Reading Psychology

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1521-0685
Print ISSN: 0270-2711
Publications
This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.
 
We evaluated the reliability and validity of two oral reading fluency scores for one-minute equated passages: median score and mean score. These scores were calculated from measures of reading fluency administered up to five times over the school year to students in grades 6-8 (n = 1,317). Both scores were highly reliable with strong convergent validity for adequately developing and struggling middle grade readers. These results support the use of either the median or mean score for oral reading fluency assessments for middle grade readers.
 
Examined the effectiveness of animated cues in electronic books on children's vocabulary development. 15 3rd grade children from a suburban elementary school participated in a One Group Pretest–Posttest program evaluation. The children were given a pretest requiring them to define 6 target words. They then listened to a poem from The New Kid on the Block CD ROM that contained the target words, and viewed animated cues designed to demonstrate the word meanings. Three days later the children were given a posttest containing the target words. A Wilcoxon Sign Test revealed a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores favoring the posttest. Suggestions for using electronic books to develop vocabulary are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined whether enthusiasm training would increase levels of observable enthusiasm in experienced teachers and result in a change in students' attitudes toward reading. 19 elementary school teachers were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were pretested and posttested by videotaping Ss presenting a 20-min reading skills lesson and giving their students a reading attitudes survey. Results indicate that enthusiasm training was significant in increasing levels of teacher enthusiasm, and this training also had a significant effect on changes in students' attitudes toward reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study sought to examine college students' attributions to failure in biology. Through the use of scenarios, we were interested in determining how males and females viewed the attributions of ability, effort, and learning strategy use. A 3 (attribution: ability, effort, strategies) × 2 (scenario gender) × 2 (respondent gender) factorial design was used to analyze 4 future goal statements and 4 emotional response statements. Results indicated a significant effect for attribution for 3 of the 4 future goal items, with participants believing most strongly that future goals could be met if the scenario student used the appropriate strategies. There was also a significant effect for attribution for all 4 of the emotional response items, with participants having the strongest emotional reaction when the attribution was to effort. Respondent gender interacted with attribution only on one emotional response item. Collectively these results indicate differences in patterns of responses between future goal and emotional items. Moreover, these results are important for learning-to-learn courses designed to teach effective strategy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews the debate on the importance of decoding in reading, focusing on the positions taken by 2 reading theorists, P. Gough (1976) and K. Goodman (1976). While Goodman argues that reading is a top-down process, Gough takes the opposite view that reading is a bottom-up, serial process. It is contended that the debate now seems to be settled, and that Gough's view, with its implications for reading acquisition and comprehension, has more explanatory power in terms of helping to understand the success of the good reader and the plight of the bad. Goodman's view of reading as a sophisticated guessing game is questioned. Gough's 2-stage theory of reading is advocated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study examined 40 kindergarten and first-grade teachers' abilities to use a rubric to rate 20 first-grade writing samples. Twenty-three of the teachers were trained to interpret the scoring dimensions of the rubric, while seventeen were not. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether training raters to interpret the scoring dimensions on a rubric would increased reliability. Generalizability theory was used to enable the researchers to estimate reliability by examining multiple sources of errors and their possible interactions simultaneously. Because the teachers were nested within training conditions (schools), ANOVA was run using a partially-nested design. Variance estimates and generalizability coefficients were calculated from the ANOVA results for each scoring dimension and the total raw score of the rubric. Variance estimates were calculated for each school (trained vs. untrained) on each of the scoring dimensions. Initial results indicated no increase in reliability due to training. Raters were nested within training, and because of this, it was impossible to separate rater main effect from the rater by-training effect. To further examine the nature of variation in the rater within-training term, separate analyses were performed on the data for trained and untrained raters. Data indicated a greater amount of variation in four of six scoring categories for the untrained raters. When comparing the two groups, the same pattern was also present in the total raw score of the writing samples. Less variance suggests that training increased raters' abilities to reliably interpret these scoring items. These findings have implications for rubric design and teacher training in the use of portfolio assessment.
 
The metaphors that college students use to describe lecture learning may reflect conceptual models that direct, organize, and constrain the nature of the notetaking practices they prefer to use. Specific notetaking practices that would be dictated by the metaphors of "Sponge," "Tape Recorder," "Stenographer," "Code Breaker," "Reporter," and "Explorer" were rated as to frequency of use by 84 college students in an introductory psychology class. Subsequent ratings of the adequacy of each metaphor by these students were used to predict preferences for metaphor-appropriate notetaking practices in individual stepwise regression analyses. The perceived quality of a notetaking metaphor was predictive of the metaphor-appropriate notetaking practices reported by students for every metaphor except the Explorer metaphor. The discussion focuses on the role that students' conceptual models of lecture learning might play in facilitating or hindering efforts to improve their notetaking practices. The importance of assessing conceptual models as well as specific behavioral practices in the diagnosis of lecture-learning difficulties and the evaluation of training interventions is also considered.
 
The present study examined the unique contributions of readers' goal and text structure on comprehension. In Experiment 1, participants read procedural and descriptive passages to perform the procedures, summarize the passages, or to answer questions. The perform goal showed highest comprehension, with no difference due to text type. In Experiment 2, participants read either a narrative-like or a list-like procedural text. The narrative-like text led to better comprehension than the list-like text for the perform condition, but this finding was reversed for the other conditions. The results indicate that past differences on text type were based on differences on local coherence.
 
Attitude toward reading affects student's achievement. While conventional wisdom and comparisons with low-skilled, non-disabled students suggest that students with learning disabilities have negative attitudes toward reading, few studies exist to support these inferences. The present study uses the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (McKenna & Kear, 1990) to describe elementary students' diagnosed with learning disabilities attitudes toward academic and recreational reading and to compare their attitudes with those expressed by their non-disabled peers. The findings show that students with learning disabilities who received reading instruction in special-education, resource rooms expressed reading attitudes that equaled or exceeded those expressed by low and average non-disabled students in a nationwide study conducted by McKenna and Kear (1990). The findings also indicated that the students' diagnosed with learning disabilities attitudes remained more stable across grades 1 through 5 than those expressed by their non-disabled students in the McKenna and Kear (1990) study.
 
While it is generally acknowledged that metalinguistic awareness plays a role in decoding ability (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 200022. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 2000. Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. (NIH Publication No. 00-4754) View all references), less is known about the role metalinguistic awareness plays in comprehension. In the present study, structural riddles and ambiguous sentences differing in the source of linguistic ambiguity were used to study the importance of metalinguistic awareness in reading comprehension. One hundred sixth and seventh graders were tested on 25 structural riddles and 40 ambiguous sentences. Performance was correlated with scores on the reading comprehension and vocabulary subtests of the GMRT4 (MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 200019. MacGinitie , W. H. , MacGinitie , R. K. , Maria , K. and Dreyer , L. 2000. Gates-MacGinitie reading tests, , 4th ed., Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company. View all references). It was found that both tasks correlated significantly with reading comprehension and vocabulary. A multiple hierarchical regression found that riddle solving explained unique variance in the reading comprehension scores, after vocabulary was statistically controlled. This is interpreted as evidence that metalinguistic awareness is an ability separate from general linguistic intelligence, which contributes to reading comprehension. The implications for instruction are discussed.
 
This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from three urban school districts. Quantitative analyses showed that students' demonstration of knowledge and thinking talk moves during the discussion had strong, positive relationships with the level of the rigor in the lesson. Qualitatively, the lesson transcripts were closely examined to find characteristics of teachers' questions that engage students in high-level thinking. This study also discussed implications for effective questioning in classroom.
 
Coefficients of Correlation Between Reading Comprehension and Other Variables Tested in the Study
The “Simple View of Reading” proposes that reading comprehension could be predicted by the product of decoding and linguistic comprehension. A somewhat modified version of this model suggests that the relationship between decoding and linguistic comprehension should be additive rather than multiplicative. This research is comprised of two studies. The first study compared the efficacy of the two formulas: (a) Reading Comprehension = Decoding × Listening Comprehension, and (b) Reading Comprehension = Decoding + Listening Comprehension. The second study reported here explored whether adding another factor, speed of processing, to the Simple View of Reading formula improves its ability to predict reading comprehension. Forty third-grade children were administered word-attack and listening comprehension subtests from the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery; the reading comprehension subtest from the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests; and a list of 40 letters to measure speed of processing. The results showed that Decoding and Listening Comprehension, whether multiplied with each other or added to each other, did not significantly alter the outcome. Furthermore, while 48% of the variance for Reading Comprehension could be explained by Decoding and Listening Comprehension, speed of naming the letters added another 10%. A modified model of reading is proposed which can be expressed by the formula, R = D × C + S.
 
To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes. Cluster analysis yielded four metacomprehension groups with differing emphases on textbase and situation model processes. Participants also provided definitions, post-comprehension assessments, and completed the Metacomprehension Scale. Differences across the subgroups provide evidence that individual differences in task-specific metacomprehension influence interpretation accuracy and post-comprehension assessments. In contrast, global metacomprehension subscales were uncorrelated with interpretation accuracy.
 
Mean Proportion Correct Responses to Listening and Reading Comprehension Tests as a Function of Grade Level
Mean Proportion Correct Responses to Listening and Reading Comprehension Tests as a Function of Grade Level and Text Type
This study examined the hypotheses that (a) the relationship between listening and reading comprehension becomes stronger after decoding mastery; (b) the difference between listening and reading decreases with increasing grade level; and (c) similar patterns of relationship and difference are obtained with narrative and expository texts. The sample included 612 students in Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8. Students read and listened to two narratives and two expository texts and completed corresponding comprehension tests that were in the form of sentence verification tasks. The findings confirmed the first two hypotheses but not the third one. In the case of expository text, the relationship between listening and reading comprehension was weaker than the corresponding one with narrative text, and performance levels were comparable across all elementary grades. Moreover, reading comprehension levels were higher than listening comprehension levels in Grade 8, regardless of text type. The implications of these findings with respect to the dominant unitary process model and the assessment and instruction of oral and written language comprehension are discussed.
 
For nearly four decades reading educators, educational psychologists, experimental psychologists, applied linguists, and early childhood educators have investigated children s widely acclaimed ability to read print found in the ecology of their everyday environments. This study examined how concepts-about-print knowledge interacted with other traditional measures of print knowledge, to affect children s reading of environmental print in context and out. The participants in this study were 97 children ages 4-7. Eight selected environmental print items were systematically maniupulated across five presentation conditions gradually removing aspects such as logo, color, font, and so on. This study demonstrated the important role that word recognition and concepts-about-print and word recognition were the most reliable discriminators between children who could accurately and consistently read environmental print displays, and those children evidencing lesser levels of development and expertise.
 
Mentoring plays a vital role in the academic context. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the mentoring relationships I established with my students and to determine how my experiences and the mentoring I received from my university professors influence my mentoring practices. The results confirm the dynamic nature of the mentoring process, and the scenarios illustrate how my mentors influenced my practices but also show how I changed my approach when necessary to meet the needs of the students.
 
This article provides a statistical analysis of the reading gains observed at one American school in the Caribbean that was using Accelerated Reader. It provides an estimate of the number of hours students needed to read to advance their reading performance an additional year. The authors estimate how much Accelerated Reader contributed to the advancement and determine how many points per grade a student needs to earn to make a year of reading growth. When points are converted to hours of time, the data show that it takes about 800 hours of time each year for students in grade 3 through grade 12 to achieve a year of growth. It is the conclusion then that students who read this much would spend about 9,600 total hours reading during their first 12 years of schooling.
 
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of four incentive paths on third graders’ reading vocabulary and comprehension achievement and recreational and academic reading attitude. One hundred and twenty third-grade students were assigned to one of four incentive path treatment conditions. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) post hoc comparisons. An effect size of .09 was calculated using a partial η (eta squared) statistic. Findings indicated that the four incentive path treatment conditions did not differentially impact student vocabulary, comprehension, and recreational reading. A significant difference for students’ academic reading attitudes was identified across the four incentive path treatment conditions.
 
Considers reading research that establishes phonological awareness as a predictor of reading success. Examines the research that seeks to teach phonological awareness to children who lack linguistic sensitivity. Identifies classroom practices that may have merit in encouraging phonological awareness in children. (RS)
 
Percentile Ranks for Vocabulary. Reading, and Language from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills.
Analysis of Variance Results for Reading from the Actual Book and
The intention of this study was to investigate the effects on reading comprehension when reading shorter and easier narrative text and longer and more difficult narrative texts on the printed page as compared to reading the same narrative texts using interactive CD‐ROM software displayed by the computer. Specifically, the ability of two classes of above‐average fourth‐grade children to answer comprehension questions about seven narrative stories was compared. One class of fourth‐grade children read each narrative from the actual book and answered six multiple‐choice questions about the story, while the second class of fourth‐grade children read the same narratives from interactive CD‐ROM software displayed on the computer and answered six multiple‐choice questions about the story. A three‐way analysis of variance on comprehension scores revealed that reading from computers increased comprehension scores when subjects were reading longer and more difficult narratives. Results indicated no difference when the two treatment groups were reading shorter and easier narratives.
 
The metacognitive awareness and reading strategy use of high school students enrolled in two high schools were investigated. The correlations between reading scores and strategy use were examined as well as the variation in strategy use by self-rated reading proficiency and academic grades. The factor analysis revealed four factors on the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory: Metacognitive Awareness Strategies, Text-Based Strategies, Reading Process Strategies, and Predicting Strategies. Reading Process Strategies were most preferred by participants, whereas Text-Based Strategies were least preferred. A statistically significant difference in strategy use was found for reading achievement, self-rated reading proficiency, and grade level.
 
Presents a method and rationale for enhancing verbal learning in a typical reading-language arts lesson through personal and group generated images and associations. (FL)
 
Numeracy is the understanding of the meaning and interpretation of natural phenomena and is an important skill for full participation in society. Everyday there are numerous situations that require individuals to interpret quantitative information for personal decision making and understanding of significant public issues. However, the gap between individuals’ numeracy needs and their understanding of numeracy has widened. Thus, organizations and scholars have attempted to explain the value and nature of numeracy. This article discusses how and why numeracy is important for full participation in society.
 
This article explores the potential of computers to facilitate visual thinking. The authors’ thesis is that computers can offer learners powerful assistance in their acquisition of certain visual thinking skills and that the assistance offered can be analogized to the assistance which using a word processor gives to a person involved in the writing process. Strengths and limitations of using computers to facilitate visual thinking as a springboard for classroom writing activities are also addressed.
 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interference of certain anaphoric expressions (pronouns) on eighth grade students’ reading comprehension. The subjects (n=103) were administered cloze .tests of anaphoric comprehension in which either 0%, 33%, 66% or 100% of the pronouns were replaced by appropriate referents. Analysis of covariance was utilized to analyze the resulting data, using passage form as the independent variable, and SRA reading achievement scores as the covariate. The null hypothesis was rejected, which stated there would not be significant differences among subjects’ cloze scores on reading the four different forms of the passages. The results suggest that use of anaphoric expressions in some instances will interfere with the reading comprehension of eighth graders. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed
 
Adjusted mean difference score for each of the four issues by pro/con and con/pro conditions.
Adjusted mean difference score for energy savings and leisure by pro/con and con/pro conditions.
Number of Participants Who Produced Affirmation and Negation for Energy Saving and Leisure
Two experiments were conducted to examine whether students use arguments with refutation in one text for evaluating the opposite arguments without refutation in another text. Undergraduate students read two conflicting texts in either of the two orders: pro arguments text first and con arguments text first. After reading each text, they evaluated the convincingness of individual arguments in the text. Finally, they wrote argumentative essays concerning controversial issues. Experiment 1 indicated that presentation order affected students' evaluations of arguments in the case where most of them affirmed the refutational relations in their essays, suggesting the conditional use of multiple texts for argument evaluation. Experiment 2 replicated this result using more natural argumentative texts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
 
Examines the possibility that readers' attitudes toward a topic might color their perception and recall of factual information about that topic presented in expository text. Finds no significant differences among readers with opposing attitudes to the topic in either free recall or multiple-choice test performance. (RS)
 
Proposes an approach to vocabulary development that stresses the integral relationships between words; describes 20 categories of meaning that can be used as a basis for developmental vocabulary lessons; and offers suggestions for the application of these meaning categories in vocabulary instruction in various subject areas. (GT)
 
Given the importance associated with multiple-document literacy in the present-day knowledge societies and the dearth of research in English Language Teaching in general and English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESAP) contexts in particular on multiple-document comprehension and the significance of reader beliefs in this type of comprehension, the present study was carried out with the aim of investigating the relationship between ESAP students’ personal epistemological beliefs and their inferential intratextual and intertextual understanding of multiple texts. To this aim, 64 first-semester midwifery students were selected as the participants of the study. They were required to read four passages on multi-fetal pregnancy which discussed different aspects of this phenomenon. Having filled out the Epistemological Beliefs Inventory, they were tested on the inferential intratextual and intertextual comprehension of the texts. Results of the analyses of the data revealed significant associations between epistemological beliefs and the inferential comprehension of multiple texts. The results also indicated the poorer performance of the participants in intertextual inferential understanding of the texts compared with the intratextual understanding of them. The study concludes with tentative implication of the findings for ESAP reading courses.
 
Reviews research from 1981 to 1992 on oral reading instruction. Concludes that oral reading instruction is a legitimate part of a developmental reading program. Suggests that oral reading can offer benefits of increased fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary if instruction is purposeful, based on making meaning out of print, and engages all students with a piece of text. (SR)
 
Research has established a connection between print exposure and reading skills. The authors examined the impact of book access on print exposure via a monthly book distribution program. At 10 months of implementation, 170 families enrolled in the Imagination Library Program in Syracuse, New York responded to a survey. Results indicated that length of enrollment was associated with frequency of child-directed reading and story discussion, even when controlling for child age, gender, income, parental education, race, parental nation of birth, and primary language spoken at home. Consequently, the authors conceptualize such programs as catalysts for developing early literacy skills by increasing child-directed reading.
 
For more than 100 years, research on the psychology of reading has proliferated. In this article, the authors wish to help modern reading researchers understand the origins of the discipline and benefit from its history. This article draws heavily on Edmund Burke Huey's 1908 landmark volume The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading, the first scientific treatise in the field of literacy. Starting with Huey, some of the early pioneers’ enduring contributions to the field are highlighted but especially their scientific mistakes that ultimately led the field in promising new directions. An overview of the modern controversy between phonics and whole language instruction is underscored regarding how it arose from early errors.
 
Describes how narrative texts can be represented as networks of causally related statements or events and presents empirical evidence that the networks predict performance on reading comprehension. Compares network theory to other theories of discourse comprehension. Suggests implications of causal representations for reading and composition instruction. (RS)
 
Description of Books and Strategies Taught in Parent Training Sessions
Results of Paired t-Tests and Two-Sample t-Tests for Strategy Use Before Reading (Level of Significance 5%)
Results of Paired t-Tests and Two-Sample t-Tests for Strategy Use After Reading (Level of Significance 5%)
Post-Hoc Test for Treatment Groups 1 and 2 and Control Group 3 on Post-Test CAP Scores
This study examines a family literacy intervention conducted in two first-grade classrooms with culturally diverse student populations. In the treatment and control classrooms, six parents and a classroom teacher learned practices for building home-school partnerships. Data were analyzed to determine changes in home-literacy practices, increases in parents' knowledge literacy instruction, and changes in children's literacy achievement. Data analyses demonstrated that participating parents showed significantly greater usage of effective storybook reading strategies before and after reading. Parental and teacher participation resulted in statistically significant differences in students' scores on the Concepts of Print assessment, compared to students in the control classroom.
 
Examines what happens when secondary remedial reading students work together in cooperative groups. Finds that, when students are seated in groups, cooperative student relations develop over the course of the school year, even though students did not receive instruction in cooperative learning procedures. (MG)
 
This study examined the effectiveness of using the online digital reading environment to increase elementary students’ comprehension within a reading clinic. Preservice teachers at a four-year university in the Midwest worked one-on-one with 58 fourth-grade students from three schools who were assigned to one of three conditions: print-based text instruction, hybrid instruction consisting of equal time with print and online digital reading environment, and digital-based text instruction. Students participated in 12 tutoring sessions lasting 75 minutes each, consisting of instructional activities targeting their areas in need of improvement. Multiple pre- and post-intervention measures of reading comprehension were collected. One-way analysis of variance results indicated that after controlling for initial reading achievement, there was a main effect for condition on comprehension.
 
Describes a week-long library skills unit for disadvantaged high school students, noting that much of the success of the program rests in the use of a library usage game--in which students are pitted against the staff--at the end of the unit. Describes the game in detail. (GT)
 
Correlation Between AR and ER
Descriptive Response to Reading Interests
This study employed a convergent mixed-method research design to investigate reading habits of American college students. A total of 1,265 (466 male and 799 female) college students voluntarily participated in the study by completing a self-reported survey. Twelve students participated in semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Descriptive analysis indicated that the hours students spent weekly (M) on academic reading (AR), extracurricular reading (ER), and the Internet (INT), were 7.72 hours, 4.24 hours, and 8.95 hours, respectively. A multiple linear regression and a zero-order correlation statistical analysis indicated the INT and socializing with others (SO) were significant factors college students devoted to conventional academic and extracurricular reading.
 
Argues that developmental spelling theory has made primary school teachers aware that spelling is a developmental process, has heightened teachers' awareness of the important relationship between young children's early spelling and word reading efforts, and has influenced work on the use of derivational morphology in the middle grades. (RS)
 
Contends that second-language reading comprehension should be investigated using adult bilingual readers reading authentic materials in their first and second languages and should focus on the process rather than the product. Examines reading strategies of eight Chinese graduate students at a Canadian university. Suggests that students used the same text-based strategies in Chinese and English. (PA)
 
Discusses separating good readers from poor readers. Defines strategies for accomplishing academic tasks. Finds that poor readers lack appropriate strategies to correct their comprehension problems. Reports results of interviews with 60 fifth-grade expert readers. Concludes that through direct, systematic teaching and guided practice of reading strategies within specific contexts, students' reading comprehension can be aided by teachers. (PA)
 
Means of Listening and Reading Comprehension across Groups and Text Types (N = 189) 
Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for Reading Comprehension (N = 189) 
This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a nine-week long intervention designed to familiarize them with oral expository structures in the previous year while in first grade. The findings indicated that familiarization did not lead to the expected advantage of listening over reading for either expository or narrative text. Implications concerning the conceptualization of comprehension as a unitary process construct are discussed.
 
Reviews the procedures, findings, and implications of Kenneth Goodman's 1965 study of the role of context in the linguistic awareness of beginning readers; concludes that "a substantial number of those who support Goodman's findings and his implications do so for intuitive rather than empirical reasons." (GT)
 
Discusses how being labeled "at risk" sometimes begins a proleptic cycle for such children. Considers that current challenges to the deficit assumption hold that their differences are sometimes used to deny children literacy experiences that would support growth in literacy understanding. Discusses student perceptions of their participation in classroom activities and teacher attitudes/beliefs about at-risk learners. (PA)
 
This article discusses the various labels and definitions given for texts used for informational reading and writing and the confusion caused by the inconsistency of terms. An EBSCO search on articles published from 2006 to 2011 in the three largest literacy-related professional organizations' journals produced a total of 59 articles. Nonfiction was the most frequent label used; the term “informational text” had the greatest number of definitions and disparity in use. The authors discuss the implications of these disparities in labels and definitions for both researchers and teachers.
 
Examines the validity of estimates of instructional reading level produced by the Reading Comprehension Test of the 1986 Metropolitan Achievement Tests (MAT). Compares reading level estimates provided by the MAT, basal reader placement tests, an informal reading inventory, and classroom teachers' judgments. Suggests that each method, because of high percentages of agreement, yields similar information. (SKC)
 
This study examines the process of fluency development of three fourth-grade readers of varying reading abilities. Participants were selected based on the number of words they read correctly per minute (WCPM) on the Qualitative Reading Inventory and their score on the Multidimensional Fluency Scale (MFS). Students participated in an 8-week intervention using readers' theater for fluency instruction and practice. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Students were observed during the literacy block of the school day, interviewed three times each, and provided weekly student self-reports. WCPM and MFS scores were recorded weekly. Findings showed inconsistent accuracy scores but documented the progress of students' development in two of the four MFS categories: pace and expression/volume. Motivation and confidence also increased through use of readers' theater. (Contains 2 figures.)
 
Examines the long-term effects of instruction on the reading achievement of children diagnosed as having learning disability and were taught in resource rooms. Studies the consequences of such instruction on the cognitive level of children identified as having reading disability. Finds that resource room placement and instruction have deleterious effects on spelling skills and verbal intelligence. (PM)
 
Considers the rationale for and some of the uses of portfolios in an educational context. Discusses assessment and teacher education uses for portfolios and offers portfolio development guidelines. (MG)
 
Top-cited authors
Joanne F. Carlisle
  • University of Michigan
Linda Baker
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Danielle McNamara
  • Arizona State University
Randy Granville Floyd
  • The University of Memphis
Timothy Rasinski
  • Kent State University