To measure the relationship between Type A-B behavior and stress-linked symptoms, a group of undergraduates were asked to respond to the Glass version of the Jenkins Activity Survey and a 25-item stress-linked symptoms checklist. Data from 472 students were analyzed. As predicted, the results indicated that Type A persons experience specific stress-linked symptoms more intensely than their Type B peers.
An analysis of the relative merits of the normative and experimental approach to research shows that there is much potential confounding by unknown variables with both designs. The results of the analysis are interpreted as casting considerable doubt about the ability of experimental studies in psychology to be unaffected by unknown variables.
Data supported the assumption that persons tend to view themselves as moderately risky vis-a-vis their peers. Ss tended to ascribe positions to their peers that were equal to or more cautious than their own and participation in group discussion enhanced the probability of this relative judgment.
Two freshman psychology classes were presented a series of factual statements and asked to respond either true or false both individually and collectively to determine the importance of individual performance preceding group performance and vice versa in terms of shift (change of an answer given to a statement in one situation from an answer previously given to the same statement in another situation), the influence on accuracy of one situation preceding the other and the amount of shift observed in students with high grades and those with low grades. The data indicated that students at the extreme lower grade level (quartile IV) tended to shift more than students at the extreme upper level (quartile I), but no clear-cut differentiation appeared in central areas (quartiles II and III). No significant difference in shift occurred when group performance preceded individual performance or vice versa. Group performance preceding individual performance did prove to have a beneficial influence upon the individual's performance in that Ss conform somewhat to the performance of the group. The accuracy of the group performance was superior to that of the individuals.
A table enables the researcher to perform the sign test and distribution-free interval estimation of the median. By virtue of using the critical sample-size as entry and also providing instructions about the simple calculating required for some applications, the table combines shortness of format and breadth of applicability, encompassing 12 probability levels and sample sizes to 1,000.
Using Heppner, et al.'s data from 2004, this study tested career counseling clients in the United States on problem-solving appraisal scores and career-related variables. A cross-lagged panel design with structural equation modeling was used. Results supported the link between clients' precounseling problem-solving appraisal scores and career outcome. This finding held for career decision-making, but not for vocational identity. The study provided further support for Heppner, et al.'s findings, highlighting the influential role of clients' problem-solving appraisals in advancing their career decision-making processes.
18 children aged 3, 4, and 5 yr. responded to the same sentence presented both for enactment and for picture choice. Sentences were designed to test the effects on comprehension of event probability, sentence voice, and subject/object animateness. All main effects including that of task were significant. Picture choice was more difficult than enactment especially for the youngest children. Other interactions involving the effects of task suggested that, independent of the actual verbal stimuli presented, the type of task used to assess early comprehension capabilities may lead to different conclusions about which cues are important for young children's understanding of adult speech.
The validity of the Lie/Bet Screen was tested on two community population samples, one adult (n=2,014) and one adolescent sample (n=3,237), in Norway. With positive responses on at least one of the questions on Lie/Bet Screen used as the cutoff point the screen showed high both sensitivity and specificity. The negative predictive value was also high, but the positive predictive value was comparatively lower. A prediction of probable pathological gambling or "At-risk gambling" based on both Lie/Bet questions identified a valid screening in the two samples (0.54% in adults, 5.6% in adolescents). Compared to the use of the full DSM-IV this is pretty close, with the figures 0.45% and 5.22%. It is concluded that the Lie/Bet Screen may function as a good screening device for pathological gambling plus At-risk gambling in normal community samples.
Given difficulty in having children assess their own behaviour, there are few self-reports on child impulsivity. With the exception of Eysenck's 16 questionnaire, there are no self-report measures of impulsivity in children with good psychometric properties. The present study tested the possibility of using the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 with children. For this purpose the questionnaire was translated and backtranslated and administered to school children (182 boys and 195 girls) ages 8 to 12 years (M = 10.4, SD = 0.9). The data were analysed by exploratory factor analysis, to evaluate the factorial structure of the questionnaire, the fit of the proposed solution, and internal consistency reliabilities. Results seem to indicate that this questionnaire may be useful in assessing impulsivity in children. The three-factor structure showed slight differences with the initial questionnaire proposed by Barratt and had good or sufficient internal consistency (depending upon the scale) across the 8- to 12-yr.-old age range.
With recent introduction of poker machines in Australia, there have been claims of increases in the number of women with gambling-related problems. Research in the United States indicates, however, that men have a higher incidence of pathological gambling. The aims of this study were to ascertain among game machine users in a major city in Australia whether (a) more women than men exhibited symptoms of pathological gambling, (b) women reported higher guilt associated with their gambling, and (c) gamblers' self-assessment on several mood states was predictive of pathological gambling. A modified version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered to 104 users of game machines (44 men, 60 women) sampled from patrons at gaming venues in Melbourne, Australia. Data indicated no significant sex difference in the proportion of pathological gamblers or in gambling-related guilt. Self-assessment of Happiness, Propensity for Boredom, and Loneliness, significantly predicted scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, with Unhappiness a significant independent predictor of pathological gambling. This may suggest that gambling acts to fill a need in the lives of unhappy people or that individuals who lack control over their gambling report higher unhappiness. Further research is needed to discover this relationship.
The value of mindfulness-based methods in an undergraduate field placement was investigated in relation to the acquisition of self-care and other basic clinical competencies. The participants were 22 students in an applied behavioral analysis course, which included a mindfulness-based training module, and 20 students enrolled in an experimental psychology course without mindfulness training. The Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale, the Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills were used as measurements before and after intervention. Mindfulness-trained participants kept records and were asked to share their personal experiences during supervision and an exit interview. Results demonstrated that training significantly increased mindfulness. Qualitative data indicated enhanced self-care, attention to well-being, self-awareness, active involvement acquiring skills, and empathy and compassion. The need to expand the utility of mindfulness to the realm of education and the importance of including comparison groups with other self-care modules for future studies were discussed.
We examined the prevalence of Type A/B behavior and Emotion Profiles in 1084 employees. This report focused on the relationship between Type A behavior and eight basic emotion dimensions. Of the 1084 subjects 710 (65%) scored as Type A and 374 (34.5%) as Type B. The mean Bortner scores for all subjects were 182.8 (SD = 33.7), scores on emotional dimensions for Incorporation and Reproduction were high, and intensities for Ejection and Destruction were low; mean scores on other emotions were normal. Significant differences between Type A and Type B scores were found on six emotional dimensions. Subjects classified as Type A had ratings lower on trustful, controlled, and timid and higher on aggressive, distrustful, and uncontrolled than did persons classified as Type B. There were no differences between Type A and Type B scores on the emotion dimensions of Reproduction and Deprivation. Our data suggest multiple emotional components may comprise the Type A behavior pattern. This is important for behavioral counseling programs and early preventive efforts which could be aimed at reducing the intensity of Type A behaviors.
The associations of Type A or B behavior with age, sex, occupation, education, life needs satisfaction, smoking, and religion were studied. 242 women and 842 men, ages 21 to 64 years, (M age 42 +/- 8 yr.), completed the Bortner scale and rated on a 5-point scale their life needs satisfaction. Information on age, occupation, education, cigarette smoking, and religion were obtained from each subject. Scores for Type A and Type B behavior patterns in different age groups were very similar. Scores on Type A behavior were significantly more common in women than men. Type A behavior scores were identified in a larger proportion of managers, clerks, and in persons with university education than in manual workers and persons with only primary and secondary education. There was no difference between smokers and non-smokers and religious and nonreligious scorers. There was no difference in ratings for life needs satisfaction between persons identified as having scores on Type A and Type B behavior. The present analyses enhance our understanding of Type A behavior as related to age, sex, occupation, education, and life needs satisfaction in a Croatian sample.
Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.
The authors investigated the relation between affective and cognitive processes in fantasy play and emotional understanding of 50 Italian children (25 boys and 25 girls) enrolled in regular elementary school in Northern Italy. Children were administered a standardized play task, the Affect in Play Scale, and answered questions about their understanding of emotions. Consistent, yet modest, relationships were found between dimensions of fantasy play and emotional understanding.
Between 10 and 15 months of age, infants seem to become increasingly communicative. The focus of this study was changes in request behavior among infants at ages 11, 13, and 15 months (N = 22) in a longitudinal design. Changes in durations and frequencies of four different modes of behavior were examined, namely, use of hands, eye gaze, facial expression, and vocalization. Both frequencies and durations of the behaviors expressing requests increased with age, while those of nonrequest behaviors showed a different trend. Also investigated were changes in temporal coordination of different request modes. A greater number of infants used greater combinations of co-occurring modes when they were older than when they were younger.
We used the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 to investigate if the formation, confidence, and nature of flashbulb memories were dependent on age. In addition, we compared the consistency over time of flashbulb memories with event memory, i.e., widely publicized factual details of the event, in a group of young respondents. College students (n=34, M age 24.8 yr.) were questioned 2 wk. after the attack and again 2 mo. later. At the later time, also a group of healthy elderly respondents (n=20, M age 70.5 yr.) was asked the same questions. Performance of young and old participants did not differ. Flashbulb memories were found without exception for both time periods and in both age groups. These memories had high confidence ratings and were described as very vivid. The original event was judged to have been accompanied by high emotion and rehearsal. In the college group, event memory, and to a smaller extent also flashbulb memory, decreased in accuracy already over the 2 mo. We conclude that flashbulb memories are a special case of normal episodic memory for emotional events. The creation of flashbulb memories, however, requires a special scenario of emotional arousal and rehearsal.
Two anticholinergics (scopolamine hydrobromide and scopolamine methylbromide: .5, .7 mg) were administered to dogs while they were subjected to a Sidman nondiscriminated avoidance schedule which contained 7 conditioned stimuli unavoidable shock (CS US) pairings. Both anticholinergics significantly elevated urinary 11 hydroxycorticosteroids and heart rate, while only the central acting agent, scopolamine hydrobromide, affected behavior. These results suggest that the behavioral effects of scopolamine hydrobromide are not mediated through its effects on the adrenal pituitary system. Response rates under scopolamine hydrobromide were substantially reduced, leading to increased shock rates, especially during the CS segments of this schedule. These behavioral results were interpreted to suggest that cognitive (possibly memory) functions were altered in response to scopolamine administration.
Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.
The present study assessed consistency of recollections of personal circumstances of the 9/11 World Trade Center attack and events of the day before (9/10), and the day after (9/12), in a sample of 100 New York City college students. The day before 9/11 represented an ordinary event. A questionnaire was administered twice, 1 wk. and 1 yr. after the 9/11 attack. Students were asked to describe their personal circumstances when hearing about the news of the World Trade Center attack and for the same time of day for 9/10 and 9/12. 18 students returned the follow-up questionnaire. Consistency of initial and follow-up responses for the central categories for both 9/11 and 9/12 of where, who, and activity was very high (9/11: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--94%; 9/12: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--80%). Recollections of 9/10 were significantly less consistent ("Where"--79%, "Who"--71%, "What"--71%). Analysis indicated that students formed vivid, consistent recollections during the events of both 9/11 and 9/12. It is likely that the events of 9/12 also became flashbulb memories, vivid recollections of traumatic events, because the emotional impact of the stressful events, i.e., police and military presence, disrupted schedules, relating to the 9/11 attack endured beyond the day of the attack.
On March 11, 2004, Al-Qaeda set off 10 bombs on several train routes in Madrid. 192 people were killed and 2,000 wounded. In this study, 1,179 questionnaires were administered Week 2 after the attacks to residents 18 years and over from the affected geographical areas. The questionnaire included items about sociodemographic variables and exposure to the attacks. Psychological effects were assessed as presence of acute stress and depressive symptomatology and functional impairment. 46.7% of the sample presented symptomatology of acute stress and 49.6% depressive symptoms. Among the symptoms of acute stress, the most frequent were re-experiencing (72.5%) and dissociative symptoms (71.8%). The chief predicting variables in symptomatology were being female, over 65 yr. old, and a habitual train user. The large number of affected people was refined with an item analysis and the consideration of severity of interference in psychosocial functioning.
A sample of 440 undergraduate university students completed the Templer Death Anxiety Scale 2 wk. prior to and 2 wk. after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Women comprised 66% of the sample, and 79% of the sample identified themselves as 18 to 21 years of age and either freshmen or sophomores. There was no significant mean difference in the pre- and postterrorist attack Death Anxiety scores. Differences were found on two individual scale items.
A sample of 415 university students (52 Crime Victims, 363 Nonvictims) who experienced indirectly the 9/11/01 disaster through media exposure, were administered the Davidson Trauma Scale. Crime victims had significantly more PTSD symptoms related to 9/11 exposure.
The present paper examined a number of elements which may be used to estimate patients' prognoses in psychotherapy. Since increased professional accountability requires therapists to deliver more consistent therapeutic results, it may be helpful to evaluate—in advance of protracted treatments—patients' suitability to receive psychotherapy. In so doing, efficacy might be enhanced since patients with unfavorable prognostic signs can be apprised of therapeutic limitations and even directed to alternative treatments when indicated. More careful attention to these prognostic elements might help improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce patients' disappointments with results.
800 students in Grades 9 and 11 of schools in the Central Region of the Limpopo Province of South Africa completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics. Mean age in Grade 11 was 17.5 yr. (SD = 1.4) and in Grade 9 15.1 yr. (SD = 1.2). Intervention was aimed at teachers and students in this group. Teachers in the trained group received training in a problem-based approach to teaching and learning in mathematics and introduced these principles into their classes. Analysis of variance on the differences between post- and pretest scores of the six subscales and the marks in mathematics and English yielded no effects for grade, sex, or grade after 6 mo. Pearson correlations for students in Grade 11 were positive between study orientation and achievement in mathematics. Improving teachers' training and expertise, transforming disadvantaged learning environments, and developing necessary formal and informal mathematical knowledge seem both essential and difficult.
A sample of 392 girls between the ages of 11 and 16 years attending a state-maintained single-sex Catholic secondary school completed six semantic differential scales of attitudes toward school and toward lessons concerned with English, music, religion, mathematics, and sports, together with information about paternal employment and their personal practice of prayer. The relationship between personal prayer and attitude toward school after controlling for age and social class was positive.
Relationships between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms were analysed in a representative random sample of 1447 secondary-school children aged 11 to 16 years in Galicia (NW Spain). The sample comprised 797 boys (55.1%) and 650 girls (44.9%). Their mean age was 12.8 yr. (SD=1.2). Depressive symptoms, evaluated with the Children's Depression Inventory, were reported by 11.0% of children who responded they had never smoked, versus 23.7% of those who said they sometimes smoked, and 44.2% of those who identified themselves as current daily smokers. These results indicate an association between smoking and depression among children in this age group.
116 consecutively admitted depressed inpatients were divided into three groups based on self-reported history of suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempt. Participants in Group 1 (M age 34.0, SD= 14.0), 13 men and 24 women, reported no history of suicidal ideation or history of suicide attempt. Group 2 (M age 34.0, SD= 8.6), 14 men and 25 women, reported having a history of suicidal ideation but no history of suicide attempt. Group 3 (M age 34.0 yr., SD=6.3), 14 men and 26 women, reported a history of suicidal ideation and at least one suicide attempt. Each participant completed the Suicide Risk Scale and the Self-esteem Scale. Analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc comparisons yielded a significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, between Groups 1 and 3, and between Groups 2 and 3 on the Suicide Risk Scale. There was a significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 and between Group 1 and Group 3 on the Self-esteem Scale. These data indicated that suicide ideation and suicide attempt history significantly elevated suicide risk. Self-esteem was significantly decreased by suicide ideation and suicide attempt history.
The psychological sequelae of the September 11th terrorist attacks were examined in 249 college students at three sites in the USA and one site in the UK in the year following the attacks. Participants completed questionnaires tapping 9/ 11-related exposure and distress, and completed a modified Stroop task assessing time to color-name cards containing terror-related and neutral words. Geographical location and amount of exposure to the attacks were significant predictors of self-reported 9/11-related distress, but were not associated with processing bias for terror-related stimuli. Self-reported 9/11-related distress was significantly associated with processing bias, but only in the group (n = 124) which performed the neutral card first. Processing biases for terror-related stimuli are dependent on method of assessment and appear to be more closely tied to self-reported distress than to amount of objective exposure to the attacks.
The investigators sought to examine correlations for 31 men and women, counseling graduate students and residents of the San Francisco Bay Area and their relation to the attacks on the USA on September 11, 2001. Empathy and traumatic dream reports have been examined in studies primarily on relations between therapists and clients. Studies of the effects of traumatic events on empathy and on dreams have been minimal. It was hypothesized that highly empathic individuals might have reacted differently to these events than less empathic subjects. Using the KJP Dream Inventory and the Emotional Empathy Scale, rated empathy correlated significantly with reported frequency of dream occurrence (.39), frequency of repetitive traumatic dreaming (.38), and the frequency of dream discontentedness (.37).
A highly anxious man experienced erratic oscillations in moods that were associated with numerous physiological interactions. State-anxiety was at one extreme, calm-lethargic state at the other, but at the mid-point he was in precarious autonomic balance and very responsive to even mild stimuli.
Responding by rats was reinforced by intravenous infusions of 0.5 mg/kg methamphetamine hydrochloride. The effects of intraperitoneal injections of various doses of methamphetamine, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (1-DOPA) were determined on this baseline. Intraperitoneally-administered methamphetamine produced a dose-related pause in responding, apparently indicating drug satiation. Injections of AMPT caused responding either to increase at low doses, or, at intermediate and high doses, to increase, then cease altogether, and finally return at a high rate which decreases to baseline. Injections of 1-DOPA had no noticeable effect on drug responding. Some biochemical implications of these data were discussed.
Attachment behaviors during the reunion episode of the ‘Strange Situation’ were investigated for 18 mother-infant dyads when the infants were 13 mo. old and then 19 mo. later for a repetition of the procedure when the infants were 32 mo. old. Correlational analyses were performed to assess relationships among the behaviors both within and across ages. Findings indicate that proximal behaviors are interrelated at 13 mo. whereas distal behaviors are interrelated at 32 mo. Cross-age correlations indicated that distress and looking at objects at 13 mo. were negatively associated with distal behaviors at 32 mo. However, exploratory behavior at 13 mo. was positively correlated with distal behaviors at 32 mo. These results suggest that amount of infant's exploratory behavior in a somewhat stressful situation may provide information about the nature of the attachment relationship at a later age.
This paper describes responses to a questionnaire about religious and scientific experiences by 26 graduate students in the sciences and 26 students in a theological seminary. There are two principal findings. First, experiences which are interpreted in a religious way are assigned higher polarity scores (taken as a measure of affect) on a modified form of Osgood's semantic differential than are experiences which are interpreted scientifically. Second, experiences which are interpreted religiously are assigned more positive evaluative scores than are experiences which are interpreted scientifically.
In general, intellectually gifted children perform better than non-gifted children across many domains. The present validation study investigated the speed with which intellectually gifted children process information. 184 children, ages 9 to 13 years old (91 gifted, M age = 10.9 yr., SD = 1.8; 93 non-gifted children, M age = 11.0 yr., SD = 1.7) were tested individually on three information processing tasks: an inspection time task, a choice reaction time task, an abstract matching task. Intellectually gifted children outperformed their non-gifted peers on all three tasks obtaining shorter reaction time and doing so with greater accuracy. The findings supported the validity of the information processing speed in identifying intellectually gifted children.
This study examined the natural course of psychological functioning in recently bereaved middle-aged women. 69 widows were assessed four times (T1-T4) between the period of 4 to 13 mo. after the loss and were compared to a matched nonwidowed group of 57. Of the SCL-90 feelings of depression, agoraphobic behavior, anxiety, hostility, somatization, feelings of insufficiency, and sleep disorders were heightened at 4 mo. after bereavement compared to the norm group. Significantly higher psychological dysfunctioning was found on all SCL-90 subscales than for non-widows. Over time, a decrease in psychological dysfunction was found for most widows; however, not every widow appeared to recover psychologically, and 17% of the widows showed severe psychological dysfunctioning at 13 mo. postbereavement (T4). With respect to the predictive value of the Total score on the SCL-90, at 13 mo., 27% of these widows had scores indicating severe psychological dysfunctioning; these were comparable to their scores at 4 mo. postbereavement.
A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal.
In designing and implementing effective mental health services for children, the ability to identify deviant behavior patterns in school children and to determine the number of children who fall into these areas is crucial. By means of a preliminary survey which identified such children, we were able to perform a study of problem students who fell into three categories, unusually aggressive children, children with learning difficulties, and shy-withdrawn children. After our preliminary survey, more intensive examinations were carried out using a teacher's rating scale (KDS™-14). On the basis of these data we have a fairly accurate picture of the over-all incidence of certain behaviors occurring in the population of a school system. These procedures suggest that it may be possible to screen school populations to identify those children who might need professional intervention.
All 238 United Cerebral Palsy agencies in the United States were surveyed to determine the current status of programs offered to 0- to 5-yr.-old handicapped children. The 33-item survey had three major purposes: (a) to compare services offered by agencies, (b) to identify current and alternate methods of funding for pre-school handicapped children, and (c) to determine the major effects of P.L. 94–142 on pre-school handicapped and cerebral palsied children in public schools. The results of this survey are summarized.
Achievement motives, future time orientation, and perceived instrumentality of theoretical subjects were investigated in relation to educational choice of general versus vocational studies at secondary school. Among 257 students, multivariate regression of educational choice showed that the higher the scores on the motive to achieve success, the lower the scores on the motive to avoid failure, and the higher the scores on perceived instrumentality, the more likely a student will be to choose general, i.e., mainly theoretical studies at secondary school. No significant effect of future time orientation on educational choice occurred. The results are discussed in relation to achievement motivation theory, school attachment and achievement, and implications for reform of the school system.
The 16 PF scores for 678 male offenders in a diagnostic and receiving center were compared with scores for 891 male offenders in penal institutions by t tests for independent means. Significant differences were obtained for 13 of the 16 primaries included in the 16 PF. The Penitentiary group scored significantly higher than the Reception Center group on the primaries, A, I, L, M, O, Q1, and Q4. Conversely, the Reception Center group scored significantly higher than the Penitentiary group on the primaries, B, C, F, G, N, and Q3.
22 undergraduate psychology majors (14 males, 8 females) were administered the Cattell 16 PF Test and were later seen in two groups of 11 for determining hypnotic susceptibility as assessed by the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Only 2 of the 16 rank-difference correlations reached significance ( p < .01). The highly hypnotizable Ss scored significantly higher than the low Ss on the enthusiastic and insecure factors.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between personality and behavioral responses in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In a first step, a new instrument (PSY Inventory) for assessment of six behavioral characteristics (Sense of Responsibility, Energy and Competitiveness, Obsessive Behavior, Anger and Hostility, Stress-related Disturbances, Time Urgency) was developed by using factor analysis on intercorrelations of responses from 524 subjects of the general population. Internal consistency reliability for each of the PSY subscales was estimated by Cronbach alpha coefficients. In a second step, the PSY Inventory was administered with the Cattell 16 PF Questionnaire to 838 patients affected by acute myocardial infarction. Significant correlations although relatively low in magnitude for PSY Inventory subscales and certain scales of the Cattell 16 PF were found. With factor analysis on 22 variables (including the six PSY Inventory subscales and the 16 scales of the Cattell 16 PF), five second-order factors were identified, namely, Extraversion, Neurotic Anxiety, Superego Strength, Pathemia, and Neurotic Hostility. While a Pathemia Factor (characterized by sensitivity, imagination, and self-sufficiency) was factorially independent of scales of the PSY Inventory, Extraversion, Neurotic Anxiety, Superego Strength, and Neurotic Hostility Factors were composed of the PSY Inventory scales and Cattell 16 PF scales combined. These relationships would reflect the concordance of internal constructs for behavioral measures of the PSY Inventory and those of personality traits of the 16 PF Questionnaire in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
A computerized search of published abstracts in PsychInfo was conducted to obtain the frequency of annual citations since 1984 for six forms of psychotherapy. Cognitive-Behavioral therapies showed the most rapid increase over the past 16 years. Family therapies, in contrast, showed a significant decline in the number of abstract citations since 1990. At present, brief, empirically tested treatments appear to be generating the greatest discussion in the academic and scientific literature.
A sample of 242 students between the ages of 16 and 18 years, attending schools in the North East of England, completed the Bradburn Balanced Affect Scale together with the abbreviated form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The findings show that scores on the Bradburn scale (indicating psychological well-being as assessed by balanced affect) are correlated significantly and positively with scores for Extraversion (.25), negatively with Neuroticism (.52) and nonsignificantly with Psychoticism. The implications of these findings are discussed for the assessment of psychological well-being among introverts.
The second-order factor structure of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) was validated on a sample of 940 patients hospitalized for coronary heart disease. The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation of second-order factor structure, already confirmed for normal subjects, of a selected pathological population. With factor analyses, oblique promax rotation, five second-order factors were identified, namely, Anxiety, Extraversion, Pathemia, Control, and an unidentified factor. These results were compared with those of Cattell's and Krug's studies. As a high congruence coefficient was shown, a good replication of Cattell's originally published second-order factors was achieved.
A sample of 236 16- to 19-yr.old female A level students studying in the north east of England completed the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire together with indices of prayer and church attendance. The data support the view that psychoticism is correlated with self-reported church attendance (r = -.15) and self-reported prayer (r = -.15), while scores on neither extraversion nor neuroticism are correlated with these indices of religiosity.
The study investigated the effects of instructional conditions on 16 P.F. performance. Instructions focusing on the positive and negative desirability of item alternatives were compared with results obtained under standard administration conditions. Two divergent “images” emerged in a college sample and indicated that the poles of the 16 P.F. are not equally attractive. Findings were discussed with reference to Cattell's theory of perturbations, and a clinical application of the stereotype profiles was explored.