Social undermining involves covertly negative behaviors aiming to impede individual’s ability to achieve work-related goals and success and ruin positive relationships and reputations (Duffy et al., 2002); however, the role that undermining behaviors plays in governmental workplaces remain poorly understood. Using data from 14,515 U.S. federal employees, this article tests the impacts of social undermining on employees’ work attitudes and outcomes. After controlling for individual and contextual predictors, being undermined at work was associated with increased levels of job stress and decreased levels of job satisfaction and commitment. Additionally, experiencing undermining behaviors can lower individual productivity and boost turnover intent.
This theme-based book review considers four recent titles related to the intersection of business and government: Outsourcing in the UK: Politics, Practices and Outcomes, by Janice Morphet; Public Financial Management in the European Union: Public Finance and Global Crises, by Marta Postula; Handbook of Business and Public Policy, edited by Aynsley Kellow, Tony Porter, and Karsten Ronit; and European Public Procurement: Commentary on Directive 2014/24/EU, edited by Roberto Caranta and Albert Sanchez-Graells.
The objective of this study is to find out the effect of eco-literacy and biospheric values on attitudes and intention to purchase green products. To observe this, we developed a study design that includes variables from green consumer behavior literature. We collected data from 447 respondent of public sector banks using a questionnaire survey. Finally, a model including biospheric values, eco-literacy, attitude and purchase intention was validated with a path analysis. The results of this study disclosed a positive effect of green predictors such as eco-literacy and biospheric values of millennial customers on their purchasing attitudes and intentions.
The idea of policy entrepreneurs continues to gain traction in public policy studies. Yet, scholarly attention seems to ignore the "why" PEs adopt certain strategies over others. This is due to the prevailing use of quantitative method, which does not help in answering the question. In this paper, we examine why and how scholars interested in studying PEs can, and should, use phenomenology. We argue that phenomenology can help researchers to better understand who PEs are, the context they operate, and the strategies and processes they adopt to achieve their goals, why and when do use them, and to what effect?
This paper focuses on the role of local community organizations in disaster management following the Beirut explosion of August 4, 2020. It answers the following question: How can interorganizational relationships be effective in their response to disaster in a developing context? The main argument is that a lack of communication and collaboration made non-profit organizations’ interventions unsuccessful, and governmental support is necessary for successful interorganizational coordination. This paper develops a framework for disaster response that can be adapted in developing countries. Its theoretical importance is in adding to scarce literature on interorganizational relationships in developing contexts.
This article assesses the level of transparency of epidemiological and financial budgetary information on the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazilian state governments and the Federal District. State government web portals were assessed. A methodological instrument was developed to categorize and collect the data. We also assessed whether socioeconomic and epidemiological variables can explain state government transparency indices on pandemic information. According to our results, half of Brazilian states have advanced transparency, half have moderate transparency, and one has opaque transparency. HDI and monthly income are variables that better explain the level of transparency.
Corruption is widespread and preventive strategies to reduce corruption need to be adapted within the local context. Considering the United Nations (UN) Convention against corruption as our starting point, the paper presents a literature review based on 118 articles on corruption prevention initiatives in the public sector. The analysis indicates a substantial alignment between the guidelines deriving from the UN Convention, except for a lack of work on the risk-based approach to corruption prevention. Further, the review indicates problems with research designs. Based on the insights generated from the analysis, we develop an agenda for future research.
This paper, presents the case of the South African Revenue Service (SARS), whose strategic planning reflects features of the balanced scorecard (BSC) approach. The strategic plan documents of the SARS were examined. Applying manifest and latent content analysis it is highlighted how the mission, vision, and strategy have been translated into objectives that have key performance indicators, targets, and initiatives. Some of its recent performance achievements are proof of the potential that a tool like BSC holds. The SARS strategic plan is a motivating case and a learning input for government organizations dealing with the intricacies of the BSC systematically. Other revenue collecting and government agencies can consider adopting of a similar approach.
This paper explores the effects of the pandemic on corruption and mismanagement in Italy, a country where the Covid-19 crisis is supposed to have significantly increased the risk of corruption. It proposes a novel operationalization of safeguards for accountability that are attached to the disbursement of recovery funds. Emergency law decrees and their implementing acts have been coded to assess whether the discretion in the allocation of recovery funds has been constrained by transparency requirements and enforcement provisions. Findings reveal that safeguards for accountability have been strengthened over time but that they have followed various patterns across recovery measures targeting businesses and people.
Corruption and inefficiency of public funds pose a risk in public administrations. This paper analyses the corruption risk at the local level by analysing indicators of public procurement contracts in four deputations of Galicia (Spain). In addition, the pandemic has created opportunities to increase this risk and the misuse of public funds given the need to act quickly. Therefore, the study analyses whether the Covid crisis led to significant changes in expenditure in the four deputations and whether it involves a higher use of minor contracts, an award procedure without publicity or bidding, which has been found as increasing corruption risk.
Public education institutions lie at the center of the education system. However, little is known about how ready students in public and private colleges are when it comes to technology adoption and usage. This study investigates this by analyzing 640 college students in Vietnam. Our findings show that overall technology readiness and technology-related traits are main predictors of technology adoption and usage. Public college students are less ready for technology but more likely to adopt technology than private college students. This study provides useful insights into the vital role of youths in contributing to economic development in the digital era.
COVID-19 has demonstrated the importance of data for scientific policy advice. Mechanisms by which data is generated, shared, and ultimately lead to policy responses are crucial for enhancing transparency and legitimacy of decisions. At the same time, the volume, complexity and volatility of data are growing. Against this background, mechanisms, actors, and problems of data-driven scientific policy advice are analysed. The study reveals role conflicts, ambiguities, and tensions in the interaction between scientific advisors and policy-makers. The assumption of a technocratic model, promoted by well-established structures and functioning processes of data-driven government, cannot be confirmed. Reality largely corresponds to the pragmatic model, in parts also the decisionist model, albeit with dysfunctional characteristics.
The article examines changes in the role and position of experts in policy making in the EU member states and four additional West European mature democracies during the Covid-19 pandemic. Unique survey data is employed to establish fit with competing theoretical understandings of policy learning from three distinct approaches of historical institutionalism: path dependency, punctuated equilibrium and ideational change. Despite the gravity of the crisis and institutional variation in sample countries, surprisingly strong support for path dependency is observed.
The COVID-19 crisis focused attention on how experts from different scientific fields provided advice to governments through expert committees and task forces. We compared experiences in two federal democracies, Belgium and Australia, by applying a mixed methods approach (literature review, media review, policy documents analysis). This comparative study found that expertise was institutionalized in different ways and its processes and priorities shifted over time. The policy coordination challenges inherent in federalism were largely overcome in Australia through strongly embedded health advisory processes. In Belgium, the advisory process was less stable, with advisory councils being abandoned, replaced, expanded, or downgraded during the course of the crisis.
This article focuses on the role of experts in the Norwegian decision-making process in central government during the crisis management of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is based on a structural-instrumental and a cultural perspective. The main findings are that managing the pandemic led to a centralization of power in the hands of the political leadership, a blurring of the dichotomy between politics and administration, and a variety of expert advice. The crisis management also reflected the cultural appropriateness of a collaborative decision-making style, but it was not characterized by a scientization of policymaking. Rather than policymaking by experts it was policymaking informed by experts.
Immense uncertainty and the need for drastic interventions cause politicians to rely heavily on scientific advice for underpinning or legitimating their COVID-19 decision-making. This paper explores the role of scientific advice in this policy field in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. It shows that scientific advice is based on the disciplinary, mainly medical, backgrounds of advisors but is also influenced by social and economic values, which are core to what politicians find important. During the pandemic a growing gap between scientific advice and political decisions is observed.
The purpose of this scoping review is to describe studies focusing on policy diffusion to elicit an overall picture of the research in this field. Although various journals have published articles on policy diffusion, the top journals in public policy and public administration have been studied in this article. Out of 2900 cited articles, 52 articles that met the criteria were finally selected. Findings indicate learning and imitation mechanisms in the diffusion process compared to other mechanisms are more attractive. Finally, the areas of need for further study in the field of policy diffusion are suggested.
The complex relationship between science and politics has been a perennial issue in public administration. In this debate it is important to distinguish between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ politics, and between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ science. The Covid-19 pandemic has valorised the importance of science in shaping governmental responses, and has tended to contrast politics negatively with science. However, technocratic approaches to policymaking downplay the importance of politics in policymaking. Two case studies, of countries where there have been markedly different pandemic outcomes are used to illustrate the relationship between science and politics during this public health crisis – New Zealand and Brazil. In New Zealand there has been a positive and effective, if technocratic, relationship between science and politics, while in Brazil the relationship between the two domains has been fraught.
Following the death of George Floyd, there were national calls for budget reductions and reforms for police departments. The City of San Jose’s Auditor’s Office analyzed the police department’s budget components to understand what police services were being provided. This case study examined several research questions, such as how police overtime funding is being used to deliver police services, and whether the use of overtime is the most efficient method of services delivery. It analyzes why and how overtime allows for equitable and responsive police services, even when the department is short staffed.
Although the public policy's success is every government concern, some policies are usually more successful than others. However, the policy's success must be evaluated in each country's national context and a public policy domain. The study aims to identify factors contributing to the policy success of Iranian higher education. This study's findings show that the policy content and using the appropriate approach to formulate policies are the critical causes of policy success; also, providing the proper context to policy implementation, developing policies with considering the capacities and constraints of this area and establishing evaluation system to create opportunities for learning and possible changes can play the significant role in HE’s policy success.
Recent studies show that the adoption of RME scenarios is still a matter of concern for non-western countries ((Mousa et al., 2019, 2021a, 2021b). In this paper, we theoretically propose the potential direction of RME scenarios that business schools in Egypt and other similar cultural context to implement through articulating the main antecedents of RME before and after Covid-19. we used the method of multilevel research by combining different theoretical approaches. As an outcome of our analysis, we developed five propositions which form the main antecedents of RME in Egypt and similar regional Middle East business schools before and after Covid-19.
Do institutional changes lead to changes in the policy formulation process (PFP)? The paper analyses the health sector PFP of the old Chilean democracy (in place until 1973), until mid 1950s, and contrasts its finding with that of the democratic regime in place since 1990. Deep institutional reforms occurred in between, during the 17-year dictatorship of General Pinochet. The article concludes that both PFP behave similarly, raising the question of why is that and what might explain it. Information comes from official documents, press clippings, diverse literature and interviews. The article combines policy analysis with documental historical and hermeneutical methods.
Governments have a history of intervention in the market to aid small, minority, and women-owned businesses. This research explores women-owned business development programs across the United States. The paper begins with a discussion of programs to serve women-owned businesses, noting barriers that exist for women business owners to access markets and capital. Analysis considers program offerings and how they are communicated to the public and client businesses via government websites. Policy approaches may reinforce patterns of suppression, rather than opening maximum opportunities for women business owners.
This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated employees’ acceptance of enterprise systems in public sector in Sri Lanka. Survey methodology was used and public sector employees, who fulfilled the sample selection criteria set for the study responded. To examine the hypothesized relationships structural equation modelling was performed and five separate models were tested. The best-fitting model suggests that ease of use has significant effect on behavioural intention to use enterprise systems. Of the contextual factors investigated, formal internal training had the single highest significant contribution. The findings provide understanding and insight into important aspects of technology acceptance by public sector employees. The findings imply the need of contextualising research models instead of applying generic models that were developed and tested outside of public sector. The findings will be of interest to stakeholders of public sector, academics, researchers and practitioners, world-wide.
The purpose of this article is to develop a measurement scale of the public sector’s ability to adopt Lean. The study focuses on the exploring phase of the Churchill paradigm. The scale measurement is constructed from the treatment of data from the survey carried out on a sample of 430 employees of administrations and territorial communities in Morocco. The exploratory research highlight five dimensions that might be used to assess the public services’ ability to implement the Lean approach. The five dimensions of the construct are: Leadership and team spirit, customer orientation, communication, employee training and continuous improvement.
The goal of this study is to deepen the reflections on discursive articulations, aiming at the significance of E-government in Cape Verde, under the perspective of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s Discourse Theory. We carry out an instrumental case study and use the retroduction method proposed by Glynos and Howarth. The results show that a convergence began to be built between the discourses of the Government, NOSI and the citizens, in the sense of mobilizing efforts aimed at the attribution of an electronic configuration to all public services in that country.
In addition to illuminating personal and institutional factors that facilitate social integration of students in higher education, the current study delineates their effects on retention and persistence. The systematic literature review approach is employed to broach and synthesize seminal studies conducted between 2010 and 2021. Among other prominent factors, the study outcomes underscore not only peer interaction, student-faculty interaction, extracurricular and residential activities, but also, other attributes like financial opportunities, language proficiency and communication skills as imperative underpinnings and correlates of social integration and retention in higher education. In view of these findings, the study proffers suggestions for policy and research.
The article offers a broad overview and comparative analysis of legal training and the provision of judicial representation status in European countries with different legal systems and the Russian Federation. Based on a comparative analysis of the best practices of European legal systems, the study recommends to implement a state accreditation for representatives of state authorities followed by an exam or training in a Bar Association (by mentoring) or at the workplace and suggests providing regular training courses followed by an exam as a prerequisite for maintaining the status of a judicial representative.
This study examines the perceptions of sport regulators and executives on national sport. Mann–Whitney test and exploratory factor analyses reveal the lacking of unified interpretations of sport performance and governance between sport state regulators and sport executives. While regulators impose reform policies, sport executives perceive these policies as being jurisdictionally external, bureaucratic, and trespassing. Sport executives resist change by establishing a parallel organisational culture based on their interpretation of good governance and excellence. National sport performance is vulnerable to continuous mismatch as regulators insist on implementing reforms and sport executives seek more state funding and more institutional autonomy.
The paper aimed to study land reforms in the Russian Federation from the abolition of serfdom to the present time. The research was carried out by analyzing land and urban planning regulatory and legal acts, territorial planning, and municipal land management schemes used in constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The conducted retrospective analysis of land reforms in Russia revealed weaknesses and strengths and outlined prospects for further development of land relations. The conducted study showed that land reforms in Russia have not reached a successful conclusion. It had negative effects on agriculture and food security of the country. The paper provides recommendations with regard to the regulatory and scientific-methodological basis for a new system of land ownership and land use.
Since this catastrophic crisis began, learning at universities has changed to distance mode to reduce person-to-person transmission of the virus. Using a survey, the article compares the experiences of international doctoral students in this COVID crisis with the general quality of learning and their experiences with various aspects of university support. The descriptive results suggest that the overall satisfaction with the general quality of learning was quite high among both Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. There were no statistically significant differences between English-speaking and Russian-speaking doctoral students. However, there was a statistically significant difference in fields of study, with international doctoral students in medical sciences being the most dissatisfied with the general quality of learning. After comparing international doctoral students' experiences with various aspects of university support, the results further reveal that English-speaking international doctoral students were dissatisfied with access to laboratory equipment, software for working on a dissertation, and library services the most. The article advocates that universities provide and improve their support systems, especially by making laboratory equipment, software for working on dissertations, and library services more accessible to English-speaking international doctoral students during this pandemic, to give them a positive learning experience.
In 2009, the New Zealand Police implemented a comprehensive program called Policing Excellence, which provided the platform for the introduction of Prevention First in 2011. In 2014, Police Scotland implemented a prevention strategy. The strategy implemented by New Zealand was designed to place the victims of crime and the prevention of crime at the foreground of their service delivery, with the view that in the longer-term, crime would decrease, while the strategy introduced by Police Scotland was designed to increase the effectiveness of their service delivery. This article examines the differences between the processes used to adopt the strategies and how they were used after their implementation. Both strategies were introduced as a response to the criminal environment and to decrease the occurrence of crime, but neither strategy have resulted in large decreases in the level of crime or in an increase in the confidence held by the public. The review found that the strategies have not achieved what was originally intended and argues for a more comprehensive and theoretical basis for designing policing strategies to ensure that crime is reduced.
There is great public concern on cost deviations and overruns in public projects, particularly regarding the impact of corruption and accountability. To examine this question, we use a data set of over 4,000 public projects from Portugal covering a 25-year period. By using the corruption and accountability index for Portugal, we are able to focus on the potential influence of these dimensions, while controlling for institutional, political, and economic variables. Our research method follows an econometric approach, using the cost deviation and the cost overrun of each project as dependent variables. The implication of this study is that more corruption and less accountability can lead to higher cost deviations and overruns.
As the needs of UK infrastructure investment become clearer, the problem of funding these investments remain open to debate. To aid this, the development of nuclear power station’s is considered. The objective of the paper is to develop a governance lens that supports an assessment of both historic practice and current proposals to support discussion on infrastructure investment options. To meet this aim, general funding of infrastructure together with three governance paradigms are examined. The implications for infrastructure investment are highlighted and alternative paradigms analysed. These are subsequently discussed and conclusions drawn.
Efficiency and responsiveness are always considered to be two essential but often contradictory values in theory and practice of public administration. This article mainly addresses whether there is a possibility that the efficiency and responsiveness are able to be balanced. Through outlining the evolution process of the Administrative Service Organization in Nanhu District, we argue that the government has gradually focused on providing better services to the public. We concluded that the structural innovation, along with process innovation and conceptual innovation, can be viewed as effective measures to keep the balance between government efficiency and responsiveness to citizens.
We use large panel data of 107 developed and developing countries to examine the impact of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) adoption on governance quality. Our results show that IPSAS has a positive and significant influence on governance quality, suggesting that IPSAS ensure accountability and transparency between the government and its citizens. However, we find that the positive effect of IPSAS is limited to developing countries. The findings provide empirical evidence to policymakers and regulators in their pursuit of global harmonisation of governmental accounting through the adoption of IPSAS, especially in developing countries.
Understanding and managing hospital Organizational Readiness to Change is a key topic with strong practical implications on society worldwide. This study provides, through a scoping literature review, a framework aimed at creating a road map for hospital managers who are implementing strategic processes of change. Ideally, the framework should act as a check-list to proactively detect those items that are likely to impede successful change. 146 items were identified and clustered into 9 domains. Finally, although built for the hospital setting, similar research approaches could be highly effective also in other large, public organizations.
This study aims to investigate the areas of investment that the human resources management of the Iranian public sector has invested in for improving employees' resilience in the COVID-19 pandemic period. This study is qualitative and the qualitative content analysis is used to analyze the data. The qualitative content analysis is used to analyze the data. According to findings, essential areas for investment to improve employee resilience are hardware investments, software investments, and wetware investments.While increasing the knowledge of employee resilience, this qualitative study provides valuable and practical implications for policymakers and managers in the public sector.
Attempts at mitigating COVID-19 pandemic’s impact has pushed stakeholders’ resolve to incept variegated measures using socially embedded multilevel government structures. Given Ghana’s pandemic governance success, this paper reviews government’s nuanced and disaggregated roles in galvanizing social support towards developing, implementing and coordinating pandemic measures. By highlighting the diversity of state-society inter-agency relations, the current study unearths varying stakeholder engagements and their imperativeness to pandemic governance, and acknowledges multilevel governance as critical to fighting the pandemic.
There is divine and democratic legitimacy in the Islamic Republic state of Iran. Therefore, bureaucracy confronts dichotomies such as ‘religious commitment and being qualified/professional’, ‘accountability to Vali-e-Faqih and public’, ‘alms-tax dichotomy’, and ‘institutions and Bonyads. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this paradox using historical-comparative analysis. In conclusion, through three mainstreams – i.e., ancient Persia tolerant bureaucracy, contributions from the new public service professional principles and restricting the power of Guardian Jurist to determine the overall red lines of bureaucracy – insights are presented to resolve these conflicts, in particular, the accountability paradox, which needs further explanation and empirical study.
The COVID-19 pandemic has induced changes in the regular patterns of social interaction, causing the need for new approaches to teaching social work. This work aims to examine the features, opportunities, and prospects of implementing e-learning in Social Work Education. The study recruited 116 students from [anonymized for blind peer review] University and 109 students from [anonymized for blind peer review] University. All participants were asked to complete online questionnaires with the view of assessing their perceptions of e-learning. The study uses a structural analysis of the content of academic research in the field of online education in social work to create a questionnaire for surveying students. Based on the results of the descriptive statistics of a students’ survey and the intersection with the study of the corresponding corpus of academic research, a Conceptual model of e-learning in Social Work Education is proposed, which integrates the available academic findings and the real situation estimation in accordance with the assessment of students. Findings suggest that e-learning as a tool for teaching is a promising alternative to traditional classroom or blended learning. The effectiveness of e-learning in social work was highlighted.
This study aims to first examine the relationship between perceived coworker support and career plateauing in a collectivist culture. Second, it examines the relationship between career plateauing and organizational commitment. 228 Algerian executives employed in various public sector organizations took part in our study. The hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling. The results showed coworker support was negatively correlated to both hierarchical and job content plateaus. In terms of the consequences, the results demonstrate that both forms of career plateauing are negatively related to affective commitment, while only the content career plateau is positively related to few alternatives commitment.
Through addressing management educators in four public business schools in Egypt, the authors of this paper aim to uncover the impact of holding multiple academic jobs on the mental health of management educators. The paper asserts that management educators do not perceive the holding of multiple academic roles as a stimulant of any form of mental illness (e.g., anxiety, depression, stress) if it is accompanied by a sense of autonomy (proper teaching loads, rational time for supervising theses, reasonable requests for research production) a feeling of competence (relevant monthly salary, available training and learning opportunities) and a sense of relatedness (feeling of involvement, flexible work hours, option to work from home).
The purpose of the study is to analyze the role of the application of law in the historical formation and development of identity politics as a set of norms and rules of behavior of a community of people. The research methodology is based on the analysis of the world law enforcement practice of regulating identity politics taking into account the development of public doctrinal concepts in certain historical periods. The study suggests that in modern conditions the breadth of coverage of this concept levels its essence as defining self-identifications to one degree or another inevitably contradict others.
This theme-based book review considers three recent titles related to public policy problems, processes, and solutions, from scholarly and practitioner perspectives: The Political Formulation of Policy Solutions, edited by Philippe Zittoun, Frank Fischer, and Nikalaos Zahariadis; A Guidebook for City and County Managers: Meeting Today’s Challenges, by James M. Bourey; and Solving Public Problems: A Practical Guide to Fix Our Government and Change Our World, by Beth Simone Noveck.