Reflective Practice

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1470-1103
Publications
Article
This paper reports findings of a four-year investigation of changes in preservice teachers' reflection during their enrolment in the practicum component of their early childhood teacher education programme. Of the 18 participants, eight failed to become more reflective. Influences hindering their reflection included: (i) a lack of commitment to teaching; (ii) a lack of commitment to reflection; (iii) an epistemological perspective of received knowing; and (iv) a perception that the learning environment of their teacher education programme was unsupportive. The impact of these influences is illustrated through contrasting profiles of a pre-service teacher who did not become more reflective, and one who did. Possible implications for those involved in the preparation of prospective professionals are discussed.
 
Article
This paper is a reflective accounting of a collaboration between a mathematician, interested in the mathematics content being delivered in education courses, and a mathematics educator, eager to learn more mathematics in order to know what questions to ask her students to provoke their thinking. Two university professors from different disciplines describe a type of teaming between academics in which two teachers can have a profound effect on each other's teaching methodology without ever setting foot in each other's classrooms. The professors met regularly, out of class, to share their passion, pedagogy and content knowledge. As they reflect on the 'lessons learned' from this noninvasive collaboration model they discover that these metacognitive discussions led to dramatic and subtle changes in their teaching practices, as well as a refinement of their individual beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics.
 
Article
Within critical theory progressive relationships between reflection and action involve confronting contradictions within practice artistry from a dialectical view of practice as praxis and as the means whereby one can move in the direction of positive change or social transformation . Freire captures this idea of reflective praxis in his pedagogical approach to conscientization, a form of codification and the encouragement of human agency, but it is also a key feature of the work of Antonio Gramsci. Reflective praxis differs from activity in general as it is enacted through theory that is formulated on understandings of contextual (situated) practices. This is important because if or when theory and practice are separated they fall into a distorted one‐sidedness and if context is ignored the mode of existence, expression or internal organization of the content of action cannot be grasped in terms of its totality of relations and possible contradictions.
 
Article
The matters of mind are not easily solved. Even if most philosophers and educationalists of today are convinced of the wrongness of the dualistic theory articulated by Descartes (following a line with ontogenesis from Plato), it continues to infect discussions of learning and teaching, often in a subtle manner. The questions involved are multiple. For instance, questions concerning the relation between consciousness and control, the relation between desire and control, but also the question of how the categories `body' and `soul' function in language and in society. In this text the author uses the theoretical framework of Merleau-Ponty to discuss the `Cartesian ghost' of Ryle in the form it is revealed in Newman's analysis of Schön's reasoning and exemplifications of reflection-in-action.
 
Article
This article concerns the meanings that a sample of nurse teachers ascribed to the concepts of reflection and reflective practice as aspects of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. It represents one of the major findings in a qualitative study that set out to explore nurse teachers' perceptions and experiences of using reflection with diploma nursing students in the Republic of Ireland. Eleven nurse teachers were interviewed intensively, and data were analysed using a strategy resembling grounded theory. Two major themes were identified: reflection and reflective practice as a way of reviewing clinical experiences, and reflection and reflective practice as a way of valuing, developing and professionalising nursing practice knowledge. There was evidence that reflective practice was compartmentalised on nursing curricula, and some participants reported having limited knowledge of reflection. A number of participants alluded to the potential for reflective practice to uncover the hidden wealth of knowledge in everyday nursing practice. There appeared, however, to be a risk that this perceived wealth may be a conceptualisation of the teachers, rather than the students. Reflective learning through the affective domain was perceived as central to caring.
 
Article
The learning process in a professional education is characterized by the encounter between the student's own lifeworld and scientific knowledge in theory and in practice. Didactics is needed in order to be able to provide support for this meeting and create the conditions for a reflective process that strengthens the integration between the lifeworld and theoretical and practical knowledge. This paper presents an innovative research project where the aim was to develop a new didactic method in nursing education that makes it possible for the student to encounter both the theoretical caring science structure and the patient's lived experiences in his/her learning process. A reflective group supervision model for nursing students during clinical studies was developed and tested for the duration of two years. A teacher and a nurse led each group. The supervision started in patient narratives the students collected during their clinical practices and brought to the supervision sessions. The narratives were problematized and analysed in the supervision session using caring science terminology with the purpose of creating a unity of theory and lived experiences, thus developing a deeper understanding for the patient's situation and need. During the project, data were collected and analysed phenomenologically in order to develop knowledge of the students' reflection and learning when using the supervision model. The result shows that the students, with the help of this didactic method, have developed a better understanding of the patient and that they have had good use of the theoretical caring science in creating this understanding. They have learned to reflect more systematically and the examination has become more realistic to them as it is now carried out in a patient context. However, in order to reach these results some prerequisites are required. These can be summarized as the necessity of recognizing the students' lifeworld in the supervision process.
 
Article
Qualifying in 1987 I have worked as a youth and community worker for 12 years and since then as a lecturer training new workers within higher education. Throughout I have been interested in the process by which we become professional practitioners, specifically reflective practice. Whilst elsewhere practitioners/researchers describe and explore stages of development in, and levels of, reflective practice, in this paper I explore students reactions and responses to the process, best characterised as a ‘backlash' both to the notion and their experience of it. The paper follows my own process of reflective practice, an exploration of ‘calling' and ‘faith', ideas stimulated from listening to students. The process shows my inquiry into the roots of the backlash through an analysis of what students are asked to do within the process of reflective practice and stages of development of faith in it as a guiding principle to their work. This enabled me to develop a broader sense of the student reactions to the process of reflective practice and successfully change my own practice.
 
Article
To create and hold a space where people do reflective work is incredibly rewarding. It is a real privilege to bear witness to their emerging self-insight and growth. It can also be tedious, difficult and exhausting when faced with people's natural resistance to learning and self-discovery. Within organizations, people often approach change unwillingly, and reflection with some scepticism. This creates challenges for change agents where reflective spaces are used as catalysts for change. In this paper I want to share my experiences of creating and working with reflective spaces. I have called my role ‘the holder of the space' to reflect my relation to it, and have drawn on my experiences over a number of years of working with reflective practice to create a narrative that reveals the avalanche of thoughts and feelings that emerge in doing this work.
 
Article
Of all the factors that affect student learning, a student's desire to learn may be among the most significant. The quality of one's effort to learn and the persistence and striving a student exerts are determined by the student's aim and commitment to fully achieve the desired learning in a specific situation. This is learner intent. Students involved in this study had no difficulty speaking about their intent; in fact, their intent seems to be either predetermined habitually or situationally determined. In either case, reflective reasoning--thinking about one's learning effort and the quality of that learning--can be a catalyst in the formation of worthy intent. Without exception, all participants in this study regarded learning as a worthy endeavor. Still, students often lost their desire to learn when faced with deadlines and other conflicting intentions. When this happened, students tended to justify their decision. The quality of one's intent may depend on the source of one's reasoning. If learner intent is formed because of a fear of failure or a need to succeed, then the effort is often draining, and seldom will a student do more than the bare minimum to achieve their academic goals. In contrast, a learner whose intent comes from a passion to learn, a hope of enabling their abilities, or a love for the topic, generates energy and a desire to do more; it lifts, exhilarates, and can inspire an exceptional learning effort. This type of intent leads to expertise. Understanding learner intent and how it develops may provide valuable insights into how one should teach. This paper describes the results of a study involving learner intent and the need for reflection in the development of worthy learner intent. Both teachers and students can benefit from a better understanding of learner intent. Worthy learner intent is derived from honest reflection by students. Teachers can consciously attempt to help students become reflective practitioners. Such openness will lead, we believe, to a richer, more fulfilling experience for anyone who is committed to improving learning and teaching.
 
Article
This paper describes how international students engaged in the job interview process experience and then reflect on assumed roles as interviewee, interviewer and observer as part of a group learning exercise. In so doing, students learning a second language show they can effectively use this language to reflect on the process in which they are involved. Students on the General English course at Massey University English Language Centre, New Zealand, require constant opportunities to use their English skills in realistic, practical and authentic learning contexts. As adult learners, it is also beneficial that they develop self-monitoring skills and thus move towards greater learner autonomy. Prior to the role-plays, few students had experienced job interviews and were unaware of the social and ‘cultural' rituals involved. This paper reveals the steps involved in this experiential learning process and the fundamental part of learner reflection, both within, and following the experience—to bring about intended outcomes. The learning process with this group of students involves discussion, enactment/observation, and reflection-on-action within the group settings. The author found the initial reflections as interviewee–interviewer were subjective and often emotive, while student reflections as observer were more objective and impartial. Students claimed that the interview experience bolstered their self-confidence, enhanced group empathy, reinforced class cohesion and increased learner autonomy.
 
Article
This paper reports on a research project undertaken at Northern Health Service in Melbourne, Australia to explore how reflective practice groups could be used to help managers develop improved management skills. Reflective practice is an approach to management and organization development that integrates, or links, thought and action with reflection. The six reflective practice groups met regularly for six months and were assisted by an external facilitator. An evaluation of the impact of the meetings was undertaken via a series of focus groups and interviews. The findings of this evaluation suggest that there is a place for reflective practice groups as a way of developing managers in health service organizations (particularly their people management skills) and that those in organizations responsible for management development should consider including reflective practice activities as part of a strategic and systematic management development strategy.
 
Article
This paper is in response to Chak's paper Reflecting on the self: an experience in the preschool . In this paper, issues central to the nature of reflection (e.g., problem and time of reflection) are reconsidered as ways that help to question the manner in which Chak has conducted her reflective study. In so doing, the central issue is to find new ways of moving beyond reflection and so, the methodology of self-study is briefly explained and offered as a vehicle for creating ways of extending reflection in more rigorous and meaningful ways. The purpose of the methodology of self-study is in helping practitioners to better articulate the knowledge of practice at the heart of their work. Self-study then is important in creating ways of making knowledge development move beyond the individual to the professional community more generally.
 
Article
This paper traces the evolution of an academic community of practice and identifies the individual and collective outcomes of participation for the members. The impetus for the community was the joint development of a learning and teaching project grant application that aimed to improve teacher education in music curriculum, and the subsequent implementation of that project. The paper draws on a range of data sources including individual reflective journals, audio-records and transcriptions of meetings, email archives and discussion board posts of the project team members. The purpose of the paper is to illuminate and interrogate the processes and enabling conditions that supported the development of this academic community of practice, and consider the implications for academics. Yes Yes
 
Article
Research discourses are permeated by metaphors. As well, metaphors can be used to create new possibilities for action. In this paper, we describe our attempt to apply particular metaphors for writing research gleaned from our study of the research practices of 24 education researchers from Australia and North America. With reference to the metaphor: writing as a piano duet, for example, we explore the experience of writing side-by-side with each other for the first time. Our reflexive account not only deals with this writing experience, but also discusses potential benefits and shortcomings of this approach to writing and the application of metaphors to guide research practice. Writing in this way is indicative of the metaphor writing as research.
 
Article
A conventional understanding of reflective practice is that the accounts teachers give about their professional work are stable and exist in their memories waiting to be retold. This paper proposes, alternatively, that teachers' accounts are not fixed, but rather bound to particular methods of accounting. It is demonstrated how three specific methods of accounting, a teacher-generated picture book, an interview protocol, and a one-on-one interview with a researcher, are crucial in attempting (and succeeding) to position one teacher to account in a manner that moves from a personal to a post-personal or social justice focus. The design and use of different methods of accounting would most certainly produce an alternative account of professional practice.
 
Article
Teacher reflection on action has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. To appreciate the concept and its use, we should look at the key features of reflection on action (TRA) as identified in research and what teachers state is typical of reflection. In three other studies we have explored possible alignments among (1) what has been claimed (using 50 conceptual papers); (2) what has been disseminated to teachers (using 122 articles on teacher development); and (3) what has been described by teachers (analyzing 49 teacher accounts of reflection practices). As a result of this exploration, we found little empirical evidence for what has been stated in theoretical essays. The research‐based papers revealed that the studies conducted were not very relevant for key characteristics of TRA as identified by the theoretical papers. Furthermore, in attempting to gauge teachers’ reflections, the research does not really reflect what is advocated by models of reflection. These findings led us to conclude that the concept of teacher reflection on action is still very much in flux and may not be adopted as intended in programs of teacher professional development and teacher education.
 
Article
This paper outlines the use of activity theory and the third spaces created in developmental workshop research as appropriate methodologies for reflection and change. A single case is presented of the use of physical mapping, narratives and activity theory to promote collaborative reflection and learning on collaborative practice in a group of managers in a multi-agency group in the children’s workforce in the UK. The paper concludes that active reflection is stimulated by activity theory allowing the development of collaborative practice in the group.
 
Article
Being a PhD student requires a discipline and adherence to an academic discourse. (The latter is especially true of the social sciences.) This discourse requires a researcher to consider and present her work in an omniscient and impersonal tone. But what happens - and what should be the PhD student's response - when an autobiographical episode, involving a number of personal crises entirely beyond her control - impinge on her work to such an extent that thinking and writing in this omniscient voice becomes impossible, to the point that it forces her from her studies? This individual case study explores the relevance and usefulness of reflection in action and reflection on action to understand the situation, contain it - and to devise a way forward.
 
Article
Reflective practice enjoys a prominent position in management education in the West. However, its ‘export’ raises questions about both positioning and effective delivery. This paper reports on exploratory research in relation to the teaching of reflective practice as part of a Masters management programme delivered in two sub-Saharan African countries. In relation to prevailing practice in the West, the research evidence is clear. Whilst challenging in terms of its teaching, the cultural context of the West does not preclude access to the essential ideas of reflexivity and an analysis of self. Drawing on data collected as part of the teaching of an MSc in Leadership and Change Management in Malawi and Swaziland, this paper reflects on the nature and extent of this challenge in a very different cultural context. Students from these two countries found the concept interesting but troublesome. Assessment of and questioning about practice revealed some success, but more often a high failure rate in achieving a level of criticality in reflection and a level of depth of self-analysis. The research speculates if a ‘business as usual’ teaching agenda in such cultural contexts in effect sidesteps the question of the appropriateness of an Anglo-American model of reflective practice.
 
Article
Under new regulation requirements for Allied Health Professionals in the UK, maintenance of professional registration is linked to evidence of competence through continuing professional development. This paper reports on the outcomes of a multi-professional workshop for Allied Health Professionals working in one National Health Service Trust. The aim of the workshop was to help practitioners from different health professions understand and implement the process of reflective practice and link their learning to evidence of competence using a common framework. The workshop demonstrated that collectively, Allied Health Professionals in the Trust are taking advantage of a range of opportunities for informal practice-based learning, and was helpful in enabling practitioners move from a factual to a more critical level of reflective thinking. The outcomes suggest that a common framework within which Allied Health Professionals can reflect on their practice and facilitate their own CPD, as well as demonstrate continuing competence to a variety of stakeholders, is realistic and workable.
 
Article
Reflection is now regarded as a key facet to any coach’s repertoire. Much of the sports coaching literature related to reflection consider how coaches’ reflect. However, few studies contemplate the possible ways that reflective practice may be used with athletes or how performers themselves engage in such a process. This paper offers the sports coaching fraternity fresh insights into the world of elite performers’ reflective practice and process. Furthermore, the research method used represents an alternative to invasive interview techniques and highlights a paradox wherein representations of the truth may be seen more clearly from a distance.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to systematic reflection as perceived by UKCC Level 1 and Level 2 qualified rugby union coaches. Subjects (n = 10) were interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview and the interviews were transcribed. In total, 99 instances of perceived barriers were cited by the participants, with an almost 2:1 ratio between External and Internal barriers. Three dominant themes emerged from the study. First, the primary perceived barrier to systematic reflection is organisational, both in terms of a lack of planning by the coach as well as a lack of encouragement and enforcement by the RFU and local clubs to ensure reflection takes place. Second, coaches were not motivated to reflect, citing laziness, the repetitive nature of sessions and player behaviour as reasons. Finally, coaches cited a lack of time either as a result of other demands (work and family) or too much / too little coaching. Conclusions were that the RFU and clubs must work harder to educate coaches to the value of reflection and the role of proper session planning in this. To help make sessions more enjoyable for both players and coaches, the RFU and clubs could provide a wider range of ideas for coaching content.
 
Article
Professional boundaries between practitioners and clients are essential to the delivery of ethical and professional health services yet often prove difficult to address. A research agenda was initiated comprising a literature review, needs assessment, the development, implementation and evaluation of a Professional Boundaries for Health Practitioner (PBHP) training course. This agenda led the authors to critically reflect on the barriers of rumours, dismissiveness and time that were identified to the provision of training in this field. From these reflections, an interprofessional training framework was developed. This paper focuses on the importance of two facets of reflective practice in this process. These were (1) the importance of the integration of reflection and critical thinking skills in practitioner training; (2) critical reflection undertaken by the authors in identifying barriers to practitioner participation in work based training and determining the scope and nature of training that enhances ethical practices and meets practitioner needs Yes Yes
 
Article
The aim of this study is to illustrate conditions for the successful implementation of a work model for sustainable care improvement, called Reflecting Team (RT). For this study team leaders were trained in a caring science education programme to lead the reflective processes, and RTs were introduced into two caring contexts. Within the study professional caregivers involved in the implementation of RT were interviewed, and their statements were interpreted according to a life world hermeneutic approach. Dialectic themes emerged that established four prerequisites for successful implementation of RT. A comprehensive understanding suggests that the lowest common denominator for the four prerequisites is mutual interaction. Thus, an atmosphere of sharing was found to be necessary. The challenge of creating such an atmosphere in a caring unit is the focus of the discussion section.
 
Article
This paper reports on a qualitative study of the reflections of three mid-career female ESL teachers in Canada through the lens of their participation in a two-year teacher discussion group. Not many studies exist about the mid-career reflections of experienced ESL teachers and their concerns (perceived or otherwise) with the phenomenon known as ‘plateauing’, and so the intent of this paper is to try to shed some light on this topic within the TESOL profession. The results indicate that some ESL teachers in mid-career may encounter some form of plateauing, but if they engage in collaborative group discussions with other teachers either within or outside their institutions, they can learn to better understand, and ultimately learn how to resist it and maintain their commitment and enthusiasm for their work as ESL teachers.
 
Article
Generative divergent analysis (GDA) is a creative additive approach to raising insignificant details of experience to significance. A schematic view of the model highlights use of evocative objects as starting point for ‘turning towards’, ‘turning away’ and ‘being-in-relation-to’ as part of an ongoing burgeoning of experience. The model is exemplified by focusing on a wicker settee as an evocative object that was noticed in an early-years reception class. Revisiting the object generated several speculative ideas relating to the hidden curriculum and energies of childhood. Poetry and song were used during the revisiting in order to develop a more direct experience in addition to the more contemplative awareness that was evoked during the first encounters. As an additive process the outcome of GDA takes the form of unfinished resources for thinking.
 
Article
We conducted this collaborative self-study to explore the consequences of completing course assignments which were required of our respective students. Students had communicated that these particular assignments were daunting or anxiety-inducing. We placed ourselves in the position of learners with the intended purpose of coming to more fully appreciate and understand our students’ experiences. Data sources included our shared researcher journals and correspondence as well as student responses collected through discussion and anonymous written reflections. By using ourselves as primary examples, we endeavored to demonstrate the process of critical reflection, lessen student anxiety about experiences they view as uncomfortable, promote the co-construction of knowledge, model the teacher-researcher perspective, and improve our collective professional practice. This study has significance for other teacher educators, many of whom might require students to engage in tasks they have not done themselves or which they have not done in some time. Engaging in those tasks transparently and modeling critical reflection with students were beneficial to students’ professional development and transformed the way we approach our roles as teacher educators.
 
Article
A variety of new non-professional roles, such as health trainers and community food workers, have evolved from recent UK public health policy developments. These roles predominantly operate in communities characterised by extreme social deprivation. Their remit is to offer local people support to help change lifestyle ‘choices’, for example, healthy eating or drinking responsibly. However, encouraging people to change health-related behaviour often ignores the underlying social determinants of health related behaviour. Health trainers and community food workers have been identified as being able to bridge the gap between the health professional and lay person, because of their ability to identify with local people. The challenges faced by these non-professionals, working at the coal-face of communities, and in a new and evolving role, are as yet poorly understood and this paper details the mechanism of reflective learning adopted by these practitioners in order to explore the professional practices involved. Emergent issues faced by these new practitioners include: understanding the boundaries between the trainer role and other health services; and the issues raised by the community, for example, presenting with non-health reasons such as financial crisis, which the trainers were often unprepared to deal with, rather than ‘lack of health skills’ (e.g. cooking skills). This paper explores how reflective learning processes can deconstruct the experiences of this ‘new level of the health workforce’ who have on the one hand the sensibility and sensitivity to develop relationships with individuals and households in poorer communities, yet are ill equipped to deal with the wider structural factors often determining behaviour.
 
Article
Green space offers a significant environmental resource that can improve the individual experience of health and quality of life. However, barriers exist that prevent the use of green space, and partnership (multi-agency) working has the potential to overcome these. In response to this, a community development partnership project (Stepping Stones to Nature) was established to improve green spaces in neighbourhood communities through engagement and consultation. Integral to this project was an initiative to evaluate the process and experience of partnership working. The aim of this paper is to report the experience of the multi-agency group guiding the research process. A researcher who was not involved in the Stepping Stones to Nature project conducted the focus group of seven participants, and one interview, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim then thematically analysed. Four main themes were evident from the data: expectation/perceptions; stakeholder involvement and team building; tensions (at organisational and individual levels); reflection and learning (through the partnership and research process). This paper reflects the different expectations of the research process that need to be identified early in partnership research in order that they can be appropriately managed.
 
Article
This paper explores the use of reflective practice as a graduate student attempts to make sense of validity and the process of validation within an interdisciplinary context. This study highlights various challenges that occurred while trying to understand the complexities of validity in situations that were unfamiliar. Through the use of the proposed theoretical framework, this paper strives to develop a sense of consistency by creating a common approach for self-reflection. In addition, this work offers the use of a logic model as a strategy to help facilitate self-reflection and understanding. Finally, this paper concludes with a personal reflection demonstrating how thinking about one’s own experiences can influence future interdisciplinary endeavours.
 
Article
In this paper, the authors reflect on their experience of engaging faculty members as members of reflective panels following the screening of films used as part of a longitudinal narrative reflective practice module in the pre-clinical, Patient-Centred Care course in first and second year at the University of Alberta. Having experienced both highly reflective and more didactic panelist approaches over the course of several years’ experience, the authors wonder about what medical students may be ‘reading between the lines’ when they experience curricula that is not always consistent with stated curriculum aims and intentions. The authors suggest the value of closely considering both the texts and contexts that comprise medical education, particularly in relation to how these may shape medical student socialization into the profession of medicine.
 
Article
This paper examines the space between familiar and new storying of professional identity in the author’s migration from counsellor/psychologist to lecturer/researcher. Value is given to reflecting on the complexities and multiplicities which exist in this in-between space, particularly at points of difference and discomfort. Reflective practices of writing as inquiry and autoethnography are used to examine this migration of professional identity and are suggested as useful processes for undertaking socially responsive research. In this context, writing as inquiry and subsequent meaning-making/deconstruction leads me to places not yet known, and gives per(form)ance to the complex and multiple possibilities that open up in this process. The benefit of autoethnographic writing and meaning-making as a pre-cursor to participant-observation research is also discussed.
 
Article
This paper offers a reflectively critical analysis of the theoretical basis of independent, or learner‐managed learning, and the pedagogical assumptions which underpin it. It considers the potential for personal development through work‐based learning, and the tensions for educators in addressing sometimes competing perspectives of personal and professional development in such programmes. In doing so it considers the use of learning contracts or ‘agreements’, linked to experiential learning and reflective practice, as tools to facilitate formative and emergent learning, rather than more rationalist interpretations. It concludes that the term ‘independent’ is misleading, as the learning process is the result of reflective dialogues with contexts and others. The context for the study is a foundation degree, a collaborative initiative between a university, five colleges of further education, responsible for the curriculum delivery, and five local authorities in which the colleges are located. These also provided the students for the programme.
 
Article
This paper is informed by narrative research undertaken as part of continuous reflection on our individual practice. It is based on student responses to experience of study and professional development as part of collaborative reviews and discussion forums. This is informal research, based on qualitative approaches. The paper considers how students are facilitated to take control of their own learning and engage in reflective practice through a paradigm of heutagogy, which explores the processes involved as student's start to engage in self-directed study. As course programme leaders it is necessary alongside this that we enable course teams to become conscious of the processes of reflection and to be critical of their own practice, values and attitudes towards learners. This collaborative paper therefore represents a spiral of reflection on our experiences, as we explore the implementation of theory and practice - in terms of reflection on learning and teaching.
 
Article
Practitioners and students are increasingly asked to reflect upon practice within higher education (HE). Reflection is used in both formative and summative settings. Learning journals are recognised as a significant tool in promoting active learning and regularly used among students and teachers. Current research suggests that the effectiveness of journaling is inconsistent. In representing the use of journals as a process within reflective practice, the purposes of this study were to consider if journals were an effective way in which undergraduates could engage in reflection. This study adopted a constructivist interpretivist position and employed the action research approach. Participants (n = 3) were male, first-year undergraduates on a Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching at a college in the North West of England. Data collection was over a six-month period. At the end of each month, participants were required to submit their e-journals, consisting of five academic themes of their choosing. Summative feedback was offered to the students after each submission which identified their levels of reflection in relation to Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy. In total 43.09% of entries analysed were written in the lowest three levels of the taxonomy; 56.87% were written in the highest three levels, of which evaluation, the highest level, totalled 28.66%. Findings suggested that journals may be used effectively, with all students recording high levels of critical reflection throughout a six-month period. Students made remarkably quick progress in becoming critical in their reflections and Bloom’s Taxonomy provided a vigorous means for assessment. Strengths and limitations of the research process are discussed as are recommendations for future practice.
 
Article
This paper describes the process followed by a group of four primary and secondary teacher educators at a university in Sydney, Australia, to develop a collective understanding of the nature and value of reflective practice. The project developed a framework and set of indicators to assess the quality of pre-service teachers’ reflective writing and provide targeted feedback to support their ability to reflect on classroom practice. The process of developing the framework highlights the value of collaborative coding and collegial discussion as methods for establishing common understanding and shared practice of reflective writing in teacher education.
 
Article
This paper reflects on an emergent research design where the researcher's reflections on the paradigm, methodology, and methods played an important role in the emergence. One of the unique features of the study was that the researcher was working on a paradigm shift during the study. This meant that in order for this emergence to occur sensibly, the researcher continually had to reflect on the meaningfulness and consistency of the study. As a result of the design, a number of insights emerged; however, two insights were particularly important. One of those insights was about the importance of going beyond the research agenda in order to capture the essences of the participant as a way of understanding and respecting the data. The second was about the importance of developing one's own research voice or way of thinking that is not bound by tradition, but instead by the meaningfulness of the study.
 
Distribution of the reflection content according to teacher resilience, in the critical incident.
Range of resilience profiles (21 teachers).
Article
While some teachers experience burnout or literally quit the profession considering their challenging working conditions, others take stress as a challenge and try to improve professionally, a dynamic that could be termed resilience. Literature point out that professional competences are an important personal protective factor enhancing teacher resilience. It also appears that teacher reflection is fairly significant in professional development process. This doctoral study sought to explore the relationship between teachers' resilience and reflection on practice. Twenty-three teachers from seven underprivileged schools participated in this mixed method study. They were invited to complete a quality of work life questionnaire and a daily stress diary, and to participate in a semi-structured interview. The analysis has highlighted four resilience profiles among these teachers: 1) very resilient, 2) resilient, 3) somewhat resilient, and 4) non-resilient. Vertical analysis of four representative cases according to their reflection has shown that low resilience seemed to be related to an increased emphasis on the problems instead of the solutions, and on the environmental instead of the personal reflective contents, and inversely. Despite its limits, this study reveals evidence of empirical relationships between teacher resilience and reflection, and highlights avenues for professional development, and ideas for future research.
 
Article
Professionals are increasingly being required to work in diverse, multicultural environments. Accordingly, skills in intercultural practice are a prerequisite to professional knowledge and competence. Ensuring that these are developed is increasingly part of the core business of universities. Currently, however, there is a gap in the knowledge base as to the learning processes that underpin the acquisition of such intercultural understandings, knowledge and competence. This article represents an attempt to address this gap through describing some of the findings of a qualitative, interdisciplinary study undertaken by the authors with students at Charles Sturt University, Australia. The purpose of the study was to illuminate key processes in the development of cultural knowledge and intercultural competence through exploring the experiences of education and health professional students undertaking fieldwork and study in Indonesia and Vietnam. In this article we illustrate and discuss a continuum of learning to be interculturally competent, grounded in the data, and conclude with a series of recommendations for future practice and research.
 
Article
This paper reports the start of an inquiry where, as a high-school mathematics teacher, one of my goals was to encourage students' active participation in classroom activities. In it I describe two classroom episodes, one where my actions were problematic. Through critically reflecting on the episodes, I defined the type of student participation that I thought was desirable and what I might do to foster it. As part of the inquiry I used a multiple method research approach, and I describe in the paper how it informed my teaching practice.
 
Article
This research project explored the dialogue between narrative methods, reflection and professional development. The project was designed to engage participating writing teachers to write narrative stories of experience, participate in guided reflective questioning and dialogue as a process of teacher inquiry and professional development. It was framed by writing workshop, narrative methods and critical learning community theory for professional development. Participants wrote critical stories of experience implementing aspects of writing workshop and engaging in a reflective process of questioning and dialogue as a professional development process.
 
Guiding principles for the supervisory relationship.  
Article
The need for career-long supervision has recently been formally recognised within the psychology profession. This recognition is welcome as regular, structured support and reflective space are believed to be essential for psychologists’ continued personal and professional development. There are now many models of supervision available, offering valuable guides to practice, and the Seven-Eyed Process Model is reviewed as an accessible guide for relationally-based process supervision. However, with growing evidence of the key significance of the supervisory relationship for satisfying supervision, more detailed consideration regarding the supervisor’s engagement in this relationship is worthwhile. Based on a reflective analysis of the author’s practice as a supervisor and experience as a supervisee, and also drawing from theory and research, four guiding principles are presented for supervisors’ engagement with supervisees. These are: offering emotional presence and sensitivity; valuing both vulnerability and competence; offering knowledge and experience with humility; and developing a relationship to support continued personal and professional growth. It is concluded that supervisors need both sensitivity and courage while engaging with supervisees’ personal and professional personas, with both their vulnerability and competence, and while working to support the development of personally grounded, humble but confident practitioners.
 
Article
This paper presents the findings of research undertaken to establish how Japanese nurses respond to the introduction and use of reflective practice. The subject, Reflective Practice for Nurses, is one of four subjects of a post-registration degree offered to Japanese nurses by the Japanese Research Institute (Nissoken Company) and Griffith University, School of Nursing, Australia. The course is in Japanese and distance education mode. Relevant literature on reflective practice, Japanese culture and education is reviewed to provide a background to the students' experiences. Using the ethnographical approach, focus groups were conducted and analysis revealed two categories: Cultural Reflection and Perturbed Reflection. The findings indicate that as students are introduced to the new concept of reflective practice the experience is influenced by prior cultural and educational experiences. As students encounter reflective practice it causes apprehension as they respond to the newness of the concepts and create reconstructed meaning of their professional, personal, cultural and educational experiences. The experience of being introduced to reflective practice highlights the need for educators to consider students' cultural and prior educational experiences when teaching students from different cultures.
 
Article
This paper describes an action research project on postgraduate students’ scholarly writing in which I employed reflective approaches to examine and enhance my postgraduate supervisory practice. My reflections on three distinct cycles of supervision illustrate a shift in thinking about scholarly writing and an evolving understanding of how to support postgraduate students’ writing. These understandings provide the foundation for a future-oriented fourth cycle of supervisory practice, which is characterised by three principles, namely the empowerment of students as writers, the technological context of contemporary writing, and ethical issues in writing.
 
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This paper illustrates how personal narrative and reflective practice are used as the basis for an ethnographic account that locates the researcher in the research endeavour. It provides an overview of narrative inquiry as a means of reflective practice. Two narrative approaches - life history/autobiographical narrative and autoethnography - are briefly introduced and evidence is presented of the application of these approaches in a number of discipline areas. This serves to highlight the relative dearth of literature reporting the use of autoethnography in particular in the counselling and psychology fields, either in terms of research or practical applications. After outlining the background of the author's doctoral study, the paper illustrates how autoethnography is employed as an example of reflective practice. Concluding remarks address a reflection of the experience of writing the paper, including reference to criteria for evaluating autoethnographic writing.
 
Article
What do we as researchers bring to the research we conduct? What do the participants and the topics under study evoke within us? These questions are well known within the qualitative research methodology. This paper aims at using reflexivity to describe researchers’ involvement at significant stages of the research and to help them deal with sensitive, ‘hard-to-swallow’ situations. In order to achieve that, we describe the reflexivity process we went through while conducting a research on elder self-neglect in Israel. We describe how reflexivity helped us at every stage of the research, from pre-research, through data collection and to data analysis.
 
Article
My narrative inquiry in this paper explores the experience of a young woman from a disadvantaged background who struggled to stay at school. This student’s story is embedded within a larger story, drawn from a longitudinal study of 250 senior students and their struggle to stay at school. The intersection of the student’s school, home and personal stories provide a very personal insight into the lived experience of this struggle, negotiated within the context of the institutional narrative. The student’s story is considered in two ways. First, consideration as a narrative of resistance provides a way to explore the impact of social influences on the very personal narratives of people in marginalised social positions. Second, consideration as a narrative of transition provides a way to acknowledge the storyteller’s reflections as she accounted for her accommodation of changing goals, negotiated her learning space and translated her home life. Interrogating the narrative coherence of this student’s story through the twin lens of resistance and transition opened the way for new thinking about the struggle to stay at school. This approach allows opportunities for looking beyond the dominant retention narrative to consider other, marginal and illuminating narrative understandings of this complex problem, embedded as it is within a dynamic social context.
 
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to illustrate how leaders can create high performance environments. Using Team Great Britain (TeamGB) cycling’s performance director as a case example, we discuss how leaders can develop social identities (i.e. an emotional attachment and sense of belonging) and shape group meanings as mechanisms through which performance excellence can be achieved. We draw on a contemporary theory of leadership derived from organisational and social psychology to explain how leaders can act to strengthen the emotional bonds within their sport group and motivate athletes to embrace specific group meanings. The present paper also reflects on the lessons learnt from London 2012 that could inform leadership practice in preparation for Rio 2016. In particular, the leaders’ role in developing social identities and distinctive group meanings is important to create an environment conducive to optimum performance. In sum, a social identity approach to leadership detailed within the current paper provides a useful framework to help maximise the opportunities that TeamGB gleaned from London 2012 in order to deliver performance excellence again in Rio 2016.
 
Brazilian Paralympic team -London Paralympic Games (29/08/2012). Source: Buda Mendes /CPB. Copyright: CPB 2012.
Jovane Guissone after winning a gold medal for Brazil in the Wheelchair Fencing (category B) in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Source: Luciana Vermell/CPB. Copyright: Luciana Vermell Fotografia www.lucianavermell.com
Alan Fonteles beating Oscar Pistorius to win gold in the Athletics 200 m T44 in the London 2012 Paralympics Games. Source: Fernando Maia/CPB. Copyright:MPIX Producoes.
Article
The aim of this paper is to explore the lessons learned from London 2012 about the nature of the performance environment, how it is created and sustained to enable individuals, teams and squads to reach their optimal performance and achieve success. More specifically, in the light of ‘hope theory’ and through a reflective conversation with Andrew Parsons, the President of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee, we focus on the goals and pathways established, agency thoughts and challenges faced in London 2012. Complementing these reflections, we analyze the aspects guiding the Brazilian Paralympic team’s preparation and expectations ‘for Rio 2016’. We hope that the experiences shared by Andrew Parsons inspire you to consider the complex dynamics of high performance environments whilst providing opportunities for the deconstruction of taken for granted practices.
 
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Barbara Larrivee
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Jan Pascal
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  • Cardiff Metropolitan University
Gareth Irwin
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Tony Ghaye
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