Psychological Bulletin

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-1455
Publications
Article
DESCRIBES THE APPLICATION OF A 4-GROUP EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO STUDIES OF BEHAVIOR DEVELOPMENT. THE DESIGN MAKES POSSIBLE A WIDE VARIETY OF INTERPRETATIONS ABOUT DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES. SUCH INTERPRETATIONS CANNOT SAFELY BE MADE WITH THE USUAL 2-GROUP DESIGN, WHICH CAN OFTEN PRODUCE MISLEADING RESULTS. SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN OF THE USE OF THE 4-GROUP DESIGN IN ISOLATION AND ENRICHMENT EXPERIMENTS.
 
Article
Various research designs employed in developmental psychology for the investigation of maturational and aging effects are examined. Discrepancies and contradictions in the conclusions derived from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are consequences of the violation of assumptions implicit in these research designs. The conventional methods are shown to be special cases of a general model for research on behavior change over time. The properties of the general model are explicated and the assumptions for the customary designs are reviewed in the light of these properties. The complete model requires consideration of the components of age, time and cohort differences in the identification of developmental change. Both the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods in this context require strong assumptions which can rarely be met.
 
Article
The questionable effectiveness of traditional psychodynamic psychotherapies and the development of brief new treatment techniques derived from modern learning theory have stimulated interest in applications of conditioning procedures to behavior disorders. A review of this literature revealed that behavior therapies have been applied to many neurotic and psychotic disorders, and have been most successful with disorders involving specific maladaptive behaviors. Conditioning procedures were highly effective with phobic reactions, anxiety reactions, enuresis, stuttering, and tics, but disappointing with alcoholism and some sexual disorders. Cures seemed long-lasting, with remarkably little evidence of the symptom substitution predicted by psychodynamic depth theories. Behavior therapy offers promising opportunities for the application of well-established psychological principles to the treatment of maladaptive behavior. (4 p. ref.)
 
Article
Recent advances in the development of mathematical techniques growing out of sociometry are described. Applications of these techniques are described. Applications of these techniques in assessing status, group structure, and the assignment of individuals to subgroups are suggested. Further use of these procedures should clarify the requirements for adequate explanatory systems and perhaps provide the variables to be incorporated in more comprehensive theories. 47-item bibliog. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
The literature on small groups is reviewed under the headings: Behavior of Groups and Individuals; Social Structure Variables; Cultural Variables; Situational Variables; and Personality Variables. "The artificial division… is not to suggest independent function of these variables… Rather, the theoretical approach which seems best warranted in the face of current evidence is one which views the small group as a dynamic system of action, action determined by a complex of interdependent or interacting factors." 169-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper reviews 31 empirical studies of small groups in which the major independent variable, group size, was related to several classes of dependent variables: group performance, distribution of participation, the nature of interaction, group organization, member performance, conformity and consensus, and member satisfaction. Many of these variables were found to be significantly affected by group size, but methodological shortcomings characterizing this group of studies preclude the assertion of broad generalizations. Several dependable and nondependable intervening variables are suggested which may help to account for many of the observed effects. Conclusions are: group size is an important variable which should be taken into account in any theory of group behavior, and future research on group size should proceed more systematically than in the past. (46 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
An assessment is made of the current scientific status of simple reaction time (RT), based primarily on a literature review of the last 20 years. Considered are the effects on RT of stimulus-receptor factors, of central and motor factors, and of special factors such as prolonged readiness, certain common drugs, temperature, sleep conditions, etc. While further research probing is indicated, several advances have been noted during the past 20 years and the present status of simple reaction time is evaluated in terms of 10 reasonably well established generalizations. 163-item bibliography.
 
Article
Reviews studies concerned with symptomatic behavior, clinical characteristics, genetic factors, and pharmacological response in relation to the unipolar–bipolar distinction in depressive disorders. The findings suggest that differences among some forms of the larger polar disorders do exist in the above areas. However, heterogeneity of results remains evident, indicating that finer subdivisions within the larger polar groups are necessary. Accordingly, research within the guidelines of a genetic taxonomy of polar groups is assessed and recommended as the most productive framework for future investigation of the depressive disorders. (4 p ref)
 
Article
Evidence that gonadal hormones during prenatal and neonatal development influence behavior is reviewed. Several theoretical models of hormonal influences, derived from research in other species, are described. These models are evaluated on the basis of data from humans with either normal or abnormal hormonal exposure. It is concluded that the evidence is insufficient to determine which model best explains the data. Sexual differentiation may involve several dimensions, and different models may apply to different behaviors. Gonadal hormones appear to influence development of some human behaviors that show sex differences. The evidence is strongest for childhood play behavior and is relatively strong for sexual orientation and tendencies toward aggression. Also, high levels of hormones do not enhance intelligence, although a minimum level may be needed for optimal development of some cognitive processes. Directions for future research are proposed.
 
Article
The prevailing behavioral account of marriage must be expanded to include covert processes. This article therefore examines the attributions or explanations that spouses make for marital events. A review indicates that dissatisfied spouses, compared with satisfied spouses, make attributions for the partner's behavior that cast it in a negative light. Experimental, clinical outcome, and longitudinal data suggest further that attributions may influence marital satisfaction. Rival hypotheses for these findings are examined. Because continued empirical development in this domain depends on conceptual progress, a framework is presented that integrates attributions, behavior, and marital satisfaction. This framework points to several topics that require systematic study, and specific hypotheses are offered for research on these topics. It is concluded that the promising start made toward understanding marital attributions holds considerable potential for enriching behavioral conceptions of marriage.
 
Article
Studies are reviewed in which response to acute administration of alcohol was compared between individuals with and without family histories of alcoholism (FH+, FH-). This research represents a search for a psychobiological marker for alcoholism. A methodological critique of the procedures reported in this literature is then presented. Finally, a conceptual model is suggested in which differences in the response to alcohol between FH+ individuals and FH- individuals must be understood in relation to time after drinking alcohol. This Newtonian differentiator model proposes that sons of alcoholics exhibit acute sensitization as blood alcohol level rises and acute tolerance as blood alcohol level falls, compared with sons of nonalcoholics. Therefore, FH+ subjects find alcohol more rewarding because they accentuate the pleasurable, excitatory aspects of initial intoxication and attenuate the feelings of anxiety and depression that predominate as blood alcohol levels drop.
 
Characteristics of Psychotherapy Studies Study characteristic M Range 
Efficacy of Psychotherapy at Posttreatment and Follow-Up Effect size 
Efficacy of Psychotherapy Based on Comparisons to Wait-List Controls and Placebo Controls Effect size 
Efficacy of Psychotherapy for Different Client Samples 
Article
Previous quantitative reviews of research on the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression have included only a subset of the available research or limited their focus to a single outcome measure. The present review offers a more comprehensive quantitative integration of this literature. Using studies that compared psychotherapy with either no treatment or another form of treatment, this article assesses (a) the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy for depressed clients, (b) its effectiveness relative to pharmacotherapy, and (c) the clinical significance of treatment outcomes. Findings from the review confirm that depressed clients benefit substantially from psychotherapy, and these gains appear comparable to those observed with pharmacotherapy. Initial analysis suggested some differences in the efficacy of various types of treatment; however, once the influence of investigator allegiance was removed, there remained no evidence for the relative superiority of any 1 approach. In view of these results, the focus of future research should be less on differentiating among psychotherapies for depression than on identifying the factors responsible for improvement.
 
Article
Discusses 8 quantitative measures of feeling-of-knowing accuracy that have been used in the literature. The 3 measures considered at length are J. T. Hart's difference score, L. A. Goodman and W. H. Kruskal's (1954) gamma correlation, and the phi correlation. Quantitative relations between these measures are reported, as are connections with some basic axioms and a probabilistic conception of feeling-of-knowing accuracy. The currently most popular measure, the Hart difference score, has serious shortcomings. The Goodman-Kruskal gamma seems to be best. The remaining measures are inappropriate for the available feeling-of-knowing data for a variety of reasons. Also discussed are the implications of these results for other situations in which ordered 2 × 2 tables are examined to determine the relationship between predictions and criterion performance. (60 ref)
 
Article
When the responses of 2 or more groups to the relative effects of some stimulus are compared, it is often important to adjust statistically the estimates of those effects for baseline differences among those groups. This is often the case in experiments on heart rate for animals of different ages. How should such adjustment be done? Among the competing methodologies are (a) subtract the base rate, (b) divide by the base rate, and (c) covary out the base rate. Because each can give a different answer, the choice is crucial. This article shows that this is an example of Lord's Paradox and that Rubin's Model for the measurement of causal effects allows researchers to understand what the assumptions are underlying the validity of each adjustment strategy. The answer for heart rate data is almost surely Methodology (a).
 
Article
Studies testing cognitive theory of depression (Beck, 1963, 1987) and defining depression as a clinical syndrome are reviewed. Many aspects of the theory's descriptive claims about depressive thinking have been substantiated empirically, including (a) increased negativity of cognitions about the self, (b) increased hopelessness, (c) specificity of themes of loss to depressive syndromes rather than psychopathology in general, and (d) mood-congruent recall. Evidence that depressive thinking is especially inaccurate or illogical, however, is weak. Fewer studies have tested the theory's causal (diathesis-stress) hypotheses, and there is no strong evidence supporting them.
 
Article
The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed that much of the variability is attributable to stressor and person features. Timing is an especially critical element, as hormonal activity is elevated at stressor onset but reduces as time passes. Stressors that threaten physical integrity, involve trauma, and are uncontrollable elicit a high, flat diurnal profile of cortisol secretion. Finally, HPA activity is shaped by a person's response to the situation; it increases with subjective distress but is lower in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder.
 
Article
This meta-analysis surveyed 177 usable sources that reported data on gender differences on 21 different measures of sexual attitudes and behaviors. The largest gender difference was in incidence of masturbation: Men had the greater incidence (d = .96). There was also a large gender difference in attitudes toward casual sex: Males had considerably more permissive attitudes (d = .81). There were no gender differences in attitudes toward homosexuality or in sexual satisfaction. Most other gender differences were in the small-to-moderate range. Gender differences narrowed from the 1960s to the 1980s for many variables. Chodorow's neoanalytic theory, sociobiology, social learning theory, social role theory, and script theory are discussed in relation to these findings.
 
Article
People often have trouble performing 2 relatively simple tasks concurrently. The causes of this interference and its implications for the nature of attentional limitations have been controversial for 40 years, but recent experimental findings are beginning to provide some answers. Studies of the psychological refractory period effect indicate a stubborn bottleneck encompassing the process of choosing actions and probably memory retrieval generally, together with certain other cognitive operations. Other limitations associated with task preparation, sensory-perceptual processes, and timing can generate additional and distinct forms of interference. These conclusions challenge widely accepted ideas about attentional resources and probe reaction time methodologies. They also suggest new ways of thinking about continuous dual-task performance, effects of extraneous stimulation (e.g., stop signals), and automaticity. Implications for higher mental processes are discussed.
 
Article
The existing evidence paints an unclear picture of whether an association exists between depression and memory impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether depression is associated with memory impairment, whether moderator variables determine the extent of this association, and whether any obtained association is unique to depression. Meta-analytic techniques were used to synthesize data from 99 studies on recall and 48 studies on recognition in clinically depressed and nondepressed samples. Associations between memory impairment and other psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia) were also examined. A significant, stable association between depression and memory impairment was revealed. Further analyses indicated, however, that it is likely that depression is linked to particular aspects of memory, the linkage is found in particular subsets of depressed individuals, and memory impairment is not unique to depression.
 
Article
In a conceptual and temporal framework, derived from research on social cognition, social interaction, and stress and coping, the authors analyze the processes through which people anticipate or detect potential stressors and act in advance to prevent them or to mute their impact (proactive coping). The framework specifies five stages in proactive coping: (1) resource accumulation, (2) recognition of potential stressors, (3) initial appraisal, (4) preliminary coping efforts, and (5) elicitation and use of feedback concerning initial efforts. The authors detail the role of individual differences skills, and resources at each stage. They highlight the unique predictions afforded by a focus on proactive coping and the importance of understanding how people avoid and offset potential stressors.
 
Article
The sequence of neurophysiological processes elicited in the auditory system by a sound is analyzed in search of the stage at which the processes carrying sensory information cross the borderline beyond which they directly underlie sound perception. Neurophysiological data suggest that this transition occurs when the sensory input is mapped onto the physiological basis of sensory memory in the auditory cortex. At this point, the sensory information carried by the stimulus-elicited process corresponds, for the first time, to that contained by the actual sound percept. Before this stage, the sensory stimulus code is fragmentary, lacks the time dimension, cannot enter conscious perception, and is not accessible to top-down processes (voluntary mental operations). On these grounds, 2 distinct stages of auditory sensory processing, prerepresentational and representational, can be distinguished.
 
Article
Recent findings suggest that sexual orientation has an early neurodevelopmental basis. Handedness, a behavioral marker of early neurodevelopment, has been associated with sexual orientation in some studies but not in others. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 20 studies that compared the rates of non-right-handedness in 6,987 homosexual (6,182 men and 805 women) and 16,423 heterosexual (14,808 men and 1,615 women) participants. Homosexual participants had 39% greater odds of being non-right-handed. The corresponding values for homosexual men (20 contrasts) and women (9 contrasts) were 34% and 91%, respectively. The results support the notion that sexual orientation in some men and women has an early neurodevelopmental basis, but the factors responsible for the handedness-sexual orientation association require elucidation. The authors discuss 3 possibilities: cerebral laterality and prenatal exposure to sex hormones, maternal immunological reactions to the fetus, and developmental instability.
 
Meta-Analyses of Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Diagnosis or Symptoms 
Article
A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) perceived life threat during the trauma, (e) posttrauma social support, (f) peritraumatic emotional responses, and (g) peritraumatic dissociation. All yielded significant effect sizes, with family history, prior trauma, and prior adjustment the smallest (weighted r = .17) and peritraumatic dissociation the largest (weighted r = .35). The results suggest that peritraumatic psychological processes, not prior characteristics, are the strongest predictors of PTSD.
 
Article
Psychologists and neuroscientists have had a long-standing interest in the P3, a prominent component of the event-related brain potential. This review aims to integrate knowledge regarding the neural basis of the P3 and to elucidate its functional role in information processing. The authors review evidence suggesting that the P3 reflects phasic activity of the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. They discuss the P3 literature in the light of empirical findings and a recent theory regarding the information-processing function of the LC-NE phasic response. The theoretical framework emerging from this research synthesis suggests that the P3 reflects the response of the LC-NE system to the outcome of internal decision-making processes and the consequent effects of noradrenergic potentiation of information processing.
 
Article
Children with persistent antisocial and aggressive behavior are diagnosed as having disruptive behavior disorder. The authors review evidence that antisocial children, and especially those who persist with this behavior as they grow older, have a range of neurobiological characteristics. It is argued that serotonergic functioning and stress-regulating mechanisms are important in explaining individual differences in antisocial behavior. Moreover, low fear of punishment and physiological underactivity may predispose antisocial individuals to seek out stimulation or take risks and may help to explain poor conditioning and socialization. The authors propose a theoretical model highlighting the interplay between neurobiological deficits and cognitive and emotional functioning as mediators of the link between early adversity and antisocial behavior problems in childhood. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.
 
Expected Procrastination Relationships With Variables Related to Expectancy, Value, Sensitivity to Delay, and Delay That Further Validate Temporal Motivation Theory Construct Theoretical connection Relationship 
Summary of Procrastination's Correlational Findings: Conscientiousness and Intention–Action Gap 
Summary of Procrastination's Correlational Findings: Poor Performance and Demographics 
Article
Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood. Hence, the relevant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical work is reviewed, drawing upon correlational, experimental, and qualitative findings. A meta-analysis of procrastination's possible causes and effects, based on 691 correlations, reveals that neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show only a weak connection. Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay, self-efficacy, and impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control, distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation. These effects prove consistent with temporal motivation theory, an integrative hybrid of expectancy theory and hyperbolic discounting. Continued research into procrastination should not be delayed, especially because its prevalence appears to be growing.
 
Article
Reports an error in "Cancer-related fatigue: A systematic and meta-analytic review of non-pharmacological therapies for cancer patients" by Maria Kangas, Dana H. Bovbjerg and Guy H. Montgomery (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 700-741). The URL to the Supplemental Materials for the article is listed incorrectly in two places in the text. The incorrect listings appear on p. 704 (in the last two lines of the third paragraph) and on p. 705 (in the third and fourth lines of the first paragraph in the second column). The correct URL for the Supplemental Materials is http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012825.supp, which is provided on the first page of the article beneath the abstract. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-11487-005.) Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a significant clinical problem for more than 10 million adults diagnosed with cancer each year worldwide. No "gold standard" treatment presently exists for CRF. To provide a guide for future research to improve the treatment of CRF, the authors conducted the most comprehensive combined systematic and meta-analytic review of the literature to date on non-pharmacological (psychosocial and exercise) interventions to ameliorate CRF and associated symptoms (vigor/vitality) in adults with cancer, based on 119 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCT studies. Meta-analyses conducted on 57 RCTs indicated that exercise and psychological interventions provided reductions in CRF, with no significant differences between these 2 major types of interventions considered as a whole. Specifically, multimodal exercise and walking programs, restorative approaches, supportive-expressive, and cognitive-behavioral psychosocial interventions show promising potential for ameliorating CRF. The results also suggest that vigor and vitality are distinct phenomena from CRF with regard to responsiveness to intervention. With improved methodological approaches, further research in this area may soon provide clinicians with effective strategies for reducing CRF and enhancing the lives of millions of cancer patients and survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Reports an error in "Chronic psychosocial factors and acute physiological responses to laboratory-induced stress in healthy populations: A quantitative review of 30 years of investigations" by Yoichi Chida and Mark Hamer (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Nov], Vol 134[6], 829-885). There is an error in Table 1. On p. 840 the entry for Hill et al. 1987 should be Masters et al. 2004. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-14745-003.) This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness; anxiety, neuroticism, or negative affect; hostility, aggression, or Type-A behavior; fatigue, burnout, or exhaustion; positive psychological states or traits) in healthy populations. In either the overall meta-analysis or the methodologically strong subanalysis, positive psychological states or traits were associated with reduced HPA reactivity. Hostility, aggression, or Type-A behavior was associated with increased cardiovascular (heart rate or blood pressure) reactivity, whereas anxiety, neuroticism, or negative affect was associated with decreased cardiovascular reactivity. General life stress and anxiety, neuroticism, or negative affect were associated with poorer cardiovascular recovery. However, regarding the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system, there were no associations between the chronic psychosocial factors and stress reactivity or recovery. The results largely reflect an integrated stress response pattern of hypo- or hyperactivity depending on the specific nature of the psychosocial background. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Moderating Effects of Study Methodology on Victim Cognitions and Affect 
Article
Forgiveness has received widespread attention among psychologists from social, personality, clinical, developmental, and organizational perspectives alike. Despite great progress, the forgiveness literature has witnessed few attempts at empirical integration. Toward this end, we meta-analyze results from 175 studies and 26,006 participants to examine the correlates of interpersonal forgiveness (i.e., forgiveness of a single offender by a single victim). A tripartite forgiveness typology is proposed, encompassing victims' (a) cognitions, (b) affect, and (c) constraints following offense, with each consisting of situational and dispositional components. We tested hypotheses with respect to 22 distinct constructs, as correlates of forgiveness, that have been measured across different fields within psychology. We also evaluated key sample and study characteristics, including gender, age, time, and methodology as main effects and moderators. Results highlight the multifaceted nature of forgiveness. Variables with particularly notable effects include intent (r = -.49), state empathy (r = .51), apology (r = .42), and state anger (r = -.41). Consistent with previous theory, situational constructs are shown to account for greater variance in forgiveness than victim dispositions, although within-category differences are considerable. Sample and study characteristics yielded negligible effects on forgiveness, despite previous theorizing to the contrary: The effect of gender was nonsignificant (r = .01), and the effect of age was negligible (r = .06). Preliminary evidence suggests that methodology may exhibit some moderating effects. Scenario methodologies led to enhanced effects for cognitions; recall methodologies led to enhanced effects for affect.
 
ACE Parameter Estimates for ADHD Across Study Type and Informant 
Article
Reports an error in "Are there shared environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Reply to Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kuntsi (2010)" by S. Alexandra Burt (Psychological Bulletin, 2010[May], Vol 136[3], 341-343). In the article, the surname of Jonna Kuntsi is misspelled throughout. The online versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-07936-002.) A recent large-scale meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies indicated that shared environmental influences make important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009b). The sole exception to this robust pattern of results was observed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which appeared to be largely genetic (and particularly nonadditive genetic) in origin, with no observable influence of the shared environment. The central thesis of Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kuntsi (2010) is that, contrary to these findings, shared environmental influences are important for ADHD. As evidence for this thesis, Wood et al. presented a summary of prior twin studies, followed by a discussion of 4 methodological issues that may account for my findings in Burt (2009b). I argue that, although the methodological concerns raised by Wood et al. are very important, they do not undermine my earlier results (Burt, 2009b). I close with a discussion of 2 issues that may allow for some shared environmental influences on ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a continuous over discrete measure of psychopathology alone. This increase occurs across all types of samples and forms of psychopathology, with little evidence for exceptions. For typical observed effect sizes, the increase in validity is sufficient to almost halve sample sizes necessary to achieve standard power levels. With important caveats, the current results, considered with previous research, provide sufficient empirical and theoretical basis to assume a priori that continuous measurement of psychopathology is more reliable and valid. Use of continuous measures in psychopathology assessment has widespread theoretical and practical benefits in research and clinical settings.
 
Article
This meta-analysis used 9 literature search strategies to examine 137 distinct personality constructs as correlates of subjective well-being (SWB). Personality was found to be equally predictive of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, but significantly less predictive of negative affect. The traits most closely associated with SWB were repressive-defensiveness, trust, emotional stability, locus of control-chance, desire for control, hardiness, positive affectivity, private collective self-esteem, and tension. When personality traits were grouped according to the Big Five factors, Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction, happiness, and negative affect. Positive affect was predicted equally well by Extraversion and Agreeableness. The relative importance of personality for predicting SWB, how personality might influence SWB, and limitations of the present review are discussed.
 
(continued )
Funnel plot of standard error on log odds male to female ratio, for the total left-handedness comparison.  
Male to Female Left-Handedness Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for All the Levels of the Moderator Variables
Article
Human handedness, a marker for language lateralization in the brain, continues to attract great research interest. A widely reported but not universal finding is a greater male tendency toward left-handedness. Here the authors present a meta-analysis of k = 144 studies, totaling N = 1,787,629 participants, the results of which demonstrate that the sex difference is both significant and robust. The overall best estimate for the male to female odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.19, 1.27). The widespread observation of this sex difference is consistent with it being related to innate characteristics of sexual differentiation, and its observed magnitude places an important constraint on current theories of handedness. In addition, the size of the sex difference was significantly moderated by the way in which handedness was assessed (by writing hand or by other means), the location of testing, and the year of publication of the study, implicating additional influences on its development.
 
Article
Integrating more than 40 years of studies on locus of control (LOC), this meta-analysis investigated whether (a) the magnitude of the relationship between LOC and psychological symptoms differed among cultures with distinct individualist orientations and (b) depression and anxiety symptoms yielded different patterns of cultural findings with LOC. We included studies that examined global self-ratings of LOC and at least 1 of the criterion variables in nonclinical samples (age range: 18-80 years). Data were analyzed on the basis of 152 independent samples, representing the testing of 33,224 adults across 18 cultural regions. Results revealed moderately strong relationships for external LOC with depression symptoms (k = 123, N = 28,490, r = .30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [.27, .32]) and anxiety symptoms (k = 65, N = 13,208, r = .30, 95% CI [.27, .33]). Individualism explained 20% of unique variance only in the external LOC-anxiety relationship: The link between external LOC and anxiety symptoms was weaker for collectivist societies (k = 8, N = 2,297, r = .20, 95% CI [.13, .28]) compared with individualist societies (k = 54, N = 9,887, r = .32, 95% CI [.29, .34]). Such cultural differences were attributed to the reduced emphasis on agentic goals in more collectivist societies. It is noteworthy that external LOC does not carry the same negative connotations across cultures, and members of collectivist societies may be more ready to endorse such items. Culture has been examined at the country level, and the findings may not be applicable to any particular person in a cultural region. Implications for integrating cultural meaning of perceived control into formulation of theories, research design, and intervention programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Exponents of the psychophysical function for subjective duration are compiled from 111 studies undertaken with the methods of magnitude estimation, magnitude production, and ratio setting. The determination of exponents from ratio-setting data is based on a new model for time perception that also allows the computation of exponents from equal-setting (duration reproduction) data (i.e., from experiments that did not involve the S's numerical behavior). The following problems are dealt with in terms of their influence on the exponent of subjective duration: practice, sensory modality (used in presenting the duration, including empty intervals), drugs, group differences (age, mental retardation, psychosis, neurosis), and experimental effects (methods, very short durations, intramodal range effect). A general conclusion is that time perception is not veridical and that the exponent on the average approximates 0.9. (4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In 1899, R. S. Woodworth published a seminal monograph, "The Accuracy of Voluntary Movement." As well as making a number of important empirical contributions, Woodworth presented a model of speed-accuracy relations in the control of upper limb movements. The model has come to be known as the two-component model because the control of speeded limb movements was hypothesized to entail both a central and a feedback-based component. Woodworth's (1899) ideas about the control of rapid aiming movements are evaluated in the context of current empirical and theoretical contributions.
 
Article
Research contrasting the quality of group performance with individual performance in each of the following general topic areas has been examined in this paper: judgment, learning, social facilitation, problem solving, memory, size of group, problem solving in more realistic situations, and productivity. Recent theoretical and methodological considerations as well as discussions of group types are included. Research weakness and theoretical problems are discussed. 74 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
It is suggested that 13 prominent Japanese psychologists be added to Bennett and Boring's necrology (see ^W28:^n 6839).
 
Article
198-item list of prominent psychologists who died between 1928 and 1952.
 
Article
The literature is summarized under the headings: aggregational behavior; social facilitation; imitation; dominance, aggression and territorialism; family life; effect of isolation; communication; recognition of kind; cooperation and food sharing; grooming. "In addition to deficiencies in theoretical orientation and in the range of species studied, there also exist weaknesses in the techniques used for the study of social behavior. There is a need for new approaches to existing problems, and for new problems to be conceived and studied Little has been done on such important phenomena as play, communication, imitation, and learning in social situations." 250-item bibliography.
 
Article
A review of such projective tests as the Rorschach in its several forms, the TAT, the Worthington Personal-History, the Tomkins-Horn Picture Arrangement, and others as they have been applied in studies relating to various personnel problems. The usefulness of the projective instruments is discussed in relation to personnel selection, differentiation between successful and unsuccessful workers, measurement of promotion potential, job satisfaction and adjustment, and identification of vocationally significant personality patterns. It is concluded on the basis of both the methodologies used and the results obtained that there is a need for thorough job specifications in terms of personality traits and extensive use of cross-validation studies before any practical use can be made of projective techniques in personnel psychology. (2 p. ref.)
 
Article
Research directed at the teaching of psychology (particularly the elementary course) is examined in terms of teaching goals, factors affecting achievement of these goals, measures available to research in this area, and future research needs. Greater awareness of instruments or tools used by other researchers would result in reduced expenditure of effort. The lack of a theoretical basis for the research is the most critical cause of equivocal research outcomes in this domain. In many cases it is preferable to use " gains as criteria rather than scores on a posttest." 72 references.
 
Article
The validity of the test as a measure of general intelligence is no longer questioned; in fact, it serves as a reference criterion. There has been a marked increase in the use of the test as a diagnostic instrument on the hypothesis that, " the several intellectual factors measured by the test are differentially affected by a variety of emotional, psychiatric and neurological conditions." With such use, certain deficiencies in test structure merit attention. 145-item bibliography.
 
Article
Research literature on the selection interview since 1949 is reviewed. Major sections include validity studies, studies dealing with the accuracy of information obtained in the interview, and analytic and model-testing studies. Recurring evidence suggests that the interview may be most successful if limited to the assessment of personal relations and career motivation. Recent analytic studies involving content analyses and decision-making processes show promise of providing new insights into the interview process. (75 ref.)
 
Top-cited authors
Alex Stajkovic
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
Fred Luthans
  • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Michael Pluess
  • Queen Mary, University of London
Jay Belsky
  • University of California, Davis
Janet Hyde
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison