AIM: Research suggests that exercise absence is frequently associated with greater guilt and negative affect, particularly when obligatory exercise beliefs and eating disordered psychopathology are considered. Two separate studies used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine differences in mood on exercise and non-exercise days and the moderating impact of obligatory exercise beliefs and eating disordered beliefs and behaviors. METHOD: Both studies recruited female university students who endorsed frequent exercise behavior and study two also recruited based on level of eating disordered psychopathology. Participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire at baseline and EMA measures of affect and exercise behavior for approximately one week. Study two participants also completed measures of body dissatisfaction and cognitions. RESULTS: Results of study one suggest that obligation to exercise appears to have a greater impact on general level of affect than does exercise absence or the interaction of these two. In addition, in study two, eating disorder symptomatology was significantly associated with affect and cognition while exercise absence and obligatory exercise beliefs were not. CONCLUSIONS: The present studies suggest that the absence of exercise is not associated with significant changes in affect or cognitions. However, obligation to exercise and eating disorder symptomatology do impact affect and cognitions.
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. METHOD: Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. RESULTS: Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points.
PROBLEM: Physical activity has been promoted as a means of enhancing self-concept, yet the evidence for this connection is far from compelling. In particular, experimental research investigating this association during adolescence, a period during which many youth struggle to maintain a positive self-image, is noticeably lacking. This study investigates the impact on self-concept of a 9-month physical activity intervention among sedentary adolescent females. METHOD: Female adolescents who were sedentary at baseline were assigned either to an exercise intervention or a comparison group as part of the controlled trial. The intervention was school-based, and assignment to groups was based on school attended. Intervention participants engaged in supervised activity 4 times per week and received didactic instruction promoting activity outside of school 1 day per week. Self-concept, physical activity participation, and cardiovascular fitness were assessed before, mid-way through, and after the 9-month intervention. RESULTS: The intervention had a significant positive impact on participation in vigorous activity and cardiovascular fitness. The intervention did not significantly influence any of the self-concept dimensions overall. There was, however, a three-way interaction such that there was an increase in global physical self-concept among those intervention participants who increased cardiovascular fitness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a physical activity intervention among sedentary adolescent females enhanced global physical self-concept for a subset of intervention participants who manifested positive changes in fitness.
It is unclear how exercise influences affect in overweight and obese individuals.
To examine the effect of a single exercise session on positive and negative affect and examine whether pre- to post-exercise changes in affect influence subsequent energy intake (EI).
Nineteen sedentary, overweight/obese women walked for ~40 minutes at a moderate-intensity on one day and rested for a similar duration on a separate day. Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) were assessed pre-testing, post-testing, 60, and 120 minutes post-testing using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Energy intake was determined by measuring food intake before and after a buffet meal 1-2 hours post-exercise/rest.
For PA, the time x condition interaction was significant (p<0.05). There was a trend for those subjects with improved PA from pre to post-exercise (58%) to consume fewer calories post-exercise (524 ± 260.9 kcal) compared to post-rest (566.1 ± 303.0 kcal), while those who had a worsening or no change in PA (42%) had a higher EI following exercise (588.0 ± 233.7 kcal) compared to rest (524.6 ± 281.7 kcal; p=0.08). NA was not significantly altered by exercise.
Some overweight/obese individuals appear to experience an increase in positive affect with exercise; however, there is a high degree of individual variability in responses that warrants further examination. This study also provides initial evidence that a worsening in affect following exercise may unfavorably impact eating behaviors. These preliminary findings have the potential to enhance our understanding of factors mediating the relationship between exercise and EI.
PROBLEM: A positive affective response is associated with increased participation in voluntary exercise, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well known. Consistent with a Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, we tested whether affective response to exercise leads to greater motivation in terms of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and intentions to exercise. We were also specifically interested in whether a positive affective response leads to more temporally stable intentions. METHOD: Participants (N = 127) self-reported Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs and exercise behavior at baseline and three months later, and provided reports of exercise-related affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise at baseline. RESULTS: We show that participants who experience greater improvements in positive affect, negative affect and fatigue during exercise tended to report more positive attitudes, exercise self-efficacy and intentions to exercise three months later. Affective response was not predictive of subjective norms. As hypothesized, positive affective response was associated with more stable intentions over time. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a positive affective response to acute bouts of exercise can aid in building and sustaining exercise motivation over time.
Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions.
OBJECTIVES: Autonomy support is a component of the motivational climate in youth sport that may promote youth's internalization of behaviors and attitudes. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Questionnaire (ASCQ), a measure of two forms of autonomy-supportive coaching perceived by young athletes. DESIGN: The study design was non-experimental. METHODS: Over a six-week season, youth (N = 165) participating in a recreational summer swim league completed measures of perceived coaching behavior (weeks 1 and 5), autonomy-supportive coaching (week 5) and psychological need satisfaction (weeks 1 and 6). RESULTS: Responses to the ASCQ could be reduced to two correlated factors representing an "interest in athlete's input" and "praise for autonomous behavior." These factors exhibited slightly different relations with perceived coaching behaviors and positively predicted coaching-associated contrasts in the satisfaction of all three basic psychological needs. CONCLUSIONS: The ASCQ appears to provide a valid assessment of young athlete's perceptions of autonomy-supportive coaching. Autonomy-supportive coaching should be evaluated as a potential source of motivational consequences of coaching and as a potential moderator of coaching effects on youth internalization.
The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.
New evidence-based physical activity guidelines and recommendations for constructing messages supplementing the guidelines have been put forth. As well, recent reviewshave identified theoretical constructs that hold promise as targets for intervention: self-regulation, outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of messages targeting self-regulation, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in existing physical activity brochures. Twenty-two PA brochures from Canadian and American National Health Organizations were assessed for their use self-efficacy, self-regulatory processes and outcome expectancies. Brochures were analyzed line-by-line using a modified version of the validated Content Analysis Approach to Theory-Specified Persuasive Educational Communication (CAATSPEC; Abraham et al., 2007). One third of the brochures were coded by two independent raters coded a third of the brochures (n = 7). Inter-rater reliability was acceptable for 17 of the 20 categories (rs> .79). Discrepancies in all categories were discussed and agreement was reached. The remaining brochures were coded by one of the two raters. Usage of thethree key theoretical constructs accounted for only 36.43% of brochure content (20.23% self-efficacy, 10.40% outcome expectancies, 5.80% self-regulation). Brochures lacked the use of a variety of theoretical strategies, specifically goal-setting, planning and verbal persuasion and rarely highlighted the affective benefits of physical activity. In the future brochures should aim to place increased emphasis on self-regulation, self-efficacy, and affective outcome expectancies.
OBJECTIVES: Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of regular physical activity (PA), specific goals for increased population levels of PA, and strongly recommended strategies to promote PA, there is no evidence suggesting that the prevalence of PA is improving. If PA intervention research is to be improved, theory should be used as the basis for intervention development, participant context or environment should be considered in the process, and intervention characteristics that will heighten the likelihood of translation into practice should be implemented (e.g., ease of implementation, low human resource costs). The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the aforementioned concepts within the intervention development process associated with CardiACTION an ongoing randomized 2 × 2 factorial trial. METHODS: The Ecological Model of Physical Activity integrated with Protection Motivation Theory was used to inform the design of the interventions. This integrated model was selected to allow for the development of theory-based individual, environmental, and individually + environmentally targeted physical activity interventions. All intervention strategies were matched to proposed mediators of behavior change. Strategies were then matched to the most appropriate interactive technology (i.e., interactive computer session, automated telephone counseling, and tailored mailings) delivery channel. CONCLUSIONS: The potential implications of this study include determining the independent and combined influence of individual and environment mechanisms of behavior change on intervention effectiveness. In addition, all intervention models are developed to be scalable and disseminable to a broad audience at a low cost.
Physical activity has been shown to benefit cancer survivors' physical functioning, emotional well-being, and symptoms. Physical activity may be of particular benefit to survivors of endometrial cancer because they are more likely to be obese and sedentary than the general population, as these are risk factors for the disease, and thus experience a number of related co-morbid health problems. However, there is little research systematically studying mechanisms of physical activity adherence in cancer survivor populations. This paper describes the design of the Steps to Health study, which applies a Social Cognitive Theory-based model of endometrial cancer survivors' adoption and maintenance of exercise in the context of an intervention to increase walking or other moderate intensity cardiovascular activity. In Steps to Health we will test the influence of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on adherence to exercise recommendations, as well as studying the determinants of self-efficacy. Endometrial cancer survivors who are at least 6 months post-treatment are provided with an intervention involving print materials and telephone counseling, and complete assessments of fitness, activity, self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and determinants of self-efficacy every two months for a six month period. In addition to testing an innovative model, the Steps to Health study employs multiple assessment methods, including ecological momentary assessment, implicit tests of cognitive variables, and ambulatory monitoring of physical activity. The study results can be used to develop more effective interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary cancer survivors by taking into account the full complement of sources of self-efficacy information and outcome expectations.
OBJECTIVES: Two separate studies assessed the psychometric properties of a retrospective behavioral measure adapted for exercise called the Timeline Followback for Exercise (TLFB-E). Study one examined criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Study two examined test-retest reliability. METHODS: Study one participants (N = 66) were college students 20.0 ± 1.4yr. Validity of frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) of exercise as assessed on the TLFB-E was examined using Pearson r correlations with accelerometers, weekly exercise contracts between participants and researchers, question four of the College Alumni Questionnaire, and a health-related physical fitness battery. Study two participants were a different sample (N = 40) of college students 18.63 ± 1.0yr. Pearson r correlations determined reliability of the TLFB-E for exercise frequency, intensity, and time between two interviews separated by one month. Kappa statistic determined reliability of the TLFB-E for type of exercise. RESULTS: The TLFB-E displayed evidence of criterion validity when compared to accelerometers (r = .35 to .39) and evidence of convergent validity when compared to weekly exercise contracts (r = .65 to .80) and question four of the College Alumni Questionnaire (r = .06 to .75). The TLFB-E displayed evidence of modest to adequate test-retest reliability (r = .79 to .97) for exercise frequency, intensity, and time and moderate Kappa (k = .49) for exercise type. CONCLUSIONS: The TLFB-E produces evidence of reliable and valid scores among college students and improves upon other self-report, retrospective questionnaires by enabling daily collection of exercise FITT over a specified time period.
OBJECTIVES: To provide a methodological overview of a computerized intervention to promote leisure time physical activity (PA) and to apply self-determination theory (SDT) to PA initiation to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying PA frequency, intensity, and duration in previously-sedentary individuals. DESIGN: Based on SDT, two computerized personal trainers were developed for use with sedentary young adults. One personal trainer was designed to be need-supportive, empathic, and structured while the other was designed to be more controlling, evaluative, and judgmental. METHOD: Participants are randomly assigned to work with either the need-supportive or controlling computerized personal trainer. They complete a series of 7 weekly training sessions. In between training sessions, participants complete daily records of PA behaviors and experiences including autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence for PA and PA frequency, intensity, and duration. POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS: The design of this intervention and its theoretical basis have important implications for advancing the field of exercise science specifically and health behavior change more broadly. Computerized interventions have the benefit of standardizing intervention content as well as reducing clinical contact burden for practitioners. Daily recording procedures reduce the likelihood of retrospection bias and allow for the modeling of (1) daily fluctuations in PA behavior and (2) the psychological mechanisms believed to be involved in PA behavior (e.g., autonomous self-regulation). Finally, as a broad theory of human motivation, SDT is uniquely positioned to offer explanations for the conditions that are likely to promote both the initiation and maintenance of health behavior change.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the costs associated with Internet and print-based physical activity interventions. METHOD: The costs associated with delivering tailored print and Internet-based interventions were estimated from a randomized controlled physical activity trial (n=167). The estimates were based on research assistant time sampling surveys, web development invoices, and other tracking procedures. RESULTS: Web-development costs for the Internet intervention were $109,564. Taken together with the website hosting fees and staff costs, the cost per participant per month was $122.52 The cost of the print intervention was $35.81 per participant per month. However, in a break-even analysis, the Internet intervention became more cost-efficient, relative to the print intervention, when the total number of participants exceeded 352. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to print-based interventions, Internet-based interventions may be a more cost efficient way to reach a large number of sedentary individuals.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. METHOD: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. RESULTS: To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum.
ObjectivesTo test the first- and second-order factorial structure of the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport (CICS; Psychol. Sport Exercise, 3, (2002) 1–34) with a sample of marathoners.DesignRetrospective. Data were collected within 6 h after the completion of the 2001 New York marathon.MethodA sample of 366 French marathoners (82% male; mean age=43.6 years) completed the CICS. Data were analyzed with descriptive, reliability, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA).ResultsDescriptive analyses revealed that the distribution of four items was severely non-normal whereas reliability analyses showed that three items were unreliable indicators of their underlying coping strategies. Results of a first-order CFA provided evidence for the reasonable fit of a 28-item nine-factor model in which four pairs of uniqueness were allowed to correlate. Results of a hierarchical CFA provided marginal evidence for a model in which coping strategies were merged in three higher-order dimensions representing task-, distraction-, and disengagement-oriented coping. This model fitted the data more adequately than a competing model representing engagement- vs. disengagement-oriented coping.ConclusionsDespite the unreliability of some items, results of the CFAs lent some support for the factorial validity of the CICS with marathoners. Hence, 28 items can be used to obtain a microscopic (coping strategies) and a macroscopic (coping dimensions) assessment of athletes' coping efforts during a marathon.
Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, and Jackson (2007) questioned the validity of some of the items from the SMS, the construct validity of the three types of intrinsic motivation measured by the SMS, and they proposed an integrated regulation subscale to measure the most self-determined form of extrinsic motivation proposed by SDT. In this article, we focus on the following two questions: “Does the SMS need to be revised?”, and “Is the Revised 6-factor SMS a better scale?”.
Our review leads us to the following main conclusions: (a) the SMS has generally demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability in many previous studies, supporting its use; (b) the proposed revised version may also be problematic due to item selection, factor structure, and validity issues as well as problems with the integration scale.
ObjectivesThe main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the French version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) including direction and frequency scales.MethodSix hundred and forty two male and female athletes competing in different individual and team sports participated in the study. Data were analysed with reliability and confirmatory factor analyses as well as with correlational analyses.DesignCross-sectional with self-reported questionnaires.ResultsConfirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fits of the data for the 3-factor models (somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence) of the intensity, direction, and frequency scales, and a good fit of the data for the hypothesized 9-factor model (i.e., including the three scales). Results provided evidence for the relative superiority of a model of the French CSAI-2R in which the somatic anxiety item 1 was discarded. The pattern of inter-scale correlations between the different subscales was in line with the results reported by the literature and suggested not including the self-confidence direction subscale because it might measure the same concept as the self-confidence intensity subscale. The patterns of relationships between the Sport Anxiety Scale, the Sport-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS) and the three scales of the CSAI-2R provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of the French CSAI-2R.ConclusionThis study provided support for the reliability and validity of the French version of the CSAI-2R including direction and frequency scales. Competitive state anxiety is significantly associated with competitive trait anxiety and sport perfectionism.
Objectives: To assess the effects of a multi-modal intervention programme, including physical activity, with people over 60 years of age.Design: Longitudinal pre-experimental design with 6-month follow-up.Methods: The programme was designed to improve physical, mental, and spiritual well-being and incorporated physical exercise and relaxation training, combined with seminars that addressed issues of creativity, psychology, philosophy of life, and communication. Programme participants (n=75) were involved in activities for 7 h a week over a period of 4 months and were examined three times: before the programme began, immediately after its completion, and after an interval of six months. Three psychological parameters were assessed: depression, hypochondria and feelings of the purpose of life.Results: Participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all measured psychological variables between the first and second assessment, and the improvements were maintained at follow-up.Conclusions: Within the limitations of the research design, the programme appeared successful in improving the quality of life of older people.
Objectives: To assess the effects of a year-long intervention in Greek junior high school physical education on motivational climate, goal orientations and attitudes towards exercise and healthy diet.Design: One-year pre-post experimental trial.Method: Eighty-eight daily lessons aiming to facilitate task-involvement were developed with 262 students in an intervention group and 521 acting as controls. All were at the first year of junior high school (7th grade). The intervention was assessed through questionnaires at the beginning and end of the school year and 10 months after the end of the intervention. Participants completed the measures of motivational climate, goal orientations and attitudes.Results: Confirmatory factor analyses, and reliability and correlation analyses, supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. Covariance analysis results revealed that, after adjusting for initial differences on the assessed constructs, students who took part in the intervention, compared with the control group: (1) had more positive attitudes towards exercise and healthy eating, (2) had lower ego and higher task orientation scores, and (3) perceived that their teacher gave more emphasis on task-involvement and less emphasis on ego-involvement.Conclusions: Physical educators can create a positive motivational climate facilitating students’ task orientation and attitudes towards exercise.
ObjectivesThe aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week program of regular brisk walking, regular brisk walking with abdominal electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), and no exercise on hierarchical self-perceptions, and consider the mediating role of changes in anthropometric measures and body composition.MethodsThirty-seven sedentary healthy women (mean age=38.1; SD=9.3) provided written informed consent and participated in baseline testing on a range of anthropometric, body composition, and hierarchical self-perception measures. Subsequently participants were randomly assigned to an 8-week program of walking (n=13), walking+EMS (n=14), or a control (n=10) condition. At 8 weeks anthropometric, body composition and self-perception measures were re-assessed.ResultsIn comparison with the control group, both walking groups had significant reductions in a number of anthropometric measures and improvements in self-perception measures. The improvements on both anthropometric measures and self-perceptions were greater for the walking+EMS condition, which indicated that changes in self-perception might be mediated by body changes. However, an assessment of the mediation effect between changes in anthropometric measures and self-perception changes did not support this finding.ConclusionsAn 8-week exercise program results in significant improvements in anthropometric measures and self-perceptions compared with no exercise. Changes in anthropometric measures appear to have limited influence on exercise-induced changes in self-perception and it is suggested that a subjective feeling that one's body is improving may be sufficient to enhance self-perceptions.
ObjectivesTo assess whether exercise was associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect for university students during academically demanding times.DesignWithin-subjects daily diary study.MethodsFifty-nine university students completed the LTEQ [Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146], cognitive appraisals of daily events [Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer], and the PANAS [Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070] for 14 days immediately prior to the final examination period.ResultsOur hypotheses were partially supported as threat appraisals were significantly associated with decreased positive affect on days closer to the final examination period. Contrary, to our hypotheses exercise was not independently associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect. However, the interaction between exercise and day was significant as participants experienced increased positive affect during the last 3 days of data collection immediately preceding the final exam period. There was also a significant exercise by threat interaction with follow-up tests showing the exercise/negative affect relationship was significantly moderated by threat appraisals only when academic events were appraised as mildly threatening.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that exercise behavior might be an effective way for college students to cope with stress especially during academic demanding times.
ObjectivesThis study examined the contribution of motivational climate created by mothers, coaches, and best friends in the explanation of variance of athletes’ achievement goals, sport satisfaction and academic performance.DesignCross-sectional; participants completed self-reports assessing achievement goals in sport, perceptions of goals that are endorsed by mother, coach and best friend, satisfaction in sport and academic achievement.MethodsParticipants were 863 current Greek athletes (488 males, 372 females, 3 did not provide gender) aged 14.5±.60 (n=420) and 11.5±.60 (n=443).ResultsFactor, reliability and correlation analyses supported the psychometric properties of the instruments. All socialization agents had unique contribution to the explained variance of athletes’ achievement goals in sport. Mastery goals and perceptions corresponded positively to satisfaction in sport and they had low positive relationship with academic performance. Perceptions of performance approach goals endorsed by significant others had low negative relationship with academic performance and they were unrelated to sport satisfaction.ConclusionsMastery oriented climates should be established in sport, family, and peer contexts because all social contexts seem responsible for the formation of athletes’ achievement goals, emotions, and behaviours.
Previous research has indicated that perfectionism may be an important antecedent of exercise dependence (Hagan, A. L., & Hausenblas, H. A. (2003). The relationship between exercise dependence and perfectionism. American Journal of Health Studies, 18, 133–137; Hausenblas, H. A., & Symons Downs, D. (2002a). Exercise dependence: a systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 3, 89–123, Hausenblas, H.A., & Symons Downs, D. (2002b). How much is too much? The development and validation of the exsrcise dependence scale. Psychology and Health, 17, 387–404). To date, however, few studies have sought to examine the psychological processes that underpin this relationship. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the degree to which self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were associated with exercise dependence, and to ascertain whether the relationships were mediated by unconditional self-acceptance and labile self-esteem.
ObjectivesTo examine the role of physical acceptance in the exercise and self-esteem model [Sonstroem, R. J., & Morgan, W. P. (1989). Exercise and self-esteem: Rationale and model. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21, 329–337], and the model's proposed mediating relationships.DesignUsing the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny [Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182], a series of regression analyses were conducted to examine the model's proposed relationships, and the particular role of physical acceptance.MethodsCross-sectional survey. Adult women (n=122; M age=45.9 years; SD=12.8) completed valid and reliable self-report measures of exercise behavior, exercise self-efficacy, perceptions of physical competence, perceptions of physical acceptance, and global self-esteem.ResultsMultiple regression analyses showed model components explained 22% of the variability in global self-esteem (p<0.001), with only perceptions of physical acceptance making a significant unique contribution, explaining 12.6%. The effects of exercise behavior on perceived physical competence and exercise self-efficacy on physical acceptance were direct, rather than being mediated by exercise self-efficacy and perceived physical competence, respectively.ConclusionsThese findings provide partial support for the exercise and self-esteem model, and suggest the importance of physical acceptance in understanding the exercise and self-esteem relationship in women. Further examination of the specific links within the model are warranted within a variety of physical activity contexts.
It has been argued that elite junior athletes may be especially vulnerable to the development of burnout [Coakley, D. (1992). Burnout among adolescent athletes: A personal failure or social problem. Sociology, 9, 271–285; Feigley, D. A. (1984). Psychological burnout in high-level athletes. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 12, 108–119; Raedeke, T. D. (1997). Is athlete burnout more than just stress? A sport commitment perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, 396–418]. Few studies to date have examined the psychological mechanisms that may underpin this vulnerability. One exception was a study by Gould, Tuffrey, Udry, and Loehr [(1996). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 332–340], which found that a form of perfectionism reflecting a preoccupation with avoiding mistakes differentiated between burnout and non-burnout tennis players. The first purpose of the present investigation was to extend this research and examine the influence of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism on burnout in elite junior soccer players. A second purpose was to examine whether the association between perfectionism and burnout was mediated by unconditional self-acceptance.
ObjectiveThis study investigated relations between implicit and explicit attitudes toward physical activity, as well as the role of individual differences in introspective access as a possible moderator of implicit–explicit attitudinal concordance.DesignThe design was non-experimental and involved self-report and behavioral measures.MethodUndergraduate students (N = 203) completed explicit measures of attitudes toward physical activity and its outcomes. They also completed a Single-Category Implicit Association Test adapted to assess implicit evaluative attitudes toward physical activity.ResultsImplicit and explicit attitudes toward physical activity were unrelated and neither private self-consciousness nor private body consciousness moderated the relation.ConclusionsThese findings support the theory that implicit and explicit attitudes toward physical activity are independent systems. We discuss the implications of these findings for physical activity promotion efforts.
ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the empathic accuracy of sport coaches in relation to feedback of information. Coaches' experience and qualification level were also considered.MethodSixty badminton coaches were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. All coaches watched a video of an athlete's technical training session with her coach. At designated segments of the video all coaches were asked to make inferences about what the athlete's thoughts and feelings had been. Only the coaches in the experimental group were given corrective feedback on the athlete's thoughts and feelings following their inference. Empathic accuracy was estimated by comparing these inferences with the athlete's own self-reported thoughts and feelings.ResultsIt was shown that both groups' empathic accuracy improved over the course of watching the video; however, the experimental group improved significantly more. It was found that coaches' experience was significantly associated with empathic accuracy for the control group only.ConclusionsThe results suggest that continued exposure to an athlete increases a coach's empathic accuracy and that this can be significantly improved with accurate feedback about that athlete.
ObjectiveWe examined changes in student achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and affective responses in secondary school physical education.MethodGreek junior high school students (N = 394; 191 males and 203 females) responded to a multi-section questionnaire twice a year from the ages of 12 to 15 years.ResultsMultilevel modeling analyses showed significant linear decreases in perceptions of task-involving teacher climate, task and ego goal orientations, which were somewhat reversed by the beginning of the last year of the junior high school. Significant linear decreases were also observed for enjoyment whereas there were significant linear increases for perceptions of ego-involving climate and boredom. There was significant variability in the intercepts and/or average changes over time for all variables and, therefore, we included demographic and theoretical predictors in an attempt to account for such variations.ConclusionThe results indicated that decreases in adaptive motivation over time vary across students and in some cases may be tackled by fostering a task-involving teacher climate.
ObjectivesThis study examined the relationship between achievement goals, motivation climate, frequency of sport and exercise involvement and students' metacognitive processes in physical education.DesignOne sample of questionnaire data.MethodsParticipants were 782 physical education pupils (338 male, 416 female, 28 did not provide gender) of public elementary (n=182), junior high school (n=365) and senior high school (n=235), who completed self-reports of task and ego orientation, motivational climate, metacognition, effort and enjoyment in physical education and sport and exercise behavior in out-of-school settings.ResultsBoth task-orientation and the perception of a mastery environment had a unique contribution in the explanation of students' metacognitive activity. There was also evidence that metacognition has a mediating role between mastery climate and task orientation on the one hand and frequency of sport and exercise involvement on the other.ConclusionsThese findings underscore the importance of task orientation and mastery climate for the development of metacognition in physical education. Moreover, they underline the necessity of research on the causal relationship between metacognition and sport involvement.
Aim: To investigate the role of implicit theories of ability and achievement goals on self-handicapping strategies in physical education classes.Hypotheses: It was expected that incremental theories of ability would be negatively associated with self-handicapping strategies, whereas fixed theories of ability would enhance pupils’ self-reported use of such strategies. It was also hypothesised that low perceived competence would reinforce self-handicapping among pupils holding fixed theories of ability and an ego goal orientation.Method: A cross-sectional study of 9th graders in Norway (N=343; 166 boys and 177 girls) was conducted in which pupils responded to a questionnaire measuring sub-dimensions of fixed and incremental theories of ability, achievement goal orientations, perceived competence and self-handicapping in physical education.Results: Regression-based path analyses revealed that a fixed theory of ability had a direct positive effect on self-handicapping. The effects of an incremental implicit theory of ability on self-handicapping were negative and mediated by a task orientation. High perceived competence was found to buffer the aversive affect of holding a stable theory of ability on self-handicapping.Conclusion: The findings illustrate the importance of studying implicit motivational beliefs in physical education classes in order to provide an understanding of self-handicapping strategies among pupils.
ObjectivesTo examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress (task involvement) was emphasized.MethodsNinety-four aesthetic performers from gymnastics (n = 59) and dance (n = 35) completed questionnaires measuring ego and task involvement (individual orientation and motivational climate), dieting, self-esteem, perfectionism and weight-related peer and coach pressure.ResultsPartial correlations indicated that a stronger ego orientation was related to more dieting, greater perfectionism, more weight-related peer pressure, and lower self-esteem. Similar relationships were found for performance climate. Mastery climate on the other hand was negatively related to dieting, and coach and peer pressure, suggesting that when performers perceived the motivational climate as mastery, less frequent dieting was reported and less weight-related coach and peer pressure was perceived. No relationships were found between task orientation and disordered eating. Most importantly, regression analysis showed that after controlling for BMI, both ego orientation and mastery climate made a unique significant contribution to explaining dieting variance.ConclusionsGoal achievement theory is an important framework for explaining disordered eating in female aesthetic performers. Both ego orientation and mastery climate play a role in dieting of gymnasts and dancers. Aesthetic performers who are strongly ego-oriented tend to display more disordered eating correlates. Furthermore, it seems that to protect against disordered eating, coaches and teachers should create a mastery climate and target self-improvement and self-referenced comparisons over interpersonal competitiveness.
ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to integrate the approach–avoidance model of achievement goals with self-determination theory in the context of structured exercise. More specifically, we analysed how perceived motivational climate, implicit ability beliefs, perceived competence, and achievement goals contributed to exercisers’ self-determined motivation.DesignA cross-sectional design using questionnaires was adopted.MethodThe sample consisted of exercisers (N = 727; 402 males and 325 females) aged between 16 and 78 years (M = 32.57, SD = 11.39) attending different sports centres. Examples of exercise activities undertaken included weightlifting, aerobics, Pilates, keep-fit for adults, indoor cycling, and fitness.ResultsStructural equation modelling showed that a perceived mastery climate positively predicted incremental beliefs and perceived competence, whereas a perceived performance climate positively predicted entity beliefs. Incremental beliefs underpinned mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals, whilst entity beliefs underpinned both performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Perceived competence positively predicted approach goals. Self-determined motivation was predicted positively by mastery-approach goals but negatively by both performance goals. The model was invariant across gender and age.ConclusionsThe present study provides initial support for the integration of the approach–avoidance goal framework and self-determination theory in the exercise domain.
ObjectivesSocial goal orientations, which reflect ways of conceptualizing competence in terms of social relationships with others, have been researched minimally in the physical domain. While the relationship between task and ego orientations and motivational outcomes has been well-studied, the link of friendship, group acceptance, and coach praise orientations with enjoyment, perceived physical competence, and intrinsic motivation warrants further study.MethodMale and female middle-school students (N = 303) completed questionnaires assessing task, ego, coach praise, friendship, and group acceptance orientations; enjoyment; perceived physical competence; and motivation. Two approaches to data analysis (variable-centered, person-centered) examined whether social orientations were significantly related to motivational outcomes among adolescents.ResultsVariable-centered analysis (i.e., canonical correlation) showed that social orientations were related to enjoyment, perceived physical competence, and intrinsic motivation. Person-centered analyses (i.e., cluster analysis, MANOVA) classified participants with similar patterns of goal orientations and then compared the emergent groups on motivational outcomes. Participants who defined success using either higher task, ego, and social goal orientations or higher friendship and lower ego orientations reported the most adaptive responses (higher perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation).ConclusionsSocial orientations in sport are important to consider alongside task and ego orientations in research stemming from achievement goal theory. Defining success or competence in terms of social relationships can have positive motivational benefits in sport.
ObjectiveBased on Elliot's revised achievement goal framework [Elliot and McGregor (2001). A 2×2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519], the present study tested the gender invariance of the multiple achievement goal measurement model as well as the hypothesized antecedents and consequences of the multiple achievement goals embedded in a structural model.MethodA sample of 450 British male and female athletes (M age=22.17, SD=6.59) were used. A multi-section questionnaire, assessing approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport competence, fear of failure, and motivation regulations, was administered to the athletes before or after training. Data were collected with the informed consent of the coaches and the athletes.DesignCross-sectional design.ResultsAnalyses of factorial invariance revealed that the four goal model could be considered as equivalent across gender. Only partial invariance was supported with respect to the antecedents-achievement goals-consequences model. The paths between fear of failure to mastery-avoidance goal, mastery-approach goal to intrinsic motivation, and performance-approach goal to extrinsic motivation regulation were not invariant for males and females.ConclusionThe factorial validity of multiple achievement goal measure was supported for both genders. The present findings provided only partial support for gender invariance in the 2×2 model.
Objectives: to explore the generalization of a central prediction of achievement goal theory (AGT), that maladaptive motivation patterns occur only when low (Lo) perceived ability accompanies comparative (Co) achievement perspectives. This prediction was tested independently for (a) dispositional orientations and (b) perceptions of the motivational climate in (i) a cross-sectional study of enjoyment, and (ii) a longitudinal study of persistence.Method: track and field athletes (n=138) aged 11 to 16 years completed measures of dispositional orientation, perceived motivational climate, perceived ability and enjoyment. The climate instrument was revised for conceptual equivalence to the dispositional one. One year later athletes were identified as persisters or non-persisters with their clubs.Results: in the enjoyment study, a series of orthogonal comparisons supported the predictions for both dispositional and situational profile groups: CoLo groups reported less enjoyment than the remaining groups. In the persistence study, logistic regression supported the prediction for situational but not dispositional data: three interactions showed that withdrawal was most likely in low perceived ability athletes who (a) perceived a Co climate, or (b) had a self-referenced (Sr) disposition, but also (c) in athletes with Sr dispositions who perceived a Co climate.Conclusions and recommendations: the interactive prediction of AGT was supported in three conditions. Alternative explanations are discussed for the fourth condition. It is recommended that further research should identify the boundary conditions under which AGT is operational, and related theories that explain additional variance.
ObjectivesThe present paper examined the roles of achievement orientation, perception of the motivational climate, and perceived ability on performance trait anxiety in a sample of national level elite athletes. Gender differences in these relationships were also examined.DesignCross-sectional.MethodsOne hundred and ninety national elite athletes (male, n=101 and female, n=89) from individual sport completed Norwegian measures of goal orientation, perceived motivational climate, perceived ability, and multidimensional performance anxiety.ResultsFemale and male national elite athletes were similar in achievement orientations and had similar perceptions of the motivational climate. Females reported higher levels of performance worry, concentration disruption and somatic anxiety than males. Orientations did not predict performance anxiety for either gender, however perceptions of a performance climate predicted performance worry for both genders, and concentration disruption for females. Perceived ability predicted less performance worry for females and males. Perceived ability did not moderate the effects of the perceived motivational climate on performance anxiety, and neither did the results meet the criteria for testing mediation.ConclusionsThe extant motivational climate has an effect on performance anxiety, and coaches would be well advised to consider this when working with national elite athletes.
ObjectiveThis study examined the collective relationships amongst achievement goals, social goals and motivational correlates in Masters sport.MethodThe participants were 373 (184 females; 189 males) Masters athletes from six sports. Ages ranged from 29 years to 77 years (mean=48 years). Cluster analysis was employed to identify ‘goal profiles’ of two achievement goals (task and ego) and three social goals (affiliation, recognition, status). MANOVA was employed to examine the goal profiles for differences on self-perceptions, affect, and motivation.ResultsFive goal profiles were identified and labeled as follows: Cluster 1 (Lo-Aff) low affiliation, moderate task, ego, status, and recognition; Cluster 2 (Lo-Val) low ego, status, and recognition, moderate task and affiliation; Cluster 3 (Hi-Social) high affiliation and status, moderate recognition and task, and low ego; Cluster 4 (Lo-Ach) low task and ego, moderate affiliation, status, and recognition; and Cluster 5 (Hi-Ach) high task, ego, and recognition, moderate affiliation and status. MANOVA revealed that Cluster 3 (Hi-Social) was highest on enjoyment and perceived belonging, while Clusters 3 and 5 (Hi-Ach) were highest on intrinsic motivation, commitment, and perceived ability. Clusters 1 (Lo-Aff) and 4 (Lo-Ach) had lower levels of enjoyment and commitment.ConclusionIn general, these Masters athletes enjoyed their participation, they were committed, they had high perceptions of ability and belonging, and they were predominantly intrinsically motivated. The implications of these motivational profiles for Masters athletes are discussed from both theoretical and applied perspectives.
Based on the Achievement Goal perspective [Dweck, C. S., Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273; Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346] and on Pekrun et al.'s [(2004). Beyond test anxiety: development and validation of the test emotions questionnaire (TEQ). Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17, 287–316] model of discrete class-related emotions, this study investigated the relation of achievement goals to discrete emotions in the Physical Education (PE) class.
ObjectivesThe purpose of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between athletes’ goal orientations, elements of perfectionism, perceived ability and obligatory exercise behaviour.MethodTwo hundred and forty six British middle-distance runners completed a multi-sectional inventory containing the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire [Pasman, L., & Thompson, J. K. (1988). Body image and eating disturbance in obligatory runners, obligatory weightlifters, and sedentary individuals. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 759–769], the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire [Duda, J. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire: Psychometric properties. Unpublished manuscript], and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, R. O., Marten, P. A., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468).ResultsRegression analyses indicated that 31% of obligatory exercise behaviour could be explained by a combination of athletes’ goal orientations, perceived ability, concern about mistakes and high personal standards. Further regression analyses indicated that high ability and elements of perfectionism combined to explain 49% variance in the obligatory exercise behaviour of females, while achievement related overstriving (Covington, 1992), which included high task and ego goals and elements of neurotic perfectionism, combined to explain 27% variance in the obligatory exercise behaviour of male participants.ConclusionThe positive association between achievement goals, perfectionistic striving and obligatory exercise behaviour in this sample of club runners seems to result from a combination of motivational variables that encourage a focus on self-validation and failure avoidance, and it is this psychological mechanism which appears to underpin this compulsive form of exercise.
Objectives: Utilizing an interactionist approach, this study examined the main and interactive effects of the perceived motivational climate and goal perspectives on sportspersonship. Additionally, the perceived motivational climate was explored as a team level variable and multilevel modeling was used to investigate individual and group level effects.Method: 202 female club volleyball players from 25 intact teams completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire—2 (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000: Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 275–290), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1989: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 318–335), and the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 197–206).Results: Two sportspersonship dimensions emerged for the female athletes, i.e. respect for the game and respect for the opponent. Task orientation was found to positively predict respect for opponents. A significant three-way interaction between task orientation, ego orientation and the task-involving climate emerged for respect for the game suggesting that the relationship between task and ego orientations and the degree of respect for the game was dependent upon the strength of the task-involving climate. At the team level, within-group interrater agreement indicated that shared perceptions of the motivational climate were apparent among the team. Hierarchical linear modeling procedures revealed that individual task orientation and team level perceptions of a task-involving climate positively predicted respect for the game.Conclusion: Discussion focuses on the impact of the motivational climate on athletic moral conduct at the individual and team level and the importance of promoting a task-involving climate with the aim to enhance aspects of sportspersonship in youth sport.
ObjectivesThis study investigated the association of ethnic/cultural identity salience with achievement goals and motivational climate in multicultural physical education classes.MethodsQuestionnaires assessing ethnic/cultural identity salience, achievement goals and motivational climate were completed by high school students with Greek (n = 927) and non-Greek (n = 366) ethnic origin. The ethnic/cultural identity salience questionnaire comprised four factors suggesting ethnic belonging, assimilation, feelings of being on the fringe of ethnic identity, and lack of desire to interact with members of other ethnic groups.ResultsMultilevel modeling analyses indicated that task orientation and class learning oriented climate were positively linked with ethnic belonging and assimilation from the larger culture. On the other hand, ego orientation and class performance oriented climates were positively associated with feelings of being on the fringe of ethnic identity, and with lack of desire to interact with members of other ethnic groups.ConclusionsThe present findings encourage the conduct of intervention studies emphasizing task orientation and decreasing ego orientation to promote mutual respect among ethnicities and acculturation from the larger culture.
ObjectivesThe present study explored the experience of introjected regulation (i.e. a controlling motivational regulation in which people act due to internal pressures that are regulated by contingent self-esteem; [Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–56]) in relation to sport and exercise in mid-adolescence.MethodsAdolescents reporting strong introjected regulation of sport and/or exercise relative to their peers were identified using quantitative questionnaires, and invited for interview. Semi-structured interviews were recorded with 10 boys and 8 girls (mean age 14 years), transcribed verbatim, and analysed using an interpretive phenomenological approach.ResultsIntrojected regulation accompanied high levels of self-determined motivation, and was associated with high levels of physical activity in the present sample. Two major themes emerged: (i) gender differences in the basis for introjected regulation; and (ii) differences in the reasons and goals underpinning self-determined versus introjected regulations for exercise. In boys, introjected regulation was largely related to social factors, such as avoiding social disapproval and attaining ego enhancement. Girls rarely exercised with their friends, and introjected regulation more commonly reflected the partial internalization of a health and fitness rationale. In many cases, self-determined and introjected regulations were underpinned by different goals or reasons, supporting the importance of assessing an individual's multiple motives towards activities.ConclusionsIntrojected regulation for exercise was associated with higher than expected levels of participation in sport and exercise, regardless of whether it was founded on contingent self-worth, or the partial internalization of adaptive reasons for exercise. The implications of social control on future exercise participation are discussed.
Purpose: This study examined mean differences in, and relationships among, motivational regulations and physical activity in three different age groups (young adults: 18–24, adults: 25–44, and middle-age adults: 45–64 years) using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods:
Data from 547 participants who completed a self-report questionnaire were analyzed. Results: Based on multivariate analysis of covariance, motivational regulations and physical activity levels differed across age groups. Regression analyses were conducted while controlling for body mass index, gender, education level and ethnicity. Autonomous motivation (consisting of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) was a positive correlate of physical activity behavior in each age group. Introjected regulation was a significant positive correlate of physical activity behavior, and external regulation was a significant negative correlate of physical activity behavior for young adults. These correlates were not significant in the models predicting physical activity behavior for adults and middle-age adults. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of considering age when studying physical activity motivation since the strength of the associations between the motivational regulations and physical activity behavior varied across age groups. Identifying factors that influence intrinsic motivation and identified regulation for physical activity within each age segment is necessary to develop interventions to increase physical activity behavior across the lifespan.
ObjectivesInstructions to avoid an action may increase the tendency to engage in the action (ironic effects) or cause an undesirable increase in the opposing action (overcompensation). The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between gaze behavior and performance in a golf putting task when these kinds of unwanted effects occur.MethodsTwenty-seven participants performed an indoor golf putting task with instructions to land the ball on the hole (neutral instructions), land the ball on the hole but avoid putting too short and land the ball on the hole but avoid putting too long. Order of instruction was randomized and both gaze behavior and putting performance were assessed.ResultsWhen participants gazed for longer at a specific area (in front, behind or at the hole) the ball was more likely to land in that area. Subsequent analyses confirmed a tight relationship between gaze behavior and putting performance when overcompensation occurred. For ironic effects such a tight relationship was only found when participants were instructed to avoid putting too short, but not when participants were instructed to avoid putting too long.ConclusionsOverall the results make clear that changes in (visual) attention play a key role in unwanted effects. Consequences of the results for Wegner's [(1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101, 34–52] theory of ironic processes are discussed.
ObjectiveThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of regular aerobic exercise on self-reported positive-activated affect (PAA). Samples from 105 studies (1980–2008) were included yielding 370 effect sizes (ESs) and 9840 participants.MethodStudies were coded for the following moderators: baseline affect, exercise frequency, intensity, time, program duration, exercise dose, study quality, and study source. The analysis employed multiple measures of affect and corrected for statistical artifacts using the meta-analytical methods of
 and .ResultsThe overall mean corrected and standard deviation (SDcorr) were .57 and .48, respectively. Two clear moderator effects were found: the inverse association between baseline PAA and ES and the positive association between study quality and ES. The effect also varied with exercise frequency (positive relation) and exercise intensity (negative relation). Exercise dose was only a weak moderator, but the results indicate the following aerobic exercise program as optimal for improving PAA: low intensity (∼30% VO2R), 30–35 min, 3–5 days/wk for 10–12 weeks. Similar effects were found for published and unpublished studies (source). Control conditions produced little change in .ConclusionRegular aerobic exercise results in moderate increases in self-reported PAA, but the effects vary by baseline affect and study quality. Exercise-related variables produced weaker moderating effects. PAA was unchanged for control conditions. A more comprehensive understanding of exercise-related affect will emerge when researchers examine the interaction of acute and chronic responses.
ObjectiveThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of acute aerobic exercise on self-reported positive-activated affect (PAA). Samples from 158 studies from 1979 to 2005 were included yielding 450 independent effect sizes (ESs) and a sample size of 13,101.MethodStudies were coded for moderators related to assessment time, exercise variables such as intensity, duration, and dose (combination of intensity and duration), and design characteristics. The analysis considered multiple measures of affect and corrected for statistical artifacts using Hunter and Schmidt [(1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park: Sage; (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage] meta-analytic methods.ResultsThe overall estimated mean corrected ES () and standard deviation (SDcorr) were .47 and .37, respectively. Effects were consistently positive (a) immediately post-exercise, (b) when pre-exercise PAA was lower than average, (c) for low intensity exercise <15–39% oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2R), (d) for durations up to 35 min, and (e) for low to moderate exercise doses. The effects of aerobic exercise on PAA appear to last for at least 30 min after exercise before returning to baseline. Dose results suggest the presence of distinct zones of affective change that more accurately reflect post-exercise PAA responses than intensity or duration alone. Control conditions were associated with reductions in PAA (, SDcorr=.25).ConclusionThe typical acute bout of aerobic exercise produces increases in self-reported PAA, whereas the typical control condition produces decreases. However, large SDcorr values suggest that additional variables, possibly related to individual differences, further moderate the effects of exercise on PAA.