Records of Natural Products

Online ISSN: 1307-6167
One of author’s name in this article has been printed wrongly. The name of Ludger Wessjohan should be written as Ludger Wessjohann. The authors apologize for this error.
One of author’s name in this article has been printed wrongly. The name of Ludger Wessjohan should bewritten as Ludger Wessjohann. The authors apologize for this error.
Curvularia oryzae MTCC 2605 was exploited for the production of secondary metabolites. The major compounds from the crude extract were purified by silica gel column chromatography and identified to be 11-α-methoxycurvularin and (S)-5-ethyl-8, 8-dimethylnonanal by NMR and Mass spectral data. Bioassays showed that 11-α-methoxycurvularin was active against bacteria, fungi and 4th instar Spodoptera litura larvae
Decrease in tail moment by acetone extract, methanol extract and water extract of Aegle marmelos against the DNA damage induced by H 2 O 2 (9 µM) in comet assay. Data showing the Mean ± SE of triplicate experiments.*p < 0.05 by comparison with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ).  
Effect of extracts of Aegle marmelos on the genotoxicity induced by Aflatoxin B1 (with metabolic activation) in SOS chromotest using E.coli PQ37 as a tester stain.
Percentage yield and total phenolics present in various extracts of Aegle marmelos.
The present paper deals with the antigenotoxic activity of Aegle marmelos fruit extracts employing short term assays i.e. the SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Comet assay in peripheral human blood lymphocytes. Methanol extract and Acetone extract were quite effective in decreasing the SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide and aflatoxin B1 in the SOS chromotest. Methanol extract inhibited the genotoxicity of H 2O 2 by 70.48% and that of AFB1 by 84.65%. The extracts showed significant decrease in the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (9 m M) in the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The antigenotoxic activity exhibited by the extracts may be attributed the various polyphenolic constituents present in these extracts.
1 H NMR data for compounds 1-3 (at 600 MHz in CDCl 3 , δ in ppm, J in Hz). 
Three new 2-pyranone derivatives, namely Norcardiatones A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the agar cultures of the strain Nocardiopsis sp. A00203, a mangrove endophytic actinomycete. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR Q-TOF-MS. Compound 1 showed week cytotoxicity against HeLa cells in MTT assay.
Acute toxicity study in mice after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of A. karroo. (n=6).
Effects of the graded doses of A. karroo on the body weights of rats.Х±S.D.
The aqueous extract from the shoot of Acacia karroo was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in mice and for the sub acute effect on haematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, A. karroo extract caused death in animals that received 1600 and 3200 mg/kg doses. Oral treatments in rats with this extract at 800 mg/kg did not cause any significant change in the red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (HB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), white blood cells and its differentials. It, however, caused a significance decrease in the levels of platelets. In the biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), total and unconjugated bilirubin. Changes were also noted in the body weights but no significant changes were observed in the levels of some electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride). Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress and mortality were recorded. Lung with multiple abscess, kidney and liver with mild congestion were also observed histopathologically. The study concluded that caution must be exercised in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes .
This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.
Effect of Croton zehntneri essential oil on GOT levels on acute acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. p < 0.05 vs control (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keul´s test.).  
Effect of Croton Croton zehntneri essential oil on GPT levels on acute acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. p < 0.05 vs control (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keul´s test).  
Photomicrographs of mice liver obtained from different treatment groups A: Control, B: Acetaminophen control, C: EOCz 30 mg/kg, D: EOCz 100 mg/kg. H and E (10x).  
Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) leaf essential oil (EOCz) was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities, that were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Histopathological examinations of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in the acetaminophen treated group, while these were completely absent in the standard and EOCz treated groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that the Croton zehntneri essential oil can prevent hepatic injuries from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Fatty Acid Composition of Ferulago trachycarpa Seeds*
The fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Ferulago trachycarpa Boiss., collected from two different localities (Balıkesir-Edremit and Konya-Seydişehir), was analyzed for derived methyl esters of their fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seventeen components representing 98.7 % of Balıkesir sample and 98.6 % of Konya sample of F. trachycarpa seed oils were identified. GC-MS data showed that the main fatty acids were 9-octadeceneoic acid (68.1 and 73.6 %), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (23.0 and 18.0 %), 9-hexadeceneoic acid (4.1 and 3.5 %) and 11-octadecenoic acid (2.0 and 1.8 %) in both oils, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids were found as high as 97.7 and 97.4 %, while the percentage of the saturated fatty acids was found as low as 1.0 and 1.2 % in both seed oils, respectively.
A comparative study on the free amino acids of 15 wild edible mushroom species belonging to the genus Boletus (phylum Basidiomycota) was developed. The major amino acids in the fruit bodies were arginine , alanine, glutamine, and glutamic acid. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic ( 9- 18:1), linoleic acid (9,12-18:2) , and palmitic acid (16:0), but a great variation of the ester composition from one to another one was found. Chemical constituents were characterized by GC-MS, and other chemical methods.
Class composition of T. laevigatus composition
Antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Thymus laevigatus leaves, investigated with agar diffusion test.
MIC values of the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Thymus laevigatus leaves
Cytotoxic activity against FL cells and free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay for the extracts of Thymus laevigatus leaves
The leaves of Thymus laevigatus (Vahl), Lamiaceae (Labiatae), an endemic species of Yemen, are traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and respiratory system. In a first biological and chemical study of this endemic species we investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the leaves of this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts composition was performed by TLC while the composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Twelve constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted 99.6 % of the total amount. The major constituents of the oil were: carvacrol (84.3 %), p-cymene (4.1 %) p-mentha-1, 4-diene (4.0 %) and trans-anethole (3.6%). The main active components were identified by TLC as carvacrol and anethole for dichloromethane extract and as non-volatile phenols and flavonoids for the methanol extract. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five bacteria strains and six human pathogenic fungi. Both methanol and dichloromethane showed strong activities against most human pathogenic strains. In the contrast, methanol extract showed broader and stronger antibacterial activities than the dichloromethane extract, especially against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extract showed the same strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (14.9mg/ml), when compared to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. In contrast, the cytotoxic activity of the methanol against FL cells, a human amniotic epithelial cell line, was only moderate (IC50 298, 8 mg/ml). On the contrary, the water extract did not show any biological activity. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil and extracts of Thymus laevigatus possess strong antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in food and/or pharmaceutical industry
Chemical structures of compounds 1-8.
From the shade-dried and powdered roots of S. undulata ssp. deliciosa eight known compounds; β-Amyrin acetate, methyl Oleanate, methyl Ursolate, Stigmasterol, β-Sitosterol, Galangustin, Coumarin-O-β-glycoside and Acteoside were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, chemical transformation and comparison with the related known compounds. This is the first report of occurrence of these compounds in S. undulate ssp. deliciosa. The methanol extract of the roots of S. undulata ssp. deliciosa was examined for in vitro antioxidant properties using DPPH test (radical scavenging). .
The chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of three essential oils (EOs) obtained from the oleogum resin of three endemic Sqotraen Boswellia species, Boswellia socotrana Balf. f, Boswellia ameero Balf. f, and Boswellia elongata Balf. f were determined. GC-MS technique was used for the analysis of the oils. Oils of B. socotrana and B. ameero were characterized by a high content of monoterpenes. The main constituens of B. socotrana and B. ameero were (E)-2,3-epoxycarene (51.8%), 1,5-isopropyl-2-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-ol (31.3%), and a -cymene (7.1%); (3E,5E)-2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene (34.9%), 1-(2,4-Dimethylphenyl)ethanol (20.3%), 3,4-dimethylstyrene (17.3%), a -campholenal (13.4%) and a -terpineol (12.4%) respectively. The composition of B. elongata oil was dominated by the diterpene verticiol (52.4%), the sesquiterpene caryophellene (39.1%) and methylcycloundecanecarboxylate (7.8%). The oils were screened for their antioxidant activity by using the DPPH free radical scavenger assay and their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase enzyme by using in vitro Ellman method. The antioxidant activity of EOs from B. socotrana (IC 50 =121.4 µg/mL) appeared to be more potent than that of B. elongata (IC 50 =211.2 µg/mL) and B. ameero (IC 50 =175.2 µg/mL). EO of B. socotrana showed the higher AChE inhibitory activity with 59.3% at concentration of 200 μ g/mL in comparison to EOs of B. elongata and B. ameero (29.6, 41.6 enzyme inhibition) respectively.
Collection and hydrodistillation of leaves from Lauraceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica.
The leaf essential oils of four members of the Lauraceae Licaria excelsa, Licaria triandra, Perseaschiedeana, and Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were obtained byhydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaf oil of L. excelsawas dominated by the monoterpenes a-pinene (42.9%), b-pinene (22.0%) and myrcene (17.2%), while L.triandra was also rich in pinenes (40.9% and 28.5%, respectively). Persea schiedeana had considerableamounts of the sesquiterpenes d-cadinene (18.5%), a-copaene (15.1%), and (E)-caryophyllene (13.3%).Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana leaf oil had germacrene D (64.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (17.6%) as themajor components. The leaf essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231and Hs 578T human tumor cells. R. kunthiana leaf oil showed notable activity against MDA-MB-231.
Larvae and moth of Spodoptera littoralis
The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers ofErythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual- choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis(Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showedpotent dose dependant activity at concentration ³ 500 ppm while (+)-10,11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also newfrom the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration ³100 ppm. Three known compounds(+)-erysotrine, (+)-erysotramidine, (+)-erythraline, (+)-11-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dosedependant antifeedant activity at concentrations ³100 ppm while (+)-10,11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11b-hydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity atconcentrations ³ 300 ppm. Three known compounds (+)-11-methoxyerysotramidine, (+)-8-oxoerythralineand (+)-15(16)b-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentrationchange.
The MS fragments of identified components of from the Fumaria species by GC-MS 
Inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (IP %) 
The antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extracts of Fumaria capreolata (L.) and Fumaria bastardii (L.) were determined by measuring their reducing power, their ability to inhibit linoleic acid peroxidation, and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Total quinolizidine alkaloid contents were found to be 426 mg/100 g (F.capreolata) and 521 mg/100g (F.bastardii). Both plant extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity, however, extract of F.bastardii was more potent then F.capreolata. Concentrations of 100, 300, and 500µg mL -1 showed 42, 55, 65 and 48.3, 60, and 67.8 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, for F.capreolata and F.bastardii extracts, respectively. On the other hand, 500µg mL -1 of the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxyianisole (BHA), quercetine, and caffeine exhibited 80, 56.2, and 64.3% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, respectively. In addition, the both extracts had effective reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 250 and 50 µg mL -1. The isoquinoline alkaloids, stylopine, protopine, fumaritine, fumaricine, fumarophycine, fumariline, fumarofine were determined by GC-MS from the aerial parts of F. capreolata and F. bastardii.
Photograph of Artemisia herba-alba.
Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology
Collection and hydrodistillation of leaves of Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica.
The leaf essential oils of six members of the Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica (Desmopsis bibracteata, Desmopsis microcarpa, Guatteria costaricensis, Guatteria diospyroides, Guatteria oliviformis, and Unonopsis costaricensis) have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS in order to compare and contrast the volatile chemical compositions of these species. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T human breast tumor cells, and antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The principal components of D. bibracteata were germacrene D (29.9%), (E)-caryophyllene (11.5%), and δ-cadinene (9.2%). D. microcarpa was dominated by bicyclogermacrene (45.5%) and germacrene D (28.3%). G. costaricensis was rich in α- and β-pinenes (36.3% and 48.2%, respectively). The leaf oil of G. diospyroides was composed largely of germacrene D (46.4%), (Z)-β-ocimene (17.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.3%). Germacrene D dominated the leaf oil of G. oliviformis (73.3%) as well as U. costaricensis (62.9%). The leaf essential oils of D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis, showed notable cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells ( ³ 99% kill at 100 m g/mL) but only D. bibracteata leaf oil was cytotoxic to Hs 578T. D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis leaf oils showed marginal antibacterial activity against B. cereus (MIC = 156 m g/mL). A cluster analysis of Guatteria species, based on the abundant essential oil components, has revealed a spathulenol-rich cluster (Brazilian species) and a germacrene D cluster (Costa Rican species).
Lethal concentrations for 50 and 90 % of insect population 
The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and the insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) extracted from the leaves of Thymus broussonetii and Thymus maroccanus . These two endemic plants of Morocco, which are traditionally used in medicinal remedies, were collected from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The EOs were extracted by direct steam distillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed and quantified by gas GC-MS and GC. The dominant components identified were p-cymene (21.0%), borneol (16.5%), α-pinene (11.8%) and thymol (11.3%) for T. broussonetti and carvacrol (33.0%), p-cymene (25.3%) and α-pinene (11.6%) for T. maroccanus . The investigation by the agar-diffusion method of the antibacterial activity of EOs proved that they have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella sp. , Escherichia coli, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus subtilis . The obtained results showed that T. maroccanus EOs possessed higher antibacterial effects on some studied bacteria than T. broussonetti EOs. The EOs of T. broussonetii and T. maroccanus also presented insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens .
The antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of the seeds of Adenanthera pavonina (n=4).
The effect of Adenanthera pavonina (AP) seed extract on the blood pressure of normotensive rats wasevaluated. Twelve adult male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each were used and were treatedorally with normal saline (control group), propanolol (positive control, and was given at 1mg/kg) and 200mg/kgof AP seed extract over a 4- week period. Condon manometer was used to measure the mean arterial bloodpressure. The mean arterial blood pressure of the normal saline treated animal was 60mmHg, those of propanololtreated animals was 23mmHg while the 200mg/kg extract treated group was 30mmHg. Phytochemical screeningshowed that the extract contained cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Cyanogeneticglycosides and anthraquinones were absent. The sodium level for the 200mg/kg group was significantly lowerthan that of control group. The total bilirubin, total protein and the globulin fraction were significantly higher inthe extract treated groups compared to the control group. Histopathological examination showed that the extractdid not cause any significant lesion changes in the liver, kidney and even the testes. The study showed thatAdenanthera pavonina seed extract have the potential to cause a blood pressure lowering effect. The serumbiochemistry changes may suggest that the extract has a tonic effect on the kidneys and the liver and theseorgans play central role in drug metabolism. Absence of significant lesion in the kidney, liver and testes mayindicate that the plant is safe for medicinal use.
DPPH scavenging activities of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stem of Celtis africana. 
ABTS scavenging activities of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stem of Celtis africana. 
Total antioxidant (FRAP) activity of the leaves and stem extracts of Celtis africana. Extracts FRAP e 
The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts from the leaves and stems of Celtis africana(Ulmaceae) were assessed in an effort to validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the herb.The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the stem as determined by the DPPH, proanthocyanidins, totalphenols, the flavonoids, and total flavonols were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the FRAPcontents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem. The ABTS scavenging activities of both the stem andleaves were similar and comparable to that of BHT, the standard antioxidant used. This study, has to someextent, validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and stems of Celtis africana.
Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) exhibited by the Ageratum fastigiatum oils
Essential oils from different organs of Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn.) R. M. King et H. Rob., obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed through Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar-diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The main compounds found were b -caryophyllene, germacrene D and 1,10-di-epi-cubenol. The samples were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhosa, Escherichia coli, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi. The MIC ranged from 5.0 to 18.0 mg/mL.
The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn.) Roxb., (Fabaceae) were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%), β-caryophyllene (19.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%). Limonene (5.2%), germacrene D (5.5%) and α-selinene (5.4%) constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae) was rich in α-pinene (16.0%), germacrene D (14.4%), sabinene (9.4%) and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%).
Chemical composition of the essential oil from Artemisia arborescens L. growing wild in
Essential oil extracted from dried aerial part of Artemisia arborescens L. collected from Bejaïa (Algeria), was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the essential oil were chamazulene (30.2%), β-thujone (27.8%), β-eudesmol (8.1%) and catalponol (5.5%).
Antimicrobial activity of n-BuOH extract at different concentrations on eleven bacteria and one fungus.
A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Launea resedifolia (O.K.) afforded four flavonoids, apigenin 1, luteolin 2, apigenin 7-O-β-glucoside 3 and apigenin 7-O-β-glucuronide 4. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatographic behaviour and by means of UV, NMR and MS spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of two isolated flavonoids 3, 4 and the n-BuOH extract against eleven bacteria and one fungus was studied. It was found that the most powerful effect was against Morganella morgani; Streptococcus Sp; Enterobacter Sp. and Proteus mirabilis.
NMR data for 1 in CDCl 3
Selected HMBC Correlations of 1
A new aliphatic acid named japodic acid (1) with a gem-dimethyl cyclopropane ring has been isolated from the roots of Jatropha podagrica. Its structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. Two other known compounds, erythrinasinate (2) and fraxidin (3) were also isolated from this plant for the first time. Japodic acid showed mild insect growth inhibition activity against Helicoverpa zea (37% growth reduction at 100 ppm). Fraxidin and erythrinasinate exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis while japodic acid was inactive in the antibacterial assays conducted
Although there are a number of Haplophyllum species in the world, H. acutifolium (DC.) G. Don, H. buxbaumii (Poiret) G.Don, H. buxbaumii (Poiret) G.Don, subsp. Buxbaumii, H. cappadocium Spach, H. glabrinum, H. hispanicum Sprach, H. myrtifolium Boiss., H. patavinum (L.) G. D. ON. fil., H. perforatum (M.B.) Vved., H. ptilostylum Spach, H. suaveolens (DC.) G.Don, H. telephioides Boiss., H. thesioides (Fisch ex DC.) G. Don, H. tuberculatum (Forssk.) A.Juss. and H. vulcanicum Boiss. & Heldr. were most studied and a lot of compounds isolated. Only alkaloids, coumarins and lignans of these species are mentioned in this article. In addition some volatile components of H. tuberculatum were also given
Plasma lipid profile in control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and after treatment with Bougainvillea glabra
Phytochemicals Analysis of Aqueous extract of B. glabra leaves
The antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects of Bougainvillea glabra was investigated in this study using 25 male wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups comprising of five animals each. These groups include a normal control (administered saline), an extract control (administered 100 mg/kg of extract) and a diabetic control (untreated group). The remaining two groups were administered 100mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The study lasted for three weeks although blood samples were obtained from the rat tails after every week. The results show that the extract significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the hyperglycaemia from 12±0.40 mmol/L (Diabetic Control) to 4.04±0.03 mmol/L (400 mg/kg group). Likewise, the extract significantly reduced the Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-Cholesterol), while increasing the High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the observations from this study show that Bougainvillea glabra has antidiabetic effect and beneficial effects on blood lipid profile, thus justifying the use of the plant by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Chemical constituents of rhizomes of Alpinia oxymitra (Zingiberaceae) were investigated. Usingchromatographic techniques, two known flavonoids, epicatechin and galloepicatechin, were isolated together with a new calamenene sesquiterpene, (–)-(1R,4S)-8-hydroxy-13-calamenenoic acid. Structure elucidation of theisolated compounds was accomplished by means of spectroscopic techniques, especially NMR spectroscopy andmass spectrometry.
Chemical constituents of rhizomes of Alpinia oxymitra (Zingiberaceae) were investigated. Using chromatographic techniques, two known flavonoids, epicatechin and galloepicatechin, were isolated together with a new calamenene sesquiterpene, (-)-(1R,4S)-8-hydroxy-13- calamenenoic acid. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was accomplished by means of spectroscopic techniques, especially NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.
Bioactive labdane diterpenoids from Turkish Lamiaceae plants 
Bioactive pimarane diterpenoids from Turkish Lamiaceae plants 
Cytotoxic activity data of diterpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants
Bioactive kaurane diterpenoids from Turkish Plant species 
In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44) isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.
Inhibitory effect of the aqueous ethanolic extract of doum leaves on the production of dihydroxybenzoic acids (DHBA) from salicylic acid in the hypoxanthine / xanthine oxidase assay
Analytical HPLC chromatogram monitored by UV absorption λ278 and λ340 for the aqueous alcoholic extract of doum leaves. (1: Gallic acid, 2:Quercetin glucoside, 3:Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside 4: Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside)
UV-Spectral data for the phenolics of doum leaves.
13 C-NMR data for the phenolics of doum leaves
The antioxidant activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica L. (Palmae), was studied. Data obtained showed that the extract scavenged superoxide anion radicals ( IC 50=1602 µg/ml ) in a dose dependant manner using xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay. Four major flvonoidal compounds were identified by LC/SEI as; Quercetin glucoside , Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside . While , further in-depth phytochemical investigation of this extract lead to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds ;their structures were elucidated based upon the interpretation of their spectral data(UV, 1H, 13C NMR and ESI/MS )as; 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (vitexin) 1, 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (iso-vitexin) 2, quercetin 3-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucopyranoside 3, gallic acid 4, quercetin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 5, luteolin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 6, tricin 5 O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 7, 7, 3` dimethoxy quercetin 3-O-[6''-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (Rhamnazin 3-O-rutinoside) 8, kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-α- L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β- D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin) 9, apigenin 10, luteolin 11, tricin 12, quercetin 13 and kaempferol 14
Cluster analysis of Lippia multiflora essential oil compositions (map of central Africa from Google Maps,  
Chemical composition of Lippia multiflora essential oil.
The steam distilled volatile oil obtained from dried Lippia multiflora Moldenke was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components were 1,8-cineole (60.5%), sabinene (16.9%), α-terpineol (14.1%) and α-pinene (4.4%). The oil displayed no antibacterial activity against either gram positive Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus or gram negative Escherichia coli, (MIC = 1250 µg/mL). A cluster analysis was performed for comparison and characterization of L. multiflora essential oil from Nigeria with other oils reported in the literature from different locations across central Africa, and reveals much chemical variation in this species with at least 13 different chemotypes.
1 H and 13 C NMR assignments for aspartocin A (1) in DMSO-d 6 and aspartocin B (2) in MeOH-d 4 
The aspartocin complex is composed of three analogs, aspatocin A (1), aspartocin B (2), and aspartocin C (3) 
13 C coupled HSQC experiment with CW homonuclear 1 H decoupling 
Three lipocyclopeptides, aspartocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were obtained from the aspartocin complex by reversed-phase HPLC separation. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies coupled with the previously published chemical degradation results. All three compounds, 1, 2, and 3, share the same cyclic decapeptide core of cyclo(Dab2-Pip3-MeAsp4-Asp5-Gly6-Asp7-Gly8-Dab9-Val10-Pro11-). They differ only in the side chain moiety corresponding to Asp1-isotetradecenoic acid, Asp1-anteisotetradecenoic acid, and Asp1-isotridecenoic acid for aspartocins A, B, and C, respectively. The cyclic substructure of aspartocins contains two D-amino acid residues, and the geometry of the peptide linkages appears to be all trans including the two tertiary amide bonds. The result is consistent with the hypothesis that a normal peptide to be cyclic requires D-configured residues or cis amide bond(s) incorporated.
Axinella infundibuliformis in ocean base. 
1 H (300 MHz) NMR chemical shifts (δ H , ppm) for 3β-Hydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), (3β) - Hydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (2) and 3-Oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (3) in CDCl 3.
Isolated compounds from Axinella infundibuliformis
Disc showing zones of inhibition by Gentamycin (left) and 3 β -hydroxylup-20(29)-ene-28- oic acid ( 2 ) (right) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and pure compounds from the sponge Axinella infundibuliformis collected Mombasa , the Kenyan Coast have been reported. The pure compounds were purified and characterized through various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Three triterpenoid compounds were isolated and identified from Axinella infundibuliformis. These were 3β-Hydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), 3β-Hydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (2) and 3-Oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (3). The hexane, dichloromethane and methanol crude extracts (10 mg/ml) of Axinella infundibuliformis showed strong antibacterial activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameters of 24.7 ± 0.05, 22.0 ± 0.35 and 12.7 ± 0.09 mm respectively. The MIC values for dichloromethane and hexane extracts were then evaluated as at 6.25 mg/mLand 3.12 mg/mLrespectively. The antifungal tests for Axinella infundibuliformis against Candida albicans by all the three extracts showed mild activity with inhibition zone diameters of 6.7 ± 0.02, 6.0 ± 0.04, and 5.7 ± 0.03 mm respectively. In addition, the dichloromethane and hexane extracts exhibited low activities against Microsporum gypseum (6.3 ± 001 mm) and Cryptococcus neoformans (6.3 ± 0.07mm) respectively. Of the three compounds isolated, 3β-Hydroxylup-20(29)-ene (24.0 ± 0.09 mm diameter) exhibited strong activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while 3β-Hydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (7.0 ± 0.06 mm diameter) and 3-Oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (10.7 ± 0.08 mm diameter) showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Gentamycin (Standard drug 10 µg/disc) had an inhibition zone diameter of 16.0 ± 0.01 mm.
The in vitro antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content (Folin−Ciocalteu method) of three successive extracts of three varieties of Ceratonia siliqua L. leaves ( grafted female, spontaneous female, spontaneous male) grown in Morocco were investigated by using in-vitro antioxidant models including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity . T he global polyphenols concentration ranged from 0.45 to 2.64 (g/L GAE) in the three categories of the extracts . In each variety, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. Grafted female trees globally showed a higher polyphenols concentration than the spontaneous female and spontaneous male ones. Our results clearly demonstrate that all extracts have antioxidant capacity. Among the categores, the ethyl acetate extracts of carob tree leaves exhibited strong scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) than the diethyl ether and dichloromethane extracts. Carob leaf extracts contain high amounts of polyphenols with strong antiradical, antioxidant capacity and reducing properties which might constitute an important source of natural antioxidants.
Objective of the present work was to evaluate ethanolic extract of Leucas ciliataleaves for possible antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, Iron chelation and Reducing power methods. Hepatoprotective activity of the extract was evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage model in rats. The extract demonstrated a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid. In hepatoprotective activity study, CCl4 significantly increased the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. Pretreatment of the rats with ethanolic extract of L. ciliata(100, 200 and 400mg/kg po) inhibited the increase in serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total bilirubin and the inhibition was comparable with silymarin (100mg/kg po). The present study revealed that L. ciliataleaves have significant radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity.
Antiproliferative effect of S. libanotica to the Vero cells.
The antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of S. libanotica ssp. linearis (MESLL) in
Antiproliferative effect of S. libanotica to the C6 cells. The antiproliferative activity of the crude extract was evaluated in terms of capacity to cell viability. The crude extract of the more polar solvent fraction (methanol) showed considerable cytotoxic activity against C6 cells especially in higher doses as shown in Fig 2.
Antiproliferative effect of S. libanotica to the HeLa cells.
Methanol extract from aerial parts of Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis (Bentham) Borm.were investigated for its in vitro antiproliferative activities against Vero, HeLa and C6 cells. The tests werecarried out as dose-dependent assay starting from 25 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The extract found to be active againstAfrican green monkey kidney (Vero), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa) and Rat Brain tumor cells (C6) cancercell lines with IC50 values. The methanol extract of S. libanotica showed the highest activity against the Vero,HeLa and C6 cell lines at 250 μg/mL as dose-dependent assay starting from 25 μg/mL.
The cytotoxic activity of chloroform extract fractions from Carpesium rosulatum MlQ on the five human cancer cell lines 
The cytotoxic activities of the sesquiterpene lactones from Carpesium rosulatum MlQ. on five human cancer cell lines 
In search for antiproliferative compound against human cancer cells (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF498, HCT15), a chloroform soluble extract obtained by re-extraction of the methanol extract of whole plant of Carpesium rosulatum MlQ. (Compositae) exhibited cytotoxic activity. Four germacrane sesquiterpene lactones 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6-angeloyl-oxy-9β-isobutyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide, 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide, 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α-angeloyloxy-9β-(3-methyl-butanoyloxy)-germacran-8α,12-olide, and 2β,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide were isolated from the chloroform extract of C . rosulatum, and 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide showed the most potent cytotoxicity with IC 50 value of 6.01 μM against SK-MEL-2 .
Artemisinin (quinghaosu) is a natural compound, isolated from Artemisia annua L. (Compositae), of current interest in treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Aim of the current study was to hit upon novel artemisinin sources as alternative to A. annua. Therefore, ten species of the genus Artemisia (A. santonicum L., A. taurica Willd., A. spicigera K. Koch, A. herba-alba Asso, A. haussknechtii Boiss., A. campestris L., A. araratica Krasch., A. armeniaca Lam., A. austriaca Jacq., and A. abrotanum L.) collected from different localities throughout Turkey were analyzed with respect to artemisinin amount using a reliable and fast Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis technique. HPLC conditions used for determination of the artemisinin content were established as follows; ACE-5 C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm , 5 m m ) was employed with the mobile phase of formic acid (% 0.2 v/v): acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) mixture at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. The good linearity of artemisinin was found within the range of 0.1 – 100 m g/mL (r 2= 0.99908). However, our study showed that artemisinin was not detected in all investigated Artemisia species of Turkish origin.
Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Screening of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites results in the production of 4-(N-methyl-N-phenyl amino) butan-2-one and itaconic acid. The structure of the known compounds was established by 1H-, 13C-NMR and Mass spectral data. Biological evaluation of the two compounds against test microorganisms showed strong inhibitory activity of 4-(N-methyl-N-phenyl amino) butan-2-one towards bacteria and fungi. Only 4-( N -methyl-N- phenyl amino)-butan-2-one showed a marked significant activity (LD 50 = 330.69 m g/mL ) in Spodoptera litura larvicidal bioassay.
The volatile oils of stem, umbels, fruits and roots of Astrodaucus orientalis (L.) Drude (Apiaceae) growing wild in Iran were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main components of the oils from the stem were sabinene (23.1%), a -pinene (16.4%) and fenchyl-acetate (7.5%). Sabinene (25.6%), b -pinene (22.3%) and a -copaene (16.1%) were the main constituents of the volatile oils of the fruits. While a -copanene (26.1%), b- pinene (15.3%) and sabinene (13.7%) were the major components of the volatile oils of the umbels (flowers), that of the roots were mainly composed of anisole (37.9%), bornyl acetate (36.9%) and geranyl tiglate (11.4%).
The bark essential oils from two different individuals of Cedrela tonduzii were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chemical compositions of the two oils were qualitatively similar, but showed quantitative differences. One sample had abundant quantities of a -selinene (32%) and germacrene-D (17%), while the second sample was rich in a-humulene (34%), β-caryophyllene (13%) and germacrene-D (13%).
Structure of Quinine (C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ; MW = 324)
Optimization of Extraction solvent and conditions
Complete UV spectrum of quinine 
Chromatogram of Quinine separation 
A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantitative determination of quinine. Conditions were also optimized for best possible extraction of quinine via varying concentrations of diethyl amine in different solvents (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) for maximum recovery of quinine. Methanol modified with 20 % DEA found to be best for highest possible recovery of target analyte quinine. Chromatographic separation of quinine was performed on silica gel 60 F 254 HPTLC plates with ethyl acetate : diethyl amine in the proportion 88 : 12 (v/v), as mobile phase. The determination was carried out using the densitometric absorbance mode at 236 nm. Quinine response was found to be linear over the range 4–24 μg spot −1. The HPTLC method was evaluated in terms of specificity, precision, reproducibility, LOD – LOQ and robustness. Beside these parameters, number of theoretical plates and flow constant were also included as a part of validation
Chemical constituents of Musa cv. ‘Thepanom’ (BBB) or "praying hands" banana (Musaceae) were investigated by means of chromatographic techniques. A new natural product of the phenylphenalenone type, 3-hydroxy-4-phenyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-1-one, and two known natural products, methoxyanigorufone and isoanigorufone, were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Additionally, by HPLC analysis, three condensed dimeric phenylphenalenones, namely anigorootin, 4′-hydroxyanigorootin, 4′,4″-dihydroxyanigorootin, were identified.
Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of Syzygium guineense harvested at Natitingou-Centre, Péperkou, Tchaourou and Térou were analysed by gas phase chomatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents were: caryophyllene oxide (7%), d -cadinene (7.5%), viridiflorol (7.5%), epi- a -cadinol (9.8%), a -cadinol (12.7%), cis-calamenen-10-ol (14%), citronellyl pentanoate (15.2%), b -caryophyllene (20.1%) and a -humulene (39.5%).
Volatile oil composition of fruits Licania tomentosa Benth. from GC-MS anlaysis.
The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae) , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%), but the esters showed great diversity.
Flavonol glycosides (1-4) from R. biebersteinii 
Ribes biebersteinii Berl. (Grossulariaceae), commonly known as ‘reddish-black berry’, is an Iranian medicinal plant found mainly in the region of the Arasbaran forests in Iran. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract of the leaves of this plant afforded four flavonol glycosides, e.g. quercetin 3-O-sophoroside (1), quercetin 3-O-sambubioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (3) and kaempferol 3,5-di-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (4). The free-radical-scavenging properties of the n-hexane, DCM and MeOH extracts, as well as the isolated compounds 1-4 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Keywords:Ribes biebersteinii Berl.; Grossulariaceae; free-radical
Steroidal compounds present in the VLC fractions of the DCM extract of O. cuspidatum
The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) fractions of the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bulbs of Ornithogalum cuspidatum, a native perennial of Iran , Iraq and Turkey , led to the identification of a number of steroidal compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the DCM extract was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and found to be much weaker (RC 50 = 0.5197 mg/mL) than that of the positive control Trolox ® (RC 50 = 3.07 x 10 -3 mg/mL).
Phytochemical investigations were performed in two plant species used in Sudanese traditional medicines to treat different illnesses, Diospyros mespiliformis and Croton zambesicus. The investigations revealed compounds of triterpenes (lupane series), one trihydroxyflavone and one diterpene. The compounds have been isolated and identified using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. These were lupeol (1), betulinic acid (2), betulin (3) and lupenone (4) from Diospyros mespiliformis. Compounds 1, 2, 3 in addition to diterpene ent -kaurane-3β, 16β, 17-triol (5) and vitexin (6) were re-isolated from Croton zambesicus. However,compound 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from this source.The pure isolated compounds and semi-synthesized acetates 1Ac, 2Ac and 3Ac, which were prepared from compounds 1, 2 and 3 respectively, were subjected to two bioassays: α- glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay and antioxidant activity. Compounds, 1, 1Ac, 3 and 4 showed a marked α-glucosidase inhibitory potential, while compound 6 exhibited strong antioxidant activity.
Top-cited authors
Ahmet C Gören
  • Bezmiâlem Vakif Üniversitesi
Adeolu Alex Adedapo
  • University of Ibadan
William N Setzer
  • University of Alabama in Huntsville
Anthony Jide Afolayan
  • Fort Hare University
K. Husnu Can Baser
  • Near East University