Qualitative Report

As the numbers of female physicians continue to grow, fewer medical marriages are comprised of the traditional dyad of male physician and stay-at-home wife. The "two-career family" is an increasingly frequent state for both male and female physicians' families, and dual-doctor marriages are on the rise. This qualitative study explored the contemporary medical marriage from the perspective of male spouses of female physicians. In 2010, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with nine spouses of internal medicine resident and faculty physicians. Interviewers queried work-home balance, career choices, and support networks. We used an interpretive, inductive, iterative approach to thematically analyze interview transcripts and develop broad, consensus-derived themes. A conceptual framework based on three major themes emerged: "A time for us? Really?", "Supporting and protecting her, sometimes at my expense,'" and "Hers is a career, mine is a job." This framework described the inflexibility of physicians' time and its impact on spousal time, career development, and choices. Having a set time for synchronizing schedules, frequent verbal support, and shared decision-making were seen as important by the husbands of female, full-time physicians. This exploratory study examined the contemporary medical marriage from the male spouse's perspective and highlights specific strategies for success.
Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological data analysis method. Seven thematic clusters were identified and an exhaustive description is presented to summarize the essence of their lived experience. The study indicates a strong sense of essential positivism from the participants' stories, and overall, it seems PD has brought some degree of biological, psychological, socially, and/or spiritual meaning to their lives that they may not have otherwise noticed or experienced.
Researchers may not feel equipped to conduct qualitative research with ethnic minority communities in England because they may lack of culturally sensitive research skills. The aim of this paper is to explore how researchers might integrate culturally sensitive research skills into their work. This paper draws on our own experiences of conducting research with African Caribbean communities in England, and from workshops we facilitated with researchers and community representatives. The purpose of the workshops was to establish the most pertinent issues in conducting research with ethnic minority communities in England. We gathered data from the participants and created themes based on the discussions: establishing the need for an inclusive approach to research, issues around recruitment, respecting cultural norms, and dealing with disclosure
Leximancer mapping of concepts 
Projecting the manual mapping of concept clusters onto Figure 2 Leximancer map
The qualitative research methodology of phenomenography has traditionally required a manual sorting and analysis of interview data. In this paper I explore a potential means of streamlining this procedure by considering a computer aided process not previously reported upon. Two methods of lexicological analysis, manual and automatic, were examined from a phenomenographical perspective and compared. It was found that the computer aided process – Leximancer – was a valid investigative tool for use in phenomenography. Using Leximancer was more efficacious than manual operation; the researcher was able to deal with large amounts of data without bias, identify a broader span of syntactic properties, increase reliability, and facilitate reproducibility. The introduction of a computer aided methodology might also encourage other qualitative researchers to engage with phenomenography. Key Words: Qualitative Research Methodology, Phenomenography, Computer Data Analysis, and Leximancer Yes Yes
Sample Open-Coding, Axial and Selective Coding Terms and Categories
Using the 'think aloud' protocol, which allows for the collection of data in real time, the researcher audio taped comments from 13 white college students from a predominately white university in the Southeastern United States and 15 black students from a predominately black university, as they explained how they searched for HIV/AIDS information on the Internet. A grounded theory analysis of the tapes revealed a three-stage model that students progressed through as they searched for HIV/AIDS information on the Internet. That model also revealed that all of the white students searched for general information about HIV/AIDS on the Internet, while all black students searched for general and specific information about how the disease affected the African-American community. Eighty percent of students regardless of race did not know how to properly search for online health information. The researcher discusses the need for online health information literacy training, the theories that might explain why black students searched the way that they did, and the challenges to providing culturally-sensitive online health information literacy training for African-Americans who have been historically suspicious of the United State’s health care system.
This dialogical project is framed within critical inquiry methods to bring an Amish teacher’s voice to the forefront. Henry, an Amish middle school teacher, and two university teacher educators in northeastern Indiana collaboratively critiqued educational literature written about the Amish culture from the past 15 years. Building on critical ethnography and narrative methods, the authors used dialogue as a medium for inquiry. The intersubjective, collaborative project democratized the university researchers’ research role and allowed an Amish voice to gain a place in the academic field of research.
This paper was published as The Qualitative Report, 2008, 13 (1), pp. 53-60. It is also available from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-1/ While much has been written on the problems that can arise when interviewing respondents from a different social group, less attention has been paid to its potential benefits for the research process. In this paper we argue that, by being conscious of ones outsider status, an interviewer can use it as a tool through which to elicit detailed and comprehensive accounts from respondents, and ensure rigorous and critical analysis of the data produced.
This paper is a reflective-reflexive examination of provisions of trustworthiness in critical narrative research. The author presents her understanding of provisions of trustworthiness as a science and as an art, and blurs these boundaries as she acknowledges their tension in practice. She weaves between theory and her experience in two studies—first the study of the Texas-Spain Visiting Teachers Program and secondly the study of Amish culture and education—where the author felt a deep sense of responsibility that she maintain trustworthiness. This paper examines the provisions of trustworthiness as evidence of research accountability and shared responsibility and brings to the forefront an intersubjective understanding of fidelity that emerged through understanding participants' struggles, seeing researcher as a co-struggler for cultural- political identity, and recognizing the role of politics in the work of action research for democratic education. In short, the author presents an intersubjective understanding of fidelity issues within multiple identities.
Engaging human service practitioners as partners in research about sensitive areas of front-line work can be difficult for a range of reasons. Time constraints, geographic limitations, trust in the research relationship, issues of privacy, and fear of professional judgment are only some of the barriers that researchers need to overcome in order to assist workers to become involved in a reflective process about areas of practice. This article outlines the development of a new method of qualitative data collection designed to aid the reflective process and assist practitioners to engage in an ongoing dialogue about complex ethical dilemmas they had experienced in relation to their work with clients, colleagues, managers and organisations. These ethical dilemmas occurred in the contexts of health, mental health, child protection, work with young people, community work, disability, family violence, aged care and research. This is the story of how the concept of Email-Facilitated Reflective Dialogue was born. It is the story of how Email-Facilitated Reflective Dialogue became a method of data generation and a tool for reflection on issues of ethics, how twenty social workers throughout Australia experienced it as a reflective medium, and how we, as partners in research, experienced and evaluated the process. Yes Yes
This narrative study examined teachers’ perceptions of their inclusive classrooms. Eight early childhood teachers responded to open-ended interview questions about their experiences teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classroom environment. The social constructivist view of teaching and learning is highlighted as the teachers construct their knowledge of inclusion and how it meets the needs of children with disabilities in the inclusive environment. The following themes emerged from interview analysis: the inclusive classroom is a great place for children, the teacher needs additional education, the teacher needs support from administrators and to be included in decisions about the inclusive classroom, and positive experiences foster successful inclusive classrooms. Suggestions are offered for successful inclusive programs and future research.
Collaborative research is often refers to collaboration among the researcher and the participants. Few studies investigate the collaborative process among researchers themselves. Assumptions about the qualitative research process, particularly ways to establish rigor and transparency, are pervasive. Our experience conducting three collaborative empirical research studies challenged and transformed our assumptions about qualitative research: (a) research planning taught as concrete and linear rather than as emergent and iterative, (b) data analysis conceptualized as individual discovery rather than collaboratively-constructed meaning, and (c) findings represented as individual product rather than as part of an ongoing conversation. We address each assumption, including how our collaborative research diverged from the assumption and how this divergence has impacted our own practice.
Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders and members with CBPR using interpretive phenomenology. Data were obtained from observations, field notes, biographical interviews, individual interviews and focus groups. The findings supported that community members wanted to collaborate with researchers utilizing the CBPR approach so that culturally sensitive interventions can be created to encourage health-seeking behaviors in their community.
Grounded theory can be effectively introduced in a survey course through a combination of lecture/demonstration and simulation. The class session presented here illustrates a way to introduce graduate students to the process of grounded theory and gain hands-on experience through simulation. The lesson utilizes concepts that the students are familiar with, allowing them to focus on the research process, and encourages internalization of concepts through immediate application.
Sources of Evidence and Their Strengths (Adapted from Yin, 2003)
Conceptualizing Process (adapted from Strauss & Corbin 1998, p. 167)
To Internationalize or Not to Internationalize
Illustration of Open-Coding for Concepts 1
Tactics to Minimize Potential Problems from Data Source
This paper demonstrates the applicationis an appreciation of Straussian Grounded Theory Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work to develop a theory on the internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises based in transition economies. It describes each step from sampling to coding and then to theory formation, explaining the rationale each step of the way. The readers can therefore see how a theory took shape and develop from raw data to refined theoretical propositions/hypotheses.
The controversy that has surrounded the value of quantitative research methods as opposed to qualitative approaches as a means to increasing the knowledge and understanding of human behaviour in health and illness, has been contested by nurse scholars for several decades. This paper continues debate around this issue and provides a critique of the problems associated with these competing paradigms. It challenges the convention that all nursing research must be objective and value free in order to be scientific, and provides an overview of the processes that should be considered by researchers utilising qualitative methods of inquiry.
Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, video recordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in their work and discuss the factors that may have an influence on the way it is used or on the data analyzed. The substance of these factors is shown in inventoried form. This paper discusses these and advises how researchers may address the validity of video recording as a qualitative research tool.
In the first article in this series (Tellis, 1997a) the author presented the background on the history and importance of the use of the case method of research. The second article (Tellis, 1997b) presented a proposed methodology based on the literature and an application of the methodology in an information technology case. The current article will present a suggested format for reporting case research results. The article will review the goals and objectives of the research project and present various tables containing the results of the data analysis conducted for the project. The article will finally present conclusions drawn from the results, and what future researchers might wish to pursue.
The Scope of Justice for Muslim Americans: Moral Exclusion in the Aftermath of 9/11.
This paper examines the vocabulary, grammar structures and rhetorical devices that appear in Edward Emerson’s journal based on his trip to the Caribbean. The end-in-view is to identify the devices that Emerson utilized, mostly unconsciously, in his depiction and construction of others; in the case of this journal, of the peoples he encountered in the Caribbean. The methodological approach of critical discourse analysis guides this examination.
The journal and letters written by Edward Bliss Emerson in the Caribbean provide exciting, idyllic, and at times troublesome visions of that region, but also insights on the life of a sick, poor, religious and brilliant young man. Emerson’s reflections on life in St. Croix remain unquoted, and although brief excerpts from the Puerto Rico portion of the journal appeared in print in 1959 and 1991, his more extensive text supplements the contemporary publications, which only praised the colonial administration. A third, and equally important location, is the implicit base for his perspective – New England in the period of Jacksonian populist democracy. The journal presents terse reminders of daily activities, mixed with extensive descriptions of landscape, exotic civic and religious observances, business and social customs, fruits, music and sports, with personal meditations on Edward’s readings, his search for health, and his adaptation to a new life away from his family, with little prospect of wealth or longevity. His letters include periodic reckonings of the benefits and disadvantages that he saw to life in Puerto Rico. This diverse eyewitness account represents an important resource for researchers of Caribbean society and culture.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed many unique challenges on our education system. Unpacking the many issues that educators faced will allow researchers to understand some of the impacts that resulted from this unique phenomenon. This exploratory qualitative research study sought to understand how science educators and administrators made sense of science instruction during the spring of 2021. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and online observations with ten K-12 science teachers and four administrators across two different counties within Virginia. Thematic coding was employed to analyze the findings, and results were validated through member checking with participants. Participants shared that the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need to be extremely resilient and flexible to cope with the changing landscape. For science instruction issues of scientific engagement, inquiry instruction, and equity were present for science educators.
The pandemic has led researchers to adapt their research methods to the social distance imposed to combat COVID-19. Technology created many difficulties in reaching certain population targets, however it was often the only way during the lockdown to do more research. Both quantitative and qualitative researchers made use of remote data collection methods that allowed researchers to mitigate the challenges of physical distancing and improve the researchers' toolbox. This paper aims to highlight the factors to consider for successful use of online Photovoice. The participatory action research project involved 130 young adults who took part in a Photovoice online activity with the theme "Living with COVID-19: practical and emotional aspects". We present analysis of the online Photovoice process, giving voice to the participants; they reflected on the proposed technique, through individual reflective practices and they have highlighted the relevant group dynamics with a group reflection. The data collected were analyzed, on the basis of grounded theory, with NVivo 12 software. Functional factors and factors to considerer for a successful use of on-line Photovoice are discussed. This project has allowed the creation of new social networks, a space for reflection and activation for individual and community empowerment.
During COVID-19, digital learning took on an unprecedented central focus in K-12 education. This study applied photovoice qualitative methodology to record and understand the lives and reality for teacher interns as they adapted to abrupt changes in the way they designed and delivered instruction while living homebound during a pandemic. Teacher interns shared their stories of transitioning to virtual or distance learning. Participants (n = 97) were a demographically and culturally diverse group of K-12 public school teacher interns from California. The findings from this study illuminate the need for U.S. public K-12 schools to develop specific professional development training to support teachers when unforeseen events may cause the physical closure of their schools. The implications of this study highlight a shift in the mindset of how to develop practices and policies to support teacher licensure candidates during times of crisis, which may affect their ability to teach and engage students in a distance learning environment. Their experiences showed that out of chaos came the development of critical thinking and unexpected skills that moved education forward for everyone involved.
The experience of pregnancy and postpartum anxiety disorders results in adverse birth outcomes and the disrupted development of infants and children. Since the COVID-19 Pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has designated pregnant and postpartum women as more vulnerable to COVID-19 (CDC, 2021), and perinatal mood and anxiety disorders rates have increased. However, research regarding the lived experience of women with postpartum anxiety (PPA) during a global pandemic remains lacking. Using van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenological research method, we interviewed eight women self-identifying as having had PPA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis revealed five themes describing the lived experience of PPA during COVID-19: Wired, Trapped, Lost in Time, No Safety Net, and Doubting Myself. The lived experience of PPA was both mirrored and masked by the lived experience of a global pandemic, exacerbating PPA due to the unknown and constricting nature of the pandemic. These findings suggest the need for future research to include subjective human experiences as pivotal components in creating support practices and a deeper understanding of PPA in the context of unprecedented life events.
While the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the once marginalized conversation of academia’s gendered imbalance of opportunity, discussion of its impact on graduate student mothers has remained absent. Resilience has been cited as key to overcoming in the pandemic era with little discussion of how its conceptualization continues to marginalize females in the academy. Our phenomenological study explores graduate student mothers’ conceptualizations of balance, failure, success, and resilience using a family resilience framework which acknowledges the multiple identities to which they may avow and contexts in which they may operate. Employing an ecological conceptual framework, we engaged nine graduate student mothers and their children in focus groups and analyzed data using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Our research found that many graduate student mothers’ definitions of success led them to delay qualifying exams and comps during the pandemic. Our exploration of the ecology of our participants’ resilience during quarantine begins the generation of a new graduate student mother resilience theory in which the ability to overcome adversity is rooted in celebration, gratitude, collaborative problem-solving, connection, and flexibility. We recommend continued development of this new theory and provide insight into the supports higher education can offer to address the leaky academic pipeline.
In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, a research study that utilized in-person focus groups to collect qualitative data was abruptly shifted to videoconference focus groups to minimize risk to subjects. Protocol amendments consisted of using an online scheduling tool to arrange focus groups by Zoom, providing electronic versions of consent forms and demographic surveys, and highlighting security features of the videoconference software. Lessons were learned from making an abrupt switch from in-person to remote focus groups. Making this type of shift is not simply a matter of switching for researcher convenience but includes determining the appropriateness of an abrupt switch for the research population of interest, fully understanding videoconference software best practices, decreasing focus group sizes, and increasing the incentive for participation.
Profiles of hotel housekeepers interviewed
Codes clustered into themes
Strongly enforced mobility restrictions to deter the spread of COVID-19 severely impacted tourism, a pivotal economic sector of the Balearic Islands. Little is known about the experiences of the most economically affected groups, such as hotel housekeepers. This study aimed to explore the experiences and concerns of hotel housekeepers (approximately 13,000 worked in the Balearic Islands before the pandemic) during the first stages of the COVID-19 lockdown. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone in April of 2020. Thematic analysis was used for interpretation. Eighteen hotel housekeepers were interviewed. Main experiences and concerns identified were: (a) distress due to employment status and economic situation, (b) concerns for children’s education, (c) health-related concerns, mainly regarding the possibility of infecting someone, and (d) feelings related to home confinement (e.g., sense of security against infection, tedium, and boredom). Uncertainty permeated all discourses, generating feelings of fear and distress, particularly related to employment status and the general economic situation. Our findings shed light on the impact of public health measures to control COVID-19 spread in the different areas of life of hotel housekeepers, one of the most economically affected occupational groups. The trade-off between economics and health must be considered in future decisions on public health.
Participant's profile
This study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of Teacher-Educators (TEs) who participated in virtual research-workshop-series as professional development programs. Six TEs, three from natural science and three from social science, participated in a nine-month virtual research workshop series organized by the faculty. In the frame of a case study, the data were gathered from in-depth interviews and a set of questions. The findings revealed that TEs had sufficient research knowledge as they were able to identify good quality of research, read relevant reading research, and signified the importance of research as part of their professional identity. Completion of other tasks, lack of research motivation and collegiality, shortage of research skills and competencies including how to read academic articles due to vocabulary and sentence construction hindered them from conducting research. The workshop has facilitated the TEs autonomy, research skills and competencies, research collaboration, and goal-orientation. The PD program strengthened their research motivation and engagement that scaffold positive insights into their self-research awareness. Moreover, all TEs were able to complete their papers and submit them to reputable journals.
COVID-19 presented rapid challenges to usual practice within mental health services. Despite the suspension of face-to-face psychotherapy, as a group we felt compelled to adapt so that our relationships with patients could continue. This article documents some of the challenges and opportunities faced by our group. We use collaborative writing as a method of inquiry, informed by a phenomenological approach. Each of the six therapists in the group and the supervisor wrote a freestyle personal reflection; when these reflections were viewed together, noticeable themes emerged which bear relevance to future practice. We present here anonymised vignettes (excerpts from therapists’ reflections) under thematic headings, to bring to life the collaboratively written discussions that follow. These include important moments related to the transition from face-to-face practice, and new perspectives on beginnings and endings in therapy. We highlight the power of holding onto hope for those that we work alongside, of advocating for the importance of these relationships, and of the vital role played by regular supervision meetings. The pandemic has prompted us to question our way of working and has shown us new ways to be flexible in the future. We invite others to reflect on whether they relate to our experiences or have different perspectives on the delivery of psychotherapy during such unpredictable times.
Institution and participants characteristics
The coronavirus pandemic has affected all walks of life across the globe. Higher education institutions confronted multiple challenges and disruptions in teaching and learning. However, the challenges hospitality education administrators need to resolve are distinct compared to other traditional higher education programs. This study aimed to understand the experiences and responses of hospitality educational administrators under crisis. The findings of the study are expected to assist hospitality education institutions to be prepared and respond better to any crisis in the future. To understand the challenges faced and strategies adopted by hospitality educational administrators, we interviewed 23 hospitality administrators across India. We have adopted a grounded theory approach to describe the challenges and strategies the hospitality educational administrators adopted. The analysis of data through the grounded theory approach yielded five main themes: antecedents that influenced the hospitality educational administrators’ response to the crisis, approaches toward strategies, strategies adopted to manage the crisis, perspectives of the consequences of strategies adopted, and intervening conditions that influenced the administrators’ choice of strategies. The result indicates that hospitality educational administrators need to be proactive. They have to create a crisis management system, adopt technology in teaching and learning, and engage with all stakeholders to manage the crisis. This study has multiple implications for hospitality educational administrators, policymakers, and researchers in educational administration.
Location of Bandung Metropolitan, West Java, Indonesia (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016)
Household Income (Primary Data Processing, 2020)
Characteristics of commercial systems from Pingali and Rosegrant (1995)
These days, urban agriculture is more than a hobby. It has expanded into a local commercial business, even to an export scale. However, urban farmers who have commercialized their products must adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic situation, which has impacted many aspects of global life. This research used a mixed-method approach. We collected quantitative data from 107 respondents on the household commercialization index, income level, and education level of export-scale-urban farmers in the Bandung metropolitan area, West Java, Indonesia. We also used qualitative data to determine how farmers were adapting to difficult situations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This information was gathered through in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation. The results showed that the urban farmers continued to prioritize commercial agriculture during the COVID-19 pandemic. The urban farmers must adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic in various ways, beginning with market access, agricultural management, and strengthening financial resources. There are some conditions where adaptation methods adopted by farmers are not environmentally friendly because the farmers are increasingly dependent on synthetic inputs and use cold storage on open land. Thus, the farmers' adaptation steps to maintain export-scale commercial farming activities in the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic also affect intensive agricultural practices that are not environmentally friendly.
Rebo Buntung is a Sasak cultural tradition performed on the island of Lombok in Indonesia, primarily aimed at preventing disasters. Although the government warned people in Lombok to engage in social distancing and to reduce activities outside to reduce the risk of infection associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, Rebo Buntung was carried out by Sasak people amid the pandemic. This purpose of this paper is to describe results from qualitative research, framed within religious theory and structural-functional theory, that explore the meaning of Rebo Bunting in the village of Pringgabaya, East Lombok and its role during the COVID-19 Pandemic. For villagers, Rebo Bunting reflected a request to God for protection from the dangers of the pandemic and an expression of gratitude to God for the sustainability of social lives and environmental conditions that continue to provide support for the village. Rebo Buntung was also practiced by the Pringgabaya villagers during the pandemic because of its potential to contribute to the sustainability of their tourist-dependent economy, whose condition had worsened since the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hemingway’s Boat: Everything He Loved and Lost, 1934-1961 (2011) by Paul Hendrickson is an excellent example of a dual-purpose book for qualitative researchers. It firsts provides an example of high-quality scholarship in the field of life history research. It also offers the reader specific insights into the practice of qualitative research and how that data is used to create a narrative of the participant’s life. Through the use of authorial participation, a grounded narrative framework, and a detailed description of his research process, Hendrickson’s book is a keen exemplar of the process and product of qualitative work.
Coding and Theming of Interview Transcripts
This article is a response to calls for more first-person accounts from researchers using narrative formats to interpret data. The authors examine the practice of ethnodrama as a means of exploring and analyzing the experiences of a Latina public-school student in a small South Texas coastal town during the 1950s and 1960s as she attempted to negotiate multiple ethnic spaces while resisting traditional behavioral expectations representative of that period. Through coding and synthesizing the participant's responses, the researchers established themes on which to base the composition of three dramatic scenes for purposes of data representation. In addition to conveying how the participant overcame challenges she faced as a young Chicana activist, we discuss implications surrounding current thinking on ethnodrama as a cross-cultural endeavor, a creative practice, and a potential emancipatory tool.
Adoptees carry the burden of shame for being “given up, abandoned, unwanted, not right,” and birth mothers carry the weight of shame for succumbing to external pressure to relinquish their children. There is ample literature addressing recovery for both adoptees and birth mothers (Buterbaugh & Soll, 2003; Franklin, 2019; Lanier, 2020; Soll, 2005, 2013, 2014); however, there is little recognition of the co-shame and need for forgiveness. Utilizing autoethnographic methodology, I discuss the issues of misogyny prevalent in the 1950s, the “Baby Scoop Era [BSE],” and my ongoing process of forgiving my birth mother after five decades of rage. This piece attempts to provide insights into the questions: Did my birth mother voluntarily “give me up” because she didn’t want me? Who was she, and are we alike? Is it possible to stop being so angry? My findings include an understanding of the situation in which my mother struggled and forgiveness of her decision. While we share commonalities, the chasm between the social construction of reality in which she lived and mine is vast; however, we are “others of similarity” (Chang, 2008). My anger has shifted to the patriarchal and misogynistic system that permits the involuntary separation of mother and child.
Among short-term mental health consequences for adolescents who have proximate or direct experience with mass shootings in school settings are posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder. Identifying incidence of enduring mental health impacts is challenging due to difficulty of tracking individuals into adulthood. The purpose of this paper is to use qualitative secondary analysis to explore how seven individuals reflectively describe and interpret their lived experiences as adolescents during the May 4, 1970, Kent State University Vietnam protest that resulted in deaths and injuries to students fired upon by Ohio National Guard. Archived transcripts from interviews conducted up to 48 years after the event were analyzed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Aspects of common experience included confusion, emotionally charged responses from others directed toward community members following the event, and belief the experience had a profound and lasting impact on their lives, exemplified by vivid memories of minute details and comparative responses to other events. These findings illustrate how others’ reactions and subsequent incidents contribute to retraumatization into adult years. This report demonstrates the value of qualitative secondary analysis in general, while specific findings illustrate long-term impact of an adolescent trauma experience.
The presence of qualitative research groups on Web 2.0 social networking applications, like Facebook, has continued to grow. These groups are self organizing systems of people interested in particular aspects of qualitative research. Many of these qualitative research groups have companion internet websites and some also have companion YouTube channels, creating a very strong cyber presence. While visitors to these groups are encouraged to evaluate their quality for themselves, in general, the groups provide accessibility and good information for practitioners, students, and teachers of qualitative research alike. Most importantly, a number of these online qualitative research groups can serve as incubators for innovation for both the group members and visitors to the groups.
This study is an assessment of observational learning commonly known as social learning theory of a group of 55 African American students who are participants in a mentoring program known as PROJECT 2000. From first through sixth grades male role models, who were largely African American, were in the classroom as teacher assistants. At the time of the study all student participants were in fifth grade. An interview was conducted featuring a short open-ended questionnaire. Students in PROJECT 2000 had an opportunity to express their feelings about the male role models that worked with them in their classroom. These interviews assisted the researcher towards understanding, how the bonding relationship between the children and the male role models in the classroom, may impact social learning.
QROM general production per year.
Country production and authorship position in QROM lustrum.
Prototypical contents and overall diversity in each QROM year.
The first years in the life of a journal are the most difficult ones as editors need to advertise it effectively and attract worldwide researchers to safeguard its launch and maintenance. This study provides a bibliometric analysis of the first lustrum of the journal Qualitative Research in Organizational and Management (QROM) in an attempt to assess its production both in methodological and conceptual terms. The sample was made up of 66 articles by 109 (co-)authors from 66 institutions. A total of 53.2% of contributors were female and were responsible for 42.4% of the single-authored articles (compare to 34.8% of only-male articles). Eight "invisible schools,", 37.5% national ones, were obtained by relating authors to sharing co-authors (grade 1), institutions (grade 2) or cities (grade 3). The most productive authors were Cassell, Grandy, and McKenna, the first two being developers of invisible schools. The number of articles, theoretical perspectives, and diversity of applied techniques has increased in QROM over the lustrum period with UK and Canada as most prolific countries followed by USA, Sweden, and Australia. Most articles dealt with organizational and managerial issues under discourses or narrative perspectives using interviews and sense-making theories. The evolution of these findings is also presented.
There is a general disquiet in the Irish Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) sector about the sustainability of initiatives and best practice guidelines in the context of low status, pay and investment. The ECCE Scheme (2010; DCYA, 2018b) provided access to three hours of “free” ECCE for children aged 2.8 years who could continue to avail of the ECCE until they reached 5.6 years old (DCYA, 2018b). Ireland, under the Barcelona Summit (2002), was obliged to provide increased access to ECCE to (European Commission, 2008) to increase women’s participation in the labour market (European Commission, 2008). However, the introduction of the ECCE scheme (2010) contributed to already existing structural and financial challenges in the provision of quality ECCE. To explore parental and practitioners’ experiences of the scheme, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 practitioners and 15 parents. Findings reveal that the scheme seems to have been unsuccessful in supporting practitioners in meeting quality standards, the costs associated with the introduction of the scheme as well as in meeting the needs of working parents for accessible ECCE.
This article presents a case study application of Hiller's (2011) Multi-Layered Chronological Chart (MLCC) methodology to the life story of former World Chess Champion Bobby Fischer. Designed for use in qualitative biographical studies, the MLCC is adapted here for psychobiographical research. In 1972, Fischer became an American Cold War hero as he wrestled the World Chess Championship from a half century of Soviet domination. His rapid rise to world fame was followed by infamy as Fischer abandoned competitive chess, grew increasingly Anti-Semitic and Anti-American, became a fugitive from U.S. justice, and died in relative isolation in Reykjavik, Iceland. Fischer remains one of the more enigmatic personalities of the 20th century and many questions remain regarding his psychological health. The MLCC method is used to contextualize Fischer's life in nine key topical domains across five developmental life stages. The value of the MLCC methodology to psychobiographical research is highlighted and suggestions for advancing this methodology are put forth. © 2013: Joseph G. Ponterotto, Jason D. Reynolds, and Nova Southeastern University.
Themes and Subthemes Related to Participants' Emotional Experiences Examples of Raw Data Themes and Subsequent Subthemes and Major Themes
Collective effervescence is an amplified, excited reaction made possible when a group of people experience something emotional together. We used a descriptive mixed methods approach to investigate both the individual and collective emotions of Team USA age group triathletes as they participated in the 2012 International Triathlon Union's (ITU's) Grand Final in Auckland, New Zealand. The results of our study suggest that participation in this event evoked emotions consistent with the themes of Intrinsic Arousal, Anxiety, National Pride, and Social Arousal. Further, the results indicated that this group of experienced athletes was less motivated by performance outcome goals (i.e., placing in the top three) and more motivated by the individual and collective emotions associated with being a member of Team USA and representing the USA on a national stage. While some have suggested that the more elite athletes may be more attuned to their emotional states than less accomplished competitors, we found the very nature of the Grand Final as a world championship event, coupled with the symbols and rituals associated with Team USA membership, provided age group athletes a rare chance to experience similar states. © 2014: Caroline Faure, Karen M. Appleby, Beverly Ray, and Nova Southeastern University.
Ethics in Qualitative Research (Miller, Birch Mauthner, & Jessop, 2012), now in its second edition, uses a feminist framework to present a variety of issues pertinent to qualitative researchers. Topics include traditional challenges for qualitative researchers (e.g., access to potential participants, informed consent, overlapping roles), as well as those that have garnered more attention in recent years, particularly with regard to uses and consequences of technological advances in research. The book is critical of committees whose function it is to review proposed research and grant research ethics approval (e.g., University Research Ethics Committees [URECs], Research Ethics Boards [REBs], and Institutional Review Boards [IRBs]). The authors of this book are situated within the United Kingdom. The editors take the position that ethics oversight by the researchers themselves is preferable and that such boards and committees are not well equipped to review qualitative research. A rebuttal to this position is presented within this review. Ethics in Qualitative Research provides a good overview of ethical issues that researchers face and is effective in merging theory with practice. It would be strengthened by avoiding the debate over URECs or by offering concrete suggestions for how URECs can improve their reviews of qualitative research.
Two banners displayed in the street corners of Jakarta and one banner displayed on the crossing bridge with the picture of Rhoma Irama with the words jangan teror ustad dan ulama (Do not terrorize cleric and religious figure) and jangan sakiti ulama kami (do not hurt our cleric) (sources retrieved from Sazli, 2012; Rima News, 2012; and twicsy.com, 2012).  
Demonstrators display a banner showing the words Bang Haji! Maju terus dalam menegakkan agama Allah! Allahu Akbar..Allahu akbar (Bang Haji (Rhoma Irama's nick name)! keep moving in straightening Allah's religion! Allahu Akbar… Allahu Akbar!) (source retrieved from Affandi, 2012).  
Demonstrators displaying a banner containing Quranic verses (source retrieved from Bukhori, 2012).  
The aim of this paper is to analyze rhetorical rejections from Muslims, a majority group, who refused a non-Muslim Chinese candidate in the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election. The study focuses to explore (1) the social representations of the Chinese and how it was used to attack the Chinese candidate and (2) a construction process of a “new” social representation on how a religious teaching was constructed to have nothing to do with negative sentiments or hatred. The field study focused on analyzing the sequential events related to the sermon of a prominent Islamic figure, his denial of the hate contents in his sermon, and the support he received from his Muslim supporters. The results showed that when the Chinese are negatively represented, a Chinese is considered unfit to lead Jakarta as he may disgrace the nation. Moreover, it is found that when a rhetorical rejection toward a non-Muslim is supported by a religious teaching, such rejection is considered not related to negative sentiments.
-An outline of the full cycle of social science research and development. Adapted from Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences, by Stephen Gorard, 2013, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (p. 14). Copyright 2013 by Stephen
Typology (Codes)
Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences (Gorard, 2013) provides an easy - to - use design typology, as well as good practices and warnings, to help social scientists improve their research skills. Based on his experience, the author explains the concept of research design (as opposed to research methods), and shows the importance of carefully selected sample groups, appropriate research claims, and logical research warrants. The target audience is primarily social science researchers, but the subjects covered are applicable to any research field. The reviewer recommends Research Design as both a textbook and a reference.
Visual representations can contribute to shaping how the general public perceives and engages with issues of forced migration. In 2015, thousands of Rohingya became stranded in the Bay of Bengal when smugglers abandoned them on unseaworthy boats and regional governments refused their disembarkation. Their ordeal made headlines across the globe and photographs documenting the crisis were widely disseminated. This paper applies visual-social semiotics to four of these photographs from an Agence France-Presse public exhibition. Our analysis suggests that the features in the photographs transcend the conventional “threat versus victim” dualism that typically characterizes such representations, to capture both the suffering and agency of the people at the centre of the crisis. This occurs in two ways: first, the Rohingya are depicted as proactive and enacting agency, and not just as powerless people in need of rescue. Second, the juxtaposition of mundane aspects with more dramatic frames offers a tangible pathway for viewers to connect with the circumstances of the people depicted. These visual representations were effective in triggering international concern and policy responses in 2015. However, such photographs’ longer-term potential for shifting public perceptions of displacement and forced migration—and by extension, effective policy measures—remains largely indeterminate.
This study examined a school-based teacher professional development program as it was being conceptualized, designed, and put into practice. This article addresses four distinct, but interrelated components of the study. The first section presents a broad overview of literature situating 21st century learning. This examination specifically focuses on how this construct is conceptualized and defined by a variety of influential organizations as well as the various competencies often associated with this pedagogical perspective. The review concludes with a brief critique of this construct. The second section addresses the program areas under evaluation as well as the nature of the program and both its goals and context. The third section discusses the research questions, findings, and recommendations for action. The article concludes with comments for K-12 schools planning to implement teacher-centered professional development.
Based upon the concepts and procedures of Appreciative Inquiry, Jacqueline Kelm offers Appreciative Living, a qualitative research informed therapeutic program for one. To this end Kelm presents a 28-day plan designed to help individuals achieve greater happiness via a three-step model. She also shares results from a study she conducted with participants who have tried her approach to further demonstrate the usefulness of applying Appreciative Inquiry means to therapeutic ends.
Thematic Categories and Number of Codes Assigned by Corpus Year
In this article, we present a project that explored the application of an established qualitative methodology to a novel source of data: Microblog postings on the social media platform Twitter, also known as tweets. In particular, we adapted Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997) for use in this analysis. The coinciding aim of the project was to study the cultural impasses that seemed to characterize U.S. society surrounding the 2016 presidential election. Publicly available tweets bearing the hashtag #2A were selected for examination; this hashtag indicated the user's intention to direct the posting to the attention of Twitter users in the context of the Second Amendment, which refers to citizens' right to bear arms. The article describes the process by which CQR was modified for this use, profiles the exploratory findings, and present suggestions for subsequent similar research undertakings. Keywords: Social Media, Twitter, Consensual Qualitative Research.
In this review of the book, A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Qualitative Research by David Silverman, I write from the perspectives following Silverman’s arguments about “unremarkable things matter” in qualitative research. Based on his inspiring thoughts on modern qualitative research, I also express my reflective ideas as a doctoral student.
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