Psyche

Print ISSN: 0033-2623
Publications
Recent findings of infant research suggest that the self may be regarded as a self-regulating system. The "identity self", that is, the totality of self representations, serves as the internal reference system around which all life-historical identity vacillations revolve.
 
A case presentation of quasi-therapeutic counseling in the neopietist-Swedenborgian setting of the 1830's. The niece of the decreased Caspar Wegelin offered herself as the latter's medium and counseled Gustav Werner, the Swedenborg translator, who was in a spiritual crisis. The interpretation of dreams played a significant part in this help. The 'therapist' had to immerse herself deeply in the religious mysticism of her time. While under its spell, she had to be 'beside herself' and to act authoritatively in the place of her uncle. Religion also defined the 'treatment goal! We are shown the model of a 'cure' through dialogue about repugnant wishes within the framework of transference and countertransference.
 
The general attitude towards Entwurf einer Psychologie (1895) is to reckon it among Freud's pre-analytic writings, i.e. that part of his work later more or less disowned by the author. Schmidt-Hellerau challenges this assessment by Freud and many of his successors, demonstrating that the Entwurf can legitimately be regarded as a meta-theory resolving - or skirting- the old classification problem of whether psychoanalysis is a science or an art by connecting the hitherto dissociated spheres of soma and psyche and conceptualizing of physiological and psychological processes. See thus, the Entwurf reveals itself as a theoretical document of astonishing modernity and undiminished relevance in that it records Freud's ambitious attempt to overcome the mind-body schism and the divide between neurophysiology and psychology. And it is precisely this problem, the author contends, which Freud's later metapsychology--and the controversies it has aroused--revolves around.
 
Taking 24 hours in the life of Freud, the author shows how significant the interplay of dream, day-dream, unconscious phantasy and transference can be in solving scientific problems. This is documented by using the correspondence between Freud and Fliess on March 9/10, 1898, by taking Freud's dream of a botanical monograph, his day-dream of a glaucoma operation, his remarks on the "real" course of the day, and segments of self-analysis.
 
The author shows by means of literary comparisons that in "Death in Venice" and The Magic Mountain, Mann was strongly influenced by Freud's psychoanalysis, in particular by the latter's work "Delusion and dreams in W. Jensen's 'Gradiva'."
 
With access to new sources the author reconstructs the conditions and circumstances leading in 1912 to what in the literature has come to be known as Freud's "secret committee". Schröter's sociological vantage enables him to pinpoint the mechanisms that made it possible for Freud to seek a resolution of the conflict smouldering between himself and Jung by staging a "palace revolution" which dethroned the institutionalized powerholder (Jung was president of the IPV and editor of the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen) and established the Viennese group-centering around Freud and standing for his interest in the survival of his work-as an informal, secret body wielding power collectively and thus making it unnecessary for Freud himself to take over direct, personal "rule". At the same time, the author contends, the differences between Vienna and Zurich also need to be understood in terms of local and historical factors. Whereas Freud and Vienna represent a monarchic understanding of power in which power may be delegated but is never shared or relinquished, Jung and Zurich stand for democratic, liberal-bourgeois attitude towards power stemming from a long tradition of anti-monarchism in Switzerland.
 
The publication of Freud's essay on narcissism in 1914 set off a discussion about the psychoanalytic concepts of the ego and of narcissism. The author reviews this discussion by reference to articles appearing in the Int. Z. ärztl. Psa. between 1914 and 1922. She highlights the theoretical and technical modifications corresponding to this discussion and demonstrates that apparently modern theories of the ego and of narcissism have their roots largely in that period.
 
"Wir und der Tod", a pre-stage of the second part of Freud's paper "Zeitgemässes über Krieg und Tod" (1915), is the only preserved text of his lectures held in the "Wien" lodge of B'nai B'rith. It is discussed extensively with regard to its essentials and the differences between the lecture version and the version in "Zietgemässes über Krieg und Tod".
 
In 1925/26 G.W. Pabst produced 'Secret of a Soul', a film intended to acquaint the broad public with psychoanalysis. The authors describe the historical context of the project - Freud's refusal and Sachs' and Abraham's willingness to cooperate in its realization as well as Bernfeld's own shooting script for a psychoanalytic film project that was never realized.
 
The author provides a survey of three phases of psychoanalytic therapy research, each one is being characterized by its most important representatives and their contributions. The first phase (1930-1970) sought in essence to justify, i.e. to prove, that analytical therapies are useful. The second phase (1960-1980) was dedicated to a deeper understanding of the relationship between the course of therapy and its results. The third phase, finally, can be identified as a thorough and detailed inquiry into the analytical process.
 
In the course of collecting historical material about the first psychoanalytic in-patient clinic ("Sanatorium Schloss Tegel") in the years 1927-1931, the authors discovered an unpublished typescript by Ernst Simmel entitled "Neurotic criminality and lust murder". On the basis of clinic records, excerpts from letters, and personal information, the authors supplement Simmel's treatment report of a lust murderess with a historical, documentary text, which is followed by Simmel's paper.
 
Although the concept of "inner objects" developed by Melanie Klein is hardly a major object of discussion today, it caused a furore in the ranks of the British Psychoanalytical Society in the thirties and forties. Notably the analysts from Vienna were unable to agree to the existence of inner objects engendered via processes of internalisation. The author traces the course of these discussions of a clinical problem and the confusion they caused, placing them at the same time in a specific historical context. He sees the controversy as the expression of conflicts and fears unsettling the British Psychoanalytical Society during that period, caused on the one hand by the necessary integration of the exiled Freud family and on the other by tensions within its own ranks leading ultimately to a division of the Society and the constitution of the Klein Group.
 
The following text deals with the manuscript of an address that was given in the autumn of 1935 before a large audience in the Prague high school Urania. The non-violent seizure of power by the Nazis had recently made evident once more the enormous importance of wishful phantasies and collective illusions, that in certain situations in society favour the formation of mass movements motivated by mass hatreds. A contributing factor to the troubles in the last years of the Weimar republic was the criticism by socialist intellectuals such as W.Reich or E.Bloch of the all too abstract propaganda of the Labour parties. Into this context comes Lowenfeld's discourse in which he - elucidating the events in Hitler's Germany at that time with theorems from Freud's 'Mass Psychology and Ego Analysis' - endeavoured to present 'fragments of, and incitations to a psychology of fascism as nowadays the importance of psychological factors cannot be too highly evaluated'. To this he added: 'The ideological need of the masses proves to be greater than their hunger for real provisions. One might call it 'Duty instead of bread'. In a 'Retrospect after 40 years' the author explains to whom his comments had been addressed, and remarks in self criticism that, underestimating the part played in history by the personality, he had masked the historical figure of Hitler, to which he now attributes decisive significance.
 
The expulsion of the Freud family in 1938--On the basis of legal documents, the author describes the events of the years 1938-1942 pertaining to the migration of the Freud family under the pressure of the Nazi regime.
 
On the basis of personal reminiscences the author describes the political climate of Vienna between the end of the Monarchy and Anschluss of Austria. At the same time she clarifies the extent to which politics impinged on psychoanalysis.
 
The address, published here for the first time, is among the writings which Fenichel (1898-1946) dedicated in the 1930's to the critique of psychoanalytic psychology. He reproached the psychologists for not appreciating the societal reality which structures the drives, and he faulted (Marxist) sociology for failing to make the transition from the analysis of social structure to the political activity or inactivity of class individuals. Odd as Fenichel's classification of psychoanalysis as a natural science appears today, his critique of psychology has remained relevant.
 
Simmel characterises antisemitism as a form of mass psychopathology. Whereas the central problem in our culture is the mastery over the human destructive urge, antisemitism is the result of a cultural overdemand in the context of economic crises. A view of the religious antisemitism teaches us that the Jew functions as the scapegoat for Christian culture. The antisemites contain individuals who as a result of life history dreams and status crises renounce the ego's autonomy to form a sort of mass binding and thus find a chance to release an accumulated aggression against minorities without being punished for this. Simmel concludes his reflections with a program for the combatting of antisemitism and other forms of minoritory persecution.
 
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