Química Nova

Online ISSN: 0100-4042
Publications
Article
This paper reports the synthesis of methanones and esters bearing different substitution patterns as spacer groups between aromatic rings. This series of compounds can be considered phenstatin analogs. Two of the newly synthesized compounds, 5a and 5c, strongly inhibited tubulin polymerization and the binding of [(3)H] colchicine to tubulin, suggesting that, akin to phenstatin and combretastatin A-4, they can bind to tubulin at the colchicine site.
 
Article
We extended our previous exploration of sulfur bridges as bioisosteric replacements for atoms forming the bridge between the aromatic rings of combretastatin A-4. Employing coupling reactions between 5-iodo-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and substituted thiols, followed by oxidation to sulfones with m-CPBA, different locations for attaching the sulfur atom to ring A through the synthesis of nine compounds were examined. Antitubulin activity was performed with electrophoretically homogenous bovine brain tubulin, and activity occurred with the 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene (12), while the other compounds were inactive. The compounds were also tested for leishmanicidal activity using promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR175/M2904), and the greatest activity was observed with 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-(phenylthio)benzene (10) and 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) sulfinyl]benzene (15).
 
Article
CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE STUDIES OF A CPC TYPE PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTOR. A CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) reactor was projected and constructed aiming to promote the degradation of the organic matter present in considerable volumes of aqueous effluents, under the action of solar radiation. The essays were done using a model effluent which consists of a mixture of fragments of a sodium salt of lignosulphonic acid possessing a mean molecular weigth of 52,000 Daltons, and a real effluent, from a chip board industry. The volume of effluent in each test was about 50 L. The tests involved heterogeneous (TiO2 P25 Degussa and formulations made from the association of TiO2 with a photosensitiser), and homogeneous (thermal and photochemical Fenton reactions) catalysis of the effluents. The results demonstrate the viability of application of this kind of reactor even when the load of organic pollutants is high.
 
Article
In this work we describe the synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glass (0.3La2S3-0.7Ga2S 3) with low phonons frequencies. Several properties were measured like Sellmeier parameters, linear refractive index dispersion and material dispersion. Samples with the composition above were doped with Dy2S3. The absorption and emission characteristics were measured by electronic spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrum respectively. Raman and infrared spectroscopy shows that these glasses present low phonons frequencies and strucuture composed by GaS4 tetrahedrals. The Lines model was used for calculate the coefficients values of the non linear refractive index.
 
Espectrômetro de massas por tempo-de-vôo (TOF).
Article
A simple and inexpensive time-of-flight mass spectrometer, dedicated to the study of gas-phase ionization processes induced by high energy electrons (0.5 - 3.0 keV), is described. The spectrometer design is based on the Wiley-McLaren principle, with a total length of about 18 cm. As a demonstration of the performance of the apparatus, mass spectra for Ar, CH4, CO2, and SF6, obtained at 1 keV electron energy, are presented.
 
Article
The reaction of an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene oxide) (peo - mw 100.000) with a neutral aqueous suspension of single layers of MoS2 was studied. The single layers aqueous suspension was prepared by first intercalating lithium (using n-Butyllithium in n-hexane) and reaction of these ternary compound with water under ultrasound stirring. The suspension was washed several times with water until neutral pH. The suspension was mixed with the PEO aqueous solution in the presence of KCl. Two single phase compounds were obtained with the expansion of 4,8 and 9,0Å, attributed to the solvation of the intercalated potassium cations with mono and double layers, respectively.
 
Article
Thermal baths to decrease ambient temperature are an indispensable tool for most research and teaching laboratories, especially those in tropical or equatorial regions. A simple and inexpensive thermal bath has been developed based on a scratched compressor. It has three possible setups for cooling: sample immersed into the bath, sample flowing through the bath, and cooling liquid flowing in a jacket around the sample. It has been tested for 40 months. The temperature ranges from room temperature to 0 degreesC, when using water. The repeatability is better than 3% and the precision varies from 0.5% to 2%.
 
Article
In this review article, we give a general introduction on the mechanisms involved in organic chemiluminescence, where three basic models for excited state formation are presented. The chemiluminescence properties of 1,2-dioxetanes - four membered ring peroxides - are briefly outlined in the second part. In the main part, the mechanisms involved in the decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes and analogous peroxides are discussed: (i) the unimolecular decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes; (ii) the electron transfer catalyzed decomposition of peroxides by an intermolecular CIEEL (Chemically Initiated Electron Exchange Luminescence) mechanism; (iii) 1,2-dioxetane decomposition catalyzed by an intramolecular electron transfer mechanism (intramolecular CIEEL). Special emphasis is given to the latter subject, where recent examples with potential analytical applications are presented.
 
Produto de bis-inserção de difenilacetileno na ligação Pd-C no composto [Pd(dmba)(MeCN) 2 ](NO 3 )  
Article
The present paper deals with the bis-insertion reactions of 1,2-diphenylacetylene into Pd-C bond of the cyclopalladated complexes [Pd(dmba)(m-NCO)]2 (1) and [Pd(dmba)(MeCN)2](NO3) (2) (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, MeCN = acetonitrile). Two new complexes [Pd{PhC=CPh-CPh=CPhC6H4CH2N(CH 3)2}(NCO)] (3) and [Pd{PhC=CPh-CPh=CPhC6H4CH2N(CH 3)2}(NO3 )] (4) were obtained and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.
 
Article
The 1,2,3-triazole, known since the end of 19th century, is a very widely used heterocyclic system present in many synthetic substances and commercial pharmaceutical compounds. In fact, 1,2,3-triazoles show several applications in many areas especially as medicines against many diseases like cancer, AIDS, Parkinson and Alzheimer. Nowadays there is a large variety of known methods to obtain these heterocyclic compounds comprising mainly three synthetic routes. Nevertheless, there is no article that gives an objective overview of the synthetic methods for obtaining these kinds of azoheterocycles. This paper presents a brief history of this class of compounds, and a synthetic discussion concerning the main synthetic methods for its preparation, such as cyclization through hydrazones, concerted cycloadditon [2+3] and pseudopericyclic cyclization - and some others of restricted application, but also important. Finally, this paper also provides a brief overview on pharmacological applications of some 1,2,3-triazoles.
 
Article
The infrared (IR) spectra of the four distict conformers located on the multidimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the 3-phenyl-1,2,3-oxathiazolidine 2-oxide compound have been calculated using the semiempirical quantum-mechanical method PM3. The band spectra are reported and compared directly with the experimental spectrum. The IR intensities are shown to be much more sensitive to conformational changes than the vibrational frequencies and so, the theoretical analysis of the IR spectrum can be used as a tool for helping in the elucidation of the structure of heterocyclic compounds.
 
Article
The thermal decomposition reaction of pinacolone diperoxide (DPP; 0.02 mol kg-1) in 2-methoxyethanol solution studied in the temperature range of 110.0-150.0 °C, follows a first-order kinetic law up to at least 50% DPP conversion. The organic products observed were pinacolone, methane and tert-butane. A stepwise mechanism of decomposition was proposed where the first step is the homolytic unimolecular rupture of the O-O bond. The activation enthalpy and activation entropy for DPP in 2-methoxyethanol were calculated (deltaH# = 43.8 ± 1.0 kcal mol-1 and deltaS# = 31.9 ± 2.6 cal mol-1K-1) and compared with those obtained in other solvents to evaluate the solvent effect.
 
Representación gráfica del efecto de la temperatura sobre la k exp y de la función suma residual de cuadrados, S u , para la descomposición térmica de DPAF en distintos solventes: 1-benceno, 2-2-propanol-benceno, 3-1,4-dioxano, 4-metanol, 5-acetonitrilo  
Article
The thermal decomposition reaction of trans-3,6-dimethyl-3,6-diphenyl-1,2,4,5-tetraoxacyclohexane (acetophenone cyclic diperoxide, DPAF), in different solvents (methanol, 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile and 2-propanol/benzene mixtures) in the initial concentration and temperature ranges of (4.2-10.5) x 10-3 M and 140.0 to 185.0 ºC, respectively, follows a pseudo first order kinetic law up to at least 70% DPAF conversion. An important solvent effect on the rate constant values, activation parameters (DH# and DS#) and reaction products obtained in different solvents is detected, showing that the reaction is accelerated in alcohols.
 
Article
In this paper we report the synthesis of biologically active compounds through a [3+4] cycloaddition reaction to produce the main frame structure, followed by several conventional transformations. The 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one (11) obtained from a [3+4] cycloaddition reaction was converted into 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8 -oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (13) in 46% yield. This was further converted into the alcohols 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3 alpha-ol (14), 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8 -oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3beta-ol (15), 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-3-butyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3 alpha-ol (17), 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-3-hexyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3 alpha-ol (18) and 1,2alpha,4alpha,5-tetramethyl-3-decyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3 alpha-ol (19). Dehydration of 17, 18 and 19 with thionyl chloride in pyridine resulted in the alkenes 20, 21 and 22 in ca. 82% - 89% yields from starting alcohols. The herbicidal activity of the compounds synthesized was evaluated at a concentration of 100 mg g-1. The most active compound was 21 causing 42,7% inhibition against Cucumis sativus L.
 
Possíveis subprodutos na obtenção de (2).  
Reação de 4 e 5 em presença de água levando à formação de (2).  
Estruturas poliméricas 8 e 9.  
Article
A new method for the preparation of 2-chloro-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (1) and 2-chloro-4,5-benzo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (2), are reported. The modifications introduced in the synthetic route improved the yield and facilitated the control of reaction, but the synthesis require longer reaction time. The compounds were characterized by ¹H, 13C{¹H} and31P{¹H} NMR spectroscopy. Due to the complexity of the spin system AA'BB'X (A, A', B, B' = ¹H; X = 31P) of 2, a simulation of the ¹H NMR spectra was done and it's in agreement with the bibliography.
 
Article
A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of 1,4 dioxane in cosmetics by gas chromatography is described. A manual SPME holder with 85 µm polyacrylate coating is utilized. The method is determined to have good resolution, satisfactory linerity (correlation coefficient r=0.997 for 0.20-10.00 mg Kg-1 range), a relative standard deviation of 6.3% and a detection limit of 5.00 µg Kg-1. Some cosmectic products were analyzed.
 
Article
Nowadays the catalyst systems based on neodymium are the ones most used in the high cis polybutadiene production. These systems contain a neodymium compound (catalyst), an alkylaluminium compound (cocatalyst) and a halogen compound (halogenating agent). The microstructure, molecular weight characteristics and the reaction activity are influenced by the nature and concentration of catalyst system components. Those characteristics are also affected by the polymerization conditions. This paper presents a brief review on 1,4-cis-butadiene polymerization on neodymium catalysts.
 
Modelo de esferas rígidas da cela unitária em um cristal do sistema cúbico de face centrada.
Representação das faces de baixos índices de Miller (111), (100), (110) e modelos de esferas rígidas destas faces em um cristal do sistema cúbico de face centrada.
Voltamogramas cíclicos da Pt(100) em H 2 SO 4 0,1 mol L-1 , a 50 mV s-1. (-) Entre 0,05 e 0,8 V (-) Entre 0,05 e 1,45 V vs. ERH (2° ciclo). (1) Adsorção-dessorção de hidrogênio sobre a Pt(100); (2) Adsorção de OH; (3) Formação de óxidos superficiais PtO; (4) Rearranjo superficial devido à orientação de dipolos das espécies carregadas; (5) Adsorção de hidrogênio sobre o eletrodo reconstruído após a redução total da platina (pico catódico em 0,75 V).
Article
Platinum is widely used as electrode in electrocatalytic processes, however the use of polycrystalline electrodes introduces a series of variables in the electrochemical system due to the aleatory contribution of all the crystallographic orientations with different surface packing of atoms. Single crystal platinum electrodes of low Miller index present surface structure of high regularity and serve as model to establish a correlation among the macroscopic and microscopic properties of the electrochemical interface. Therefore, the main aim of this work is the study of the voltammetric profiles of the reversible adsorption-desorption of hydrogen on Pt(100), Pt(110) and Pt(111), in order to correlate the electrochemical properties of each different orientation with the surface atomic structure.
 
Article
Equilibrium constants (K) of some oxoacidbasic reactions in molten NaCl in the temperature range of 1100K to 1200K, have been measured potentiometrically with a calcia stabilized zirconia oxide ion (O2-) indicator electrode. In molten NaCl at 1100K the pKs values (in molality scale) for HCl/H2O and HO-/H2O are respectively 11.0 ± 0.3; 1.6 ± 0.3 and the pKs for CaO is 4.3 ± 0.3. The results have been compared with those determined previously by Combes for the molten equimolar NaCl-KCl mixture and are in good agreement with literature data and gives some qualitative explanation of the comparison of oxoacidbasic properties between molten NaCl and NaCl-KCl.
 
The pH effect of the recoveries of lead and iron on XAD-1180-PV resin (Eluent: 1 mol/L HNO 3 , N=3)
Comparative data from some recent papers on solid phase extraction of metals
Article
A solid phase extraction procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180/Pyrocatechol violet (PV) chelating resin for the determination of iron and lead ions in various environmental samples was established. The procedure is based on the sorption of lead(II) and iron(III) ions onto the resin at pH 9, followed by elution with 1 mol/L HNO3 and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals, as interferents, are discussed. The recoveries for the spiked analytes were greater than 95%. The detection limits for lead and iron by FAAS were 0.37 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Validation of the method described here was performed by using three certified reference materials (SRM 1515 Apple Leaves, SRM 2711 Montana Soil and NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine Water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and human hair.
 
Article
In this work, it was studied the behavior of the nonionic surfactant aqueous solutions, containing or not a hydrotropic agent, by resonance magnetic nuclear (NMR). We have studied monofunctional diblock copolymers of poly(propylene oxide-ethylene oxide) (R-PPO-PEO-OH, where R length is linear C4) as nonionic surfactant and sodium p-toluenesulfonate (NaPTS) as hydrotropic agent. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the aqueous copolymer solution was obtained from ¹H-NMR. The preliminary study of the interaction between the copolymer, under the unimer and micelle forms, and the hydrotrope, in aqueous solutions, was evaluated by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR.
 
Article
The radiocarbon dating of the soil organic matter (SOM) is a polemic subject, due mainly to the complexity of the formation of the soils and to the variable contamination from several sources. Soil samples from 4 different Brazilian localities were submitted to physical and chemical pre-treatment for the extraction of humin fraction, which is the most stable organic compound and theoretically the oldest and representative of the age of the SOM. The radiocarbon dating obtained from the total SOM and their humin fractions are compared to the 14C ages from buried charcoals at similar depths. The radiocarbon ages obtained from such charcoals are, in most of the cases, concordant within the experimental errors of those obtained on humin fractions, or are in average 10% higher, with one exception. Thus, the ages on humin fractions could be assumed as the minimum ages for the associated soils, while the results obtained on total SOM, even at depths until 200 cm, exhibit pronounced contamination effect by modern carbon, rejuvenating their ages.
 
Article
An ominous suspicion arose in France in the second half of the 18th century, that household tin objects might be contaminated with arsenic. Charged with the task of studying and deciding the question, the chemists Pierre Bayen and Louis Charlard set up a comprehensive research project, which resulted in a book describing the whole enterprise. It is very gratifying to analyse this work today, for the many lights it sheds on the way chemistry was practised and reasoned at the time, and for the whiff of modernity we are presented with.
 
Article
Until the present date, historians of science have described inaccurately the first laboratory created in Brazil for establishing and divulging Chemistry, namely the "Laboratório Químico-Prático do Rio de Janeiro". During recent research carried out in the Arquivo do Museu Imperial (Petrópolis, RJ), I localized a document entitled "Ensaio histórico analítico das operações do Laboratório Químico-Prático do Rio de Janeiro", which allowed me to gain the relevant information to correct some of the observations made in the first chronicles.
 
Article
Samples of copper compounds covering all of the XXth century and the end of the XIXth century were submitted to classical and instrumental quantitative analysis. The amount of impurities greatly decreased with time, reaching a constant level since the 1960's. The gravimetric method was suitable for the determination of copper although other procedures also gave good or reasonable results. However, for metal contaminants, atomic absorption spectrometry was the best choice because of its lower detection limits, being able to determine several elements in the oldest samples. Ion chromatography detected several anions in copper salts manufactured before the 1950's. An increasing quality of raw materials and a better sensitivity of analytical methods led to quality improvement of copper compounds with time.
 
Classificação dos métodos de análises em fluxo.  
Article
The aim of this report is to classify analytical methods based on flowing media and to define (standardize) terminology. After the classification and a discussion of terms describing the systems and component parts, a section is devoted to terms describing the performance of flow systems. The list of terms included is restricted to the most relevant ones; especially "self-explanatory" terms are left out. It is emphasised that the usage of terms or expressions that do not adequately describe the processes or procedures involved should be strongly discouraged. Although belonging to the category of methods based on flowing media, chromatographic methods are not comprised in the present document. However, care has been taken that the present text is not in conflict with definitions in that domain. In documents in which flow methods are described, it should be clearly indicated how the sample and/or reagent is introduced and how the sample zone is transported. When introducing new techniques in the field, or variants of existing techniques, it is strongly recommended that descriptive terms rather than trivial or elaborate names are used.
 
Article
This review reports the determination of absolute configuration of primary and secondary alcohols by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, using the Mosher method. This method consists in the derivatization of an alcohol possessig unknown absolute configuration with one or both enantiomers of an auxiliary reagent. The resulting diastereoisomer spectra are registered and compared, and the chemical shift differences ( Dd R,S = deltaR - deltaS) are measured. The determination of the absolute configuration of the alcohol molecule is based on the correlation between its chiral center and the auxiliary reagent's chiral center. Therefore, the determination of the absolute configuration depends on aromatic ring shielding effects on the substituents of the alcohol as evidenced by the ¹H NMR spectrum.
 
Article
The literature carries many theories about the mechanism of action of local anesthetics (LA). We can highlight those focusing the direct effect of LA on the sodium channel protein and the ones that consider the interaction of anesthetic molecules with the lipid membrane phase. The interaction between local anesthetics and human erythrocyte membranes has been studied by ¹H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that lidocaine (LDC) and benzocaine (BZC) bind to the membranes, increase the mobility of the protons of the phospholipid's acyl chains, and decrease the mobility and/or change the structure of the polar head groups. The results indicate that lidocaine molecules are inserted across the polar and liquid interface of the membrane, establishing both electrostatic (charged form) and hydrophobic (neutral form) interactions. Benzocaine locates itself a little deeper in the bilayer, between the interfacial glycerol region and the hydrophobic core. These changes in mobility or conformation of membrane lipids could affect the Na+-channel protein insertion in the bilayer, stabilizing it in the inactivated state, thus causing anesthesia.
 
Article
The 2,2'-bipyridine has been entitled as the most widely used ligand. Nowadays there is a large variety of known molecules comprising at least two 2,2'-bipyridine units and the number of applications in many areas such as catalysis, new materials, optoeletronics and electrochemistry have increased very much in the past decades. Nevertheless, there is no article that gives an overview of the main synthetic methods for obtaining the substituted 2,2'-bipyridines, generally non available. This article presents a synthetic discussion about the three different methods (coupling reaction, ciclo-functionalization and functionalization of the heteroaromatic rings of 2,2'-bipyridine) for preparing these heterocyclic compounds and also provides a practical and fundamental guide, for obtaining more than eighty different symmetric and unsymmetrical substituted 2,2'-bipyridines, shown in a table with the corresponding references.
 
Article
The oxidation of alcohols to obtain ketones, aldehydes or carboxylic acids is a fundamental transformation in organic synthesis and many reagents are known for these conversions. However, there is still a demand for mild and selective reagents for the oxidation of alcohols in the presence of other functional groups. As an alternative, the nitroxyl radical TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) has been demonstrated to be a useful reagent for the transformation of alcohols. The oxidation of alcohols using TEMPO is often efficient, fast, selective, made in mild conditions and can tolerate sensitive functional groups. In this article we report different methodologies using TEMPO in the oxidation of alcohols.
 
Article
This paper supplies a revision about the main techniques of extraction, clean-up and pre-concentration of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in water and soil samples, as well as chromatographic methods and immune assays for its identification and quantification.
 
Article
The alkene 2,4-dimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-6-en-3-one (3) was converted to 1,3,10-trimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[5.3.0]-dec-3-ene-2,9-dione (7) and 1,3-dimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[5.3.0]-dec-3-ene-2,9-dione (8) with a 55% overall yield in both cases. Lactones (7) and (8) were converted in two steps to 1,3,4-trimethyl-13-methylene-6-oxatricyclo[8.3.0.0(3,7)]-trideca-2,5,12-trione (12) (63%) and 1,3-dimethyl-13-methylene-6-oxatricycle[8.3.0.0(3,7)]-trideca-2,5,12-trione (13) (45% from 8). The effect of lactones (7), (8), (12), (13) and the intermediates (5) and (6), at the concentration of 250 mug mL-1, on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. and Sorghum bicolor L. was evaluated. The best results were observed for lactone (13) that caused 100% inhibition on the root growth of C. sativus and lactone (12) that inhibited 90% of the root growth for S. bicolor.
 
Article
The herbicides are being used in huge quantities for various porpouses. Once the herbicide finds its way into the environment, a major part of it comes in contact with soil. Humic substances are major organic constituents of soil. These substances may interact with herbicides in different modes and adsorption is probably the most important one. Adsorption will control the quantity of herbicide in the soil solution, and determines its persistence, leaching, mobility and bioavailability. In this work we studied the interaction between the herbicide 2,4D and soil in the presence and absence of organic matter. The methodology utilized for the determination of 2,4D was gas chromatography with eletron capture detector. The behavior of 2,4D was evaluated through Freundlich isotherms. It was verified that the herbicide 2,4D has a large adsorption in the humic acid .
 
Article
Derivatives of N-tryptophyl-5-benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione (7a-c) and N-tryptophyl-5-benzylidene-rhodanine (7d-f) were prepared by condensation of the intermediates 5 and 6 with different benzaldehydes, respectively. Their structural elucidation was carried through by IR, ¹H NMR and MS. The acute toxicity and antiedematogenic activity of the compounds 7b,c and 7e,f were evaluated. The data did not reveal any sign of toxicity, and no mortality was registered. As indomethacin (10 mg/kg; v.o.), the antiedematogenic activity of the compounds 7b (50 mg/kg; v.o.) and 7e, 7f (50 or 100 mg/kg; v.o.) against carrageenan-induced paw edema was verified at time intervals of 180 min.
 
Article
The use of pesticides in agriculture presents some problems to ecosytems as a consequence of their remaining in the environment. Conventional methods for environmental decontamination sometimes just transfer these residues from one place to another. The use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce 2,4-D degradation in aqueous solution containing humic acid was studied. Results show that the herbicide is completely degraded after treatment with a 30 kGy dose. There were decreases in the degradation of the 2,4-D when humic acid was added at all doses. Some radiolytic products are proposed. The 2,4-D radiolytic yields (G) from 2,4-D were calculated.
 
Article
Acidic hydrolysis of samples is frequent in urinary 2,5-hexanodione determination. This hydrolysis should be performed under proper conditions, in order to avoid interference, such as the presence of 2,5-dimethylfurane and 2-acetylfurane. The results of the present work, as well as data from the literature, show that the use of non-polar or slightly polar chromatographic columns of 30 m length is an essential condition for 2,5-HD determination in an acid hydrolysed urine sample. In the same way the pH should be kept between 0.3 and 0.5. The mean concentrations of 2,5-HD in samples submitted to hydrolysis (0.50 ± 0.28 mg/g of creatinine) was about 3 times higher than those found in the samples without acid hydrolysis (0.19 ± 0.3 mg/g of creatinine).
 
Article
In celebration of the 200th anniversary of the electric pile, invented by Alessandro Volta, a synopsis of his letter to The Royal Society (London) and of his biography is presented.
 
Article
The graduate programs in Chemistry were evaluated and classified from the data collected for the period 1998-2000 by CAPES, the Minister of Education agency that is responsible for the regulation and support of this level of human resources formation. The next classification will be made in 2004, from the data of the period 2001-2003. The years in between, like the present year, are used for an evaluation without classification, from what comments are emitted to the programs to know how their data are improving or not, before the new ranking reporting. The progresses in the area of chemistry in Brazil are analysed from the confrontation of the present data with that of all previous evaluations, since 1983. The results confirm that the research and graduate formation in the area of Chemistry is continuously improving in Brazil, particularly during the last seven years.
 
Article
Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest technologies for chemical publications.
 
Article
The void structure of zeolites MCM-22, MCM-36 and ITQ-2 were discussed on the bases of catalytic reaction tests. The hydromerization of n-decane on bifunctional Pt/Zeolite Catalysts have been used as model reactions. Beta and ZSM-5 zeolites were used for comparison. It is concluded that all materials show features of 10MR zeolites and have also pores bigger than 12MR in this order MCM-22<MCM-36<ITQ-2.
 
Ligantes precursores e criptatos sintetizados  
Article
This work reports on the synthesis, characterization (infrared and hidrogen nmr spectra) and photophysical properties (luminescence spectra and emission quantum yield) of the lanthanide cryptates [Ln Ì (bipy)2py(CO2Et) 2]3+ with Ln = Eu3+, Tb3+ or Gd3+, which can be applied as efficient Light-Conversion-Molecular-Devices. From emission spectra of [Eu Ì (bipy)2py(CO2Et) 2]3+ it was possible to assign C3 symmetry to the metal ion. The spectroscopic studies show a higher emission quantum yield (q=25%) for [Tb Ì (bipy)2py(CO2Et) 2]3+ in aqueous solution, whereas the europium cryptate presents q=14%. This is justified by a more efficient energy transfer between triplet and emission levels of terbium (T->5D4).
 
Article
A method is described for recovering and purifying 241Am from lightning-conductors and smoke detectors. The method is based on the precipitation of silver, as AgCl, the main impurity, and extraction of americium with TBP. Further purification with ion-exchange resin is also used. The results have shown that by this method the americium is obtained with high purity.
 
Article
The calorimetric experiments based on technique breaking ampoule were carried out by measuring of the heat of solution of alcohol in isotonic solution (NaCl 0.10 M) and alcohol in suspension of Sc at 298 K. From these data the enthalpy of interaction alcohol with suspension of Sc (DtrsH°) was calculate by Hess law. In this study, the results indicate that the enthalpy of interaction of aliphatic alcohol (C2-C8) with suspensions of Sc is a process exothermic and becomes more exothermic with increasing of -CH2 group of alcohol in range -1,14 to -4,0 kJ.mol-1. We concluded that enthalpy of interaction shows a linear relationship with increasing of alcohol's lipophilicity, in agreement with Traube's rule.
 
Article
Cp'Mn(CO)3 (Cp'=h5-C5H4-CH 3) reacts with P(C6H5)2H in THF to give Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2H (Ph = Phenyl) (1), by substitution of one CO ligand. The reaction of 1 with CH3COCl and CH3S(O)2Cl in the presence of triethylamine occurs under electrophilic substitution on the diphenylphosphan ligand to yield the acetyl- and sulfonylphosphane complexes of manganese(I) Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2COCH3 (2) and Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2S(O)2 CH3 (3). The complex stabilisation of these molecules, wich are hitherto unknown in the free state, is only accomplished by blocking the free electron pair on phosphorus by coordination. The new complexes 1, 2 and 3 were analysed by IR, ¹H-NMR and 31P-MNR spectroscopy and their similar structures are discusssed.
 
Top-cited authors
Valdir Veiga
  • Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME)
Patricio Peralta-Zamora
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Carol H Collins
  • University of Campinas
Wilson F. Jardim
  • University of Campinas
Leonardo Gobbo-Neto
  • University of São Paulo