Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial group or socioeconomic status (SES). Five hundred eighty-one girls completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) and the Body Image Measure (BIM). Results showed that 11% of the sample scored in the Anorexic range at age 9 and about 7% at age 10. When examining body image, 35% of the sample at age 9 and 38% at age 10 selected Ideal Figures that were smaller than their Real Figures on the BIM. There was a significant difference between the racial groups in their reports of eating disturbance, but not body image dissatisfaction. Specifically, the Minority group had higher eating disturbance scores on average at ages 9 and 10 when compared to the White group. SES did not account for eating disturbance or body image dissatisfaction. These results challenge the maxim that eating disturbance and body image dissatisfaction occur primarily in White females from middle and upper SES populations.
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control intervention, F(1,60) = 9.43, p<.01 and F(1,98) = 20.98, p<.01, respectively. Several significant relationships between measures of self-concept and binge eating symptoms were noted, with lower self-concept scores related to higher binge eating symptoms scores at baseline. Changes in binge eating symptoms were also related to changes in physical appearance self-concept, global self-concept and physical self-worth at the end of the intervention. In conclusion, findings from this study support an emerging body of evidence suggesting that dietary restriction, as practiced through participation in a weight control intervention, leads to a reduction in binge eating symptoms among overweight adolescents.
The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief, well-validated parent-report questionnaire designed to detect psychosocial dysfunction in school-age children during pediatric primary care visits. This study assessed the utility of the PSC when completed by children (PSC-Y) ages 9-14 in a public school when parents are not available (n = 173). The PSC-Y identified 20% of children as having psychosocial problems, a rate similar to other low-income samples. When compared with teacher ratings of attention and behavior problems, the PSC-Y showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 88%. The PSC-Y correlated significantly with teacher and parent measures of child dysfunction, and with child-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Three quarters of the children identified by the PSC-Y were not identified by parents on the PSC. These children had impairment on all other measures, but fewer than one in five had received mental health services, suggesting the PSC-Y identified children with unmet mental health needs. The PSC-Y has the potential to be a rapid, easily administered tool for large-scale mental health screening in schools.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether students retained in first grade, relative to similarly low achieving students who were promoted, differed in the number of remedial educational services received by students in the year pre- retention year and in the repeat year. Study participants were 769 relatively low achieving first grade students, of whom 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Controlling for students' conditional probability of being retained, based on propensity scores calculated prior to retention, retained students received the same number of services as promoted students during the pre-retention year. The following year, when retained students were in first grade and promoted students were in second grade, retained students received fewer services than promoted students. Furthermore, retained children had a larger decrease in services from year 1 to year 2. These data support the notion that grade retention is being employed as the primary intervention instead of a component of a more comprehensive remediation plan.
Rates of childhood overweight have reached epidemic proportions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), and schools have been called on to play a role in the prevention of this medical condition. This article describes a multiyear health promotion effort-the Athletes in Service fruit and vegetable (F&V) promotion program-which is based on social learning theory for urban, elementary school children in kindergarten through third grade. Children participate in the program for a period of 3 years. The goals of the program are to increase opportunities for children to be more physically active during the school day and to help students increase their F&V consumption. This article describes the F&V promotion components of the program that were implemented in year 1, including implementation integrity and treatment acceptability data. Year 1 evaluation data demonstrated that the program is acceptable from the perspective of school staff and was implemented by school staff with high levels of integrity. Hallmarks of the program's successful implementation and high acceptability include (a) having a school-based program champion; (b) designing the program to include low-cost, attractive, interactive materials; (c) including many school staff members to facilitate a culture of healthy eating in the school; and (d) spreading out implementation responsibilities among the multiple staff members so that each individual's involvement is time efficient.
Despite being under challenge for the past 50 years, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) remains dominant in the scientific field for want of viable alternatives. NHST, along with its significance level p, is inadequate for most of the uses to which it is put, a flaw that is of particular interest to educational practitioners who too often must use it to sanctify their research. In this article, we review the failure of NHST and propose p(rep), the probability of replicating an effect, as a more useful statistic for evaluating research and aiding practical decision making.
School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at risk for developing disruptive behavior problems (n = 186) and a universal sample (n = 531) from 20 schools. Most SDRs were given for physical aggression and the predominant consequence was time out. As expected, boys and at-risk students were more likely to receive an SDR and to have more SDRs than were girls and the universal sample. A large difference between schools regarding the delivery of SDRs was found. A zero-inflated Poisson model clustered by school tested the prediction of school-level variables. Students in schools that had a systematic way of tracking SDRs were more likely to receive one. Also, schools with more low-income students and larger class sizes gave fewer SDRs. SDRs predicted teacher ratings, and to a lesser extent, parent ratings of disruptive behavior at the end of first grade. Practitioners and researchers must examine school-level influences whenever first grade discipline referrals are used to measure problem behavior for the purpose of planning and evaluating interventions.
The research on Response to Intervention (RtI) with secondary students is scant; however, a recently conducted, multiyear, large-scale implementation of RtI with middle-school students provides findings that inform practices and future directions for research. This article provides an overview of the findings from each of the 3 years of an intensive, tiered reading intervention with middle-school students. In Year 1, students were provided with a Tier 1 and Tier 2 intervention. In Year 2, minimal responders were provided with another year of intervention (Tier 3), and again in Year 3, minimal responders to the 2-year intervention were provided with a third year of intervention (Tier 4). Using students' responsiveness to intervention as a prerequisite for a subsequent year of intensive instruction, minimal responders received a total of up to 3 years of intervention. The efficacy of an enhanced primary (Tier 1), secondary (Tier 2), and tertiary (Tier 3) intervention, and an individualized, intensive reading intervention (Tier 4) are discussed, as well as the logistics of implementing an RtI model with secondary students.
School psychology certification implies limited opportunities in so far as it provides for a narrow age range and functioning within a public school setting. Child psychology as a professional model should encompass school psychology training, but broaden its scope to include children of all ages from infancy to adolescence. The school system is only a part of the broader alliance of agencies and institutions servicing the needs of children. The psychologist as a behavioral scientist should not be identified with institutions, but primarily with the subject matter of his training and concern, the child.
Reviews the research use of the WISC with special emphasis on validity studies. In addition, the application of the WISC to ethnic populations and its use in special education are examined. (210 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This report is a review of reliability data on the PPVT obtained from 32 research studies published between 1965 and 1974. Much of the research was done on Head Start children. Overall, the median of reliability coefficients reported here (0.72) has remained remarkably close to the original median of 0.77 found in standardizing the test. Unexpectedly, elapsed time between test and retest had only a slight effect on the reliability coefficients. However, as expected, the greater range in ages and ability levels of subjects, the higher were the reliabilities. For average children in the elementary grades, and for retarded people of all ages, PPVT scores remained relatively stable over time and there was close equivalence between alternate forms. Scores were least stable for preschool children, especially from minority groups. Black preschool girls were more variable in their performance on the PPVT than boys, and preschool girls generally were more responsive than boys to play periods conducted before testing was begun. A number of variables associated with examiners and setting affected the scores on the test. As expected, raw scores tended to yield slightly higher reliabilities than MA and considerably higher reliabilities than IQ scores.
Reviews 11 yrs of published research on the use of the Bender Gestalt Test with school-age children. Most studies viewed the test as a psychometric instrument that is scored according to standardized procedures. The research, however, does not conclusively support the use of the test for prediction of school achievement. Nor does it offer any substantial support for individual diagnosis of neurological impairment or emotional disturbance. Test scores from group and individual administration appear equivalent. Deprived and minority group performance has differed significantly from the Koppitz norms in a number of studies and bears further investigation. (4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A group of 80 mentally retarded youngsters, aged 6 to 16, was tested on the WISC-R, primarily to assess the continuity of measurement between the old and new WISCs. The WISC-R IQs correlated .65 to .82 with Stanford-Binet IQ for a subsample of 45 children, resembling the coefficients between the 1949 WISC and the Binet for retarded groups. In addition, the WISC-R test profiles for the 80 children corresponded closely to the WISC test profiles for many retarded samples. Thus, there was evidence to support the continuity of the WISC-R with its predecessor for retarded populations.
This paper compares the 1972 Norms Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Form LM, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Revised (1974), from a practitioner's viewpoint The strengths and weaknesses of each instrument are explored in relation to (a) standardization data given in the manuals, (b) ease of administration and interpretation, (c) age-range limitations and finally, (d) the utility of both instruments as aids in prediction of academic success.
The United States Congress has mandated that state and educational agencies make available to all handicapped children a free appropriate education. The purpose of this legislation has been primarily to protect the rights of handicapped children and their parents. The present paper discusses identification and evaluation guidelines that have been promulgated under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Procedures for Individual Education Programs that are in accordance with federal legislation are delineated. To satisfy federal mandates concerning the placement of handicapped children, public school systems are required to utilize a least restrictive environment, whereby complete segregation of handicapped from nonhandicapped children is prohibited. In further accordance with this legislation, either the parent or public agency may initiate a hearing for the purpose of challenging the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child.
Examined the institutional affiliations of authors who have published in the major journals of school psychology between January, 1985 and July, 1991. The specific journals examined were
Psychology in the Schools, Journal of School Psychology, School Psychology Review, Professional School Psychology, and the
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. The most frequent contributors were the University of Nebraska, Louisiana State University, Texas A&M University, the University of Texas, and Memphis State University. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The roles and functions of 52 school psychologists from Iowa and Tennessee were examined. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test differences between reported time spent on prereferral, assessment, intervention, consultation, and curriculum-based assessment. Significant differences were found for the time spent in all areas. A second one-way MANOVA was used to test the differences between the two groups in reported actual time spent and desired time spent. A significant difference was found for consultation. A third MANOVA was utilized to test the differences between the two groups' desired time spent on the five variables. A significant difference was found for curriculum-based assessment. The results suggest that school psychologists in Tennessee and Iowa occupy different roles. School psychologists in Tennessee reported spending the majority of their time on assessment activities, whereas the Iowa sample balances their time between the five functions. The Iowa role exemplifies alternative functions for school psychologists. The Tennessee role is oriented more toward the refer, test, place model.
Two sets of transformations were made in scoring WISC-R Information, Block Design, Comprehension, Picture Arrangement, and Coding subscales in order to estimate the FSIQ of 100 ED children beginning day psychiatric treatment. One set was derived by Kennedy and Elder (1982) (FSIQ-KE) from a sample of 400 children referred for psychological evaluation by a large, urban southern public school district. The other set was developed from the same five subscale scores of the present ED sample (FSIQ-ED). FSIQ-KE scores and FSIQ-ED scores were then compared to FSIQ scores computed according to the standard procedure including all 10 subscales, using paired t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found between the mean FSIQ scores on the short and long forms of the WISC-R. Correlation coefficients were highly significant, ranging from .958 to .997. Furthermore, only one child shifted IQ classifications when using the short forms. Thus, both FSIQ-KE and FSIQ-ED formulations provided cost-effective, time-saving estimates of the general intellectual performance of ED children beginning day psychiatric treatment.
The completed WISC-Rs of 76 white urban children (6–0 to 15–9) were rescored utilizing the Satz and Mogel criteria for an abbreviated intelligence measure. Extremely high correlations for IQs (.96 – .98) and subtests (.66 – .95) were found. However, when mean differences between complete WISC-R and the shortened form were examined, significant differences between administrations were found. Furthermore, one-third of the subjects showed changes in intelligence classification levels when the abbreviated form was used. Thus, two of the three criteria previously suggested for a valid abbreviated intelligence test of: (a) a significantly high correlation between administration forms; (b) nonsignificant t-tests between the abbreviated and standard form mean IQ; and (c) low percentage of IQ classification change with the administration of the short form, were not met. It was concluded, however, that the abbreviated WISC-R may be appropriate when intelligence is a question relative to candidacy for therapy or as a noncritical, general indication of intelligence when IQ classification is not important and/or assessment time is limited.
This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of the California Abbreviated WISC—Form 1 (CAW-1) for use with WISC-R subtests. Subjects were drawn from the files of previously evaluated students from two southern mountain communities. Examination of WISC records within the age and IQ ranges of the CAW-1 (CA 8-0 to 13-6, IQ 50 to 80) indicated that our sample was not significantly different from the CAW-1 noim group (N = 148, r = .85 between CAW-1 & WISC Full Scale IQ). WISC-R recods (N = 178) for the same ranges were examined and were found to be more highly predictive of Full Scale IQs (r = .91, FSIQ = .98 CAWIQ + 2.2). Extensions of the age range from 6-0 to 16-11 and of the IQ range from 40 to 100 were attempted. Final results (N = 284) indicated the CAW-1 could be used with the WISC-R over the full age range and for IQs ⩽ 100 with minor alteration (r = .96, FSIQ = 1.09 CAWIQ - 5.4). The second sample served for cross validation of these results. Using the alteration, results were consistent with original findings (N = 202, r = .93, FSIQ = .98 CAWIQ + 2.2). It was concluded that the CAW-1 was suitable for use with WISC-R subtests with minor alterations.
Eighty practitioners with varying levels of experience in the administration of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) were asked to complete a K-ABC Abilities Matrix to indicate their perceptions of the specific abilities assessed by each of the ten K-ABC Mental Processing subtests. The practitioners' responses were compared to the perceptions of the K-ABC authors, and, in roughly half of the judgements, a majority of the practitioners agreed with the test authors, while the remaining judgements constituted majority disagreements. The practitioners associated additional psychoeducational abilities or skills, that had not been identified previously by the K-ABC authors, with several of the K-ABC subtests.
The aim of this investigation was to examine normal (N = 34), learning disabled (N = 34), and borderline mentally retarded (N = 33) children's performance on the WISC-R and K-ABC. Results revealed no significant differences between the WISC-R Full Scale IQ and K-ABC Mental Processing Composite by group (F = 0.7, p > .15). The Full Scale IQ and Mental Processing Composite standard score correlated .85 for the entire sample, and all other subscale correlations ranged from .65 to .90 (all significant at p < .001). Analysis of Verbal-Performance, Mental Processing-Achievement, and Simultaneous-Sequential discrepancy means by group revealed no significant differences in comparison to normative values. Subtest patterns analysis revealed high rank order correlations between the learning disabled and mentally retarded groups, but lower correlations between the exceptional and normal groups. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Convergent and discriminant validity of the Mental Processing Scales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) were examined using 51 first-grade children. Convergent validity was assessed using the Reading Recognition and Comprehension subtests of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Discriminant validity was assessed using a measure of anxiety/self-esteem, the Child Anxiety Scale, and a measure of hyperactive behavior, the Hyperactivity scale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. Results supported the convergent validity of the K-ABC; correlations with reading achievement were fairly large. The discriminant validity received only partial support. The K-ABC did not correlate with the Child Anxiety Scale, but did show rather large correlations with the measure of hyperactive behavior. Implications for understanding what the K-ABC Mental Processing Scales are measuring are discussed.
This study assessed the degree of comparability between the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (McCarthy) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) for 51 “at-risk” (Low Birthweight, Head Start, and Developmentally Delayed) and 33 “normal” preschool children. The K-ABC Mental Processing Composite (MPC) and McCarthy General Cognitive Index (GCI) correlated significantly for both groups, but was significantly greater for the at-risk preschoolers. The at-risk group achieved a significantly higher mean MPC than GCI, while the normal comparison subjects achieved a slightly lower mean MPC. As reflected in previous studies, the GCI seems to provide an accurate estimate of the at-risk child's typical classroom performance. While the MPC may afford an estimate of such children's capacity for academic growth, if provided appropriately tailored remediation, it may also be missing critical aspects of children's cognitive functioning. Mean score discrepancies for at-risk preschoolers were discussed in relation to the theoretical and psychometric properties of the K-ABC and McCarthy.
Little literature addresses the difficulty of conducting an unbiased assessment of youngsters whose second language is English but who are conversational in English and no longer qualify for English as a Second Language services. Academic difficulty frequently persists, although the children appear functional in English. The use of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) is discussed in relation to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale as a second measure of cognitive ability for youngsters of various linguistic backgrounds. In the cases presented, the use of the K-ABC illustrated that the youngsters had higher cognitive ability than was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), which in turn guided educational decisions. Additionally, the utility of the K-ABC for assessing youngsters from linguistic backgrounds that may not be adequately represented in the norm sample is suggested. Implications for school psychology practice are discussed.