Four dose levels of oral scopolamine (0.15 mg, 0.3 mg, 0.6 mg, 1,2 mg), transdermal scopolamine, and placebo, were investigated for their effects upon a battery of psychological performance measures in normal subjects. Oral scopolamine produced significant linear dose-related decrements on tasks involving continuous attention, continuous performance, memory storage for new information, and on self-rated feelings of alertness and sociability. Transdermal scopolamine produced significant performance impairments on these same assessment measures. Resting heart rate levels were significantly reduced by all scopolamine conditions. Side effects (dry mouth, dizziness) were frequent following transdermal scopolamine and the higher oral dose conditions. The overall effects of the transdermal scopolamine patch were broadly equivalent to the effects of 0.8 mg oral scopolamine. This oral dose equivalence for transdermal scopolamine is higher than expected, and possible reasons for this are discussed.
Single low doses (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone were given at 11 p.m., 2, 5 and 8 a.m. on separate days to five normal subjects. The concentrations of cortisol in plasma on the next day were significantly decreased compared to results after placebo administration, and cortisol suppression was maximal after dexamethasone had been given at 8 a.m. Our findings suggests that the postulated phase-advance of circadian rhythms is not a major cause of cortisol non-suppression in depressives given dexamethasone.
An increasing number of fatal road-accidents have been reported in which ecstasy was found in the blood of drivers. Although, ecstasy is frequently found to have been used in combination with alcohol, studies on the acute effects of ecstasy co-administered with alcohol on driving performance are relatively rare.
The present study was designed to establish the extent of driver impairment as a consequence of ecstasy or combined ecstasy and alcohol use as compared to driving under the influence of 0.3‰, 0.5‰ and 0.8‰ alcohol. Furthermore, subjective performance was also assessed.
Alcohol and ecstasy mainly influenced automated driving performance such as lateral and speed control. However, small to no effects of the substances were found on more complex driving behaviour. Overall, variance within the different driving measures was high especially when participants were treated with 3.4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and alcohol. Furthermore, equivalence testing showed that combined use may lead to impaired driving for some, but not all, drivers. Participants rated their own performance to be slightly worse than normal in both studies. Since driving was actually seriously deteriorated, this was a falsely positive assessment of their condition.
The dissociation between subjective perceptions and objective performance decrements are important notions for traffic safety since this may affect a driver's judgement of whether or not it is safe to drive. For example, an intoxicated individual might decide to drive because the feelings of alertness caused by MDMA cloud the impairing effects of other drugs such as alcohol, thereby creating a potentially serious risk for traffic safety.
The effects of a short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotic, triazolam (0.5 mg), on sleep, performance, and arousal threshold were assessed in 20 male poor sleepers (age 21 +/- 2.37 years). Following in a laboratory screening night, all subjects received placebo for 3 nights (single-blind), ten received triazolam and ten placebo for 6 nights (double-blind), and all received placebo on 2 withdrawal nights (single-blind). All effects described below were statistically significant. Triazolam reduced sleep latency and increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency. Percent Stage 2 was increased and percent Stage 4 was reduced during treatment. Morning performance, measured 8.25 h post-drug, showed no decrements. Acute effects were assessed on treatment night 6 during arousals from sleep at 1.5, 3, and 5 h post-administration: performance was impaired in triazolam subjects on the Wilkinson 4-Choice Reaction Time Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Williams Word Memory Test, and Card Sorting Task. In the morning following treatment night 6, long-term memory was tested using a recognition task requiring subjects to identify words presented during night-time test batteries: triazolam subjects correctly identified fewer target words. Triazolam administration produced anterograde amnesic effects. However, in a Paired Associates Test learned prior to drug ingestion on the previous evening, triazolam did not impair morning recall of word pairs. Threshold for arousal from slow wave sleep was elevated during treatment, and triazolam subjects did not show increased sensitivity to the arousing tone over nights as did placebo subjects.
The effects of oral, bedtime triazolam 0.5 mg and flurazepam 30 mg, on the laboratory sleep of 12 insomniacs were compared in a double blind, crossover study. A 22 consecutive night schedule was used: Nts. 1--2 placebo; 3--6 first drug; 7--8 placebo; 9--14 no drugs; 15--16 placebo; 17--20 second drug; 21--22 placebo. In 6 Ss first drug was triazolam and second drug was flurazepam. In the other 6 Ss the drug order was reversed. Effects on sleep were assessed objectively by conventional EEG/EOG/EMG sleep recordings and subjectively by questionnaires administered each morning. Side or toxic effects were assessed by physical exams, clinical lab tests, and twice daily questionnaires. During their administration the two drugs were practically indistinguishable in their effects. Both significantly reduced objective and subjective measures of insomnia, such as total wake time and sleep latency. On discontinuation the drugs differentially affected sleep, e.g., on the first post flurazepam night total sleep time was significantly more than baseline whereas on first post triazolam night, total sleep time was significantly less than baseline. There were no remarkable side or toxic effects with either drug.
Lu 5-003 (1-[3-methylaminopropyl]-1-phenyl-3,3-dimethyl-thiophthalane hydrochloride) and Lu 3-010 (the corresponding phthalane derivative) are two newer drugs currently under investigation for antidepressant properties. Their inhibitory effect on 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) uptake in human blood platelets in vitro have been studied in comparison with some well-known tricyclic antidepressants. The newer drugs were found to be about 10 times less potent in this respect than imipramine and amitriptyline, and several times less potent than desipramine and nortriptyline. The inhibitory effect of Lu 5-003 was found to be of the competitive type. The possible correlation between inhibitory effects on the “serotonin pump” and the antidepressant effect is discussed briefly.
NNC 19-1228 [1-(3(6-methylenedioxyphenylcarbamoyloxy) propyl)-4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl) piperidine] and NNC 22-0031 [4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl) -1-(3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenylcarbamoyloxy) propyl)piperidine] are newly developed compounds with an in vitro pharmacologic profile similar to that of clozapine, i.e., mixed dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 and alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist action. In pharmacological experiments in mice, the compounds inhibited DA D2 receptor binding in vivo at doses that produced only moderate antagonism of methylphenidate (MPD)-induced stereotyped gnawing. However, the compounds were markedly more potent in blocking MPD-induced motility, a model which showed a high degree of sensitivity to alpha 1-adrenergic antagonism, but not 5-HT2 antagonism. In rats, the NNC-compounds blocked conditioned avoidance responding and attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine, but failed to induce catalepsy. These results are discussed in terms of adrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic interactions which suggest that the NNC compounds may act as DA antagonists with mesolimbic selectivity, and thus may have efficacy as antipsychotics without coincident extrapyramidal side effects.
The effects of the monoamine uptake inhibitor Lu 19-005 ((+/-)-trans-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-1-indanamine) and its (+) and (-) enantiomers, Lu 20-042 and Lu 20-043, were compared with those of cocaine and the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 (1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine) in behavioral and radioligand binding experiments. Behavioral experiments were conducted in groups of squirrel monkeys trained under fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement in which responding was maintained either by presentation of food or by termination of a visual stimulus associated with mild electric shock. Radioligand binding studies were conducted using [3H]CFT and [3H]GBR 12935 to label elements of the dopamine uptake system in caudate-putamen membranes of cynomolgus monkeys. All drugs produced dose-related increases in response rate under the fixed-interval schedules. Lu 19-005, Lu 20-042, and Lu 20-043 had relatively slow onsets (approximately 2 h) and relatively long durations of action, with effects persisting for two or more days following administration. Stereoselectivity was evident in the behavioral effects of the enantiomers of Lu 19-005, with Lu 20-042 being approximately 14 times more potent than Lu 20-043. In radioligand binding experiments, Lu 19-005 and its enantiomers were potent inhibitors of specifically bound [3H]CFT and [3H]GBR 12935. As in behavioral experiments, Lu 20-042 was more potent than Lu 20-043. The degree of stereoselectivity, however, varied with the temperature of the assay medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Central modulation of serotonin and dopamine underlies efficacy for a variety of psychiatric therapeutics. ITI-007 is an investigational new drug in development for treatment of schizophrenia, mood disorders, and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
The purpose of this study was to determine brain occupancy of ITI-007 at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, dopamine D2 receptors, and serotonin transporters using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 healthy volunteers.
Carbon-11-MDL100907, carbon-11-raclopride, and carbon-11-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile) (carbon-11-DASB) were used as the radiotracers for imaging 5-HT2A receptors, D2 receptors, and serotonin transporters, respectively. Brain regions of interest were outlined using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) with cerebellum as the reference region. Binding potentials were estimated by fitting a simplified reference tissue model to the measured tissue-time activity curves. Target occupancy was expressed as percent change in the binding potentials before and after ITI-007 administration.
Oral ITI-007 (10-40 mg) was safe and well tolerated. ITI-007 rapidly entered the brain with long-lasting and dose-related occupancy. ITI-007 (10 mg) demonstrated high occupancy (>80 %) of cortical 5-HT2A receptors and low occupancy of striatal D2 receptors (~12 %). D2 receptor occupancy increased with dose and significantly correlated with plasma concentrations (r (2) = 0.68, p = 0.002). ITI-007 (40 mg) resulted in peak occupancy up to 39 % of striatal D2 receptors and 33 % of striatal serotonin transporters.
The results provide evidence for a central mechanism of action via dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways for ITI-007 in living human brain and valuable information to aid dose selection for future clinical trials.
Positron emission tomography (PET) and 11C-raclopride were used to measure the occupancy of central dopamine D2 receptors by a new neuroleptic, CP-88,059-1. In a double blind dose escalation study, seven healthy male subjects received a predose of between 2 mg and 60 mg CP-88,059-1, 5 h before PET scanning. One additional subject was assigned to placebo predose. Receptor occupancy was defined as the percentage reduction in binding potential compared with that seen in the subject predosed with placebo and with that seen in seven unmedicated normal volunteers previously studied. Binding of 11C-raclopride decreased in a dose dependent manner, and 85% dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was achieved with the highest dose of CP-88,059-1. The findings confirm that brain dopamine D2 receptors are blocked by CP-88,059-1 and suggest that an effective antipsychotic dose will be between 20 mg and 40 mg. The study high-lights the potential of positron emission tomography in the preclinical evaluation of new drugs.
Positron emission tomography (PET) and 11C-raclopride were used to assess the time course of binding to central dopamine D2 receptors by the novel neuroleptic ziprasidone. In a third party blind study, six healthy male control subjects received a predose of 40 mg ziprasidone and were scanned at an interval of between 4 and 36 h post-dose. One additional subject was assigned to placebo predose and was scanned at 4 h post-dose. Binding potential (BP) was compared with that seen in the subject predosed with placebo and with that seen in nine unmedicated normal volunteers. Subjects studied up to 12 h post-dose had BPs that were greater than 2 SD less than the mean BP, indicative of extensive D2 receptor binding by ziprasidone. With increasing time between dosing and PET scanning there was a curvilinear increase in BP, so that all studies performed at or after 18 h post-dose gave BPs in the normal range (mean +/- 2 SD). Elevated prolactin levels returned to within the normal range by 18 h post-dose. PET measures of binding potential correlated significantly with serum levels of ziprasidone at the time of scanning and less significantly with absolute prolactin levels at the same time.
Selective dopamine D1-receptor antagonists have been shown to exhibit similar effects in animal models for antipsychotic action as the selective D2 antagonists. NNC 01-0687, a benzazepine with selective and high affinity to the D1-receptor, was well tolerated by healthy subjects allocated to double blind, placebo controlled studies. Complaints of moderate restlessness and drowsiness were reported after administration of 25 mg NNC 01-0687, indicating the dose to be the maximum tolerated single dose. The highest multiple dose level of a daily dose of 45 mg NNC 01-0687 administered t.i.d. for 14 days was assessed as safe and well-tolerated with few reports of adverse events. Some alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations appeared in both treatment groups (active and placebo) and no evident influence of NNC 01-0687 on the liver function could be derived. No statistically significant or clinically relevant effects were observed in haematological parameters, urinalyses, blood pressure, heart rate, ECG or plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol or growth hormone. The plasma drug concentration curves indicated a fast absorption with tmax at 0.5-1 h and an apparent elimination half-life of 3-4 h. Both AUC and Cmax appeared to be linearly correlated to the dose, indicating linear pharmacokinetics. With similar Cmax and AUC on day 1 and day 10 no accumulation was observed. When administered just after lunch, the Cmax was reduced by 50-60% and the tmax increased to 3 h, but without change of AUC.
Dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at the end of short access (ShA) cocaine self-administration is implicated in cocaine seeking. However, what receptors and phosphatases mediate this effect and whether ERK/CREB and related phospho-proteins in the dmPFC react similarly during early withdrawal from long access (LgA) cocaine self-administration are unknown.
The effects of ShA vs. LgA cocaine self-administration on the phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), as well as GluN and GluA receptor subtype expression in the dmPFC during early withdrawal, were compared.
Rats self-administered cocaine or received saline during 2- or 6-h daily sessions for 10-11 days. Two hours after the final session, the dmPFC was dissected out and processed for immunoblotting.
Similar to previous findings after ShA cocaine, phospho-ERK and phospho-CREB in the dmPFC were decreased after LgA cocaine. Cocaine elevated phospho-PP2A (deactivation) and decreased phospho-STEP (activation) in both ShA and LgA cocaine rats. GluN1, GluN2B, and phospho-GluN2B Tyr1472 in the dmPFC were decreased after ShA and LgA cocaine. Further, a significant reduction of GluA2, GluA1, and phospho-GluA1 Ser845 was found only in LgA rats.
Activation of phospho-STEP may underlie ERK and CREB dephosphorylation in the dmPFC as well as internalization and degradation of GluN complexes during early withdrawal from both ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration, whereas differential alteration of AMPA receptor subunits after ShA and LgA cocaine self-administration depends on cocaine intake.
There is evidence that serotonin(2C) (5-HT(2C)) receptors can modulate some behavioural effects of nicotine, but the generality of this action is not known.
To analyse the influence of the 5-HT(2C) agonist Ro-60-0175 on responses to nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and on its discriminative stimulus effect; these procedures constitute models for attention-enhancing and subjective effects of nicotine, respectively.
In the 5-CSRTT, rats were trained to obtain food reinforcers by detecting light stimuli and then challenged with Ro-60-0175 (0.3-0.8 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.2 mg/kg). For drug discrimination studies, rats were trained to discriminate nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) from saline in a two-lever procedure using a tandem schedule of food reinforcement.
In the 5-CSRTT, nicotine positively influenced most response indices, confirming previous results. Ro-60-0175 increased response latencies and omission errors and reduced anticipatory responding but had little effect on response accuracy; importantly, it counteracted the effects of nicotine on response speed and omission errors. Pentobarbitone (10-14 mg/kg) also slowed performance of the 5-CSRTT but did not weaken the nicotine-induced enhancement of performance. In the drug discrimination procedure, Ro-60-0175 was not generalised with nicotine but shifted the nicotine dose-response curve to the right in a dose-related manner.
The data suggest that selective occupancy of 5-HT(2C) receptors can attenuate some effects of nicotine in the 5-CSRTT and weaken the nicotine discriminative stimulus; these effects cannot be explained by a sedative action of Ro-60-0175.
We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of 4 weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting.
This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved 2 weeks of baseline, 4 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21-33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events.
Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events and changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, and renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34-57 %, reduced the number of heavy drinking days, and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence.
A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated, and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations.
Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role for the 5-HT(6 )receptor in cognitive function and the potential use of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in the treatment of learning and memory disorders.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist, Ro 04-6790, on both the performance of normal adult rats and restoration of a pharmacological disruption of memory function produced by the non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, or the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, raclopride, in a rodent model of recognition memory.
Passive, perceptually based, recognition memory was assessed using a novel object discrimination task. Following habituation to an arena, rats were presented with two identical objects during trial 1 (T(1)) and a novel and familiar object during trial 2 (T(2)). The time spent exploring the two objects in each trial was measured and novel object discrimination assessed in T(2).
In the absence of drug all rats spent an equal time exploring the two identical objects in T(1) but more time exploring the novel object in T(2). Scopolamine (but not N-methylscopolamine) and raclopride both produced a dose-dependent reduction in novel object discrimination whilst the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist, Ro 04-6790, had no effect on discrimination when given alone but completely reversed the scopolamine- but not the raclopride-induced deficit.
This study demonstrates that acute administration of Ro 04-6790 reverses a cholinergic but not a dopaminergic deficit in a rodent model of recognition memory and provides further support for a role of the 5-HT(6) receptor in the regulation of cognitive function.
Selective 5-ht(6) receptor antagonists like Ro 04-6790 prolong memory in many rodent preclinical paradigms, possibly by blocking tonic 5-HT-evoked GABA release and allowing disinhibition of cortico-limbic glutamatergic and cholinergic neurones. If this is the case, behavioural responses to Ro 04-6790 should be abolished by depletion of endogenous 5-HT, and selective lesions of dorsal raphé (DR) or median raphé (MR) 5-HT pathways would allow the neuroanatomical substrates underlying the cognitive effects of 5-ht(6) receptor antagonists to be elucidated.
This study compared the effect of Ro 04-6790 on novel object discrimination (NOD) before and after sham or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT)-induced lesions produced by injection into the lateral ventricles (LV), DR or MR.
NOD tests used a 4 h inter-trial interval (ITI) and Ro 04-6790 (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was administered 20 min before the familiarization trial. Brain region-specific 5-HT depletion was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED).
Widespread LV or selective MR, but not DR lesions, abolished the ability of Ro 04-6790 to delay natural forgetting. Successful performance of all lesioned rats in subsequent 'drug-free' NOD tests using a 1 h ITI excluded the possibility of any confounding effects on visual acuity or motivation.
The ability of Ro 04-6790 to prolong object recognition memory requires blockade of MR 5-HT function. Because DR lesions did not produce the expected depletion of striatal 5-HT an additional contribution of DR inputs to this region cannot be completely excluded.
Endogeneously occurring neuroactive steroids, metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone, have been shown previously to interact with the GABAA receptor with great specificity in vitro and to have anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative activity in vivo. However, these endogenously occurring steroids are not useful as therapeutic agents due to their potential metabolism to hormonally active steroids and their poor oral bioavailability. In an attempt to develop therapeutic agents which would maintain the pharmacological profiles of endogeneous neuroactive steroids but with increased oral bioavailability and reduced metabolic liability, we explored simple substitutions at the 3 beta-position of the endogenous neuroactive steroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3 alpha, 5 alpha-P). This report describes part of the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of a 3 beta-substituted analog, 3 beta-ethenyl-3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (Co 3-0593). The compound exhibited anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetrazol-induced seizures in mice and rats (ED50 = 5.6 and 11.5 mg/kg, i.p., respectively). Co 3-0593 showed robust anxiolytic effects, comparable to benzodiazepines in the Geller-Seifter test after both SC and oral administration. Furthermore, the anxiolytic activity was maintained after chronic administration suggesting an absence of tolerance. The compound did not affect the acquisition of a learned response at both anticonvulsant and anxiolytic doses. However, at higher doses the compound showed rotorod deficit which was further enhanced by ethanol. In summary, 3 beta-ethenyl-substituted 3 alpha, 5 alpha-P appeared to maintain the pharmacological activities of the endogenous neuroactive steroid with apparent oral activity.
Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder patients are marked by cognitive deficits in working memory and strategy switching. There is accumulating evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(6) receptors may serve as a useful target to improve cognitive functioning.
In the present experiments, the novel 5-HT(6) antagonist, PRX-07034, was examined for its selectivity of the 5-HT(6) receptor, as well as its effect on delayed spontaneous alternation and strategy switching.
The binding affinity of PRX-07034 to the 5-HT(6) receptor, other 5-HT receptors, as well as other G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, and transporters was evaluated. Cyclic AMP production was measured from transfected HEK-293 cells. In separate behavioral experiments, rats received different doses of PRX-07034 (0.1, 1, or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to delayed spontaneous alternation testing or prior to the acquisition and switch phases in a place-response switch test.
The results indicated that PRX-07034 is both a potent (Ki = 4-8 nM) and highly selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist (≥100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT(6) receptor compared to 68 other GPCRs, ion channels, and transporters, except D(3) (Ki = 71 nM) and 5-HT(1B) (Ki = 260 nM) receptors. For cyclic AMP quantification, PRX-07034 demonstrated antagonist activity (IC(50) = 19 nM) without an effect on basal levels and did not show any agonist activity up to 10 μM. PRX-07034 at 1 and 3 mg/kg (but not 0.1 mg/kg) significantly enhanced delayed spontaneous alternation. The drug at 1 and 3 mg/kg also enhanced switching between a place and response strategy, but did not affect initial learning of either a place or response discrimination.
These findings demonstrate that PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist that may represent a novel treatment for enhancing working memory and cognitive flexibility.
AIT-082 (Neotrofin), a hypoxanthine derivative, has been shown to improve memory in both animals and humans. In animals, adrenal hormones modulate the efficacy of many memory-enhancing compounds, including piracetam and tacrine (Cognex).
To investigate the role of adrenal hormones in the memory-enhancing action of AIT-082.
Plasma levels of adrenal hormones (corticosterone and aldosterone) in mice were significantly reduced by surgical or chemical (aminoglutethimide) adrenalectomy or significantly elevated by oral administration of corticosterone. The effects of these hormone level manipulations on the memory-enhancing activity of AIT-082 and piracetam were evaluated using a cycloheximide-induced amnesia/passive avoidance model.
As previously reported by others, the memory enhancing action of piracetam was abolished by adrenalectomy. In contrast, the memory enhancement by 60 mg/kg AIT-082 (IP) was unaffected. However, a sub-threshold dose of AIT-082 (0.1 mg/kg, IP) that did not improve memory in control animals did improve memory in adrenalectomized animals. These data suggested that, similar to piracetam and tacrine, the memory enhancing action of AIT-082 might be inhibited by high levels of adrenal hormones. As expected, corticosterone (30 and 100 mg/kg) inhibited the action of piracetam, however no dose up to 100 mg/kg corticosterone inhibited the activity of AIT-082.
These data suggest that while AIT-082 function is not dependent on adrenal hormones, it is modulated by them. That memory enhancement by AIT-082 was not inhibited by high plasma corticosterone levels may have positive implications for its clinical utility, given that many Alzheimer's disease patients have elevated plasma cortisol levels.
α(4)β(2) Neuronal nicotinic receptors (NNRs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
This study examined the efficacy and safety of the α(4)β(2) NNR partial agonist ABT-089 versus placebo in adults with ADHD.
In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, subjects received placebo followed by ABT-089 (2 mg once daily [QD], 5 mg QD, 15 mg QD, 40 mg QD, or 40 mg twice daily [BID]), or vice versa, in a 2 × 2 crossover design. Each treatment period was 4 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated (CAARS:Inv) total score at the end of each treatment period. Secondary outcomes based on clinician- and self-rated efficacy scales were evaluated.
Of the 221 subjects enrolled, 171 met criteria for inclusion in the completers dataset for efficacy analyses. ABT-089 was superior to placebo on the CAARS:Inv total score at 40 mg QD and 40 mg BID (model-based least square mean difference from placebo: -4.33, P = 0.02; -3.02, P = 0.03, respectively). ABT-089 also demonstrated significant improvements on several secondary measures of efficacy. ABT-089 was generally safe and well tolerated. The most commonly reported adverse events (≥5%) for total ABT-089-treated subjects at rates higher than placebo were headache, upper respiratory tract infection, irritability, insomnia, and nasopharyngitis.
In this phase 2 crossover study, the NNR partial agonist ABT-089, at doses of 40 mg QD and 40 mg BID, was efficacious and generally well tolerated in treatment of adults with ADHD.
Dopamine D3 receptor mechanisms have been implicated in the abuse-related behavioral effects of cocaine.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the D3 receptor partial agonist CJB 090 on the discriminative stimulus, reinforcing and priming effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. Complementary studies were conducted to compare CJB 090's effects on food-maintained behavior and species-typical unconditioned behaviors.
Monkeys were trained to: (1) discriminate cocaine from saline using a two-lever choice procedure, (2) self-administer cocaine on a second-order fixed-interval, fixed-ratio schedule of i.v. drug injection, or (3) self-administer food on a comparable second-order schedule of food delivery. A final group of monkeys served in quantitative observational studies of unconditioned behaviors.
In cocaine discrimination studies, pretreatment with CJB 090 significantly attenuated cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects. CJB 090 also significantly attenuated the partial cocaine-like stimulus effects of the preferential D3 receptor agonist PD 128907 but not the preferential D2 receptor agonist sumanirole. CJB 090 did not attenuate either self-administration of cocaine or cocaine-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking at a dose that reduced responding maintained by food. CJB 090 did not induce scratching or biting (species-typical effects of D2/3 receptor agonists) or catalepsy (typical effect of D2/3 receptor antagonists).
The results provide no evidence that CJB 090 reduced either the reinforcing or priming effects of cocaine but do suggest that CJB 090, acting via a D3 receptor mechanism, antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine at a dose that did not induce adverse side effects.
A new benzamide, cis-N-(1-benzyl-2-methylpyrrolidin - 3 - yl) - 5 - chloro - 2 - methoxy - 4 - methylaminobenzamide (YM-09151-2) exhibited more potent and longer-lasting inhibitory effects on apomorphine-induced behaviours (stereotyped behaviour, emesis and hypothermia), and methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour, conditioned avoidance response and open field behaviour, conditioned avoidance response and open field behaviour than either structurally similar benzamides (YM-0850 and sulpiride) or classical neuroleptics [chlorpromazine (CPZ) and haloperidol(HPD)]. Such inhibitory effects of YM-09151-2 relative to cataleptogenicity were greater than those of CPz and HPD. In contrast, sulpiride elicited few of the neuroleptic effects described above. YM-09151-2, a potent inhibitor for dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (Ki: 3.0 nM) reduced, in a selective manner, the binding of [3H]dopamine to the dopamine D1 receptor (Ki:4.8 nm) associated with adenylate cyclase rather than to the dopamine D2 receptor (Ki: 0.98 microM) independent of adenylate cyclase. Sulpiride, on the contrary, inhibited only the binding to the dopamine D2 receptor, CPZ and HPD antagonized [3H]dopamine nonselectively at the two distinct dopaminergic receptors. These results suggest that YM-09151-2 is a potent and long-lasting neuroleptic with a highly selective blocking action on the dopamine D1 receptor.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCE), a representative abused solvent, has well described acute behavioral effects in animals. Much less is known about repeated high-concentration exposures as would be encountered in inhalant abusers. Tolerance has been demonstrated in some, but not all, studies with TCE while sensitization has also been seen with other abused solvents.
The present study was designed to further characterize changes in the effects of repeated exposure to TCE on a variety of mouse behaviors.
Mice were tested using locomotor activity as well as a functional observational battery (FOB) both before and after a regimen of daily exposures to various concentrations of TCE.
The initial locomotor effects of acute 30-min exposures to TCE were biphasic with concentration-dependent increases in activity at lower concentrations and decreases observed at higher concentrations. The profile of acute effects as measured by the FOB included changes in posture, decreased arousal, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and decreased sensorimotor reactivity. Animals were then divided into five groups and exposed 30 min/day to either air or one of four concentrations of TCE (2,000, 6,000, 10,000, or 13,300 ppm) for 15 consecutive days. The TCE concentration used primarily affected the magnitude of change, not whether tolerance or sensitization occurred. Tolerance developed on the measures of forelimb grip strength, inverted screen, and number of rears. Conversely, sensitization developed to measures of locomotor activity.
Depending on the behavioral measure, both tolerance and sensitization can occur in mice with repeated exposure to TCE. Both of these phenomena are characteristic of drugs of abuse.
Because the toxicity of many inhalants precludes evaluation in humans, drug discrimination, an animal model of subjective effects, can be used to gain insights on their poorly understood abuse-related effects.
The purpose of the present study was to train a prototypic inhalant that has known abuse liability, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), as a discriminative stimulus in mice, and compare it to other classes of inhalants.
Eight B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 12,000 ppm inhaled TCE vapor from air and seven mice were trained to discriminate 4,000 ppm TCE from air. Tests were then conducted to characterize the discriminative stimulus of TCE and to compare it to representative aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors, volatile halogenated anesthetics as well as an odorant compound.
Only the 12,000 ppm TCE versus the air discrimination group exhibited sufficient discrimination accuracy for substitution testing. TCE vapor concentration- and exposure time-dependently substituted for the 12,000 ppm TCE vapor training stimulus. Full substitution was produced by trichloroethylene, toluene, enflurane, and sevoflurane. Varying degrees of partial substitution were produced by the other volatile test compounds. The odorant, 2-butanol, did not produce any substitution for TCE.
The discriminative stimulus effects of TCE are shared fully or partially by chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons as well as by halogenated volatile anesthetics. However, these compounds can be differentiated from TCE both quantitatively and qualitatively. It appears that the degree of similarity is not solely a function of chemical classification but may also be dependent upon the neurochemical effects of the individual compounds.
Recent work has shown that the novel compound N,N'-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB) may selectively block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors involved in regulating dopamine release. The current experiments examined the acute effect of bPiDDB on nicotine self-administration, sucrose-maintained responding, and nicotine-induced changes in acute and sensitized locomotor activity.
Rats were first trained to respond for either nicotine (i.v.) or sucrose pellets using a standard two-lever operant conditioning procedure using a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement and were then pretreated with bPiDDB (0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg kg(-1)) 15 min prior to the session. In separate experiments, rats were assessed for nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity following pretreatment with bPiDDB (1 or 3 mg kg(-1)) or mecamylamine (1 mg kg(-1)); pretreatments were assessed with both acute and repeated nicotine (0.4 mg kg(-1)) treatment.
Results showed that bPiDDB dose-dependently decreased nicotine self-administration, but not sucrose-maintained responding. In the locomotor experiments, bPiDDB attenuated the hyperactivity produced by acute and repeated nicotine; however, this effect was not robust compared to mecamylamine. In contrast to mecamylamine, bPiDDB did not block the initial hypoactivity produced by acute nicotine.
Since bPiDDB decreased nicotine self-administration specifically, this novel nicotinic receptor antagonist may constitute a lead for the development of a clinically useful treatment for tobacco dependence.
The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, JDTic, was reported to prevent stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-maintained responding and to have antidepressant-like effects.
Our objectives were to determine whether analogs of JDTic retained KOR antagonist activity and whether an orally effective analog prevented footshock-induced cocaine reinstatement.
RTI-194 (i.g. 1-30 mg/kg, s.c. 0.3-10 mg/kg, and i.p. 30 mg/kg), RTI-212 (s.c. 0.3-10 mg/kg and i.p. 30 mg/kg), and RTI-230 (i.g. 3-30 mg/kg and i.p. 1-30 mg/kg) were evaluated for their ability to block diuresis induced by 10-mg/kg U50,488 in rats. RTI-194 was additionally evaluated i.g. (3-100 mg/kg) for its ability to prevent footshock-induced reinstatement of responding previously reinforced with 0.5-mg/kg/inf cocaine.
RTI-194 significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated U50,488-induced diuresis when given i.g., s.c., and i.p. RTI-194s effectiveness increased 1 week following administration. RTI-212 was ineffective. RTI-230 was ineffective when given i.g., but blocked diuresis at 24 h and 8 days (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg), 15 days (10 and 30 mg/kg), 22 and 29 days (30 mg/kg) following i.p. administration. Footshock reinstated responding in vehicle-but not RTI-194 (30 and 100 mg/kg)-treated rats.
RTI-194 and RTI-230 are effective KOR antagonists, and RTI-194 is now included with JDTic as the only reported compounds capable of antagonizing the KOR following oral administration. The failure of stress to reinstate cocaine seeking in rats treated with RTI-194 is consistent with results reported with JDTic, although it had less efficacy in lowering response levels than JDTic, suggesting a diminished overall effectiveness relative to it.
The creation of effective psychotropic drugs is the key problem of psychopharmacology. Natural compounds and their synthetic analogues attract particular attention.
The effect of a new synthetic analogue of varacin, 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153), on the behavior and the expression of the genes coding BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Bdnf) and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein, Creb) implicated in the mechanism of psychotropic drug action as well as gp130 (Il6st) implicated in the mechanism of hereditary catalepsy in the brain of mice of ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Catalepsy) strain was studied.
Acute per os administration of 20 or 40 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg of TC-2153 significantly decreased catalepsy. At the same time, in the open field test, 10 or 20 mg/kg of TC-2153 did not influence the locomotor activity, grooming or time spent in the center, while the highest dose of the drug (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced time in the center without any effect on locomotion and grooming. Chronic TC-2153 treatment (10 mg/kg for 12-16 days) did not influence the behavior in the open field but significantly attenuated catalepsy, increased Bdnf mRNA and decreased Il6st mRNA levels in the hippocampus.
The results suggest: 1) TC-2153 as a new drug with potential psychotropic and anticataleptic activities and 2) the involvement of BDNF and gp130 in the molecular mechanism of TC-2153 action.
Striatal dopamine contents in C57BL/6J mice were reduced at 24 h after intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2, 3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a dose-dependent manner. A dose of 1.8 microg MPP+ significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the dopamine contents, whereas a similar dose of MPTP did not. A definite positive correlation between urinary contents of alpha1-microglobulin (alpha1M) and ulinastatin (UT) existed in normal mice. However, this correlation was nullified by ICV administration of 18 and 36 microg MPTP or 1.8 and 18 microg MPP+. With 1.8 microg MPTP, a positive correlation between urinary contents of alpha1M and UT was displayed. The urine volume, creatinine content, glomerular filtration rate, alpha1M and UT contents, and alpha1M/UT ratio of urine collected for 24 h post-ICV administration of MPTP or MPP+, were not statistically different from those of control mice. Our findings suggest that the central effects of MPP+, a neurotoxic metabolite of MPTP, nullify the positive correlation between urinary contents of alpha1M and UT without affecting renal functions.
Previous studies have shown that both 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), which inhibits metabolism of ethanol (EtOH) to acetaldehyde by inhibiting catalase, and D-penicillamine (D-P), an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent, modulate EtOH-conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino Swiss (IOPS Orl) mice. These studies followed a reference-dose-like procedure, which involves comparing cues that have both been paired with EtOH. However, the role of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde has not been examined using a standard CPP method, and efficacy of these treatments could be different under the two circumstances. In the present investigation, we manipulated the strength of CPP across five separate studies and evaluated the effect of D-P and AT on EtOH-induced CPP following a standard unbiased CPP procedure. Mice received pairings with vehicle-saline injections with one cue and, alternatively, with AT- and D-P-EtOH with another cue. Our studies indicate that AT and D-P only disrupt CPP induced by EtOH in mice when the number of conditioning sessions and the dose of EtOH are low. These findings suggest that acquisition of EtOH-induced CPP may depend on the levels of acetaldehyde available during memory acquisition and the strength of the memory. Therefore, we propose that, at least when the memory processes are labile, brain acetaldehyde could participate in the formation of Pavlovian learning elicited by EtOH.
The effect of THPC was studied on some pharmacological and neurochemical changes induced in the rat by mescaline. The results show that THPC antagonizes the effect of mescaline on the calorigenic action of a methyl-m-tyrosine in reserpinized mice. THPC potentiated the depletion of brain dopamine caused by H77/77 in combination with mescaline. In none of the other pharmacological or neurochemical tests was there any evidence that THPC antagonized or potentiated the effects of mescaline.
Although cannabinoid effects on motor function have been extensively studied in rodents, the role of cannabinoids in regulating behavior in primates is relatively unknown.
We compared the effects of cannabinoid agonists and dopamine antagonists on unconditioned behaviors in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). We further investigated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid antagonists in a primate model of Parkinson's disease.
Drugs were administered i.m., and sessions were videotaped and rated by a "blind" observer using a rating scale.
The dopamine antagonist haloperidol decreased locomotor activity and increased bradykinesia in three subjects. Haloperidol also produced a dose-dependent increase in freezing and catalepsy in two out of the three subjects. The cannabinoid agonist levonantradol dose-dependently decreased general and locomotor activity and increased bradykinesia. In contrast to haloperidol, levonantradol failed to produce freezing or catalepsy. At the dose range studied, tetrahydrocannabinol did not affect general or locomotor activity, but increased bradykinesia. In view of the psychomotor slowing induced by cannabinoid agonists, we investigated the therapeutic potential of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A in an early and advanced stage of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism. In both models of Parkinson's disease, SR141716A failed to alleviate the motor deficits of parkinsonism.
Cannabinoid agonists do not induce catalepsy in primates, a finding that differs from their effects in rodents. The primate may be more suitable than rodents for predicting the effects of cannabinoids and their therapeutic potential on select primate behaviors.
This is a review and a prospectus of effects of vitamin D on the brain. Effects of sunlight and equivalent artificial light on physiological and behavioral processes are probably mediated, in large part, through the skin-vitamin D-endocrine system. Experimental evidence from our laboratory reveals sites of action and concomitant direct effects of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (soltriol) on brain, spinal cord, pituitary and other endocrine tissues. This appears relevant for the activation and modulation of mental and endocrine processes, particularly related to seasonal and daily biorhythms. Effects of sunlight and corresponding artificial light are likely to be mediated through direct actions of soltriol on brain and endocrine tissues that are independent of its effect on calcium levels. Those direct actions are receptor mediated and appear to be dose related as they depend on intensity of light and length of exposure, considering light (photons) as a drug. A role for soltriol, the steroid hormone of sunlight, in the etiology and helio- or phototherapy of affective disorders with cyclic seasonal onset (seasonal affective disorder) is discussed and the significance of research in the new frontier of vitamin D and brain relationships is noted.
Both D145 and amantadine caused a stereotyped behaviour characterised by periodic sniffing, repetitive limb movements and biting, but the effect of amantadine was far more periodic. In addition D145, but not amantadine, caused marked hyperactivity. These behavioural effects were resistant to pretreatment with α-methylparatyrosine but not to combined α-methylparatyrosine/reserpine or low doses of haloperidol. Also, the prior administration of D145 or amantadine inhibited the development of the biting components of apomorphine and d-amphetamine stereotypy. Both D145 and amantadine caused circling behaviour in animals with asymmetric lesions of the medial raphé nucleus or unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra but the action of D145 was more intense. Bilateral electrolytic lesions placed in the extrapyramidal (caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra), mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens septi, tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus interstitialis stria terminalis, nucleus amygdaloideus centralis) nuclei or the neuronal pathways supplying them showed D145 and amantadine to act in both areas although their action on the extrapyramidal system was most marked. However, of particular note was the significantly greater involvement of the substantia nigra with the D145 effect, and the greater involvement of the D145 effect with mesolimbic function. Lesions placed in the medial and/or dorsal raphé nucleus indicated some involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine with the actions of both D145 and amantadine. The bilateral intrastriatal application of D145 or amantadine in nialamide pretreated animals failed to induce stereotyped or hyperactive behaviour although contralateral asymmetries, which were abolished by lesions of the substantia nigra, were recorded following the unilateral intrastriatal application of D145 or amantadine in haloperidol pretreated animals.
Experiments employing rats as Ss were performed to determine the behavioral effects of a prototypic synthetic nutrient, 1,3-butanediol (BD), and to compare these effects with those of glycerol. The following results were obtained: a) When administered intragastrically to semi-deprived and non-deprived rats, moderate levels of both BD and glycerol depressed voluntary running activity more than did isocaloric and isovolumetric control substances. b) For both compounds this depression increased monotonically with increasing dose level, but the effects of BD became relatively more profound than those of glycerol as dose size increased. c) Both compounds monotonically depressed food intake as a function of dose level in tests conducted 3 hr after intubation. d) The depression of food intake also occurred in restrained Ss, thus was not simply an artifact of depressed activity. e) Increasing doses of BD monotonically depressed water intake for a 3-hr period following intubation, but Ss under BD could be induced to drink extensively by administering hypertonic salt solutions. f) Increasing glycerol loads had no effect on water intake when running was permitted but increased water intake when running was not permitted. g) At the highest dose level tested BD profoundly disrupted equilibrium, but glycerol had no effect. These findings suggest that BD may act as a CNS depressant or muscle relaxant but that glycerol most probably is neither.
Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drugs and drugs of abuse.
Given the reports of abuse, and the ease at which GBL and 1,4-BD may be obtained, we investigated the reinforcing effects of GBL (n = 5) and 1,4-BD (n = 4) in baboons using IV self-administration procedures.
Sessions ran 24 h/day. Each injection was contingent upon completion of a fixed number (120 or 160) of lever responses. A 3-h timeout period followed each injection, limiting the total number of injections to eight per day. Self-administration was first established with cocaine (0.32 mg/kg/injection). GBL (10–130.0 mg/kg/injection), 1,4-BD (10–100 mg/kg/injection), or vehicle was substituted for cocaine for at least 15 days. Food pellets were available ad libitum 24 h/day and were contingent upon completion of ten lever responses.
GBL (32–100 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in four of five baboons, and the mean rates of injection were high (more than six per day) in three baboons and moderate in the fourth baboon (four to six per day). 1,4-BD (78–130 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in only two out of four baboons, and mean rates were moderate to high in both baboons. Self-injection of these doses of GBL and 1,4-BD generally inhibited food-maintained responding.
GBL and 1,4-BD have abuse liability. Given that GBL and 1,4-BD are self-administered, are easier to obtain than GHB, and are detected in seized samples, additional legal control measures of these GHB pro-drugs may be needed.
The present study explored whether the profiles of action of benzodiazepines on intraspecies conflict behavior in mice are different. The occurrence of seven behavioral elements was observed in aggressive and timid singly-housed male mice treated with drugs in paired interactions with untreated non-aggressive males. At low doses, some benzodiazepines (alprazolam, oxazepam and diazepam) inhibited defenses, escapes, or attacks, but did not reduce other activities (social sniffing, walking, rearing), and actually increased most of them. At comparable doses, other benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam and chlordiazepoxide) stimulated only social sniffing, but reduced rearing or walking. Further benzodiazepines (triazolam and lorazepam) reduced defenses, escapes and attacks only at doses that suppressed most of the remaining activities as well. Thus, the nine benzodiazepines tested exhibited different profiles of action in the present study. Alprazolam, oxazepam and diazepam appeared least sedative, while triazolam and lorazepam were most sedative.
Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are prodrugs for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Like GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD are drugs of abuse, but their behavioral effects may differ from GHB under some conditions.
The first study compared the behavioral effects of GBL (32-240 mg/kg) and 1,4-BD (32-240 mg/kg) with each other and to effects previously reported for GHB (32-420 mg/kg). A second study determined GHB pharmacokinetics following intragastric administration of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD.
Operant responding for food, observed behavioral effects, and a fine-motor task occurred at multiple time intervals after administration of drug or vehicle. In a separate pharmacokinetics study, blood samples were collected across multiple time points after administration of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD.
Like GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD impaired performance on the fine-motor task, but the onset of motor impairment differed across drugs. GBL and 1,4-BD dose dependently decreased the number of food pellets earned, but at lower doses than previously observed for GHB. Similar to GHB, both GBL and 1,4-BD produced sedation, muscle relaxation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and tremors/jerks. Administration of GBL and 1,4-BD produced higher maximum concentrations of GHB with shorter times to maximum concentrations of GHB in plasma when compared to GHB administration.
GBL and 1,4-BD produced behavioral effects similar to those previously reported with GHB and the time course of effects were related to blood levels of GHB. Given their higher potency and faster onset of effects, the abuse liability of GBL and 1,4-BD may be greater than GHB.
Several reports suggest that serotonin2A (5HT2A) receptors and this receptor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol (PI) hydrolysis signal transduction system are altered in platelets of depressed patients. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins[1,4,5]P3), an important component of the PI signaling system, plays a crucial role in various physiological processes by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores after binding with Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. To examine the role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors in depression, we determined [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites and expressed protein levels of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors in platelets of depressed patients (n=15) and normal control subjects (n=17). We observed that the mean Bmax of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding to Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors was significantly higher in platelets of depressed subjects compared with normal control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in K(D) between these two groups. The immuno-detectable expressed level of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor protein was also significantly increased in depressed patients in contrast to the levels of normal control subjects. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed in Bmax and the protein level of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. The increase in the number of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites in platelets of depressed subjects appears to be due to an increase in the amount of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor proteins. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression.
Psychological performance tasks were given to normal subjects under different conditions of experimental stress: high stress (being filmed on video), or low stress (tested without filming); and after different pharmacological treatments: clobazam 20 mg (an anxiolytic 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative), or placebo. On all five performance assessments (choice reaction times, serial subtraction times, critical flicker fusion values), there was a consistent tendancy for clobazam performance to be comparatively better under high stress, and for placebo performance to be comparatively better under low stress. From these, and previous similar findings, it seems that the level of experimental "stress" under which subjects are tested, can have important influences upon the psychopharmacological performance levels obtained.
Two new 1,5 benzodiazepines have been evaluated acutely as anticonvulsants in baboons, Papio papio, with photosensitive epilepsy. BAU 426 (8-Chlor-6-[2-chlorphenyl]-4H-s-triazolo-[4,3-a] [1,5-benzodiazepin-5-[6-H]on) and BAU 500 (analogue of BAU 426 with [2-trifluor methylphenyl] substituted for [2-chlorphenyl]), 0.1–5.0 mg/kg, were administered i.v. to baboons with and without priming with D,l allylglycine.
BAU 426 or BAU 500, 0.1–0.2 mg/kg, produced partial or transient protection against photically induced myoclonus or epileptic responses. Complete protection, in the absence of signs of sedation or acute neurological toxicity, was seen 1–4 h after 0.5–2 mg/kg. EEG changes typical of benzodiazepines were seen for 1–3 h and clinical signs of sedation with some muscular hypotonia were evident for 1 h after either drug, 5 mg/kg.
Clinical trials are required to determine if these compounds are superior to 1,4 benzodiazepines as anticonvulsants.
Cinnamoylquinides are formed from the corresponding chlorogenic acids during coffee roasting. Instant coffee has been shown to displace binding of the mu opioid receptor antagonist, [3H]naloxone, but the putative active agent, feruloylquinide, has not been characterized.
The goal was to identify the active agent(s) in coffee by measuring the binding affinity of individual cinnamoyl-1,5-quinides to the human mu opioid receptor, and determine the effects of these compounds on morphine-induced anti-nociceptive behavior in mice.
Cinnamoyl-1,5-quinides in extracts of decaffeinated instant coffee were quantified by reverse-phase HPLC comparisons with synthetic samples of 3-coumaroyl-1,5-quinide and 4-coumaroyl-1,5-quinide, 3-caffeoyl-1,5-quinide and 4-caffeoyl-1,5-quinide (4-CQL) 3-feruloyl-1,5-quinide and 4-feruloyl-1,5-quinides and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-1,5-quinide (DICAQ). Affinities of the cinnamoyl-1,5-quinides and decaffeinated instant coffee extract were determined by displacement of [3H]naloxone binding in cultured HEK-MOR cells. Inhibition of the anti-nociceptive activity of morphine (1 mg/kg IP) was determined in C57BL/6J mice using the hot plate test at 52 degrees C.
Extract of decaffeinated instant coffee produced a displacement K(i) of 42+/-16 mg/l, while the K(i) of a synthetic sample of 4-CQL was 4.4+/-0.4 microM. Compounds with a cinnamoyl substituent in the 4-position of the quinide, i.e. 4-CQL, DICAQ, 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinide, and 3,4-dicoumaroyl-1,5-quinide, had affinities for the mu opioid receptor in the low micromolar range. In the hot plate test, coffee extract, containing 0.78% of 4-CQL, reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine at 10 mg/kg IP. Two cinnamoyl-1,5-quinides found in roasted coffee, DICAQ, and 4-CQL, were active at 1 and 0.1 mg/kg IP, respectively.
These results suggest that the previously reported anti-opioid activity of instant coffee is caused primarily by the presence of 4-CQL, and to lesser extent by other cinnamoyl-1,5-quinides.
The principal use of antidepressants is in the treatment of depression and affective disorders. Antidepressants have also been used as an adjuvant to analgesics in pain treatment. However, in chronic treatment, their antinociceptive and antidepressive effects coexist simultaneously. Antidepressants can interact with the opioid system, which is also involved in regulating nociceptive processing and affective state. Chronic antidepressants could act by increasing mu-opioid receptor expression in many brain areas involved in the regulation of nociception and affective state.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antidepressant-like effects and the possible variations in mu-opioid receptor expression induced by a chronic nefazodone treatment in brain areas related to pain and affective state.
Wistar rats were chronically treated with nefazodone (10 and 25 mg/kg IP, twice a day, for 14 days). Twelve hours after the last day 14 dose of nefazodone, a tail-flick test was performed. After the administration of a daily dose of nefazodone, Porsolt's test was carried out 12 h after last dose. Two hours after completion of 14 days treatment, other animals were processed for mu-opioid receptor immunocytochemistry using polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits. Several brain regions were analyzed: the frontal and cingulate cortex, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the periaqueductal gray.
Chronic nefazodone treatment induced a significant increase in tail-flick latency and a significant decrease in immobility time at total doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg per day ( P<0.05). In treated animals, the density of neural cells immunostained for mu-opioid receptor in the frontal and cingulate cortices, dorsal raphe nucleus and periaqueductal gray had increased after chronic nefazodone compared to controls.
Therefore, chronic nefazodone induces antinociceptive and antidepressant-like effects in rats and increases mu-opioid receptor expression in brain areas related to pain and affective state. These results suggest that antidepressants could be effective on somatic and affective dimensions of pain and this action could be related to its influence on the opioid system.
We have recently reported inhibitory effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) on ion channel-mediated secretion of catecholamines in bovine adrenal medullary cells. Here, we report the effects of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), an active metabolite of CBZ, and carbamazepine-10,11-diol (CBZ-D), a non-active metabolite, on 22Na+ influx, 45Ca2+ influx and catecholamine secretion in cultured adrenal medullary cells. CBZ-E, but not CBZ-D inhibited 22Na+ influx, 45Ca2+ influx and catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol or veratridine with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.26 or 0.68 microg/ml, respectively. CBZ-E also inhibited high K+-evoked 45Ca2+ influx and catecholamine secretion (IC50 = 0.3 microg/ml), but CBZ-D did not. These findings suggest that CBZ-E, but not CBZ-D, attenuates catecholamine secretion by inhibiting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-associated ion channels, voltage-dependent Na+ channels and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the cells. This inhibition of CBZ-E as well as CBZ may be related to the clinical effects in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Recent studies have implicated central serotonergic systems in the modulation of prepulse inhibition (PPI), an operational measure of sensorimotor gating, which has been used to identify gating deficits in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Both serotonin (5-HT) releasers and agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2 receptors reduce PPI in the rat. The present experiments demonstrate that the disruption of PPI in rats induced by the systemic administration of the 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin; 0.2 mg/kg), can be attenuated by the novel, selective 5-HT1A antagonist (+)WAY 100,135, (20.0 mg/kg), N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenyl-propa namide. Further experiments addressing the central site of action of 8-OH-DPAT revealed that the microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT (5.0 micrograms/0.5 microliter) into either the median raphe nucleus (MR) or dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) disrupts PPI. The reduction in PPI produced by intra-raphe microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT was prevented by a systemic injection of (+)WAY 100,135. These results support the hypothesis that somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors within the midbrain raphe subserve the PPI-disruptive effects of systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT. The decrement in PPI after intra-raphe infusions of a high dose of 8-OH-DPAT, however, was substantially less than the decrement in PPI after systemic administration of the drug. Hence, sites in addition to the somatodendritic autoreceptors may also play an important role in 8-OH-DPAT-induced disruption of PPI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Increasing evidence suggests an important role of 5-HT, and 5-HT2A receptors in particular, in the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia. The prepulse inhibition paradigm is used as a model for sensorimotor gating processes that are disrupted in schizophrenia. The present study used the selective serotonin2A (5-HT2A) antagonist and putative antipsychotic agent MDL 100,907 to evaluate the contribution of 5-HT2A receptors to the disruptions of prepulse inhibition produced by several 5-HT agonists. The D2 antagonist haloperidol was used to evaluate a possible interaction with dopamine neurons. Sound or light prepulses were used to measure the generality of these drug effects on cross-modal prepulse inhibition. In the first study, MDL 100,907 antagonized the disruptions of auditory prepulse inhibition produced by the 5-HT releasing agents fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These effects on prepulse inhibition were modality-specific in that MDL 100,907 did not reverse the effects of the 5-HT releasers on visual prepulse inhibition. Haloperidol did not alter the disruptive effects of MDMA or fenfluramine on either auditory or visual prepulse inhibition. In the second study, the direct acting 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist/hallucinogen (+)1-4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) consistently disrupted auditory prepulse inhibition, and this effect was blocked by MDL 100,907 but not by haloperidol. A dose-response analysis demonstrated that MDL 100,907 potently antagonized DOI disrupted auditory prepulse inhibition, with an ED50 of 0.04 mg/kg, IP. DOI did not consistently disrupt visual prepulse inhibition. In summary, these data indicate that, at least under the conditions of the present studies, the disruptions of auditory prepulse inhibition produced by fenfluramine, MDMA, and DOI result from stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Furthermore, these disruptions do not involve direct or indirect stimulation of D2 receptors. The identity of the 5-HT receptor(s) underlying the disruptive effects of fenfluramine or MDMA on visual prepulse inhibition has not yet been identified. MDL 100,907 may be generally useful in CNS disorders in which excessive 5-HT2A receptor tone disrupts sensory gating processes.
The effects of ondansetron (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) and the novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, WAY 100289 (0.01-10.0 mg/kg), on anxiety were examined in male mice using an ethological version of the elevated plus-maze paradigm. This procedure involves scoring specific aspects of defensive behaviour in addition to the more usual spatiotemporal measures. Results show that, at the doses tested, neither compound produced a behavioural profile consistent with anxiety reduction. Indeed, the lowest dose of ondansetron (0.001 mg/kg) produced some behavioural trends more typically associated with mild anxiety enhancement. Data are discussed in relation to the enigmatic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiety. It is suggested that the large within- and between-test variability observed with these compounds may indicate an action on mechanisms other than anxiety.
Recent preclinical and clinical data suggest that co-administration of a serotonin-1A (5-HT-1A) receptor antagonist with an antidepressant drug has greater therapeutic efficacy than when the antidepressant drug is administered alone.
The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether pretreatment with the selective 5-HT-1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)- 1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635; 0.003, 0.03, 0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) would alter the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the differential reinforcement of low-rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule. The DRL 72-s schedule is a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs.
WAY-100635 had no behavioral effects on its own. The lower doses of fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) had no effects, but 10 mg/kg increased reinforcement rate without affecting response rate. The increase in reinforcement rate was blocked by pretreatment with 0.03 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg WAY-100635, although the combination of fluoxetine and WAY-100635 also significantly reduced response rate. Interestingly, 0.003 mg/kg or 0.03 mg/kg WAY-100635 administered with 5.0 mg/kg fluoxetine increased reinforcement rate, even though this dose of fluoxetine had no effect on performance.
These data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of fluoxetine are modified by 5-HT-1A receptor blockade.