Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1531-5320
Publications
Article
Behavior systems are particular organizations of cognitive structures that are called behavior mechanisms: perceptual, central, and motor. Thus, behavior systems are defined here in structural terms and not in terms of their functional characteristics. In young animals, behavior mechanisms often develop independently of functional experience, though specific types of experience are usually necessary for integrated systems to develop. These concepts are illustrated here by the dust-bathing, feeding, aggressive, and sexual systems of the fowl, which are considered to be typical of behavior systems in other species. Aspects of neural development are examined and found to facilitate our understanding of a wide range of developmental phenomena, such as critical periods and irreversibility. Finally, various examples of classical conditioning and instrumental learning are analyzed in terms of the type of structures involved, and they are related to general developmental processes.
 
Article
Working memory is a construct of primary relevance to many areas of psychology. Two types of tasks have been used to measure working memory, primarily in different research areas: Complex span tasks are commonly used in behavioral studies in the cognitive and individual-differences literature, whereas n-back tasks have been used more frequently in cognitive neuroscience studies investigating the neural underpinnings of working memory. Despite both categories of tasks being labeled as "working memory" measures, previous empirical studies have provided mixed evidence regarding the shared amount of overlapping processes between complex span and n-back tasks. The present meta-analysis showed that the complex span and n-back tasks are weakly correlated, although significant heterogeneity across studies was observed. A follow-up analysis of unpublished data indicated that the sample composition affects the relationship between the complex span and n-back tasks, following the law of diminishing returns. Finally, a separate meta-analysis indicated that the simple span and n-back tasks are correlated to the same extent as are the complex span and n-back tasks. The present findings indicate that the complex span and n-back tasks cannot be used interchangeably as working memory measures in research applications.
 
Article
We report two experiments that explored the linguistic locus of age-of-acquisition effects in picture naming by using a delayed naming task that involved only a low proportion of trials (25 %) while, for the large majority of the trials (75 %), participants performed another task-that is, the prevalent task. The prevalent tasks were semantic categorization in Experiment 1a and grammatical-gender decision in Experiments 1b and 2. In Experiment 1a, in which participants were biased to retrieve semantic information in order to perform the semantic categorization task, delayed naming times were affected by age of acquisition, reflecting a postsemantic locus of the effect. In Experiments 1b and 2, in which participants were biased to retrieve lexical information in order to perform the grammatical gender decision task, there was also an age-of-acquisition effect. These results suggest that part of the age-of-acquisition effect in picture naming occurs at the level at which the phonological properties of words are retrieved.
 
Article
We analyze four general signal detection models for recognition memory that differ in their distributional assumptions. Our analyses show that a basic assumption of signal detection theory, the likelihood ratio decision axis, implies three regularities in recognition memory: (1) the mirror effect, (2) the variance effect, and (3) the z-ROC length effect. For each model, we present the equations that produce the three regularities and show, in computed examples, how they do so. We then show that the regularities appear in data from a range of recognition studies. The analyses and data in our study support the following generalization: Individuals make efficient recognition decisions on the basis of likelihood ratios.
 
Results of multiple regressions of AB magnitude, T1 accuracy, and T2 accuracy with personality dimensions entered simultaneously 
Article
Accuracy for a second target is reduced when it is presented within 500 msec of a first target. This phenomenon is called the attentional blink (AB). A diffused attentional state (via positive affect or an additional task) has been shown to reduce the AB, whereas a focused attentional state (via negative affect) has been shown to increase the AB, purportedly by influencing the amount of attentional investment and flexibility. In the present study, individual differences in personality traits related to positive affect, negative affect, and cognitive flexibility were used to predict individual differences in AB magnitude. As hypothesized, greater extraversion and openness predicted smaller ABs. Greater openness also predicted higher overall target accuracy. Greater neuroticism predicted larger ABs and lower overall target accuracy. Conscientiousness, associated with less cognitive flexibility, predicted lower overall target accuracy. Personality may modulate the AB by influencing overinvestment via dispositional tendencies toward more or less stringent or capable cognitive control.
 
(Top panel) Schematic of the spatial layout of the boards. (Bottom panel) The configurations of objects for Array 1 (left) and Array 2 (right).  
(Upper panel) Overall mean frequency of reaches per array to each location, except for Location CB (M = 1.236, SD = 0.143). (Lower panel) Means for the 12-, 15-and 18-month-olds. Bars represent standard errors.  
Article
Everyday action in the world requires the coordination of "where," "when," and "how" with "what." In late infancy, there appear to be changes in how these different streams of information are integrated into the sequential organization of action. An experiment with 12-, 15-, and 18-month-olds was conducted in order to determine the influence of object properties and locations on the sequential selection of targets for reaching. The results reveal a developmental trend from reach decisions' being influenced only by the spatial layout of locations to the overall pattern of reaching's being influenced by the global configuration of object properties to object properties' influencing the sequential decision of what to reach to next. This trend is a new finding regarding the development of goal-directed action in late infancy.
 
Article
According to the received view of the history of psychology, behaviorism so dominated psychology prior to the 1960s that there was little research in animal cognition. A review of the research on animal cognition during the 1930s reveals a rich literature dealing with such topics as insight, reasoning, tool use, delay problems, oddity learning, abstraction, spatial cognition, and problem solving, among others. Material on "higher processes" or a related topic was prominent in the textbooks of the period. Tracing academic lineages reveals such teachers as Harvey Carr, Robert M. Yerkes, and Edward C. Tolman as sources of this interest. The alleged hegemony of strict behavioristic psychology, interpreted as excluding research on animal cognition, requires revision. Some possible reasons for this neglect are suggested.
 
Article
Chimpanzees and other great apes have long held the fascination of psychologists because of their morphological and behavioral similarities to humans. This paper describes the historical interest in studies on chimpanzee handedness and reviews current findings. Data are presented which suggest that transient changes in posture result in the transient expression of right-handedness in chimpanzees. The role of tool use as an evolutionary mechanism underlying the expression of right-handedness is challenged. Rather, emphasis is placed on the role of bimanual feeding as a behavioral adaptation for the expression of handedness. Suggestions for further research on the nature of nonhuman primate handedness are made in light of these findings.
 
Article
Repeated measures designs are common in experimental psychology. Because of the correlational structure in these designs, the calculation and interpretation of confidence intervals is nontrivial. One solution was provided by Loftus and Masson (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1:476-490, 1994). This solution, although widely adopted, has the limitation of implying same-size confidence intervals for all factor levels, and therefore does not allow for the assessment of variance homogeneity assumptions (i.e., the circularity assumption, which is crucial for the repeated measures ANOVA). This limitation and the method's perceived complexity have sometimes led scientists to use a simplified variant, based on a per-subject normalization of the data (Bakeman & McArthur, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 28:584-589, 1996; Cousineau, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 1:42-45, 2005; Morey, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 4:61-64, 2008; Morrison & Weaver, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 27:52-56, 1995). We show that this normalization method leads to biased results and is uninformative with regard to circularity. Instead, we provide a simple, intuitive generalization of the Loftus and Masson method that allows for assessment of the circularity assumption.
 
Article
The phonological priming effect may reflect basic processes in spoken word perception and has thus been a central topic of recent research. In this journal, Hamburger and Slowiaczek (1996) reported phonological priming data collected in a shadowing task. They replicated a prior study (Slowiaczek & Hamburger, 1992), but added new procedures to minimize bias. After observing inhibitory priming in a "low-expectancy" condition, they concluded that facilitatory priming reflects perceptual/response bias, but that inhibitory priming reflects automatic processes of lexical access. This commentary critiques Hamburger and Slowiaczek's method and presents new data that demonstrate persistent biases in primed shadowing. I suggest that such biases reflect natural, context-sensitive listening strategies.
 
Article
In the present study, the lengthening phenomenon (Tsal & Shalev, 1996), namely, the increase in perceived length of unattended lines, was reexamined in light of criticisms by Prinzmetal and Wilson (1997) and Masin (1999). Prinzmetal and Wilson suggested that the effect was not due to attentional factors but to the spatial interaction between the attended line and the cue used to direct attention. We have replicated the lengthening effect when both attended and unattended lines are preceded by cues at a nearby location, showing that the effect is not caused by spatial cues per se, but instead reflects an inherent property of the attentional system. Masin argued that the lengthening effect is not robust, because it occurs for some but not for all participants. In the present study, the lengthening effect was highly reliable, occurring for each participant for a variety of line lengths.
 
Article
In each of three experiments that differed only in procedural detail, observer rats interacted with pairs of conspecific demonstrators, one fed a cocoa-flavored diet (Diet Coc) and the other a cinnamon-flavored diet (Diet Cin). Immediately after both members of a pair of demonstrators had been fed, and 5 min before they interacted with an observer or observers, one of the demonstrators was made ill by intraperitoneal injection with lithium chloride. After interacting with a pair of demonstrators for 15 min, each observer was allowed to choose between Diet Cin and Diet Coc for 22 h. In all three experiments, observer rats consumed as much Diet Cin after interacting simultaneously with both an ill demonstrator that had eaten Diet Cin and a healthy demonstrator that had eaten Diet Coc as after interacting simultaneously with both a healthy demonstrator that had eaten Diet Cin and an ill demonstrator that had eaten Diet Coc. These results raise questions about the generality of Kuan and Colwill's (1997) demonstration of socially transmitted flavor aversions in Norway rats.
 
Article
Christman, Kitterle, and Niebauer (1997) have examined the hypothesis that the two cerebral hemispheres are specialized for processing different ranges of spatial frequency. Their two experiments partially replicated an experiment of Peterzell, Harvey, and Hardyck (1989), who used Sergent's (1982) letter identification paradigm with spatial-frequency band-pass filtered letters as stimuli. We acknowledge the unusual strengths of Christman et al.'s experiments, but argue that the results support the original conclusion of Peterzell et al.: The results are not attributable to hemispheric asymmetries in spatial frequency processing.
 
Article
We report three exact replications of experiments aimed at iluminating how fictional narratives influence beliefs (Prentice, Gerrig, & Bailis, 1997). Students read fictional stories that contained weak, unsupported assertions and which took place either at their home school or at an away school. Prentice et al. found that students were influenced to accept the assertions, even those blatantly false, but that this effect on beliefs was limited to the away-school setting. We questioned the limiting of the narrative effect to remote settings. Our studies consistently reproduced the first finding, heightened acceptance of statements occurring in the conversations of narrative protagonists, but we failed to reproduce the moderating effect of school location. In an attempt to understand these discrepancies, we measured likely moderating factors such as readers' need for cognition and their extent of scrutiny of the narratives.
 
Article
In a reply to our report on hemispheric differences in processing band-pass filtered letters (Christman, Kitterle, & Niebauer, 1997), Peterzell (1997) argues that our results are not attributable to hemispheric asymmetries in spatial frequency processing. Rather, Peterzell argues that factors such as response criteria and stimulus visibility can account for our results. We argue that our results are attributable (at least in part) to hemispheric asymmetries in spatial frequency processing, while at the same time we acknowledge the potential influence of other factors in the determination of hemispheric differences.
 
ANOVA results by region for effect of condition _____________________________________________________________ 
Article
Mitchell (1987) conducted a self-paced reading experiment that showed that people experienced difficulty reading a noun phrase when it immediately followed an intransitive verb. From this, he argued for a two-stage theory of parsing, in which verb subcategorization information is initially ignored. In response, Adams, Clifton, and Mitchell (1998) found no evidence to support this claim in an eye-tracking experiment and argued that Mitchell's segmentation procedure distorted the parsing process. We report an eye-tracking experiment, in which materials similar to those in Adams et al., but with longer noun phrases, were used, that showed a pattern of difficulty similar to Mitchell's findings. Hence, Mitchell's results did not depend on the use of an artificial method of presentation. The results cast further doubt on the adequacy of constraint-based accounts of parsing.
 
Article
Vitevitch and Luce (1998) showed that the probability with which phonemes co-occur in the language (phonotactic probability) affects the speed with which words and nonwords are named. Words with high phonotactic probabilities between phonemes were named more slowly than words with low probabilities, whereas with nonwords, just the opposite was found. To reproduce this reversal in performance, a model would seem to require not merely sublexical representations, but sublexical representations that are relatively independent of lexical representations. ARTphone (Grossberg, Boardman, & Cohen, 1997) is designed to meet these requirements. In this study, we used a technique called parameter space partitioning to analyze ARTphone's behavior and to learn if it can mimic human behavior and, if so, to understand how. To perform best, differences in sublexical node probabilities must be amplified relative to lexical node probabilities to offset the additional source of inhibition (from top-down masking) that is found at the sublexical level.
 
Panels B, D, and F show noise and signal distributions, with means of m n 5 0 and m s 5 1 and standard deviations of s s 5 s n 5 1. P(s) 5 P(n) 5 .5. In panel B, the decision criterion, x c 5 x 5 5 .5, giving b 5 l(x c ) 5 1. In panels D and F, the criterion is x c 5 x 5 5 0.9. The spacing of the criteria is described in the text. Panels A, C, and E show the values of U R (k) predicted by each model, plotted against criterion number.  
Article
For nearly 50 years, signal detection theory (SDT; Green & Swvets, 1966; Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) has been of central importance in the development of psychophysics and other areas of psychology. The theory has recently been challenged by Balakrishnan (1998b), who argues that, within SDT, an alternative index is "better justified" than d' and who claims to show (1998a, 1999) that SDT is fundamentally flawed and should be rejected. His evidence is based on new nonparametric measures that he has introduced and applied to experimental data. He believes his results show that basic assumptions of SDT are not supported-in particular, that payoff and probability manipulations do not affect the position of the decision criterion. In view of the importance of SDT in psychology, these claims deserve careful examination. They are critically reviewed here. It appears that it is Balakrishnans arguments that fail, and not SDT
 
Article
Neath (2000) presents a useful overview of the evidence to be explained by any model of the effects of irrelevant speech on immediate serial memory and proposes a model accompanied by computational simulation. While his review is in general accurate, it is limited in its explanation of the crucial characteristics of the disrupting sounds. It also neglects strategic issues, particularly the tendency for subjects to switch strategy as list length increases. As a result, his model fails to account for the absence of an interaction between irrelevant speech and acoustic similarity for lists of span length. Points of issue between Neath's feature hypothesis and the phonological loop interpretation are outlined, and the contribution of his computational simulation is discussed.
 
Serial recall errors of lists with syllables of low similarity (left panel) and of high similarity (right panel) in relation to serial position, contrasting a quiet control and four auditory conditions: words rhyming within the irrelevant speech sequence but not with any to-be-remembered lists (e.g., door, war, more), nonrhyming within sequence or with any lists (e.g., hat, cow, nest ), rhyming within sequence and potentially rhyming with a high-similarity list (e.g., sea, flea, key), and nonrhyming within sequence but potentially rhyming with a low-similarity list (e.g., deaf, pay, bell ).  
Article
The approach to the irrelevant sound effect by Neath (2000) is discussed in terms of the contrast between content-based and process-based interference. Four themes are highlighted: First, problematic features of the feature model are highlighted; second, results not considered by Neath are presented; third, empirical underpinnings of the feature model not related to the irrelevant-sound effect are questioned; last, the parsimony of the feature model is questioned. The balance of the evidence seems to be in favor of a process-based approach, on the grounds that it provides a comprehensive account of acoustic and task-based factors within the irrelevant sound effect, for both speech and nonspeech sound.
 
Article
We report two experiments testing a central prediction of the probabilistic account of reasoning provided by Oaksford and Chater (2001): Acceptance of standard conditional inferences, card choices in the Wason selection task, and quantifiers chosen for conclusions from syllogisms should vary as a function of the frequency of the concepts involved. Frequency was manipulated by a probability-learning phase preceding the reasoning tasks to simulate natural sampling. The effects predicted by Oaksford and Chater (2001) were not obtained with any of the three paradigms.
 
False recall rate as a function of length of critical words. Data from Neuse and Madigan (1997). 
Hit and false positive rates in Experiment 1with three-and eightletter words occurring only as new items in the recognition test.
False positive rates for studied and nonstudied word lengths, Experiment 2. 
Article
Roediger, Watson, McDermott, and Gallo (2001) reported a multiple regression analysis of the variables that predicted rates of false recall and recognition across lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. They concluded that false recollection was predictable from the backward associative strength of critical words and list words and the veridical recall level of list words, with no independent contribution of frequency, concreteness, or length of critical words. A reanalysis of their data shows that critical word length does contribute to false recognition when it is measured relative to the length of other words in the list. Relative word length in the form of an unsigned z-score has a larger correlation with false recognition than any of the variables used by Roediger et al. and is also independently predictive of false recognition. This relationship was confirmed by the results of two recognition experiments in which false positives were significantly less frequent for words of lengths that never occurred in a studied list than for words of lengths that did occur in the study list.
 
Article
In a recent article, Waldron and Ashby (2001) observed that performing a concurrent task caused greater interference in learning a simple one-dimensional categorization rule than in learning a complex three-dimensional one. They argued that this result was incompatible with all existing single-system models of category learning but was as predicted by the multiple-system COVIS model (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Waldron, 1998). In contrast to Waldron and Ashby's argument, we demonstrate that the single-system ALCOVE model (Kruschke, 1992) naturally predicts the result by assuming that its selective-attention learning process is disrupted by the concurrent task.
 
Article
Gabbert, Memon, and Wright (2006) claimed evidence of an order effect in collaborative memory contamination, in which the collaborator who first spoke of a particular detail was more influential. The Gabbert et al. findings are ambiguous in this regard, because their analyses collapsed across (1) cases in which both collaborators reported the detail they had witnessed and (2) cases in which only one of the collaborators mentioned the detail s/he had mentioned. The latter cases do not evidence an order effect per se.
 
Noncompetitive model showing spreading activation from the concept associated with a noun stimulus (door) combined with that from an " action " concept. The darkness of the associated concept nodes indicates the degree of activation.  
Article
Martin and Cheng (2006) present evidence suggesting that difficulty in verb generation is related to the strength of associative links between nouns and verbs and not to competition from alternative verb responses. Specifically, they show that latencies for verb generation are related to the associative strength of the most frequently produced verb and not to the ratio of the strength of the first to the second most frequently produced verb. Thompson-Schill and Botvinick (2006) have provided modeling results indicating how the findings of Martin and Cheng might be accommodated in a competitive model. Here we discuss how two noncompetitive models account for the findings and why such models should be preferred.
 
Article
Martin and Cheng (2006) report the results of an experiment aimed at disentangling the effects of association strength from those of competition on performance on a verb generation task. Their experiment is situated at the center of a putative debate regarding the function of the left inferior frontal gyrus in language processing (see, e.g., Wagner, Pard-Blagoev, Clark, and Poldrack, 2001). Following in this tradition, Martin and Cheng purport to contrast two processes--selection between competing representations and controlled retrieval of weak associates--that we argue can be reduced to the same mechanism. We contend that the distinction between competition and association strength is a false dichotomy, and we attempt to recast this discussion within a Bayesian framework in an attempt to guide research in this area in a more fruitful direction.
 
Article
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external rhythm, ranging from finger tapping in time with a metronome to musical ensemble performance. An earlier review (Repp, 2005) covered tapping studies; two additional reviews (Repp, 2006a, b) focused on music performance and on rate limits of SMS, respectively. The present article supplements and extends these earlier reviews by surveying more recent research in what appears to be a burgeoning field. The article comprises four parts, dealing with (1) conventional tapping studies, (2) other forms of moving in synchrony with external rhythms (including dance and nonhuman animals' synchronization abilities), (3) interpersonal synchronization (including musical ensemble performance), and (4) the neuroscience of SMS. It is evident that much new knowledge about SMS has been acquired in the last 7 years.
 
Article
The idea that categorization decisions rely on subjective impressions of similarities between stimuli has been prevalent in much of the literature over the past 30 years and has led to the development of a large number of models that apply some kind of decision rule to similarity measures. A recent article by Smith (2006) has argued that these similarity-choice models of categorization have a substantial design flaw, in which the similarity and the choice components effectively cancel one another out. As a consequence of this cancellation, it is claimed, the relationship between distance and category membership probabilities is linear in these models. In this article, I discuss these claims and show mathematically that in those cases in which it is sensible to discuss the relationship between category distance and category membership at all, the function relating the two is approximately logistic. Empirical data are used to show that a logistic function can be observed in appropriate contexts.
 
Article
Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ratings for studied than for new items, which they interpreted as providing evidence that latent mnemonic strength distributions are 25% more variable for studied than for new items. We show here that this conclusion is critically dependent on assumptions--so much so that these assumptions determine the conclusions. In fact, opposite conclusions, such that study does not affect the variability of latent strength, may be reached by making different but equally plausible assumptions. Because all measurements of mnemonic strength variability are critically dependent on untestable assumptions, all are arbitrary. Hence, there is no principled method for assessing the relative variability of latent mnemonic strength distributions.
 
Diffusion model simulation results from 30 simulated subjects, with 400 observations per condition. The top panel shows correlation between group standard deviation and group mean reaction time (RT). The bottom panel shows the result from splitting mean RTs from the simulated subjects into fast and slow halves. Parameters were chosen to be typical of fits to experimental data: boundary separation, a 5 0.16; mean drift rates, ν 1 5 0.45, ν 2 5 0.3, ν 3 5 0.15, within-trial variability in mean drift rates, h 5 0.08; nondecision component, T er 5 0.4; variability in nondecision component, s t 5 0.1; and starting point, z 5 a/2. The across-subjects variabilities in ν 1,2,3 , a, and T er were respectively set to 0.07, 0.03, and 0.02, and within-trial variability was set to s 5 0.1.  
Article
Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007) recently reported a test of the difference engine model (Myerson, Hale, Zheng, Jenkins, & Widaman, 2003). This test evaluated whether the standard deviation (SD) is proportional to the amount of processing-that is, mean reaction time (RT)--in a speeded cognitive task. We show that this evaluation is not a test of the model because its finding is a consequence of relationships in the data. We argue any model structure that produces increasing values of RT as a function of difficulty, with different slopes for different individuals, necessarily produces a correlation between SD and mean RT We illustrate this with a different model structure-that is, the diffusion model proposed by Ratcliff (1978)--showing that it produces a fan out between fast- and slow-group means and produces the correlation between SD and mean RT that matches the empirical result.
 
Mean RTs in the precritical trials, the critical trial, and the postcritical trials for the valid and invalid cue conditions in Experiment 1 
Error percentages 
Mean RTs in the precritical trials, the critical trial, and the postcritical trials for the valid and invalid cue conditions in Experiment 2 
Article
Can a stimulus capture attention independent of the observer's goals and intentions? In a recent review, (Burnham, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 392-422, 2007) argued that there is no convincing evidence that attention capture is ever completely independent of the goals and intentions of the observer. By contrast, surprise capture studies have shown that a color singleton can capture attention on its unannounced first occurrence, if it is new and unexpected, and hence is not part of the intentional set. However, the evidence from surprise capture studies has been criticized on methodological grounds. Here, we tested surprise capture in a new paradigm that avoids previous methodological complications. The results refute the prior criticisms and reinstate surprise capture as prime evidence for goal-independent capture.
 
Results of the first (panels A and C) and second (panels B and D) sets of diffusion model simulations. Panels A and B show the trajectories of the response times (RTs) of hypothetical individuals across five tasks of increasing difficulty, as indexed by decreases in the group mean drift rates (0.55, 0.45, 0.35, 0.25, and 0.15). Panels C and D show the group SD plotted as a function of the group mean RT. 
Further results of the first (panels A and C) and second (panels B and D) sets of diffusion model simulations. Panels A and B show the mean response times (RTs) of fast (upright triangles) and slow (inverted triangles) subgroups on the five tasks plotted as a function of the corresponding group mean RTs. The dashed line represents equality ( y x), and in panel A, the solid lines represent the parameter-free predictions of Equation 2. Panels C and D show the slopes of the regressions of the RTs of individual hypothetical participants on the group mean RTs, plotted as a function of their mean z scores. In panel C, the solid line represents the parameterfree prediction line based on Equation 2. 
Article
Leite, Ratcliff, and White (2007) claimed that the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) could simulate the molar patterns in response times (RTs) from the multiple tasks observed by Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007). We present our own simulations to clarify the underlying mechanisms and show that, as is predicted by the difference engine model (Myerson, Hale, Zheng, Jenkins, & Widaman, 2003), correlations across tasks are the key to the molar patterns in individual RTs. Although the diffusion model and other sequential-sampling models may be able to accommodate patterns of RTs across tasks like those studied by Chen et al., the difference engine is the only current model that actually predicts them.
 
The classical signal detection model of ratings and discrimination behavior. The sensory effect of the stimulus is represented by a single real number (the sensory state), which is mapped to one of the two possible classification responses by choosing a decision criterion, indicated by the long vertical bar. The additional, rating criteria (short vertical bars) further partition the sensory states into distinct confidence-rating response regions , with confidence increasing as the sensory state approaches one of the extremes of the sensory state dimension.  
The response time (RT) likelihood-ratio functions corresponding to the RT-ROC curves shown in Figure 1 (the likelihood-ratio values are the slopes of the ROC curve). The dashed vertical bar defines the two sides of the function—that is, the point separating the A and B responses. The dashed horizontal bar indicates the crucial value 1, which determines whether the decision rule is biased or unbiased. Contrary to the signal detection theory prediction, the functions approach the value 1 on both sides as RT decreases.  
Article
The effects of base rates and payoffs on the shapes of rating receiver operating characteristic curves are inconsistent with the basic assumptions of signal detection theory (SDT), in particular the notion of a shifting decision criterion. Mueller and Weidemann (2008) propose that these unexpected phenomena are not due to problems with the decision-criterion construct but are instead due to two compounded effects: instability of the decision criterion across trials, and even greater instability in the flanking criteria that determine which confidence rating will be reported. There are several problems with the authors' decision-noise hypothesis. First, even if their hypothesis about decision noise were taken for granted, the key feature of the ratings data that rejects the SDT model would remain a mystery. Second, the same violations of SDT that are exhibited in the ratings paradigm are also exhibited in the yes-no detection task when response time is substituted for confidence as a basis for analysis. Finally, the decision-noise hypothesis predicts that sensitivity will increase when one source of this variation-the response on a previous trial-is controlled for. This prediction was consistently violated in both the yes-no and ratings conditions of Mueller and Weidemann's experiment. In an Addendum, we respond to Weidemann and Mueller's (2008) reply to this Comment.
 
Report accuracy for T1, T2, and T3 as a function of lag (short or long) and relative T3 salience (WRW, RRW, and RRR conditions; the middle R denotes the red T3, and the flanking Ws or Rs denote white or red distractors preceding or following it at long lags). At the top of each panel is a schematic representation of the display sequence in each of the three conditions (upper row, short T1–T3 lag; lower row, long T1–T3 lag). The background is black (as in the actual displays); white items are rendered as white, and red items are rendered as outline characters.  
T1 report accuracy for two-and three-target conditions in Experiment 1, as a function of T1–T2 lag. For clarification , the conditions have been labeled with the corresponding target/distractor sequences (T 5 target, D 5 distractor).  
Article
The authors have argued elsewhere that the attentional blink (AB; i.e., reduced target detection shortly after presentation of an earlier target) arises from blocked or disrupted perceptual input in response to distractors presented between the targets. When targets replace the intervening distractors, so that three targets (T1, T2, and T3) are presented sequentially, performance on T2 and T3 improves. Dux, Asplund, and Marois (2008) argued that T3 performance improves at the expense of T1, and thus provides evidence for resource depletion. They showed that when T1 is made more salient (and presumably draws more resources), an AB for T3 appears to reemerge. These findings can be better explained, however, by (1) the relationship between T1 and T2 (not T1 and T3) and (2) differential salience for T3 in the long-lag condition of Dux et al.'s study. In conclusion, the Dux et al. study does not present a severe challenge to input control theories of the AB.
 
Results of behavioral racial bias effects in Correll's(2008) sample and current replication samples 
Article
Correll (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 48-59, 2008; Study 2) found that instructions to use or avoid race information decreased the emission of 1/f noise in a weapon identification task (WIT). These results suggested that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflected an effortful deliberative process, providing new insights regarding the mechanisms underlying implicit racial biases. Given the potential theoretical and applied importance of understanding the psychological processes underlying implicit racial biases - and in light of the growing demand for independent direct replications of findings to ensure the cumulative nature of our science - we attempted to replicate Correll's finding in two high-powered studies. Despite considerable effort to closely duplicate all procedural and methodological details of the original study (i.e., same cover story, experimental manipulation, implicit measure task, original stimuli, task instructions, sampling frame, population, and statistical analyses), both replication attempts were unsuccessful in replicating the original finding challenging the theoretical account that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflects a deliberative process. However, the emission of 1/f noise did consistently emerge across samples in each of our conditions. Hence, future research is needed to clarify the psychological significance of 1/f noise in racial bias tasks.
 
Article
Mehta and Zhu (Science, 323, 1226-1229, 2009) hypothesized that the color red induces avoidance motivation and that the color blue induces approach motivation. In one experiment, they reported that anagrams of avoidance motivation words were solved more quickly on red backgrounds and that approach motivation anagrams were solved more quickly on blue backgrounds. Reported here is a direct replication of that experiment, using the same anagrams, instructions, and colors, with more than triple the number of participants used in the original study. The results did not show the Mehta and Zhu color-priming effects, even though statistical power was sufficient to detect the effect. The results call into question the existence of their color-priming effect on the solution of anagrams.
 
Article
Feldman, O'Connor, and Moscoso del Prado Martín (2009) reported evidence for differential priming of semantically transparent (talker-talk) and semantically opaque (corner-corn) morphological pairs under masked presentation conditions. The present commentary argues that these data should not call into question the theory that morphologically structured words undergo a segmentation process based solely on form, because (1) these results do not contradict existing evidence for morpho-orthographic segmentation, (2) funnel plots suggest that the lack of priming observed for semantically opaque items in this study is inconsistent with findings in the existing literature, and (3) orthographic characteristics of the semantically opaque pairs in this study (rather than semantic factors) are the most likely explanation for these discrepant results.
 
Article
Input-control theories of the attentional blink (AB) suggest that this deficit results from impaired attentional selection caused by the post-Target 1 (T1) distractor (Di Lollo et al., 2005; Olivers et al., 2007). Accordingly, there should be no AB when there are no intervening distractors between the targets. Contrary to these hypotheses, Dux et al. (2008) observed an AB (T3 deficit) when three targets, from the same attentional set, were presented successively in a rapid stream of distractors if subjects increased the resources devoted to T1 processing, a result consistent with resource depletion accounts of the AB. However, Olivers et al. (this issue) argue that Dux et al.'s results can be better explained by the relationship between T1 and T2 rather than between T1 and T3, and by target discriminability effects. Here, we find that manipulating the resources subjects devote to T1, either exogenously (target perceptual salience) or endogenously (target task-relevance), affects T3 performance even when controlling for T2 and target discriminability differences. These results support Dux et al.'s conclusion that T1 resource depletion underlies the AB.
 
Sampling distribution of p rep|d when n 5 10 and the underlying true effect size is δ 5 1 (left panel) and the correspondence between |d| and p rep|d (right panel).  
Flowchart and exemplary distributions used in the simulations, adapted from Killeen (2007).  
Results of the simulation. Predicted replicability for each run is calculated using the absolute value of the midpoints of nine bins as d 1 , and the value of n shown in the legend for that run. The obtained replicability is the proportion of times that d 2 had the same sign as d 1 . From " Replication Statistics, " by P. R. Killeen, 2007, in J. W. Osborne (Ed.), Best Practices in Quantitative Methods (p. 117), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Copyright 2007 by Sage Publications. Adapted with permission.  
The thick line is the sampling mean of the probability of replication—treated as a random variable p rep|d —as a function of the true effect size δ. It corresponds to the circular markers in the first panel of Iverson, Lee, and Wagenmaker's (2009) Figure 1. The thin line is (ϕ 1|δ ) 2 1 (12ϕ 1|δ ) 2 (what Iverson et al., 2009, called " Truth " ), where ϕ 1|δ is the true probability of observing a positive effect.  
Sampling distribution of the Bayesian posterior probability P(δ . 0 | d) (assuming a uniform prior) when n 5 10 and the underlying true effect size is δ 5 1. It is also the sampling distribution of 12p, where p is the one-sided p value associated with the test of the null hypothesis δ 5 0 against the alternative δ . 0.  
Article
Iverson, Lee, and Wagenmakers (2009) claimed that Killeen's (2005) statistic prep overestimates the "true probability of replication." We show that Iverson et al. confused the probability of replication of an observed direction of effect with a probability of coincidence--the probability that two future experiments will return the same sign. The theoretical analysis is punctuated with a simulation of the predictions of prep for a realistic random effects world of representative parameters, when those are unknown a priori. We emphasize throughout that prep is intended to evaluate the probability of a replication outcome after observations, not to estimate a parameter. Hence, the usual conventional criteria (unbiasedness, minimum variance estimator) for judging estimators are not appropriate for probabilities such as p and prep.
 
Cumulative distribution functions of ABA and CBA sequence reaction times from the standard (a) and the switched cue (b) conditions of Experiment 1 in Grange and Houghton (2010b). N-2 repetition costs are calculated by subtracting CBA RTs from ABA RTs 
Article
In their recent review article, Koch, Gade, Schuch, & Philipp, (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 1-14, 2010) present compelling evidence for the role of inhibition in task switching, as measured by n-2 repetition costs. They promote the view that inhibition targets response-related processes of task performance rather than cue-based preparatory stages. In support of this distinction, they cite the finding in the literature that n-2 repetition costs are not reduced given longer preparation intervals. In this article, we advocate the analysis of whole reaction time distributions for investigating the influence of task preparation on task inhibition. We present such analyses from two of our published experiments that support the view that n-2 repetition costs can be reduced given sufficient preparation. The results suggest that cue-based processes do contribute to inhibition in task switching.
 
Article
We offer a minor technical correction to the published proof of part (ii) of the main theorem in Silbert and Thomas (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1-20, 2013) that somewhat limits the scope of the equivalence observed in that work. Specifically, in order for a mean shift integrality with decisional separability to be mimicked by a perceptually separable but nondecisionally separable configuration, one needs to assume stimulus invariance. This holds when all of the covariance matrices in the stimulus configuration are equal to each other. We note that part (i) of the theorem is unaffected by this modification; an empirical finding of perceptual separability and the failure of decisional separability can be mimicked by a perceptually nonseparable, decisionally separable configuration without restricting the covariance matrices to be equal. We also note that stimulus invariance is often assumed in simple designs (e.g., Macmillan & Ornstein in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 1261-1285, 1998), due to the implausibility of different perceptual correlations being present within stimuli perched very closely in perceptual space.
 
Article
Established psychological results have been called into question by demonstrations that statistical significance is easy to achieve, even in the absence of an effect. One often-warned-against practice, choosing when to stop the experiment on the basis of the results, is guaranteed to produce significant results. In response to these demonstrations, Bayes factors have been proposed as an antidote to this practice, because they are invariant with respect to how an experiment was stopped. Should researchers only care about the resulting Bayes factor, without concern for how it was produced? Yu, Sprenger, Thomas, and Dougherty (2014) and Sanborn and Hills (2014) demonstrated that Bayes factors are sometimes strongly influenced by the stopping rules used. However, Rouder (2014) has provided a compelling demonstration that despite this influence, the evidence supplied by Bayes factors remains correct. Here we address why the ability to influence Bayes factors should still matter to researchers, despite the correctness of the evidence. We argue that good frequentist properties mean that results will more often agree with researchers' statistical intuitions, and good frequentist properties control the number of studies that will later be refuted. Both help raise confidence in psychological results.
 
Article
Ashby (2014) has argued that state-trace analysis (STA) is not an appropriate tool for assessing the number of cognitive systems, because it fails in its primary goal of distinguishing single-parameter and multiple-parameter models. We show that this is based on a misunderstanding of the logic of STA, which depends solely on nearly universal assumptions about psychological measurement and clearly supersedes inferences based on functional dissociation and the analysis of interactions in analyses of variance. We demonstrate that STA can be used to draw inferences concerning the number of latent variables mediating the effects of a set of independent variables on a set of dependent variables. We suggest that STA is an appropriate tool to use when making arguments about the number of cognitive systems that must be posited to explain behavior. However, no statistical or inferential procedure is able to provide definitive answers to questions about the number of cognitive systems, simply because the concept of a "system" is not defined in an appropriate way.
 
Mean correct responses per minute by priming condition and exemplar type. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Unprimed trials are represented in both the old and new exemplar clusters for ease of comparison. 
Article
The duration of long-term semantic priming is typically described in minutes. Woltz and Was (2007) found that priming effects following processing in working memory were relatively long-lasting, reporting there was no decrease in priming effects following 32 intervening Stroop-like trials. These findings were interpreted as an increased availability of long-term memory elements, in part due to memory for prior operations, and as not being solely explicable by spreading-of-activation accounts of priming. The present study was designed to test the persistence of these effects following a 24-h delay. In the present study, priming effects were found to be present following a minimum of a 24-h delay between processing of information in working memory and measures of increased availability of long-term memory elements. The results are discussed, in the context of long-term semantic priming, as being the result of persistent memory for prior cognitive operations.
 
Article
The Stroop effect is widely considered to be compelling evidence that skilled readers cannot prevent themselves from reading the irrelevant word or even delay such processing. In contrast, several reports indicate that the Stroop effect can be eliminated by various simple manipulations. These reports have been criticized on several grounds, among them that the baseline condition is suspect. These criticisms are addressed by showing that when (1) a neutral baseline is replaced by congruent trials, (2) single letter cuing and coloring manipulations are combined, (3) attentional window conditions are blocked, and (4) the congruent/incongruent trial ratio is 20/80, the Stroop effect is eliminated. A second major finding is that despite no Stroop effect, negative priming is observed, consistent with the hypothesis that a distinct but delayed perceptual act processes the word. The default set may be to process to the highest level (semantics), but these reading processes are (contextually) controlled rather than ballistic.
 
Article
Associative and behavior systems accounts of Pavlovian conditioning have different emphases. The traditional associative account has focused on the role of the unconditional stimulus (US) in strengthening stimulus associations according to a set of general laws. The behavior systems account has focused on the relation of conditional responding to the preorganized perceptual, motor, and motivational organization engaged by the US. Knowledge of a behavior system enables successful prediction of the form and ease of conditioning as a function of the type of conditional stimulus (CS), US, and the CS-US relation. At the same time, Pavlovian manipulations act as a window on how a behavior system works. Both associative and behavior systems accounts can be criticized as incomplete and idiosyncratic. A comprehensive account of Pavlovian conditioning could profit from their integration.
 
Percentage of subjects who increased on each measure as a function of event medium (photo vs. narrative). Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals based on individual cell means.
Article
Most memory "implantation" studies have elicited false memories by using fake narratives. Recently, Wade, Garry, Read, and Lindsay (2002) showed that doctored photographs can be used to create false childhood memories in adults. Fifty percent of Wade et al.'s sample reported details of taking a childhood hot air balloon ride, although they had never been in a balloon. In this experiment, we investigated whether photos or narratives influence memory more than the other. We exposed subjects to either a fake photograph or a fake narrative of a childhood hot air balloon ride. Subjects tried to remember the false event and three real events over 1 week. Narratives were more likely to produce false memory reports than were photos. We offer a fluency-based account of our results and suggest that narratives promote more familiarity in subjects than do photographs.
 
Article
What do people regard as an informative and valuable probability statement? This article reports four experiments that show participants to have a clear preference for more extreme and higher probabilities over less extreme and lower ones. This pattern emerged in Experiment 1, in which no context was provided, and was further explored in Experiment 2 within a positive and a negative context. The findings were further confirmed in Experiment 3, which employed a Bayesian framework with revisions of opinions. Finally, Experiment 4 showed how preference for high probabilities can lead people to prefer an overconfident to a more well-calibrated (accurate) forecaster. The results are interpreted as manifestations of a search for definitive predictions principle, which asserts that high probabilities are preferred to medium ones and often favored over the corresponding complementary low probabilities on the basis of their capacity to predict the occurrence of single outcomes.
 
Sample task displays following a participant's request for information on Step 3. The left panel exemplifies the displays used in Experiment 1, and the right panel the displays used in Experiment 2.
Median request times on problem Steps 2-7, Experiment 1.
Article
The temporal tuning hypothesis suggests that individuals adjust the timing of cognitive performances to achieve temporal coordination of mental processes and the data on which they operate, and that this adjustment becomes more precise with practice. Participants in two experiments performed self-paced multiple-step arithmetic tasks in which the information needed for each step was briefly displayed at the participants' request. Timing constraints were manipulated by varying between subjects the delay between requests and displays of information. In Experiment 1, both operators and operands appeared step by step, and participants achieved a modest degree of temporal adjustment that did not change with practice. In Experiment 2, participants could preview operators while operands appeared step by step. In that experiment, participants achieved more precise temporal adjustment, and the amount of adjustment increased with practice. These results demonstrate the phenomenon of temporal tuning in symbolic cognitive skills and suggest some constraints on the ability to anticipate the time course of one's mental processes.
 
Article
Identification of the second of two targets (T1, T2) inserted in a stream of distractors is impaired when presented 200-500 ms after the first (attentional blink, AB). An AB-like effect has been reported by Nieuwenstein, Potter, and Theeuwes, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 159-169, (2009, Experiment 2), with a distractor stream that contained only one target and a gap just before the target. Nieuwenstein et al. hypothesized that the gap enhanced the salience of the last distractor, causing it to be processed much like T1 in conventional AB studies. This hypothesis can also account for Lag-1 sparing (enhanced target performance when presented directly after the last distractor, without an intervening gap). We propose an alternative account of the Lag-1 sparing in the single-target paradigm based on observer strategy, and test it by presenting the single-target and dual-target conditions to separate groups (Experiment 2) instead of mixed across trials (Experiment 1 and Nieuwenstein et al.'s study). The single-target condition exhibited Lag-1 sparing when it was mixed with the dual-target condition, but Lag-1 deficit when it was done in isolation. This outcome is consistent with an observer-strategy account but not with an enhanced salience account of the Lag-1 sparing effect in the single-target condition.
 
Top-cited authors
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
  • University of Amsterdam
Jeffrey N Rouder
  • University of Missouri
Richard Donald Morey
  • Cardiff University
Jason M Chein
  • Temple University
Alexandra B Morrison
  • Temple University