Psychological Review

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-1471
Print ISSN: 0033-295X
An hypothesis is proposed that there is in addition to primary and secondary needs, a third class that can be labeled "process" needs. 3 classes of experiments are reviewed each of which shows evidence that preliminary experience with goal stimuli affects performance (reaction potential): (1) experiments in which hungry animals are given small amounts of pre-feeding; (2) experiments in which animals are allowed to select from large or small units of food, and (3) experiments involving changes in the amount of food reinforcement. In all 3 types it appears that performance can be enhanced by suitable pre-test experience or that performance is a function of initial conditions involving commerce with goal stimuli.
An abstract theory of psychological data has been constructed for the purpose of organizing and systematizing the domain of psychological methodology. It is asserted that from the point of view of psychological measurement theories all behavioral observations satisfy, at the simplest level, each of three dichotomies, generating eight classes called octants which were organized into four quadrants. Any behavioral observations when mapped into data involve accepting a miniature behavioral theory implicit in the method used to analyze the data." (31 ref., brief glossary, appendix of axioms and definitions)
A number of definitions of visual form are proposed as prerequisite to any approach to the problem of form perception. There is no such thing as form-in-general. Outline drawings are not appropriate stimulus-objects with which to have studied form-perception. Three separate levels of theory may be required: how we perceive the surfaces of objects, how we perceive representations, and how we apprehend symbols. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Models of stereopsis have focused on developing strategies for identifying common features in the 2 half-images so that disparity may be computed. This emphasis ignores the unpairable features that arise at occluding contours (half-occlusions). Most models treat half-occlusions as noise or outliers that are interpreted after disparity processing is completed. A series of experiments reveal that occlusion relationships are sensed during the earliest stages of binocular processing. The authors hypothesize the existence of receptive field structures that sense the local structure of stereoscopic occlusion relationships to account for these findings. Finally, a simple theoretical framework is presented in which fusion, stereopsis, and occlusion are unified. This theory explains the co-occurrence of stereopsis and diplopia and how half-occlusions escape the suppression characteristic of binocular rivalry.
"Subitizing," the process of enumeration when there are fewer than 4 items, is rapid (40-100 ms/item), effortless, and accurate. "Counting," the process of enumeration when there are more than 4 items, is slow (250-350 ms/item), effortful, and error-prone. Why is there a difference in the way the small and large numbers of items are enumerated? A theory of enumeration is proposed that emerges from a general theory of vision, yet explains the numeric abilities of preverbal infants, children, and adults. We argue that subitizing exploits a limited-capacity parallel mechanism for item individuation, the FINST mechanism, associated with the multiple target tracking task (Pylyshyn, 1989; Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988). Two kinds of evidence support the claim that subitizing relies on preattentive information, whereas counting requires spatial attention. First, whenever spatial attention is needed to compute a spatial relation (cf. Ullman, 1984) or to perform feature integration (cf. Treisman & Gelade, 1980), subitizing does not occur (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993a). Second, the position of the attentional focus, as manipulated by cue validity, has a greater effect on counting than subitizing latencies (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993b).
Theories of cognition frequently assume the existence of inhibitory mechanisms that deactivate mental representations. Justifying this assumption is difficult because cognitive effects thought to reflect inhibition can often be explained without recourse to inhibitory processes. This article addresses the uncertain status of cognitive inhibitory mechanisms, focusing on their function in memory retrieval. On the basis of a novel form of forgetting reported herein, it is shown that classical associative theories of interference are insufficient as accounts of forgetting and that inhibitory processes must be at work. It is argued that inhibitory processes are used to resolve computational problems of selection common to memory retrieval and selective attention and that retrieval is best regarded as conceptually focused selective attention.
Affective processes can be objectively defined in terms of sign, hedonistic intensity, and duration. That they are real is evidenced by a study of food acceptance. They are basic to concepts of motivation and reinforcement. Some objective principles of experimental hedonism are suggested as a basis for future studies. (25 ref.) From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1CK04Y.
Bottom-up and top-down activation spreading in the MUSACT model after the presentation of a C-major chord. Top: Activated tone units send bottom-up activation to connected chord units (first cycle). Middle: Phasic activation spreads to key units and reverberates to tone units (second cycle). Bottom: Chord units receive activation from both key units and tone units (third cycle). From "MUSACT: A Connectionist Model of Musical Harmony," by J. J. Bharucha, 1987a, in Program of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 508-517, Figure 7, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Copyright 1987 by the Cognitive Science Society, Incorporated. Used by permission.
Asymmetries of Similarity Data and Activation Data 
Tonal music is a highly structured system that is ubiquitous in our cultural environment. We demonstrate the acquisition of implicit knowledge of tonal structure through neural self-organization resulting from mere exposure to simultaneous and sequential combinations of tones. In the process of learning, a network with fundamental neural constraints comes to internalize the essential correlational structure of tonal music. After learning, the network was run through a range of experiments from the literature. The model provides a parsimonious account of a variety of empirical findings dealing with the processing of tone, chord, and key relationships, including relatedness judgments, memory judgments, and expectancies. It also illustrates the plausibility of activation being a unifying mechanism underlying a range of cognitive tasks.
Quantitative theories with free parameters often gain credence when they closely fit data. This is a mistake. A good fit reveals nothing about the flexibility of the theory (how much it cannot fit), the variability of the data (how firmly the data rule out what the theory cannot fit), or the likelihood of other outcomes (perhaps the theory could have fit any plausible result), and a reader needs all 3 pieces of information to decide how much the fit should increase belief in the theory. The use of good fits as evidence is not supported by philosophers of science nor by the history of psychology; there seem to be no examples of a theory supported mainly by good fits that has led to demonstrable progress. A better way to test a theory with free parameters is to determine how the theory constrains possible outcomes (i.e., what it predicts), assess how firmly actual outcomes agree with those constraints, and determine if plausible alternative outcomes would have been inconsistent with the theory, allowing for the variability of the data.
Several theories of the development of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia have emerged in the last 2 decades. Early theories that proposed a role for classical conditioning were criticized on several grounds. However, each criticism can be met and rejected when one considers current perspectives on conditioning and associative learning. The authors propose that PD develops because exposure to panic attacks causes the conditioning of anxiety (and sometimes panic) to exteroceptive and interoceptive cues. This process is reflected in a variety of cognitive and behavioral phenomena but fundamentally involves emotional learning that is best accounted for by conditioning principles. Anxiety, an anticipatory emotional state that functions to prepare the individual for the next panic, is different from panic, an emotional state designed to deal with a traumatic event that is already in progress. However, the presence of conditioned anxiety potentiates the next panic, which begins the individual's spiral into PD. Several biological and psychological factors create vulnerabilities by influencing the individual's susceptibility to conditioning. The relationship between the present view and other views, particularly those that emphasize the role of catastrophic misinterpretation of somatic sensations, is discussed.
The time course of perceptual choice is discussed in a model of gradual, leaky, stochastic, and competitive information accumulation in nonlinear decision units. Special cases of the model match a classical diffusion process, but leakage and competition work together to address several challenges to existing diffusion, random walk, and accumulator models. The model accounts for data from choice tasks using both time-controlled (e.g., response signal) and standard reaction time paradigms and its adequacy compares favorably with other approaches. A new paradigm that controls the time of arrival of information supporting different choice alternatives provides further support. The model captures choice behavior regardless of the number of alternatives, accounting for the log-linear relation between reaction time and number of alternatives (Hick's law) and explains a complex pattern of visual and contextual priming in visual word identification.
The authors present a unified account of 2 neural systems concerned with the development and expression of adaptive behaviors: a mesencephalic dopamine system for reinforcement learning and a "generic" error-processing system associated with the anterior cingulate cortex. The existence of the error-processing system has been inferred from the error-related negativity (ERN), a component of the event-related brain potential elicited when human participants commit errors in reaction-time tasks. The authors propose that the ERN is generated when a negative reinforcement learning signal is conveyed to the anterior cingulate cortex via the mesencephalic dopamine system and that this signal is used by the anterior cingulate cortex to modify performance on the task at hand. They provide support for this proposal using both computational modeling and psychophysiological experimentation.
A theory of the self based on 5 cognitive substructures is described in preliminary form. The theory is called epistemogenesis because of reliance on cognitive structures. The substructures are: (1) somatic self, (2) receptor-effector self, (3) primitive construct self, (4) introjecting-extrojecting self, and (5) the social self (role taking). Each self follows a type of developmental sequence, one forming the anlage for the next. 7 postulates underlying the theory are described. The theory as illustrated as a longitudinal sequence with the substructures developing as cross-sectional stages or phases. The theory is described as monistic with no distinction drawn between subjective and objective selves.
A multiagent connectionist model is proposed that consists of a collection of individual recurrent networks that communicate with each other and, as such, is a network of networks. The individual recurrent networks simulate the process of information uptake, integration, and memorization within individual agents, and the communication of beliefs and opinions between agents is propagated along connections between the individual networks. A crucial aspect in belief updating based on information from other agents is the trust in the information provided. In the model, trust is determined by the consistency with the receiving agents' existing beliefs and results in changes of the connections between individual networks, called trust weights. These weights lead to a selective propagation and thus to the filtering out of less reliable information, and they implement H. P. Grice's (1975) maxims of quality and quantity in communication. The unique contribution of communicative mechanisms beyond intrapersonal processing of individual networks was explored in simulations of key phenomena involving persuasive communication and polarization, lexical acquisition, spreading of stereotypes and rumors, and a lack of sharing unique information in group decisions.
Bernoulli's framework of expected utility serves as a model for various psychological processes, including motivation, moral sense, attitudes, and decision making. To account for evidence at variance with expected utility, the authors generalize the framework of fast and frugal heuristics from inferences to preferences. The priority heuristic predicts (a) the Allais paradox, (b) risk aversion for gains if probabilities are high, (c) risk seeking for gains if probabilities are low (e.g., lottery tickets), (d) risk aversion for losses if probabilities are low (e.g., buying insurance), (e) risk seeking for losses if probabilities are high, (f) the certainty effect, (g) the possibility effect, and (h) intransitivities. The authors test how accurately the heuristic predicts people's choices, compared with previously proposed heuristics and 3 modifications of expected utility theory: security-potential/aspiration theory, transfer-of-attention-exchange model, and cumulative prospect theory.
The stop-signal task has been used to study normal cognitive control and clinical dysfunction. Its utility is derived from a race model that accounts for performance and provides an estimate of the time it takes to stop a movement. This model posits a race between go and stop processes with stochastically independent finish times. However, neurophysiological studies demonstrate that the neural correlates of the go and stop processes produce movements through a network of interacting neurons. The juxtaposition of the computational model with the neural data exposes a paradox-how can a network of interacting units produce behavior that appears to be the outcome of an independent race? The authors report how a simple, competitive network can solve this paradox and provide an account of what is measured by stop-signal reaction time.
Reports an error in "ViSA: A Neurodynamic Model for Visuo-Spatial Working Memory, Attentional Blink, and Conscious Access" by Luca Simione, Antonino Raffone, Gezinus Wolters, Paola Salmas, Chie Nakatani, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Cees van Leeuwen (Psychological Review, Advanced Online Publication, Jul 23, 2012, np). The article was published online missing the link to the supplemental materials. The link to the supplemental materials is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-19411-001.) Two separate lines of study have clarified the role of selectivity in conscious access to visual information. Both involve presenting multiple targets and distracters: one simultaneously in a spatially distributed fashion, the other sequentially at a single location. To understand their findings in a unified framework, we propose a neurodynamic model for Visual Selection and Awareness (ViSA). ViSA supports the view that neural representations for conscious access and visuo-spatial working memory are globally distributed and are based on recurrent interactions between perceptual and access control processors. Its flexible global workspace mechanisms enable a unitary account of a broad range of effects: It accounts for the limited storage capacity of visuo-spatial working memory, attentional cueing, and efficient selection with multi-object displays, as well as for the attentional blink and associated sparing and masking effects. In particular, the speed of consolidation for storage in visuo-spatial working memory in ViSa is not fixed but depends adaptively on the input and recurrent signaling. Slowing down of consolidation due to weak bottom-up and recurrent input as a result of brief presentation and masking leads to the attentional blink. Thus, ViSA goes beyond earlier 2-stage and neuronal global workspace accounts of conscious processing limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
This article describes further evidence for a new neural network theory of biological motion perception. The theory clarifies why parallel streams V1----V2, V1----MT, and V1----V2----MT exist for static form and motion form processing among the areas V1, V2, and MT of visual cortex. The theory suggests that the static form system (Static BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to direction-of-contrast and to direction-of-motion, whereas the motion form system (Motion BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to direction-of-contrast but sensitive to direction-of-motion. The theory is used to explain classical and recent data about short-range and long-range apparent motion percepts that have not yet been explained by alternative models. These data include beta motion, split motion, gamma motion and reverse-contrast gamma motion, delta motion, and visual inertia. Also included are the transition from group motion to element motion in response to a Ternus display as the interstimulus interval (ISI) decreases; group motion in response to a reverse-contrast Ternus display even at short ISIs; speed-up of motion velocity as interflash distance increases or flash duration decreases; dependence of the transition from element motion to group motion on stimulus duration and size, various classical dependencies between flash duration, spatial separation, ISI, and motion threshold known as Korte's laws; dependence of motion strength on stimulus orientation and spatial frequency; short-range and long-range form-color interactions; and binocular interactions of flashes to different eyes.
This systematic review of Russian psychobiology concentrates on the recent prolific output (1500 reports since 1950) and also incorporates a brief, enlightening historical prospectus. The distinctive flavor of current Soviet psychology is surveyed within 3 topical groupings––interoceptive conditioning, semantic conditioning, and orienting reflex investigations. Pavlovian-type association is less tightly adhered to, so that some basic topics have counterparts in United States psychology––semantic conditioning, and complex "operant" animal training. More significant are impressive developments in interoceptive conditioning where visceral action "largely unconscious in character" has been aptly demonstrated as either a UR or CR. Another provocative research emphasis (using several species, including man) is on the "orienting reflex"––a general alerting reaction to changes in environmental stimulation. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1EI81R.
Contemporary urge models assume that urges are necessary but not sufficient for the production of drug use in ongoing addicts, are responsible for the initiation of relapse in abstinent addicts, and can be indexed across 3 classes of behavior: verbal report, overt behavior, and somatovisceral response. A review of available data does not provide strong support for these assumptions. An alternative cognitive model of drug use and drug urges is proposed that hypothesizes that drug use in the addict is controlled by automatized action schemata. Urges are conceptualized as responses supported by nonautomatic cognitive processes activated in parallel with drug-use action schemata either in support of the schema or in support of attempts to block the execution of the schema. The implications of this model for the assessment of urge responding and drug-use behavior are presented.
This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also permits him to present informational and statistical descriptions of a good many classical concepts from the area of vision, including the historically most important Gestalt perceptual principles.
Reviews the literature on the neurotransmitter substrates controlling motor readiness, showing that these substrates produce qualitative changes in the flow of information in the brain: Dopaminergic activation increases informational redundancy, whereas noradrenergic arousal facilitates orienting to novelty. Evidence that these neurotransmitter pathways are lateralized in the human brain is consistent with the left hemisphere's specialization for complex motor operations and the right hemisphere's integration of bilateral perceptual input. Principles of attentional control are suggested by the operational characteristics of neural control systems. The affective features of the activation and arousal systems are integral to their adaptive roles and may suggest how specific emotional processes dynamically regulate cognitive function. (4½ p ref)
A brief biographical account of the professional life of the late Harvey A. Carr. Portrait, frontispiece.
Describes W. C. Bagley's (1900, 1901) research on the relation between sound and meaning in human speech perception. Using phonograph cylinders, Bagley presented Ss with spoken words, either individually or in sentences, that had been pronounced with a missing consonant sound. Ss, who were instructed to report only what they had heard, often restored words to their original form (i.e., heard the words as if they had been spoken correctly). Restorations were determined by the position of the missing sound in the word and the position of the word in the sentence. The pattern of results observed by Bagley and his conclusions about human speech perception find remarkable parallels in contemporary psycholinguistics. For example, Bagley explained his results in terms of the critical role of context in speech perception and the sequential use of sound in spoken-word recognition. Some of the main results of Bagley's research are compared to those obtained in more recent experiments. It is concluded that many of the most important insights about spoken-word recognition were first offered by Bagley. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
A review of the professional contributions of the recently deceased research biologist and psychologist.
Obituary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents an obituary for Walter Bingham, 1880-1952. In the death of Walter Bingham applied psychology has lost one of its leading figures. Some of his most notable contributions were in the field of military psychology. For some years he edited the Journal of Personnel Research. He served on the committees of many professional organizations, including secretary of the American Psychological Association, 1911-1914.
An illustration of Jost's (1897) second law.
An illustration of the decreasing absolute rate of loss associated with curvilinear forgetting functions.
Top: An illustration of Jost's law arising because a higher degree of learning results in a lower rate of forgetting (but the passage of time does not). Bottom: An illustration of Jost's law arising because the passage of time results in a lower rate of forgetting (but a higher degree of learning does not).
High and low degree of learning data as a function of retention interval. The data illustrate the ever-decreasing proportional rate of loss, as well as the lower proportional rate of loss associated with a higher degree of learning. From "Normal Forgetting of Verbal Lists as a Function of Their Degree of Learning," by N. J. Slamecka and B. McElree, 1983, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9, p. 392. Copyright 1983 by the American Psychological Association.
T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more slowly than the younger. The main theoretical implication of this venerable law has never been worked out, but it may be the same as that implied by Ribot's law. A consolidation interpretation of Jost's law implies an interference theory of forgetting that is altogether different from the cue-overload view that has dominated thinking in the field of psychology for decades.
Presents an obituary of David Katz, Professor Emeritus at the University of Stockholm, died on February 2, 1953. His name will be associated with significant contributions to almost every field of psychology, pure and applied; and he will be cited as one of this century's outstanding exponents of psychological phenomenology.
Presents an obituary for Clark Leonard Hull who died on May 10, 1952. Hull's scientific work comprised three different phases. His first career was concerned with aptitude testing. The second research career began when he became interested in the phenomena of hypnosis and suggestibility. His third career was in the field of learning and behavior theory. He also served as the forty-forth president of the American Psychological Association during 1935-36.
Edgar Rubin died on May 3, 1951 after a protracted illness. As a professor of experimental psychology and director of the psychological laboratory, Rubin was actively engaged in teaching and research at the University of Copenhagen. Rubin was president of the Danish Association for Philosophy and Psychology, and also president of the 10th International Congress for Psychology, which he organized in 1932. The German edition of his chief work, Visuell wahregenom-mene Figuren: Studien in psychologischer Analyse must be regarded as one of the books which has had a compelling influence on the development of the psychology of perception.
Obituary (Kenneth W. Spence; 1907-1967). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The development of the Hullian system is traced briefly. It is then summarized in its current form, consisting of 18 postulates and 12 corollaries.
Psychology is in a pre-theoretical stage, and its central problem is to move toward adequate theory. The pursuit of theoretical psychology faces five major tasks: education in the methodology and logic of science; analysis of methodological or "foundation" problems more or less unique to psychology; internal systematization of suggestive, but formally defective, theoretical formulations; intertranslation and differential analysis of conflicting theoretical formulations; construction of new theory.
In her seminal article in Psychological Review, A. S. Gilinsky (1951) successfully described the relationship between physical distance (D) and perceived distance (d) with the equation d = DA/(A + D), where A = constant. To understand its theoretical underpinning, the authors of the current article capitalized on space perception mechanisms based on the ground surface to derive the distance equation d = Hcosalpha/sin(alpha + eta), where H is the observer's eye height, alpha is the angular declination below the horizon, and eta is the slant error in representing the ground surface. Their equation predicts that (a) perceived distance is affected by the slant error in representing the ground surface; (b) when the slant error is small, the ground-based equation takes the same form as Gilinsky's equation; and (c) the parameter A in Gilinsky's equation represents the ratio of the observer's eye height to the sine of the slant error. These predictions were empirically confirmed, thus bestowing a theoretical foundation on Gilinsky's equation.
Priming as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony. 
Examples of stimuli from Experiments 2A and 2B. 
According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact unattended. This review exposed a clear need for new experiments with tight control over the locus of attention. The authors present 5 such experiments using a priming paradigm. When steps were taken to ensure that irrelevant stimuli were not attended, these stimuli produced no priming effects. Hence, the authors found no evidence that unattended stimuli can be identified. The results support a modern version of Broadbent's selective theory, updated to reflect recent research advances.
This paper reviews studies concerned with the manner in which nerves terminate in skin and their role in cutaneous sensitivity. The histological studies lead to the conclusion that nerve fibers supplying hairy skin terminate as bare, unencapsulated filaments in relation to three types of tissue: undifferentiated epithelial cells of the dermis and lower layers of the epidermis, hair follicles, and smooth muscle elements of the cutaneous blood vessels. Nafe (1934, 1942) has proposed that these bare filaments are essentially alike and hence respond to a common adequate stimulus, namely, movement either in relation to them- selves or to the surrounding tissue. These terminals differ primarily in that they terminate in different tissues of the skin. Both tactile and thermal sensations result when tissue is moved, the former by the direct action of a mechanical stimulus on the tissue, and the latter, by movement of the thermally labile smooth muscle, especially of the arterioles.
Leslie (1987) has proposed a cognitivist model for the young child's "theory of mind" and capacity to pretend. Serious shortcomings in Leslie's nondevelopmental, nonsocial, and restrictively cognitive account are noted, and an alternative thesis is proposed: A young child's knowledge about people is grounded in the experience of affectively charged interpersonal relations, and the child's capacity for pretend play develops on the basis of prior abilities to perceive the nature of other people's relatedness to the world. Clinical phenomena associated with autism and congenital blindness provide evidence for this thesis.
Gentner (1987) rejected the notion of invariant relative timing on the basis of a comprehensive review. It is argued that this conclusion cannot be generalized in a straightforward manner to the hypothesis that central processes of motor control exhibit the characteristic of invariant relative timing. Invariant relative timing on a central level is not necessarily accompanied by invariant relative timing on a peripheral level, where the observations are made; this occurs only if the expected delays between central commands and peripheral effects (motor delays) are constant throughout the movement. This will not in general be the case. A model is proposed that explicitly distinguishes between a central level of control and a peripheral level of observation. The procedures that have been used to test the invariance of relative timing are examined in the light of this distinction and new procedures are suggested that do not rely on the unjustified assumption of constant motor delays.
Stoffregen and Riccio (1988) have presented a theory of orientation that dismisses the role of otolithic information in the perception of the direction of the gravitoinertial force (GIF). Their dismissal of otolithic involvement in GIF perception is not warranted because (a) the logic associated with their analysis is flawed. (b) the underwater experiments they analyzed do not reflect the isolated operation of otolithic function, and (c) they do not cite a large body of relevant evidence on otolithic function.
Dannemiller's (1989) computational approach to color constancy is discussed in relation to human color constancy. A reflectance channel that requires a priori information is shown to be less plausible for the human visual system than Dannemiller argued. The resemblance of Dannemiller's hypothetical visual system to the human visual system is misleading because it implies that surface reflectance is the illuminant-invariant object color descriptor that the human visual system uses to achieve color constancy. However, an alternative type of descriptor is available that is not used to recover reflectance spectra. It has the advantage of allowing an interpretation that is preferable from a human perceptual point of view.
The neural net model of Staddon and Reid (1990) explains exponential and Gaussian generalization gradients in the same way as the diffusion model of Shepard (1958). The "cognitive" generalization theory of Shepard (1987), which also has been implemented as a connectionist network, goes beyond both of these models in accounting for classification learning.
Mean Number of Cycles for Color Naming and Word Reading Obtained by Simulation 2 Color naming Word reading Condition M no. of cycles SD M no. of cycles SD
Number of cycles to respond for word and color (congruent, incongruent, and neutral conditions averaged) for the 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 simulation architectures.  
Response latencies for word and color (congruent, incongruent, and neutral conditions averaged) for the 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 set sizes from the experiment.  
The J. D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, and J. L. McClelland (1990) model of Stroop task performance is used to model data from a study by D. H. Spielder, D. A. Balota, and M. E. Faust (1996). The results indicate that the model fails to capture overall differences between word reading and color naming latencies when set size is increased beyond 2 response alternatives. Further empirical evidence is presented that suggests that the influence of increasing response set size in Stroop task performance is to increase the difference between overall color naming and word reading, which is in direct opposition to the decrease produced by the Cohen et al. architecture. Although the Cohen et al. model provides a useful description of meaning-level interference effects, the qualitative differences between word reading and color naming preclude a model that uses identical architectures for each process, such as that of Cohen et al., to fully capture performance in the Stroop task.
If people believe that one activity is a kind of another, they also tend to believe that the second activity is a part of the first. For example, they assert that deciding is a kind of thinking and that thinking is a part of deciding. Fellbaum and Miller's (1990) explanation for this phenomenon is based on the idea that people interpret part of in the domain of verbs as a type of logical entailment. Their explanation, however, suffers from at least 2 deficiencies. First, it fails to account for parallel effects with nouns (e.g., a contest is a kind of an activity, and an activity is a part of a contest). Second, it contains a flaw that incorrectly predicts many activities to be parts of each other (e.g., coming is part of going and going part of coming). However, a hypothesis Rips and Conrad (1989) originally proposed for the kind-part reciprocal effect avoids both of these difficulties.
Levelt et al. (1991) argued that modular semantic and phonological stage theories of lexical access in language production are to be preferred over interactive spreading-activation theories (e.g., Dell, 1986). As evidence, they show no mediated semantic-phonological priming during picture naming: Retrieval of sheep primes goat, but the activation of goat is not transmitted to its phonological relative, goal. This research reconciles this result with spreading-activation theories and shows how the absence of mediated priming coexists with the convergent priming necessary to account for mixed semantic-phonological speech errors. The analysis leads to the proposal that the language-production system may best be characterized as globally modular but locally interactive.
I. Erev, T. S. Wallsten, and D. V. Budescu (1994) showed that the same probability judgment data can reveal both apparent overconfidence and underconfidence, depending on how the data are analyzed. To explain this seeming paradox, I. Erev et al. proposed a general model of judgment in which overt responses are related to underlying "true judgments" that are perturbed by error. A central conclusion of their work is that observed over- and underconfidence can be split into two components: (a) "true" over- and underconfidence and (b) "artifactual" over- and underconfidence due to error in judgment. It is argued in the present article that decomposing over- and underconfidence into true and artifactual components is inappropriate. The mistake stems from giving primacy to ambiguously defined model constructions (true judgments) over observed data.
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