Psychology in the Schools

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1520-6807
Publications
Article
Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial group or socioeconomic status (SES). Five hundred eighty-one girls completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) and the Body Image Measure (BIM). Results showed that 11% of the sample scored in the Anorexic range at age 9 and about 7% at age 10. When examining body image, 35% of the sample at age 9 and 38% at age 10 selected Ideal Figures that were smaller than their Real Figures on the BIM. There was a significant difference between the racial groups in their reports of eating disturbance, but not body image dissatisfaction. Specifically, the Minority group had higher eating disturbance scores on average at ages 9 and 10 when compared to the White group. SES did not account for eating disturbance or body image dissatisfaction. These results challenge the maxim that eating disturbance and body image dissatisfaction occur primarily in White females from middle and upper SES populations.
 
Article
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
 
Article
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control intervention, F(1,60) = 9.43, p<.01 and F(1,98) = 20.98, p<.01, respectively. Several significant relationships between measures of self-concept and binge eating symptoms were noted, with lower self-concept scores related to higher binge eating symptoms scores at baseline. Changes in binge eating symptoms were also related to changes in physical appearance self-concept, global self-concept and physical self-worth at the end of the intervention. In conclusion, findings from this study support an emerging body of evidence suggesting that dietary restriction, as practiced through participation in a weight control intervention, leads to a reduction in binge eating symptoms among overweight adolescents.
 
Article
The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief, well-validated parent-report questionnaire designed to detect psychosocial dysfunction in school-age children during pediatric primary care visits. This study assessed the utility of the PSC when completed by children (PSC-Y) ages 9-14 in a public school when parents are not available (n = 173). The PSC-Y identified 20% of children as having psychosocial problems, a rate similar to other low-income samples. When compared with teacher ratings of attention and behavior problems, the PSC-Y showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 88%. The PSC-Y correlated significantly with teacher and parent measures of child dysfunction, and with child-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Three quarters of the children identified by the PSC-Y were not identified by parents on the PSC. These children had impairment on all other measures, but fewer than one in five had received mental health services, suggesting the PSC-Y identified children with unmet mental health needs. The PSC-Y has the potential to be a rapid, easily administered tool for large-scale mental health screening in schools.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether students retained in first grade, relative to similarly low achieving students who were promoted, differed in the number of remedial educational services received by students in the year pre- retention year and in the repeat year. Study participants were 769 relatively low achieving first grade students, of whom 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Controlling for students' conditional probability of being retained, based on propensity scores calculated prior to retention, retained students received the same number of services as promoted students during the pre-retention year. The following year, when retained students were in first grade and promoted students were in second grade, retained students received fewer services than promoted students. Furthermore, retained children had a larger decrease in services from year 1 to year 2. These data support the notion that grade retention is being employed as the primary intervention instead of a component of a more comprehensive remediation plan.
 
Article
Rates of childhood overweight have reached epidemic proportions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), and schools have been called on to play a role in the prevention of this medical condition. This article describes a multiyear health promotion effort-the Athletes in Service fruit and vegetable (F&V) promotion program-which is based on social learning theory for urban, elementary school children in kindergarten through third grade. Children participate in the program for a period of 3 years. The goals of the program are to increase opportunities for children to be more physically active during the school day and to help students increase their F&V consumption. This article describes the F&V promotion components of the program that were implemented in year 1, including implementation integrity and treatment acceptability data. Year 1 evaluation data demonstrated that the program is acceptable from the perspective of school staff and was implemented by school staff with high levels of integrity. Hallmarks of the program's successful implementation and high acceptability include (a) having a school-based program champion; (b) designing the program to include low-cost, attractive, interactive materials; (c) including many school staff members to facilitate a culture of healthy eating in the school; and (d) spreading out implementation responsibilities among the multiple staff members so that each individual's involvement is time efficient.
 
The shaded areas in these panels show the following: (A) probability ( p) of obtaining an effect larger than d 1 ' under a null distribution. (B) Probability of obtaining an effect larger than zero (the probability of replication, or PR) under the true normal distribution of effects with mean ; d 1 ' is a sample from this distribution, with sampling error 1. (C) Estimate of PR ( p rep ) under the distribution of effects estimated from d 1 '. (D) Estimate of the probability of a replication having an effect size greater than criterion d s ' . 
Article
Despite being under challenge for the past 50 years, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) remains dominant in the scientific field for want of viable alternatives. NHST, along with its significance level p, is inadequate for most of the uses to which it is put, a flaw that is of particular interest to educational practitioners who too often must use it to sanctify their research. In this article, we review the failure of NHST and propose p(rep), the probability of replicating an effect, as a more useful statistic for evaluating research and aiding practical decision making.
 
Article
School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at risk for developing disruptive behavior problems (n = 186) and a universal sample (n = 531) from 20 schools. Most SDRs were given for physical aggression and the predominant consequence was time out. As expected, boys and at-risk students were more likely to receive an SDR and to have more SDRs than were girls and the universal sample. A large difference between schools regarding the delivery of SDRs was found. A zero-inflated Poisson model clustered by school tested the prediction of school-level variables. Students in schools that had a systematic way of tracking SDRs were more likely to receive one. Also, schools with more low-income students and larger class sizes gave fewer SDRs. SDRs predicted teacher ratings, and to a lesser extent, parent ratings of disruptive behavior at the end of first grade. Practitioners and researchers must examine school-level influences whenever first grade discipline referrals are used to measure problem behavior for the purpose of planning and evaluating interventions.
 
Article
The research on Response to Intervention (RtI) with secondary students is scant; however, a recently conducted, multiyear, large-scale implementation of RtI with middle-school students provides findings that inform practices and future directions for research. This article provides an overview of the findings from each of the 3 years of an intensive, tiered reading intervention with middle-school students. In Year 1, students were provided with a Tier 1 and Tier 2 intervention. In Year 2, minimal responders were provided with another year of intervention (Tier 3), and again in Year 3, minimal responders to the 2-year intervention were provided with a third year of intervention (Tier 4). Using students' responsiveness to intervention as a prerequisite for a subsequent year of intensive instruction, minimal responders received a total of up to 3 years of intervention. The efficacy of an enhanced primary (Tier 1), secondary (Tier 2), and tertiary (Tier 3) intervention, and an individualized, intensive reading intervention (Tier 4) are discussed, as well as the logistics of implementing an RtI model with secondary students.
 
Article
This article reviews research related to intensive interventions within a Response to Intervention framework. We review the research from studies that provided different levels of intensity of intervention with the goal of establishing a case that movement through less intensive tiers of intervention may not be an effective and responsible approach to addressing the reading difficulties of some students, particularly those with significant reading difficulties or disabilities. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Implicit within a perspective of positive psychology is the assumption that environments can be promoted to foster individual strengths through a preventative focus and the development of positive institutions. Given that the development of positive institutions has direct implications for school psychology, this paper begins to draw attention to the potential of positive psychology within school systems. Throughout the paper, it is suggested that a focus on schools may serve as the nexus between the movement in positive psychology searching to promote positive human development and the institutions that could serve as the vehicle for this development. Historic and emerging trends are examined, with particular attention to how positive psychology could promote the development of positive schools (institutions) that foster success for all students. Specifically, the parallel histories of discontent with deficit-oriented practice in the fields of mental health and school psychology are reviewed, and precursors to building and maintaining positive institutions that focus on working within the existing system to promote lasting change are explored. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 41: 101–110, 2004.
 
Article
School psychology certification implies limited opportunities in so far as it provides for a narrow age range and functioning within a public school setting. Child psychology as a professional model should encompass school psychology training, but broaden its scope to include children of all ages from infancy to adolescence. The school system is only a part of the broader alliance of agencies and institutions servicing the needs of children. The psychologist as a behavioral scientist should not be identified with institutions, but primarily with the subject matter of his training and concern, the child.
 
Article
The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents revealed (1) a somewhat different AMPS factor structure than has been evident in studies of younger children; (2) no significant mean differences between boys and girls on perfectionism, although girls were significantly more depressed than boys; (3) a pattern of perfectionism-depression correlations that differed somewhat between boys and girls; and (4) several interactions of different dimensions of perfectionism in accounting for depression. Results are discussed by addressing differences between children and adolescents in school cultures, physical and psychological changes from childhood to adolescence, and the importance of considering the positive as well as the negative aspects of perfectionism among school-age children. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 139–156, 2007.
 
Article
The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and the consistency of measurement across ages. The purposes of this research were to determine whether the DAS-II measures the CHC abilities it is designed to measure and whether it does so consistently across the 4 to 17 year age span. We analyzed competing higher-order CFA models using 800 participants, ages 5 through 8, from the DAS-II standardization. The final validation model from this series of analyses tested for factor invariance across the 4 to 17 year age span by using a reference variable approach. Our findings supported the DAS-II's intended structure, with minor exceptions. Findings also supported the invariance of the DAS-II CHC model across the 4 to 17 year age span, again with minor exceptions. Despite the use of different tests at different ages, the DAS-II measures a consistent set of CHC abilities across the ages: g, Gc, Gf, Gv, Gsm, Gs, and a narrow Glr ability; psychologists should interpret the DAS-II as measuring these abilities. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 (CBCL/4–18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K–7. Results from correlational and multiple regression analyses showed that the Aggressive Behaviors and Attention Problems cross-informant syndromes were modestly associated with social desirability scale scores. The relevance of findings are discussed in terms of the susceptibility of behavior rating scales to the self-deception and other-deception factors of social desirability [Paulhus, D.L. (1984). In: J.P. Robinson et al., (eds.) Measures of social psychological attitudes. (pp. 17–59). San Diego: Academic Press.] and fake-good response sets. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 40: 225–235, 2003.
 
Article
Reviews the research use of the WISC with special emphasis on validity studies. In addition, the application of the WISC to ethnic populations and its use in special education are examined. (210 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This report is a review of reliability data on the PPVT obtained from 32 research studies published between 1965 and 1974. Much of the research was done on Head Start children. Overall, the median of reliability coefficients reported here (0.72) has remained remarkably close to the original median of 0.77 found in standardizing the test. Unexpectedly, elapsed time between test and retest had only a slight effect on the reliability coefficients. However, as expected, the greater range in ages and ability levels of subjects, the higher were the reliabilities. For average children in the elementary grades, and for retarded people of all ages, PPVT scores remained relatively stable over time and there was close equivalence between alternate forms. Scores were least stable for preschool children, especially from minority groups. Black preschool girls were more variable in their performance on the PPVT than boys, and preschool girls generally were more responsive than boys to play periods conducted before testing was begun. A number of variables associated with examiners and setting affected the scores on the test. As expected, raw scores tended to yield slightly higher reliabilities than MA and considerably higher reliabilities than IQ scores.
 
Article
Reviews 11 yrs of published research on the use of the Bender Gestalt Test with school-age children. Most studies viewed the test as a psychometric instrument that is scored according to standardized procedures. The research, however, does not conclusively support the use of the test for prediction of school achievement. Nor does it offer any substantial support for individual diagnosis of neurological impairment or emotional disturbance. Test scores from group and individual administration appear equivalent. Deprived and minority group performance has differed significantly from the Koppitz norms in a number of studies and bears further investigation. (4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A group of 80 mentally retarded youngsters, aged 6 to 16, was tested on the WISC-R, primarily to assess the continuity of measurement between the old and new WISCs. The WISC-R IQs correlated .65 to .82 with Stanford-Binet IQ for a subsample of 45 children, resembling the coefficients between the 1949 WISC and the Binet for retarded groups. In addition, the WISC-R test profiles for the 80 children corresponded closely to the WISC test profiles for many retarded samples. Thus, there was evidence to support the continuity of the WISC-R with its predecessor for retarded populations.
 
Article
This paper compares the 1972 Norms Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Form LM, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Revised (1974), from a practitioner's viewpoint The strengths and weaknesses of each instrument are explored in relation to (a) standardization data given in the manuals, (b) ease of administration and interpretation, (c) age-range limitations and finally, (d) the utility of both instruments as aids in prediction of academic success.
 
Article
The United States Congress has mandated that state and educational agencies make available to all handicapped children a free appropriate education. The purpose of this legislation has been primarily to protect the rights of handicapped children and their parents. The present paper discusses identification and evaluation guidelines that have been promulgated under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Procedures for Individual Education Programs that are in accordance with federal legislation are delineated. To satisfy federal mandates concerning the placement of handicapped children, public school systems are required to utilize a least restrictive environment, whereby complete segregation of handicapped from nonhandicapped children is prohibited. In further accordance with this legislation, either the parent or public agency may initiate a hearing for the purpose of challenging the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child.
 
Article
Examined the institutional affiliations of authors who have published in the major journals of school psychology between January, 1985 and July, 1991. The specific journals examined were Psychology in the Schools, Journal of School Psychology, School Psychology Review, Professional School Psychology, and the Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. The most frequent contributors were the University of Nebraska, Louisiana State University, Texas A&M University, the University of Texas, and Memphis State University. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This study is an extension of an initial study conducted by Wiese Rogers in 1992 that examined the diversity literature in school psychology journals. The purpose of this study was to review all research published in four major school psychology journals during the decade of the 90s for diversity content to determine if there had been an increase. Results indicated that 10.6% of the articles have diversity as a focus, a slight increase over Wiese Rogers's findings. Assessment continues to be the area that has the greatest number of diversity articles. Six reasons are proposed for the continued gap in the literature base. Implications for the field of school psychology and suggestions for increasing diversity articles are provided. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The roles and functions of 52 school psychologists from Iowa and Tennessee were examined. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test differences between reported time spent on prereferral, assessment, intervention, consultation, and curriculum-based assessment. Significant differences were found for the time spent in all areas. A second one-way MANOVA was used to test the differences between the two groups in reported actual time spent and desired time spent. A significant difference was found for consultation. A third MANOVA was utilized to test the differences between the two groups' desired time spent on the five variables. A significant difference was found for curriculum-based assessment. The results suggest that school psychologists in Tennessee and Iowa occupy different roles. School psychologists in Tennessee reported spending the majority of their time on assessment activities, whereas the Iowa sample balances their time between the five functions. The Iowa role exemplifies alternative functions for school psychologists. The Tennessee role is oriented more toward the refer, test, place model.
 
Article
This article reviews research in the four major school psychology journals: Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Quarterly, and School Psychology Review. The function of the review was to provide school psychologists with a summary of academic interventions published through years 1995–2005, synthesize the commonalities of empirically based interventions, and report on the extent to which each article provides the reader the opportunity to understand the effects of the intervention with regard to the amount of instructional time required to implement it. Results of the review suggest that reading is most heavily investigated followed by math and, to a much lesser degree, written expression. Moreover, studies use a variety of designs including single subject and group designs. Finally, it is clear that a limited number of studies evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention with regard to the amount of instructional time needed to implement the intervention. In light of these findings and in addition to the two major functions of the review, recommendations for practice and future research are presented. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
An erratum has been published for this article in Psychology in the Schools 43(7) 2006, iii-vi. []. S.G. Little (1997) reported the top contributors to the school psychology literature from 1987 to 1995. The present study represents a follow-up by examining the top contributors from 1996 to 2005. Similar to Little, a list of the top 50 contributors was developed using a point system that assigned more credit based on fewer coauthors and higher authorship placement. Expanding upon the Little study, we also computed a list of the top 50 contributors in terms of number of articles authored, thus facilitating a comparison of the two methods. Melissa Bray ranked first on both lists. The top 10 authors in terms of articles also were ranked in the top 13 in terms of points. Thus, for the most productive authors, choice of criteria for ranking does not appear important; however, in terms of encouraging versus discouraging collaboration among researchers, criteria choice may be important. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 737–743, 2006.
 
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted on school-based interventions to reduce obesity in children. Sixty-six (k = 66, N = 31,059) comparisons from 40 published studies from 1997 through 2008 were included in analyses. Results indicated a significant effect for school-based interventions with an overall weighted effect size of r = .05. Several moderating factors were examined to explain the heterogeneity in study outcomes. Interventions that were universal (k = 37, r = .07), conducted in elementary schools (k = 41, r = .06), implemented collaboratively (k = 19, r = .12), primarily included children of Asian ethnicity (k = 5, r = .30), encouraged nutritional change (k = 28, r = .13), and sought to reduce sedentary behaviors (k = 17, r = .15) were identified as more successful in reducing students' obesity-related outcomes. Factors that resulted in negative effects for school-based programs included interventions of short duration (k = 11, r = −.04) and those that implemented system-wide changes in nutrition (k = 15, r = −.03). The variability in study effect sizes is discussed, and recommendations are made for future school-based interventions targeting children. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
School psychologists in the United States are not nearly as diverse demographically as the students they serve (T.K. Fagan & P.S. Wise, 2000). A.H. Miranda and P.B. Gutter (2002) investigated the number of diversity-related articles in four leading school psychology journals from 1990 to 1999 and found that there was an increase in the percentage of articles in these journals that were diversity related as compared to a study done by R.M. Wiese Rogers (1992) that examined school psychology journals from 1975 to 1990. There was a particular increase in diversity-related articles appearing from 1995 to 1999. The present study examined school psychology journals from 2000 to 2003 to determine whether this increase was an aberration or an indication of a longer term change. Results indicate a continued trend toward more diversity-related articles in the school psychology literature, but several gaps remain. Implications for the field are discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Primary and Secondary Authors: Article Types (Narrative and Empirical) by Author Affiliation (University Affiliated and Practitioner) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total
Article
Articles published between 2000 and 2008 in four major school psychology journals—School Psychology Review, Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, and School Psychology Quarterly—were classified based on type (empirical or narrative) and on the primary and secondary authors' affiliations. Results showed that more than 90% of the primary and secondary authors were university affiliated with little difference across article type. Although more than 85% of school psychologists are practitioners, these results suggest that their contributions to these school psychology journals are limited because they account for less than 10% of the authors of articles. Discussion focuses on practitioners' involvement in the research base that is intended to inform their professional behaviors. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Using an experimenter-developed system, articles from four school psychology journals for the years 2000–2005 (n = 929) were classified. Results showed that 40% of the articles were narrative, 29% correlational, 16% descriptive, 8% causal-experimental, 4% causal-comparative, and 2% were meta-analytic. Further analysis of the causal-experimental studies suggested that both single-subject and group designs were used to evaluate the effects of interventions delivered in schools (setting data) that improved students' (participant data) academic and/or social behaviors (target behavior data). Although results show that these journals are publishing few experimental studies, the experiments that are published appear to be derived from field-based research evaluating interventions that readers may find useful for remedying problems in school settings. Discussion focuses on factors that may limit experimental studies and recent trends in education and school psychology. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists negotiating ethical dilemmas in their work setting. This article provides an overview of the revisions in the code most applicable to school psychologists and a detailed analysis of three areas of the code: psychological assessment, the implications and application of the modifiers in the code that guide ethical decision making and correct conduct, and diversity issues. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 433–445, 2005.
 
Article
The 2002 Fulbright team, led by Zheng Zhou of St. John's University, consisted of 12 professionals in the fields of education, counseling psychology, and school psychology. Spending one month visiting elementary schools, universities, governmental bodies, hospitals, and private schools throughout China, the Fulbright team had an opportunity to observe educational systems and mental health services to children in multiple sites (Beijing, Kunming, Shanghai, and Suzhou). This article outlines the educational system currently utilized in China and explores the cultural factors and key variables that impact Asian children. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 233–239, 2005.
 
Article
The renewal, modification, and ratification of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA; 2004) produced a number of changes in legislation, particularly in the identification for children with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). In particular, the requirement that a child must evidence a severe discrepancy between intellectual functioning and academic performance has been modified to allow for a more flexible approach to SLD determination. The rules and regulations providing guidelines for implementation have yet to be completed, leaving many administrators and psychologists speculating on how to incorporate the recommendation that response to intervention (RTI) procedures be incorporated into their current protocols. Given the substantial anti-assessment lobbying by RTI proponents, it may appear that the law has changed significantly to the point that comprehensive assessments are not required to determine eligibility for any disabling condition, particularly SLDs. This article reviews historical trends influencing the current legislation, from the inception of the use of ability–achievement discrepancy, the misconceptions that ability–achievement discrepancy and comprehensive assessment are equivalent, and vilification of intellectual assessment to the powerful, inside lobbying forces. In conclusion, we address what the law really says about assessment and RTI, and how these two procedures need to be integrated as a best practice for children but also to adhere to the legislative mandate of IDEA. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 871–882, 2006.
 
Article
As school psychology enters the new millennium, policy makers are demanding that steps be taken to ensure the safety of schools. This article argues that school psychology should provide a primary leadership role in this initiative based on their professional training and expertise. Furthermore, the tensions created by social expectation to implement violence-prevention and intervention programs will provide the incentive and momentum for school psychology to redefine itself in the 21st century. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
Upon completing the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991) on a randomly selected child in their current classroom, teachers were surveyed about the approaches or strategies they used to formulate their ratings. In Phase 1, teachers identified eight rating strategies. In Phase 2, a new group of teachers indicated the extent to which they relied on the eight strategies. Rather than the two approaches hypothesized to be foremost, (“I compared the child to other children in the same classroom,” “I compared the child to other children of the same age”), teachers relied primarily on their “experience with the child in many different settings.” © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
Depression-based presentations constitute some of the most commonly seen psychiatric manifestations within the school-age population. In conjunction with increased numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with depressive symptomology over the past 2–3 decades, there has been seen a concurrent increase in the amount of antidepressant agents being prescribed within this group. This increase is largely related to the development of the newer class antidepressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, which have demonstrated preferred efficacy and adverse effect profiles over the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclics. This article discusses the primary differences between the various forms of antidepressants, including their utility and efficacy. Positive and negative impacts are also reviewed, including potential impact on schooling. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The task of medication monitoring in the schools has increased for school psychologists, yet there is little research specific to pediatric psychoactive medication. The current article reviews issues pertinent to school-based medication monitoring. Feasibility, acceptability, and perception of effectiveness are reviewed as fundamental considerations before implementing a medication-monitoring plan in the schools. The importance of individualization, ecological implementation, and development of socially valid objectives is stressed along with the need for additional research, tools, and measures in this area. Practical considerations for school psychologists include discussion of parental consent and confidentiality, multilevel assessment and monitoring, data recording, and determining clinical significance. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in Morton High School District 201, Cicero, IL, used a social ecological systems perspective to implement its goals. Social-emotional learning and violence-prevention strategies were provided at the levels of the community, school, and individual. Creation of a safe school environment cut across developmental levels from preschool through high school. Intervention activities were universal/preventive, school, and targeted/individual. Finally, the project sought to develop a consortium infrastructure to institutionalize and sustain integrated services. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 40: 549–563, 2003.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to highlight the complexities of treating eating disorders. It provides a theoretical framework for identification, diagnosis, and treatment of anorexia and bulimia.
 
Article
Two sets of transformations were made in scoring WISC-R Information, Block Design, Comprehension, Picture Arrangement, and Coding subscales in order to estimate the FSIQ of 100 ED children beginning day psychiatric treatment. One set was derived by Kennedy and Elder (1982) (FSIQ-KE) from a sample of 400 children referred for psychological evaluation by a large, urban southern public school district. The other set was developed from the same five subscale scores of the present ED sample (FSIQ-ED). FSIQ-KE scores and FSIQ-ED scores were then compared to FSIQ scores computed according to the standard procedure including all 10 subscales, using paired t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found between the mean FSIQ scores on the short and long forms of the WISC-R. Correlation coefficients were highly significant, ranging from .958 to .997. Furthermore, only one child shifted IQ classifications when using the short forms. Thus, both FSIQ-KE and FSIQ-ED formulations provided cost-effective, time-saving estimates of the general intellectual performance of ED children beginning day psychiatric treatment.
 
Article
The completed WISC-Rs of 76 white urban children (6–0 to 15–9) were rescored utilizing the Satz and Mogel criteria for an abbreviated intelligence measure. Extremely high correlations for IQs (.96 – .98) and subtests (.66 – .95) were found. However, when mean differences between complete WISC-R and the shortened form were examined, significant differences between administrations were found. Furthermore, one-third of the subjects showed changes in intelligence classification levels when the abbreviated form was used. Thus, two of the three criteria previously suggested for a valid abbreviated intelligence test of: (a) a significantly high correlation between administration forms; (b) nonsignificant t-tests between the abbreviated and standard form mean IQ; and (c) low percentage of IQ classification change with the administration of the short form, were not met. It was concluded, however, that the abbreviated WISC-R may be appropriate when intelligence is a question relative to candidacy for therapy or as a noncritical, general indication of intelligence when IQ classification is not important and/or assessment time is limited.
 
Article
This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of the California Abbreviated WISC—Form 1 (CAW-1) for use with WISC-R subtests. Subjects were drawn from the files of previously evaluated students from two southern mountain communities. Examination of WISC records within the age and IQ ranges of the CAW-1 (CA 8-0 to 13-6, IQ 50 to 80) indicated that our sample was not significantly different from the CAW-1 noim group (N = 148, r = .85 between CAW-1 & WISC Full Scale IQ). WISC-R recods (N = 178) for the same ranges were examined and were found to be more highly predictive of Full Scale IQs (r = .91, FSIQ = .98 CAWIQ + 2.2). Extensions of the age range from 6-0 to 16-11 and of the IQ range from 40 to 100 were attempted. Final results (N = 284) indicated the CAW-1 could be used with the WISC-R over the full age range and for IQs ⩽ 100 with minor alteration (r = .96, FSIQ = 1.09 CAWIQ - 5.4). The second sample served for cross validation of these results. Using the alteration, results were consistent with original findings (N = 202, r = .93, FSIQ = .98 CAWIQ + 2.2). It was concluded that the CAW-1 was suitable for use with WISC-R subtests with minor alterations.
 
Article
Eighty practitioners with varying levels of experience in the administration of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) were asked to complete a K-ABC Abilities Matrix to indicate their perceptions of the specific abilities assessed by each of the ten K-ABC Mental Processing subtests. The practitioners' responses were compared to the perceptions of the K-ABC authors, and, in roughly half of the judgements, a majority of the practitioners agreed with the test authors, while the remaining judgements constituted majority disagreements. The practitioners associated additional psychoeducational abilities or skills, that had not been identified previously by the K-ABC authors, with several of the K-ABC subtests.
 
Article
The aim of this investigation was to examine normal (N = 34), learning disabled (N = 34), and borderline mentally retarded (N = 33) children's performance on the WISC-R and K-ABC. Results revealed no significant differences between the WISC-R Full Scale IQ and K-ABC Mental Processing Composite by group (F = 0.7, p > .15). The Full Scale IQ and Mental Processing Composite standard score correlated .85 for the entire sample, and all other subscale correlations ranged from .65 to .90 (all significant at p < .001). Analysis of Verbal-Performance, Mental Processing-Achievement, and Simultaneous-Sequential discrepancy means by group revealed no significant differences in comparison to normative values. Subtest patterns analysis revealed high rank order correlations between the learning disabled and mentally retarded groups, but lower correlations between the exceptional and normal groups. Implications of these findings are discussed.
 
Article
Convergent and discriminant validity of the Mental Processing Scales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) were examined using 51 first-grade children. Convergent validity was assessed using the Reading Recognition and Comprehension subtests of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Discriminant validity was assessed using a measure of anxiety/self-esteem, the Child Anxiety Scale, and a measure of hyperactive behavior, the Hyperactivity scale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. Results supported the convergent validity of the K-ABC; correlations with reading achievement were fairly large. The discriminant validity received only partial support. The K-ABC did not correlate with the Child Anxiety Scale, but did show rather large correlations with the measure of hyperactive behavior. Implications for understanding what the K-ABC Mental Processing Scales are measuring are discussed.
 
Article
This study assessed the degree of comparability between the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (McCarthy) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) for 51 “at-risk” (Low Birthweight, Head Start, and Developmentally Delayed) and 33 “normal” preschool children. The K-ABC Mental Processing Composite (MPC) and McCarthy General Cognitive Index (GCI) correlated significantly for both groups, but was significantly greater for the at-risk preschoolers. The at-risk group achieved a significantly higher mean MPC than GCI, while the normal comparison subjects achieved a slightly lower mean MPC. As reflected in previous studies, the GCI seems to provide an accurate estimate of the at-risk child's typical classroom performance. While the MPC may afford an estimate of such children's capacity for academic growth, if provided appropriately tailored remediation, it may also be missing critical aspects of children's cognitive functioning. Mean score discrepancies for at-risk preschoolers were discussed in relation to the theoretical and psychometric properties of the K-ABC and McCarthy.
 
Article
Little literature addresses the difficulty of conducting an unbiased assessment of youngsters whose second language is English but who are conversational in English and no longer qualify for English as a Second Language services. Academic difficulty frequently persists, although the children appear functional in English. The use of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) is discussed in relation to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale as a second measure of cognitive ability for youngsters of various linguistic backgrounds. In the cases presented, the use of the K-ABC illustrated that the youngsters had higher cognitive ability than was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), which in turn guided educational decisions. Additionally, the utility of the K-ABC for assessing youngsters from linguistic backgrounds that may not be adequately represented in the norm sample is suggested. Implications for school psychology practice are discussed.
 
Top-cited authors
Carol Goodenow
Michael James Furlong
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
Sandra Christenson
  • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray
  • Northern Illinois University
Christine Malecki
  • Northern Illinois University