The goals of this study were to (a) develop an empirically based model regarding the development of fluent and automatic reading in the early elementary school years and (b) determine whether fluent text-reading skills provided benefits for reading comprehension beyond those accounted for by fluent word decoding. First-, second-, and third-grade children completed a series of reading tasks targeting word and nonword processing, text reading, spelling knowledge, autonomous reading, and reading comprehension. Structural equation modeling was carried out to evaluate how these skills operated together to produce fluent text reading and good comprehension. Evidence supported a simple reading fluency model for the early elementary school years suggesting that fluent word and text reading operate together with autonomous reading to produce good comprehension.
A model is presented to predict the readability of documents encountered by older adults. The documents studied are contained in the Educational Testing Service's Test of Basic Skills (1977 edition) and require readers to answer questions about charts (e.g., bus schedules), labels (e.g., plant spray labels and prescriptions), and forms (e.g., tax forms). The components of the model came from theoretical and empirical work on discourse processing and include such factors as discourse structure, emphasis, and position of an answer in a linguistic analysis of the everyday document.A sample of 482 adults from 52 to 93 years of age took the everyday problems test as well as a psychometric ability battery. The correlation was .54 (p < .01) between the readability scores for test items predicted by the model and the percentage of older adults correctly answering those items. In addition, the more difficult test items as identified by the model were correlated more highly with fluid intelligence abilities (figural relations and induction), crystallized intelligence abilities (vocabulary, experiential evaluation), and with memory span.
Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of reading prosody and its impact on later reading skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured for 92 children at the end of grades 1 and 2 and oral reading fluency and reading comprehension assessments at the end of the third-grade school year. Tests were carried out to determine (a) the manner in which the key features of oral reading prosody unfold with development and (b) the extent to which the development of reading prosody is predictive of later oral reading fluency and comprehension outcomes beyond word reading skills alone. Path model tests found a relationship between the presence of fewer pausal intrusions during oral reading in first grade and subsequent development of an adult-like intonation contour in second grade. Outcome model tests indicated that the intonation contour was a significant predictor of later fluency once word reading skills were taken into account. Decreases in the number of pausal intrusions between the first and second grades and early acquisition of an adult-like intonation contour predicted better comprehension later. Thus, prosodic oral reading might signal that children have achieved fluency and are more capable of understanding what they read. Results of this study support the inclusion of prosody in formal definitions of oral reading fluency.
This study addressed the effects of multiyear, response-based, tiered intervention for struggling readers in grades 6-8. A sample of 768 sixth-grade students with reading difficulties was randomized to a response-based, tiered-intervention condition or "business as usual," and initial treatment status was maintained over the three-year study. To estimate the effect of treatment and to address questions about the acceleration of learning, a multiple-indicator, multilevel growth model was fit, representing the likely trajectories of the group of students originally randomized (in the fall of sixth grade) to treatment. Three-year trajectories were fit, with the results representing likely multiyear trends for the three groups. Treatment students, on average, outperformed business-as-usual students. The effect size based on the multiple-indicator, multilevel model was .26. Treated students also outperformed the group of typical readers when achievement was characterized in terms of slope over time. However, a sizable gap remained between treated and typical students in the spring of eighth grade.
This article discusses data arising from a longitudinal study of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of preservice teachers regarding the use of popular culture in the primary literacy curriculum in England. Eighteen students took part in a series of interviews throughout their three-year initial teacher education course. Data were inductively coded. The responses of three students are analyzed using a number of the theoretical concepts developed by Bourdieu in order to explore how students' agency was limited in relation to their use of popular cultural texts. Findings indicate that consideration needs to be given to the way in which habitus, capital, and field interrelate if preservice teachers' decision-making processes with regard to the curriculum are to be understood, rather than examining any or all of these concepts in isolation. In addition, challenges to dominant practices can occur when there is tension between habitus and field. It is suggested that preservice teachers need opportunities to explore the relationship between structure and agency if they are to understand the limitations on their practice and challenge traditional models of the literacy curriculum. Implications for teacher education and future research are addressed.
There is a growing awareness of the importance of academic vocabulary, and more generally, of academic language proficiency, for students' success in school. There is also a growing body of research on the nature of the demands that academic language places on readers and writers, and on interventions to help students meet these demands. In this review, we discuss the role of academic vocabulary within academic language, examine recent research on instruction in academic vocabulary, considering both general academic words and discipline-specific words, and offer our perspective on the current state of this research and recommendations on how to continue inquiry and to improve practice in this area. We use the metaphor of 'words as tools' to reflect our understanding that instruction in academic vocabulary must approach words as means for communicating and thinking about disciplinary content, and must therefore provide students with opportunities to use the instructed words for these purposes as they are learning them.
This article addresses the question, How do changes in policy discourses shape public representations of literacy learners and the goals of adult literacy education? It examines specifically how the agency of adult literacy learners is constructed. We carry out a critical discourse analysis of two key adult literacy policy documents from the U.K.: the manifesto A Right to Read (British Association of Settlements, ) and Skills for Life: The National Strategy for Improving Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills (Department for Education and Skills, ). We describe the overall structure and genre of the documents and analyze the semiotic resources in the texts to explore the discursive shaping of adult literacy learners. Our analysis shows that, while a functional discourse of individual deficit is prominent throughout the texts, each document expresses it differently. A discourse of rights and participation in the earlier text changes to a discourse of social inclusion, conditional on duty and responsibility and narrowed to the sphere of paid employment. The profiles of individual learners are heavily framed by the dominant discourses of literacy and education that constitute the texts. We argue that the discursive shifts we trace in these national documents relate to wider changes in notions of social disadvantage, rights and citizenship, and the emergence of literacy as a key indicator of progress. Our analysis demonstrates the powerful ways in which policy documents articulate relationships between national and transnational literacies.
Acquiring argumentative reading and writing practices reflects a key component of recent curricular reforms in schools and universities throughout the United States and the world as well as a major challenge to teachers of reading and writing in K-12 and college writing classrooms. In this review, we consider the contributions of two research perspectives, cognitive and social, that researchers have employed in the study of the teaching and learning of argumentative reading and writing. We address two basic questions: How do these perspectives with their own disciplinary frameworks and logics of inquiry interactively inform how researchers study argumentative reading and writing, and consequently, how have these orientations informed pedagogical knowledge that may support teachers' understanding of what argumentation is and how it may be taken up in the educational contexts? We analyze relevant conceptual and empirical studies by considering assumptions underlying the cognitive and social disciplinary perspectives, especially in terms of the warrants that those perspectives assume. We also interrogate how these perspectives' logics of inquiry reveal assumptions about the transfer of learning as supported by instruction and other practices, such as classroom discussion, computer-supported collaborations, and other forms of instructional support. Using empirical studies of the teaching and learning of argumentative reading and writing conducted in grades K-12 and college writing classrooms, we delineate the assumptions that drive the two perspectives and their instructional consequences, arguing that researchers and teachers need an understanding of their assumptions about knowledge and transfer in order to establish a clear and coherent relationship between theory and practice. We offer a vision for research that integrates the cognitive and social perspectives to argue that the work of literacy research is to reveal cognitive processes and instructional practices that teachers can promote and students can employ for learning how to do argumentative reading and writing.إن الحصول على ممارسات قراءة وكتابة جدلية يعكس عنصرا رئيسيا للإصلاحات الأخيرة في المناهج الدراسية في المدارس والجامعات في جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية والعالم، وكذلك تحديا كبيرا لمعلمي القراءة والكتابة في الفصول الأخيرة من المدرسة الثانوية وفصول الكتابة في الجامعة. في هذه الدراسة، ندرس مساهمات منظوريْن لأبحاث معرفية واجتماعية استخدمها الباحثون في دراسة تعليم وتعلم القراءة والكتابة الجدلية. علينا بمعالجة مسألتين أساسيتين: كيف يخبرنا هاذين المنظورين مع أطرهما التأييدية الخاصة بهما، ومنطق البحث بصورة متفاعلة كيف يدرس الباحثون القراءة والكتابة الجدلية، وبناء على ذلك، كيف عرّفتنا هذه التوجهات بالمعرفة التربوية التي بوسعها أن تدعم فهم المعلمين عن الجدلية وعن كيفية تبنيها في السياقات التعليمية؟ نحلل الدراسات المفاهيمية والتجريبية ذات الصلة بالموضوع، وذلك بدراسة الفرضيات التي تقوم عليها المنظورات التأييدية الاجتماعية والمعرفية، ولاسيما من حيث الضمانات التي تفترضها تلك المنظورات. ونتساءل كذلك كيف يكشف منطق بحث المنظورات عن الفرضيات بشأن انتقال التعلم عندما يكون مدعما بالتعليم وممارسات أخرى مثل المناقشات في الفصول الدراسية وأوجه التعاون المدعومة بالحاسوب وأشكال أخرى من الدعم التعليمي. بعدما استخدمنا الأبحاث التجريبية لتعليم وتعلم القراءة والكتابة الجدلية التي تجرى في الصفوف الأخيرة من المدرسة الثانوية وفصول الكتابة في الجامعة، استطعنا وصف وتحديد الفرضيات التي تدفع المنظوريْن ونتائجهما التعليمية، محاولين أن نبرهن أن الباحثين والمعلمين يحتاجون إلى فهم هذه الفرضيات بشأن المعرفة والانتقال من أجل إقامة علاقة واضحة ومتجانسة بين النظرية والتطبيق. نقدم رؤيا لبحث يدمج المنظوريْن المعرفي والاجتماعي لنبرهن أن وظيفة أبحاث القراءة والكتابة هو كشف العمليات المعرفية والممارسات التعليمية التي يمكن أن يعززها المعلمون ويوظفها التلاميذ من أجل تعلم كيفية القيام بالقراءة والكتابة الجدلية.培养议论文读写能力的教学实践，是近今在美国及世界各地学校及大学课程改革的一个关键组成部分，也是从幼儿园、小学到中学的阅读与写作教师，以至大学的写作教室中所面对的一项重大挑战。在本文献回顾中，作者考虑研究人员从认知与社会这两个角度研究议论文读写教学的贡献。作者讨论两个基本问题：（1）这两个角度与研究人员自己的学科框架及探究逻辑，如何以交互方式影响研究人员对研究读写议论文所采用的方法？（2）这些方向因此如何影响给予教师的教育知识内容，以帮助教师理解什么是议论文及在教学环境中怎样学习议论文？作者分析相关的概念及实证研究时，考虑到认知及社会学科观点的基本假设，特别是支持这些观点的根据。作者亦调查这两个观点的探究逻辑，如何揭示学习转移的假设，如何利用教学和其他教学实践例如课堂讨论、电脑支援的协作及其他形式的教学支援来促进学习转移。作者使用幼儿园、小学、中学的议论文读写教学及大学写作教室的实证研究，藉以说明推动这两个观点的假设及其教学后果，并建议为了建立明确和一致的理论与实践关系，研究人员及教师需要了解他们对知识和转移所持的假设。作者更提供一个结合认知及社会观点的研究设想，论证读写文化研究工作是要揭示认知过程及教学实践，让教师可以用以促进议论文读写教学，学生可以用以学习如何阅读和写作议论文。L'acquisition de pratiques argumentatives en lecture et en écriture est le reflet d'une composante clé des récentes réformes des programmes dans les écoles et les universités d'un bout à l'autre des Etats-Unis et dans le monde, ainsi qu'un défi majeur pour ceux qui enseignent la lecture et l'écriture du jardin d'enfants au lycée et dans les classes d'écriture de premier cycle à l'université. Dans cette revue de question, nous examinons les apports des deux perspectives de recherche, cognitive et sociale, que les chercheurs ont utilisées pour étudier l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'argumentation en lecture et en écriture. Nous nous intéressons à deux questions de base: Comment ces perspectives avec leurs spécificités de structures disciplinaires et de logique d'enquête indiquent interactivement comment les chercheurs étudient le discours argumentatif et, par voie de conséquence, comment ces orientations ont informé les connaissances pédagogiques qui peuvent sous-tendre la compréhension qu'ont les enseignants de la compréhension et comment elle peut être appréhendée dans les contextes pédagogiques. Nous avons analysé les études théoriques et empiriques pertinentes en considérant les présupposés sous-jacents aux perspectives disciplinaires cognitive et sociale, en particulier en termes de garanties assumées par ces perspectives. Nous avons aussi interrogé comment les logiques d'enquête de ces disciplines révílent des présupposés en ce qui concerne le transfert d'apprentissage que suppose l'enseignement, et d'autres pratiques comme les discussions en classe, le travail en coopération avec l'aide d'un ordinateur, et d'autres formes d'apport pédagogique. En utilisant des études empiriques de l'enseignement et de l'apprentissage de l'argumentation en lecture et en écriture dans les classes du jardin d'enfants au lycée et les classes d'écriture du premier cycle universitaire, nous avons circonscrit les présupposés qui pilotent les deux perspectives et leurs conséquences pédagogiques, et soutenu que les chercheurs et les enseignants ont besoin de comprendre leurs présupposés au sujet des connaissances et du transfert de façon à établir une relation claire et cohérente entre théorie et pratique. Nous présentons une conception de la recherche qui intígre les perspectives cognitive et sociale et soutenons que le travail de recherche en littératie est de mettre en évidence les processus cognitifs et les pratiques pédagogiques que les enseignants peuvent promouvoir et que les élíves peuvent employer pour apprendre comment lire et écrire de façon argumentée.Недавние реформы учебных планов в школах и университетах США и других стран мира были связаны с введением аргументированного чтения и письма. Однако подобная практика по-прежнему вызывает сложности у преподавателей в старшей школе и колледжах. В данном обзоре рассматриваются два подхода – когнитивный и социальный – к исследованию чтения и письма. Первый вопрос: как эти подходы с присущими им дисциплинарными рамками и логикой исследовательского поиска интерактивно информируют о том, как происходит освоение аргументированного чтения и письма? Второй вопрос производный от первого: как эти подходы формируют знание учителей о том, что такое аргументация и как она может использоваться в образовательном контексте? В статье анализируются значимые концептуальные и эмпирические исследования, лежащие в основе когнитивного и социального подходов к изучению различных дисциплин, особенно в плане их потенциальных возможностей. Мы также рассматриваем, каким образом поисковая логика каждого из этих подходов обнажает различные представления об обучении как о различных формах сотрудничества учеников и поддерживающего их педагога, а именно: прямая передача знаний на уроке, учебная дискуссия, общение через компьютер и т.д. Используя эмпирическое исследование процессов обучения чтению и письму в старших классах и колледже, авторы рассматривают внутренние посылки обоих подходов и их возможные академические последствия и доказывают, что и исследователям и преподавателям необходимо определиться с собственными установками о знании и способах его передачи, чтобы установить ясные и последовательные отношения между теорией и практикой. Авторы предлагают объединить познавательный и социальный подходы к исследованию грамотности и утверждают, что цель подобных исследований состоит в сочетании осознанных когнитивных процессов с учебными методами, которые могут использовать преподаватели и учащиеся для аргументированного чтения и письма.Adquirir prácticas argumentativas en la lectura y la escritura refleja un componente importante de las recientes reformas hechas en escuelas y universidades en los Estados Unidos y el mundo además de un reto importante para los maestros de lectura y escritura en ambos centros docentes. En esta evaluación veremos las contribuciones de dos perspectivas de investigación, cognitivo y social, que han sido usadas por los investigadores al estudiar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la lectura y la escritura argumentativa. Nos enfocamos en dos preguntas básicas: Qué información se saca de cada una de estas perspectivas con sus propios marcos disciplinarios y lógica de cuestionar sobre como los investigadores estudian la lectura y la escritura argumentativa, y, de ahí, cómo estas orientaciones informan el conocimiento pedagógico que podría apoyar lo que los maestros entienden por argumentación y cómo se podría presentar la argumentación en un contexto docente. Analizamos estudios conceptuales y empíricos relevantes tomando en cuenta las suposiciones que informan estas perspectivas cognitivas y sociales, especialmente en cuanto a las justificaciones que dichas perspectivas toman por sentadas. También nos preguntamos cómo la lógica de cuestionamiento de estas perspectivas sobre la transferencia del conocimiento es apoyada por la instrucción y otras prácticas como la discusión en clase, la colaboración apoyada por ordenadores, y otras formas de apoyo a la instrucción. Usando estudios empíricos de la enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura argumentativa en K-12 y las universidades, describimos las suposiciones que informan ambas perspectivas y sus consecuencias para la instrucción, argumentando que los investigadores y los maestros necesitan entender sus suposiciones sobre el conocimiento y su transferencia para establecer una relación clara y coherente entre la teoría y la práctica. Ofrecemos una visión para la investigación que integra las perspectivas cognitivas y sociales para proponer que el propósito de la investigación sobre la alfabetización es sacar a luz los procesos cognitivos y las prácticas de instrucción que los maestros pueden fomentar y los estudiantes pueden usar para aprender a escribir y a leer argumentativamente.
The author asserts that the practice of literacy education should be informed by linguistic theory. When teachers pay attention to language the way linguists do, they gain an understanding of the relation between children's spoken language competence and their written language acquisition.
Notes that a number of studies (e.g., D. D. Durrell and H. A. Murphy; 1963, 1964, 1972) were omitted from the literature review on phoneme awareness by E. W. Ball and B. A. Blachman (see record
1991-22702-001). The author wonders if the omission was due to the change in vocabulary (e.g., from auditory discrimination and perception to phoneme awareness). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Comments on the article by Riedel (see record
2007-15530-005), who examined the relation between Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and reading comprehension at the end of first grade and second grade. The current author suggests that, other than the test of Oral Reading Fluency, Riedel's findings lead one to question whether the widespread use of the other DIBELS tests is justified. The testing demands would require that students simultaneously decode and comprehend using texts that increase in difficulty. Because the reading field already has a theory for conceptualizing fluency, and the expertise for developing standardized tests, it is time to move forward in developing theoretically and pedagogically sound measures of fluency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The use of texts in science classrooms has waned significantly over the past two decades. However, recently, researchers have shown renewed interest in the use of refutation texts as a tool for promoting conceptual change and science learning. In this article, we examine the intersection of conceptual change and reading comprehension research in science education. We begin by explaining how researchers in conceptual change have turned their interests toward text comprehension. We then examine models of reading comprehension that contribute to our understanding of how text can promote science learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Next, we examine recent empirical research concerning the effect of refutation text in promoting conceptual change in science. We close with suggestions for future research that seeks to integrate these two areas for the advancement of both scientific literacy and literacy skill development.
Responds to the questioning of E. R. Shapiro (see record
1986-22979-001) regarding the present authors' (see record
1985-23733-001) comparison of 2 approaches to reading instruction (language-oriented and routinized-performance) by stating that the relevant conditions of learning include both the content and the style of instruction. One value of applied research as presented by the present authors is that it affords the opportunity of observing how ideas are translated into practice and how instructional components as they actually exist in practice are related to reading skill. (4 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
ABSTRACTSThis essay seeks to broaden theoretical paradigms commonly used in the social sciences to analyze representations of gender, especially girlhood, in children's literature. In particular, this project seeks to add to liberal feminist frameworks for conceptualizing textual representations of gender and sexuality in literacy studies. Liberal feminisms theorize gender through the lens of sex-role theory, a paradigm in which social roles are allocated to men and to women on the basis of biological sex. The author acknowledges this important theoretical tradition, which brings attention to sex-role stereotypes in children's literature, and approaches the topic of gender representation from another perspective. Drawing on feminist and literary theories informed by poststructuralism, the author analyzes how discourses of femininity produce the contested subjectivity of the “girl.” Through a textual analysis of four variants of “Little Red Riding Hood,” the author illustrates how poststructural feminist literary theory allows for a reading of the girl as less a natural category than as the product of evolving, culturally situated, and contradictory discourses. In this wayanother possible direction for analyzing gender in children's literature is offered.
This study examined whether morphological analysis may be a mechanism underlying the relationship of morphological awareness to vocabulary and comprehension. Eighty-eight fifth- and 74 eighth-grade students completed a task designed to assess whether students use morphological analysis to infer meanings of low-frequency, presumably unfamiliar, words. Students chose a definition from among three alternatives for low-frequency, morphologically accessible words or approximate synonyms that were less morphologically accessible, both within the same sentence context. In addition, they chose definitions for 18 nonsense words that were also designed to afford differential access via morphological analysis. Students were more accurate with morphologically accessible items (words and nonwords) than less accessible items, suggesting that students can use morphological analysis to infer word meanings. Regression analyses indicated that skill in morphological analysis accounted for unique variance in vocabulary and comprehension for both age groups. These results have implications for theoretical accounts of how morphological awareness may support students vocabulary growth and comprehension.
This research explores literacy teachers perceptions of integrating information communication technologies (ICTs) into literacy instruction. To this end, a national survey of 1,441 literacy teachers in the United States was conducted. The survey provided data concerning the types and levels of reported availability and use of ICTs, beliefs about the importance of integrating ICTs into literacy instruction, and perceived obstacles to doing so. The analysis of data included descriptive statistics, an exploratory factor analysis, and a path analysis used to test a model hypothesizing a relation between teachers perceived importance of technology and reported levels of integration. Results revealed relatively low levels of curricular integration, consistent perceptions about obstacles to integration, and technological rather than curricular definitions of ICTs and of integration. The path analysis suggested several characteristics and influences associated with higher levels of integration and use. The findings advance understanding of the extent to which ICTs are being integrated into literacy instruction and what factors should be considered toward profitably increasing integration consistent with expanding definitions of literacy.
Argues that J. V. Hoffman (1983) fails to make a distinction between instruction and learning when he calls for more research on instruction. It is suggested that instruction puts emphasis on an instructor, and learning puts emphasis on the student. Teaching is described as involving 4 phases: instruction, application, practice, and evaluation. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
ABSTRACTSThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of and interrelations between the language proficiencies and reading abilities of children learning to read in either a first language or a second language. The authors compared the reading-comprehension, word-decoding, and oral-language skills of both high and low SES Dutch third and fourth graders to the skills of low SES minority third and fourth graders from a Turkish or Moroccan background living in the Netherlands. Several tests of reading comprehension, word decoding, oral text comprehension, morphosyntactic knowledge, and vocabulary knowledge were administered at the beginning of third grade, the end of third grade, and the end of fourth grade. The results showed the minority children to be faster decoders than the Dutch low SES children. With respect to reading comprehension and oral language proficiency, however, the minority children were found to lag behind the Dutch children in all respects. With respect to the interrelations between oral-language skills and reading skills, the development of reading comprehension was found to be influenced more by top-down comprehension-based processes than by bottom-up word-decoding processes for both the first- and second-language learners. The oral Dutch skills of the minority children played a more prominent role in the explanation of their reading-comprehension skills than the oral-language skills of the Dutch children, however.
Book reviewed in this article:Beating the Odds in Teaching All Children to Read. By Barbara Taylor, P. David Pearson, Kathleen Clark, and Sharon Walpole. September 30, 1999.The Contexts of Comprehension: Information Book Read Alouds and Comprehension Acquisition. By Laura Smolkin and Carol Donovan. June 30, 2000.The Interplay of Firsthand and Text-Based Investigations in Science Education. By Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar and Shirley Magnusson. March 31, 2000.The Scarcity of Informational Text in First Grade. By Nell Duke. August 31, 1999.
Replies to comments by D. Taylor (see record
1994-44700-001) on the article by R. F. West et al (see record
1993-28272-001), which asserted the unique importance of the print medium in developing literacy skills. Taylor's comments are criticized for being petty, unfounded, and inaccurate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
THIS STUDY investigated the trajectories of preschool and first-grade children's development of reading skills, as well as the cognitive and social antecedents of that development. One-hundred and ninety-six 5- to 6-year-old children were tested in October and April of their preschool year and again in the first grade. Data included measures of reading ability and its cognitive and social antecedents, which were analyzed using Simplex and Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling. The results showed that during the preschool year individual differences in reading grew larger and that this growth was faster among those who entered preschool with well-developed skills. However, during the first grade individual differences in reading diminished. The results suggest that systematic reading instruction in primary school education is more beneficial for children with less developed literacy skills, whereas children with more developed reading skills gain relatively less from reading instruction in the first grade.
Two experimental methods intended to improve inferential reading comprehension were investigated with second-grade children. One method focused on a prereading strategy in which children utilized previous experiences to predict events in the upcoming story. The second method provided practice in answering questions which required inferences between text and prior knowledge. The instruction was applied to ten basal-reader stories. Four dependent measures compared the comprehension ability of the two experimental groups and a control group. On comprehension questions following the instructional stories, the performance of the children in both experimental groups surpassed that of the control children. Standardized test scores and scores on an experimenter-designed test tended to favor the experimental groups, especially the group receiving practice in answering questions. A free-recall measure produced no differences among any groups./// [French] On a recherché deux méthodes expérimentales ayant pour but d'améliorer la compréhension de lecture déductive chez les enfants de cours élémentaires. Une méthode se concentrait sur une stratégie de pré-lecture au cours de laquelle les enfants ont utilisé des expériences préalables pour prédire des événements dans l'histoire à venir. La deuxième méthode fournissait des exercices pratiques de réponse aux questions qui exigeaient des déductions entre le texte et les connaissances préalables. L'instruction s'appliquait à dix histoires pour lecteurs de base. On a utilisé quatre mesures dépendantes pour comparer la capacité de compréhension des deux groupes expérimentaux avec un groupe de contrôle. Sur les questions de compréhension suivant les histoires instructionnelles, les accomplissements des enfants dans les deux groupes expérimentaux ont surpassé ceux des enfants du groupe de contrôle. Les résultats des tests normalisés et les résultats d'un test désigné au groupe expérimental tendaient à favoriser les groupes expérimentaux, surtout le groupe qui a pratiqué des exercices de réponse aux questions. Une mesure de rappel-libre n'a créé aucune différence dans aucun des groupes./// [Spanish] Se investigaron dos métodos experimentales para mejorar comprensión de lectura por inferencia en alumnos de segundo grado. El primer método concentró en una estrategia en la fase de iniciación a la lectura en la que los niños utilizaban experiencias previas para anticipar acontecimientos en el cuento subsecuente. El segundo método proveyó práctica en la contestación de preguntas que requerían inferencias entre el texto y conocimiento previo. La instrucción se aplicó a 10 cuentos de texto básico. Cuatro medidas dependientes compararon la destreza de comprensión de los 2 grupos experimentales y el de control. A las preguntas de comprensión que siguieron los cuentos instruccionales, la producción de respuestas de los niños de ambos grupos experimentales sobrepasó a los del grupo control. Resultados de un test objetivo standard y resultados de un test diseñado por el investigador tendían favorecer a los grupos experimentales, especialmente a aquel grupo que recibió práctica respondiendo a preguntas. Una medida de recuerdo libre no manifestó diferencias entre los grupos.
Abstracts the International Reading Association's outstanding dissertation, a study examining narrative accounts in the day-to-day conversations of five- to seven-year olds with their friends, the range of narrative forms they produce, and the social and interactional functions served by such narratives. (SR)
Using an approach to classroom research that D. Newman (1990) has termed a formative experiment, a study investigated the effects of engaging elementary school students in creating computer-based multimedia reviews of books they read independently. Formative experiments are designed to investigate how an instructional intervention can be implemented to achieve a pedagogical goal in a particular educational environment. Creating multimedia book reviews was the intervention; increasing the amount and diversity of students' independent reading was the pedagogical goal. Diverse quantitative and qualitative data were gathered during 2 academic years in 9 4th-grade and 5th-grade classrooms across 3 schools. Consistent with the intent of formative experiments, results are presented guided by the following questions: (1) What factors in the educational environment enhance or inhibit the intervention's effectiveness in achieving the pedagogical goal?; (2) How can the intervention and its implementation be modified during the experiment to achieve more effectively the pedagogical goal?; (3) What unanticipated positive or negative effects does the intervention produce?; and (4) Has the educational environment changed as a result of the intervention? Results indicated that the multimedia book review activity contributed to achieving the pedagogical goal of increasing the amount of children's independent reading; and school environments and teachers' roles to some extent shaped the effects of the activity. Findings suggest that formative experiments can address the limitations of conventional research methods previously used to study computer-based literacy activities in classrooms. (Contains 64 references, and 4 tables and 11 figures of data. Appendixes presents parent and teacher questionnaires.) (Author/RS)
Academic language is frequently assumed to be especially challenging for students from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) and even more so for language-minority students. Due to their often especially disadvantaged position regarding socioeconomic background and exposure to the language of instruction, language minority students are considered to suffer from a double disadvantage when processing complex academic language. To test this assumption, the present study investigated the relationships between various academic language features and differential item functioning (DIF) in a reading comprehension test for language-minority students on the one hand and German monolingual students from low-SES families on the other hand. The analyses are based on data of 19,108 fourth-grade students who took part in the reading comprehension test of the German National Assessment Study in elementary school. Our findings indicate that both lexical and grammatical features of academic language correlate with DIF disfavoring language-minority students, with especially pronounced effects for long and complex words and average sentence length. For German monolingual students from low-SES families, fewer features were associated with DIF, and the correlations were generally smaller than for language-minority students. Findings are discussed in relation to the assumed double disadvantage of language-minority students in the comprehension of academic language.
This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based approach for whole-school improvement, the Learning Schools Model (LSM), which was implemented in seven schools with low secondary school qualification rates. The LSM's core premises are that instructional practices need to be developed from evidence about teaching and learning in specific contexts and that professional learning communities need to fine-tune their instructional practices through collaborative analysis of data. The study employed a quasi-experimental design within a design-based approach and included classroom observations and teacher and student surveys. Reading achievement postintervention was statistically significantly higher than the projected achievement levels had the intervention not occurred. Effect sizes for tracked cohorts were Cohen's d = 0.50 and 0.62. The hierarchical linear model of reading achievement, which included students' attitudes toward reading, accounted for about 95% of the total variance. The attainment of secondary school qualifications (measured by odds ratios) increased significantly compared with school attainment prior to the intervention. The rates of attaining these qualifications were faster than national rates. The results suggest that both generic and content area literacy instruction are required and that a strong foundation in generic literacy should be maintained. However, the appropriate blend of literacy instruction is determined by a profiling of teaching and learning needs.
Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on income inequality that is separate from the achievement gap in traditional, offline reading? This possibility was examined between students in two pseudonymous school districts: West Town (economically advantaged) and East Town (economically challenged; N = 256). Performance-based assessments were used within a simulation of the Internet developed as part of a larger project. Seventh graders completed two online research and comprehension assessments, which evaluated four skill areas (locate, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate) and two knowledge domains in science. Students also completed an assessment of prior domain knowledge and a short Internet use questionnaire. Standardized state reading and writing test scores served as measures of offline literacy skills. Results indicated that there was a significant achievement gap favoring West Town students in offline reading scores, offline writing scores, and online research and comprehension scores. A significant gap persisted for online research and comprehension after we conditioned on pretest differences in offline reading, offline writing, and prior knowledge scores. The results of the questionnaire indicated that West Town students had greater access to the Internet at home and were required to use the Internet more in school. These results suggest that a separate and independent achievement gap existed for online reading, based on income inequality. Current estimates of this gap, which rely solely on measures of offline reading, may underrepresent the true nature of the U.S. reading achievement gap in an online age. Policy implications are explored.
A TOTAL of 292 Chinese children in the first, third, or fifth grade participated in one of two experiments investigating radical awareness; that is, the insight that a component of Chinese characters, called the radical, usually provides information about the character's meaning. The technique used in the experiments was to present two-character words familiar from oral language but which the children had not seen before in print. One of the characters was written in Pinyin, the alphabetic system that Chinese children learn in the first 2 months of first grade. The children's task was to select a character to replace the Pinyin. The first experiment showed that third graders and fifth graders were able to select characters containing the correct radicals even when the characters as a whole were unfamiliar to them, which must mean that they were aware of the relationship between a radical and the meaning of a character. The second experiment showed that children were better able to use radicals to derive the meanings of new characters when the radicals were familiar and the conceptual difficulty of the words was low. Children rated as good readers by their teachers displayed more awareness of radicals than children rated as poor readers.
In this article, the author presents a study which focused on some of the gaps in current knowledge about vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading. First, the study examined the effects of storybook reading on the vocabulary acquisition of 4- and 5-year-olds. Second, the study not only employed repeated readings of stories but also employed the use of rich explanations of target words during the reading. Third, it contributes to knowledge of vocabulary acquisition of second-language learners because it examines ESL preschoolers' English vocabulary acquisition. Next, it examined not only the role of initial L2 vocabulary knowledge to vocabulary acquisition but also the role of initial L1 knowledge to second-language vocabulary acquisition. It utilized many storybooks to assess children's vocabulary acquisition and examined storybook reading in a time frame which reflects the typical or natural experience of repeated readings. Finally, it examined a number of variables for their contribution to vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading, including initial vocabulary knowledge in both languages, home reading practices, age, gender, and treatment. Furthermore, the study asks the following research questions: (1) Are rich explanations helpful to ESL preschoolers' acquisition of sophisticated vocabulary from storybooks? (2) Does initial L2 vocabulary level contribute to children's target vocabulary acquisition? (3) Does initial L1 vocabulary level contribute to children's target vocabulary acquisition? (4) Which of the following variables account for the variance in ESL children's English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading: treatment, initial L2 level, initial L1 level, home reading practices, age, and gender?
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students' perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students' intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature.
Critical variables that underlie the performance of a national sample of young adults on a diverse set of document literacy tasks were identified. The final sample was 3,618 adults. The identification of these variables provides an important first step toward building a theoretical model that would systematically account for the constructs of document processing. The 61 tasks and their associated documents that make up the document scale of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Young Adult Literacy assessment were parsed using a specially devised grammar. Based on the parsings, variables were identified to account for the probability of success for the total population and for major subgroups of interest. The identified variables accounted for 89% of the variance for the total population. Among racial and ethnic groups, these variables accounted for 89% of the variance for White, 81% for Black, and 87% for Hispanic young adults. Among levels of education, these variables accounted for 56% of the variance for young adults with 0 to 8 years of schooling, 81% for young adults with 9 to 12 years of schooling, 88% for young adults with high-school degrees, and 84% for young adults with post-high-school degrees. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to provide a more general framework for describing, comparing, and researching documents. Five appendixes discuss parsing and scoring. (Contains 2 figures, 3 tables, 1 appendix table, and 70 references.) (Author/SLD)
Experienced readers of literature are more likely than novices to identify aspects of text that are salient to literary interpretation and to construct figurative meanings and thematic inferences from literary texts. This quasi-experimental study explores the hypothesis that novice readers can be supported in constructing literary interpretations by drawing on and applying everyday interpretive practices to their readings. Specifically, an everyday affect-based practice can serve as an interpretive heuristic to support the move from a local summary to a range of figurative interpretations. The affect-based interpretive heuristic involves identifying language in a literary text that a reader feels is particularly affect-laden, ascribing valence to that language, and then explaining or justifying those ascriptions. In a four-week, classroom-based instructional intervention, a 12th-grade class from a high-poverty, low-achieving, urban high school practiced this interpretive heuristic as they read literary texts. A comparative class also engaged in a unit of literary interpretation but did not use the heuristic. Analysis of a pre- and poststudy interpretive writing task and clinical think-aloud protocols from both groups showed that students receiving the intervention made gains in interpretive responses, whereas the comparison group did not. The results suggest that explicit instruction in affect-driven interpretive heuristics can support novice readers in constructing interpretive readings of literary texts.
Replies to another article in the same issue of this journal concerning research on "seductive details" (in which a reader's attention is diverted toward the interesting but unimportant seductive details and away from the uninteresting but important main ideas). Reasserts that there is insufficient evidence to convict seductive details of leading readers astray. (RS)
Practices of Biblical reading and interpretation are central to the literacy lives of those who call themselves evangelical Christians. More than one third of the U. S. population identifies as evangelical Christians, making evangelical Biblicism a pervasive and influential-if under-the-radar-literacy practice in U. S. life. Scholars of American evangelicalism have traditionally understood belief in the Bible as authoritative as one defining characteristic of the evangelical subculture in the United States. However, scholars interested in language, interpretation, and textual practices are only beginning to map out the contours of the literacy practices and ideologies entailed by American evangelical Biblicism. Critically reviewing scholarship across history, anthropology, religious studies, and sociology, I characterize evangelical Biblicism as an interpretive tradition mediated by a complex set of sociocultural practices and textual ideologies. From this standpoint, Biblicism involves the unceasing work of establishing and sustaining a transitive relationship among biblical text, right beliefs, and righteous actions. This set of relations gives rise to an interpretive tension that evangelicals have historically navigated between the necessity of interpretive freedom, allowing the Bible to live anew for each generation of believers (presence in the world), and the unchanging Truth of God's word (the purity of the Word). Evangelicals dialogically mediate the transitivity among text, belief, and action-and attendant tensions between the purity of the Biblical Word and its presence in the world-in textual communities. Bibles themselves function as mediating literacy artifacts and articles of commerce in a global evangelical print culture. This understanding of American evangelical Biblicism as literate practice raises new questions and issues for literacy scholarship, related to how young people are introduced to evangelical Biblicist traditions and practices; how evangelical Biblicist traditions, practices, and ideologies travel around, across, and beyond textual communities; and how evangelical Biblicism shapes teaching and learning in schools.
Thesis--University of Alberta. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 230-238). Microfiche of typescript. Ottawa : Canadian Theses Division, Cataloguing Branch, National Library of Canada, 1975. -- 4 sheets ; 10.5 x 15 cm. -- (Canadian theses on microfiche ; 20987).
We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from low-socioeconomic status families who were randomly assigned to five equal groups. Four groups read the e-book with a dictionary with (1) static visuals (SVs) without the printed focal words, (2) dynamic visuals (DVs) without the printed focal words, (3) SVs with the printed focal words, or (4) DVs with the printed focal words. The fifth group read the e-book without a dictionary (control). The results show that word explanations and word use progressed the most after reading the e-book with DVs and printed focal words. Less progress was observed when reading with SVs with printed focal words and DVs without printed focal words. Even less progress was observed when reading with SVs without printed focal words. The lowest support was in the control group, who read the e-book without a dictionary. Word spelling progressed significantly in all groups. This study contributes to our knowledge on the potential benefits of multimedia for supporting the language and literacy of preschoolers. More specifically, it shows the contribution of a dynamic dictionary together with printed focal words for expressive word learning, along with the benefit of highlighted text in an e-book for supporting word spelling.