assessed the socioeconomic characteristics of Housing and Development Board flat tenants and their degree of satisfaction with respect to a number of physical, social, and economic conditions. Concludes with a discussion on a conceptual framework for the analysis of the problem of access. Comments by Yue-man Yeung and two others. - after Author
Community-based resource management (CBRM) has been gaining popularity as a welcome alternative to solving problems and difficulties arising from the overexploitation and conservation of natural resources. It is believed that CBRM is a viable strategy for achieving the goals of sustainable development. This article is an attempt to clarify the concept of CBRM - its elements, preconditions, and underlying assumptions to aid planners, academicians, decision makers, and development workers in considering the prospects of CBRM for sustainable development. Illustrative cases are presented to provide lessons and insights that may be useful for planning and policy analysis. -from Author
In this article, human security is assumed to be a condition that overcomes vulnerability by creating the ability to withstand threats such as disease, hunger, unemployment, crime, social conflict, political repression, and environmental hazards. Threats to human security are economic, ecological, social, and political, and they can occur as "sudden shocks, long-term trends, or seasonal cycles". The objectives of this article are to analyse human security improvements for the urban poor in terms of tenurial and environmental security, community security, and political security. In doing so, the factors contributing to, and constraining, the successful implementation of human security-related programmes are identified. This article is divided into three sections. The first presents a profile of urban poverty in Naga City. Section two describes the programme achievements and constraints from the viewpoint of human security for the urban poor. The third and final section of the article reiterates the factors contributing to achieving human security for the urban poor in Naga City.
The bulk of the article consists of projects implemented with a view to illustrating some of the measures available to improve disaster mitigation and prevention. Out of the chaos of the disasters discussed in this volume, some of the key issues emerge to be considered in developing a strategy for disaster prevention and reconstruction. Some of the examples show that disasters provide an opportunity for governments to use their emergency powers to acquire land, develop it, and improve settlements structures, as well as to raise the housing conditions of the poor by training them in disaster-resistant construction methods. In this way, the after-impact effects of the disaster do not have to be catastrophic. On the contrary, the disaster can become an agent for change, leading eventually, to improved human settlements. Comments by Ian Davis. -from Author
Bangkok, the capital of Thailand and its major economic centre, has been expanding since the 1960s. With economic growth and increasing urban population, the urban poor in Bangkok have been facing severe problems related to eviction, inadequate infrastructure, and unstable income. In order to alleviate these critical issues, the participatory and community-driven approach for community development through savings and credit activities has been widely applied in Thailand. In this article, a profile of the urban poor in Bangkok is first presented. Second, slum improvement projects undertaken in Bangkok are highlighted. Following this, the Urban Community Development Office (UCDO), the cross-sectoral driving force behind community development activities in Thailand, is introduced with particular attention being paid to its policy of loan service extension to low-income communities. Finally, in the concluding section, the key success factors and constraints to UCDO's policy and management are highlighted and recommendations for future prospects are provided.
Five main models of achieving social and economic development are readily distinguishable. This article reviews each of them briefly to indicate the range of competing choices available in modern societies. There are additional comments by D.Conyers. -from Author
Analyses the process of strategic areal development planning in Milan, which has become a substitute for traditional general planning there. This strategy tries to involve a variety of public and private agencies to concur with mutually-agreed individual goals. This process, into which a bewildering variety of new organizations has recently become involved, claims to be able to design, finance, and implement various innovative projects. The Milan experience is interesting because it seems to have parallels in other cities, and may become a general model for large-scale development and redevelopment in the 1990s. The question must be whether this meets wider community goals. Mike Douglass comments on Crosta's article, pp 181-184. -from Editor
Climate change and climate-related disasters add to the challenges already faced by cities and are recognized as one of the most serious environmental, societal and economic challenges facing the world today. Cities consume as much as 80 per cent of energy production worldwide and urban areas currently account for over 71 per cent of energy-related global greenhouse gases (GHG). Climate change adds to the existing challenges faced by cities. Climate change, together with a decrease in absorption capacity of GHGs owing to the reduction in the amount of green cover, parks, trees and agricultural surfaces in urban areas, poses serious threats to urban infrastructure, access to basic services and quality of life in cities and negatively affects the urban economy. Climate change is also aggravating the urban heat is day temperatures in built up areas owing to human and air of heat by buildings and pavements.
Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga focuses on challenges with climate change adaptation in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Flooding is a major problem in most informal settlements in Nairobi. Many long-term inhabitants of slums, such as Mabatini in Mathare, state that floods now occur in places where they did not two decades ago. Climate change has increased the vulnerability of the urban poor living in Nairobi's informal settlements. Already they are forced to live in hazardous places. Many build their homes and grow their food on river flood plains and on steep, unstable hillsides. Provision and maintenance of infrastructure has been a major problem, especially within the low-income urban settlements. The urban poor and slumdwellers in Nairobi are the ones who suffer most from lack of piped water supply. Environmental immigrants from climate-related droughts and floods are already swelling the tide of rural-to-urban migration in Nairobi slums.
Uganda has witnessed implementation of its extensive decentralization program for reformation of local government system in a fundamental way. Several modifications in the programs structures, systems, and processes are also made to achieve the decentralization program. The program can also lead to fundamental transformation of local development, with limited resources, in strong and dedicated leadership with proper participation of the local population. Uganda's decentralization is based on devolution of powers, functions and responsibilities to popularly elected local governments. A clear understanding, determination, and willingness on the part of the political and technocratic leaders are required to develop the right policies, structures, institutions and systems. The citizens of Uganda must be empowered to participate effectively in local development and safeguards must be maintained for proper utilization of powers and resources in an accountable and transparent manner. The central government of Uganda must also strengthen itself to provide local government with effective oversight, guidance and support.
In most of Africa, postindependence development policy was, prior to structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), formulated through a statist ideological framework and implemented generally by crisis and experimentation. This produced disastrous results. Among other things, the balance of payments weakened, agricultural productivity declined, budget deficits soared, the external debt burden became heavier, poverty, unemployment and socioeconomic inequalities increased, the physical infrastracture deteriorated, environmental degradation expanded, political and civil strife worsened, and corruption became much more rampant. These disastrous development results were, in turn, the catalyst behind the deepening economic crisis in Africa and, consequently, provided the imperative for policy reform in these countries. Incidentally, the impact of that economic crisis was so devastating that the 1980s are now correctly referred to in the literature as 'Africa's Lost Decade. One analyst has even gone further by arguing that the '...the first three decades of African independence have been an economic, political and social disaster.' This economic deterioration at the national level, and the ensuing human economic deprivation, resulted in the emergence of policy reform which was dominated by donor-sponsored SAPs. Despite the fact that SAPs have had mixed results, they have been successful, for the most part, in restructuring and liberalizing African economies. Consequently, as we approach the twenty-first century, it is now possible to talk of economic recovery as a number of performance indicators have been showing positive upturns in Africa since the early 1990s. In other words, performance is most definitely responding to policy reforms. This article reviews the positive economic recovery impact of SAPs in Africa and analyses development prospects and policy for the continent in the post-SAP era beyond 2000.
Focuses on five key issues which ramifications need to be highlighted and discussed as a necessary prelude to considering the principles and mechanics for bringing about more efficient and equitable land development administration through more appropriate institutional and legal arrangements. The five issues are: attitudes regarding land derived from historical, cultural, religious, and legal circumstances; the structure, functions, and roles of government institutions in relation to the administration of land development; procedures for land transfer, for permission needed before developing land, and for public acquisition and development of land; the role of the private sector in land development administration; and the overall role of the law. The overwhelming issue is now to overcome the inertia and conservatism of officials who feel safe continuing to do what they have always done and threatened when asked or required to do something different. What is needed in the future is a slimmed down system, designed to focus on the essentials and that allows a much greater degree of freedom for people to develop their land as they wish, subject only to overriding environmental and safety requirements. There is a comment on pp 33-34. -from Author
Explores the ability to meet basic needs, without working very hard and without using all available land, presenting an opportunity for relatively painless investment if incentives are adequate. Underlines the fact that the prospects for remaining within the subsistence affluence orbit varies a good deal from country to country. Gives a detailed comparative analysis of the current situation in different SINs (small island nations), with respect to their capacity to absorb further population into more or less traditional agriculture, fishing, and forestry. Suggests a classification into four categories or stages of development, progressively less self-sufficient and more dependent on a monetized market. -from Editors
A. C. Mosha discusses how natural factors such as continental drift, volcanoes, and ocean currents causes of climate change. Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. Spanning about 30.2 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6 per cent of the earth's total surface area and 20.4 per cent of the total land area. Climatologists posit that as a result of these emissions and other climatic factors, the continent's temperatures have been rising, leading to greater warming trends. Coupled with the rise in temperature there has been a significant fall in precipitation, varying from one side of the continent to the other. Observed precipitation changes have been complex. Rainfall exhibits notable spatial and temporal variability. Increased morbidity and mortality in sub-regions where vector-borne and water- borne diseases increase following climate changes would have far-reaching economic consequences.
The article focuses on the impact of climate change on food security in Africa. Climate change poses a major threat which mankind needs to address more emphatically. There is a compelling scientific consensus that human activity is changing the world's climate. The evidence that climate change is happening, and that man-made emissions are its main cause, is strong and indisputable. It is now recognized that Africa will face some degree of climate change impacts over the next 50 years to 80 years. Estimates indicate that one third of Africans already live in drought-prone areas and 220 million are exposed to drought each year. Many factors contribute and compound the impacts of current climate variability in Africa and will have negative effects on the continent's ability to cope with climate change. The region is also hardest hit by extreme poverty, accounting for 75 per cent of people worldwide that live on $1 per day.
Examines the growth and distribution of urban population and the evolution of spatial urban development policies in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania during the 20th Century. In all three countries secondary urban centres are now growing faster than primate cities; this has been encouraged by urban development policies which have emphasized industrial and administrative decentralization, but such policies have been only partially successful and need to be strengthened. Part of an issue devoted to national urban policies. Concludes with comments by H.Rempel, K.L.Sharma and D.R.F.Taylor. -D.Conyers (CDS)
To achieve both short- and long-term involvement of local people in forestry management, different approaches and strategies have been designed. One of these is the community organizer (CO) approach which is being further developed by the Royal Forestry Department (RFD) in Thailand's Upland Social Forestry Pilot Project (TUSFP). The project has been implemented through a set of pilot projects in 11 villages in the north and northeast regions of the country. This article presents the role of the COs and the issues which arose during the first phase of the TUSFP (1987-89). Emphasis is given to the experience of one pilot project in Kalasin Province (northeast region), which implemented the "forest village' programme. The pilot project intended to test the use of the CO approach in this programme in which the operational field staff members of the RFD were assisted in securing the local people's participation in forestry activities. There is a comment on pp 94-95. -from Author
The diversity of experience of small-town growth has led to the development of a number of different theories and visions about the role played by small towns in development. In this article, these changing views and policy contexts of small towns in development are examined with reference to Africa. -from Author