Psicothema

Published by Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias
Online ISSN: 0214-9915
Publications
Article
Recently, sigma-1 receptor modulators have been considered drugs with an interesting therapeutic potential for the treatment of anxiety. However, there is no clear information in preclinical studies about the possible effects of sigma-1 ligands on anxiety in experimental animal models. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of (+)SKF 10,047 (2-8 mg/kg, ip), a sigma-1 agonist, on anxiety, tested in two classical laboratory models (social interaction test and elevated plus maze). (+)SKF 10,047 (8 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease of social investigation in the "social interaction test", whereas in the "elevated plus maze", the drug (4 and 8 mg/kg) provoked a significant reduction in the number of entries into open arms, as well as in the time spent in this area, as compared with the control group, without affecting motor activity. Overall, these findings indicate that (+)SKF 10,047 exhibits an anxiogenic-like profile in mice. It is suggested that anxiogenic effects of this sigma-1 ligand could be related to its potent ability to modulate diverse neurotransmitter systems involved in anxiety regulation.
 
Article
Infrahumanization studies have verified that most people attribute more secondary emotions to the ingroup than to the outgroup. However, these results may vary with changing contexts. The main objective of this study was to investigate the infrahumanization of Moroccans, depending on the context, after the 11-M attacks and seven years later. For this purpose, variations that occur in the allocation of essential human qualities--secondary emotions--were analyzed by activating images of outgroup members in two opposite contexts: Guilty of the terrorist attack or its victim. The results show that the infrahumanization of the Moroccans in the perpetrator context does not change significantly with regard to the control group. However, infrahumanization does not take place when Moroccans are associated with a victim context, though only immediately after the terrorist attack, because seven years later, this effect disappears.
 
Article
We present a descriptive study of the differences in the morphological awareness in writing (production and judgement), the written vocabulary and the written composition through the essay task (productivity and quality) in children from 8 to 11 years old. We studied 132 students, from 3rd to 6th primary school, coming from six schools. Data evidence a general pattern of improvement as a function of age, although this change pattern is complex in the morphological awareness and depends on the layer analyzed and on the type of task. Similarly, the written morphological awareness is the best predictor of age group. We discuss the implications for the educational practice, and we explicit the shortcoming of the study and the need to implement instructional and longitudinal studies.
 
Article
The present study outlines the development process of two scales that measure general and specific retribution practices in organisations. Historically, retribution has been the subject of research of other social sciences such as Sociology and Business Administration. In Psychology, and more specifically in Work and Organisational Psychology, there are hardly any studies or inventories designed to evaluate retribution practices. In order to accomplish the objectives, a sample of 237 employees was selected, 42.6% of whom were women and 57.4% were men. We performed and exploratory factorial analysis using principal axis factoring as extraction method and an oblique rotation (oblimin) to analyse the two scales. The former is made up of four factors and the latter is a two-factor scale. The reliability coefficients of the six subscales we obtained ranged between .72 and .89. External validity was analysed using the correlations obtained between the two inventories and the Balanced Scorecard. The two tools were found to be two potentially useful scales to evaluate retribution practices.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze sexual behaviors and attitudes of children 9-14 years old in Spain. In this article we present data from 470 children of which 52% are boys and 48% girls. In order to evaluate the sample, Information, Attitudes and Behaviors related to Health Questionnaire (CIACS-II) was used. Results evidence that boys 9 years old already show behaviors that evidence their interest towards sexuality. 8% have sometimes masturbated and 9% have used pornography for becoming excited. 14% of children 11-12 years old have already had sexual relations and 38% state to have sexual fantasies. Girls start to masturbate and to have sexual relations later than boys and show a prevalence of sexual fantasies and use of pornography very lower. It is necessary sexual education programs to be implanted since early ages in schools.
 
Article
The aim of the present paper was to develop a Spanish adaptation of the reduced, 14-item version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI-14), a questionnaire developed to evaluate team climate. To this end the English version was adapted and applied to a sample of 360 employees from Castilla-León and Catalonia (44.4% men and 55.6% women). The results indicated that the TCI-14 has the same structure as the original version, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the existence of the factors Vision, Participative Safety, Task Orientation and Support for Innovation. The TCI-14 also presented good reliability coefficients considering the low number of items on each scale (alphas ranged between .75 and .82). The TCI-14 is a potentially useful instrument for evaluating the climate of work teams. It could be used by future research as a screening tool in conjunction with other instruments.
 
Article
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.
 
Article
Juan Huarte de San Juan is regarded as a major precursor of psychological assessment. The growing scholarship on his Examination of men's wit (1575-1594) in the last decades has not been accompanied by historiographical studies on his work and life. The only complete biographic study based on archival research was published by Iriarte (1938). In this manuscript we discuss the particulars of the identification of this author in documentary sources. New evidences about his life are reported and reviewed along with the data already available. We focus on the period started by the ending of his doctorate (1560) and the birth of his last daughter (1578). Huarte spent most of these years in Baeza (Spain) as a physician.
 
Confi rmatory factor analysis of the CPPC-17 scale (Chi-square = 599.818; df = 116; P-value= .0000; RMSEA = .06; CFI =.92 and TLI = .93)
Article
Background: This study follows the theoretical framework put forward by Hinton on creative potential and practised creativity. The objective was to adapt the 17-item Creative Potential and Practised Creativity scale into Spanish and examine its psychometric properties. Method: The study sample was made up of 975 Spanish employees (48.5% men and 51.5% women). Results: After performing a confirmatory factor analysis, the findings revealed a three-factor structure: Creative potential, Practised creativity and Perception of organizational support. Furthermore, appropriate reliability was found for all three factors as well as initial evidence of construct validity in relation to certain external correlates and a series of scales measuring workaholism, irritation, burnout and personality. Conclusions: The present scale may prove ideal for adequately identifying Creative potential, Practised creativity and Perceived organizational support.
 
Confirmatory factor analysis indexes (N= 200) 
BSI-18 structural model results (N= 200). Standardized factor loading 
Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the four BSI-18 dimensions and the total score 
Article
Propiedades psicométricas del Brief Symptoms Inventory 18 (BSI-18) en una muestra española de pacientes ambulatorios con trastornos psiquiátricos. Este trabajo analiza las propiedades psicométricas y estructurales del BSI-18 en una muestra española de pacientes ambulatorios con trastornos psiquiátricos (N= 200) con tres objetivos: (i) estudiar la validez estructural del mismo; (ii) analizar su fiabilidad (consistencia interna y estabilidad test-retest) y validez (convergente y discriminante); y (iii) evaluar su sensibilidad al cambio en el contexto terapéutico. Utilizando análisis factorial confirmatorio, se pusieron a prueba dos modelos estructurales: el modelo trifactorial propuesto teóricamente por los autores del instrumento, y el modelo empírico obtenido por los mismos a través de un análisis factorial exploratorio que arrojó cuatro factores. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la estructura óptima era un modelo de cuatro dimensiones que diferencia entre Somatización, Depresión, Ansiedad general y Pánico. Estas cuatro escalas mostraron índices adecuados de consistencia interna, fiabilidad test-retest, validez convergente y discriminante, y sensibilidad al cambio terapéutico. El BSI-18 ha mostrado ser un instrumento fiable y válido para la evaluación de pacientes con trastornos psiquiátricos, con la ventaja adicional de su simplicidad y brevedad de aplicación.
 
Article
All the papers on autism published in journals by Spanish authors until 2007 were reviewed in order to identify changes and trends in studies, journals and authorship networks. A total of 567 works were analyzed. Results showed a continuous increase in the total number of publications and collaborative works (especially from 1999 onwards), as well as coincidence of the general framework of papers with the guidelines for research and treatment on autism that were published in the Anglo-Saxon arena for the same period. Some weak points were also identified, such as the low proportion of empirical and funded studies, low impact of the journals, and low author continuity, which have also been noted for other domains of research in Spain. We conclude that psychological and biomedical research on autism is currently a growing field in our country. However, important changes are needed, both in the way the authors conduct and communicate their studies, and in the commitment of some institutions (specially, universities and parent advocacy groups). Lastly, some proposals are suggested to improve the scientific quality of future studies and their usefulness for people with autism.
 
Article
Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.
 
Article
This work aims to reveal some aspects of the scientific domain of Psychology, in the context of the internationally visible Spanish science in the databases of the Citation Index of The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which is represented by a map. We used the methodology of cocitation of thematic categories (JCR-Thompson Scientific), with which we obtained a representation of the scientific activity. The resulting map allowed us to focus on the area of Psychology, whose representation acts as database for the analysis of this discipline in the scientific field with international visibility. This study offers an empirical view of the underlying structure of Spanish Psychology. This is important because most scientists have an intuitive idea of this structure, but this may or may not be real. This way, we present a global vision of the entire discipline that favours its objective analysis as a function of scientists' behaviour as it affects their patterns of communication through the established formal channels.
 
Article
This study aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Scale of Perceived Social Support Specific to the Illness of Revenson et al. 1991. A sample of 202 patients with chronic conditions was used. After making several factor analysis of the scale on all four versions (partner, family, friends and doctors), it was found a structure formed by two factors involving positive social support and not functional or problematic social support. The results obtained with Cronbach's alpha show that all scales have acceptable and adequate internal consistency. In this sense, this scale may be appropriate to identify properly perceived social support for chronic patients on the four sources of support studied.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking among Psychology students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) over a ten-year period (1986-2006). We also assessed the extent of knowledge of the Spanish health legislation on tobacco (Ley 28/2005) and its effect on smoking. We administered a questionnaire to representative samples of students from the 1st year of their Psychology course to the 5th year, on four occasions. In the academic year 1996-1997 (N = 835), 34% of the sample claimed to be daily smokers; in 1999-2000 (N = 842), the figure was 35.2%; in 2003-2004 (N = 835) it was 31.9%; and in 2006-2007 (N = 688), it was 22.8%. Moreover, in the last assessment, 97.1% of the sample reported being aware of the legislation (Ley 28/2005) and 41.9% of the smokers claimed that it had some degree of influence on their smoking. It can be stated that, although overall current prevalence of smoking is similar to that of 10 years ago, a significant change is observed in the profile of smokers. This change is expressed in lower levels of nicotine dependence and a decrease in the percentage of daily smokers, together with an increase in occasional smokers.
 
Descriptive statistics for MSCEIT branches and overall EI scores by gender 
Article
This study examined the reliability of the Spanish version of the MSCEIT, with a sample of 946 college and high school students (426 males, 520 females) ranging from 16 to 58 years old. After the translation and back-translation process, the objectives of this study were: 1) to examine the reliability of the Spanish version of the MSCEIT v.2.0 at the total scale, area, branch and subscale levels; 2) to analyze the correlations between the methods of scoring in the Spanish version of the MSCEIT v.2.0 at the total scale, area, branch and subscale levels; 3) to examine possible gender differences on MSCEIT scores; and 4) to examine the relationship between age and MSCEIT scores. These analyses revealed good reliability and internal consistency for the Spanish version of the MSCEIT; a high level of convergence between scoring methods; and higher scores obtained by women on overall scale and branches scores than scores obtained by men. A positive correlation between the scores on MSCEIT and age was found. Finally, these results are discussed in light of the limitations of the present study, the implications of the use of this new instrument, and the need for future research on emotional intelligence.
 
Article
The considerable prevalence of cyberbullying and its noxious effects on all those concerned reveals the need for programs to prevent and/or intervene in this type of violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on "face-to-face" bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. A sample of 176 adolescents of the Basque Country (Spain), aged between 13 and 15 years, who studied Compulsory Secondary Education, was used. Of them, 93 were randomly assigned to the experimental condition, and 83 to the control condition. The study used a pretest-posttest repeated measures design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered. The results confirmed that the program significantly stimulated: (a) a decrease in the amount of bullying and cyberbullying behaviors suffered and/or carried out (level of victimization, perpetration, aggressive-victimization); and (b) an increase in the capacity for empathy. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to prevent and reduce bullying and cyberbullying. The discussion analyzes aspects of the program that may account for the significant intervention effects.
 
Article
The cognitive diagnosis approach links Psychometrics and Cognitive Psychology in order to obtain detailed measurements of the processes and cognitive attributes required to solve test items. In this context, the Least Squares Distance Method (LSDM) employs item parameters, calibrated with any Item Response Theory (IRT) model, to analyze the attributes and provide evidence about the validity of the cognitive structure. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) determines three cognitive attributes underlying students' performance in the PISA-2006 science items: a) identifying scientific issues, b) explaining phenomena scientifically and c) using scientific evidence. The aim of the present work is to analyze these processes and collect evidence of the cognitive structure proposed by the OECD, using the LSDM. A second aim is to compare the probabilities of mastering the attributes of the Spanish Communities. The results show that the proposed structure is appropriate to explain students' proficiency in the science items, and also, significant differences between three Spanish Communities were found.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to analyze research scientific productivity of Spanish public universities by means of using criteria related to research assessment in Spain. Firstly, a study to establish the weight of the indicators was developed. A representative sample of 1,341 university teachers participated in this study. Of them, 68% are senior lecturers and 32% are professors. A stratified random sampling procedure within each area of knowledge was used. The sample is representative with a 97% confidence interval. Secondly, the scientific productivity according to the size of university in each indicator was analyzed. Finally, the scientific productivity according to size of university and weight of each indicator was weighted. Results of the survey make possible to get a specific ranking in each criterion: Doctoral dissertations, Research projects+development, Grants for training university teachers, Articles included in JCR, Research periods and Doctorate programs with Quality Mention, as well as a global ranking. Results allow analyzing strengths and weakness of each university according each criterion.
 
Article
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of quality rankings of universities, both nationally and internationally. The lack of clarity in the collection and presentation of information means that many of these classifications are difficult to understand and interpret, so that it is necessary to establish a series of considerations about the name of ranking, selection criteria, the weight indicators, the type and choice of institutions that are evaluated, the size of the institutions, information sources, the one-dimensionality/multi-dimensionality of the rankings, frequency and quality criteria. In addition to providing this information, the aim of this study is to update and improve the research ranking of Spanish public universities of 2009. The same methodology as in the ranking of 2008 is followed, adding a new criterion, which refers to the patents registered and operated, and also enhances the rate of research sections. Results allow the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each Spanish public university in the area of research.
 
Article
Background: The PISA project provides the basis for studying curriculum design and for comparing factors associated with school effectiveness. These studies are only valid if the different language versions are equivalent to each other. In Spain, the application of PISA in autonomous regions with their own languages means that equivalency must also be extended to the Spanish, Galician, Catalan and Basque versions of the test. The aim of this work was to analyse the equivalence among the four language versions of the Reading Comprehension Test (PISA 2009). Method: After defining the testlet as the unit of analysis, equivalence among the language versions was analysed using two invariance testing procedures: multiple-group mean and covariance structure analyses for ordinal data and ordinal logistic regression. Results: The procedures yielded concordant results supporting metric equivalence across all four language versions: Spanish, Basque, Galician and Catalan. Conclusions: The equivalence supports the estimated reading literacy score comparability among the language versions used in Spain.
 
Article
Response to Intervention (RTI) is being used in districts and states around the United States (U.S.) as a means to enhance learning opportunities and address the needs of struggling learners. Increasing attention to RTI in the research community and the recent creation of a large national technical assistance center reflect its growing visibility. Because equity issues for ethnic and linguistically diverse students are purportedly addressed in RTI models, we conduct a sociocultural analysis of its building blocks, namely the definitions and assumptions embedded in the notions of "response" and "intervention". We used interdisciplinary theoretical and empirical insights about the cultural nature of learning and development to inform our analysis. We discuss how the assumptions of RTI might unintentionally create blind spots for researchers and practitioners about how to design, conduct, and assess learning environments, particularly for diverse students. We conclude with reflections about future directions in this research area.
 
Article
The creation of the European Higher Education Area has brought the relevance of the scientific quality assessment in higher education. The result of this interest is a growing interest in the development of rankings of universities, both nationally and internationally. To continue the line started two years ago, the goal of this research is to update the ranking of research productivity in Spanish public universities with the data of 2010. We follow the same methodology to data from 2008 and 2009; although this year it includes measures of total production. The same indicators to evaluate research in 2009: journals articles indexed in the JCR, research periods, research + development projects, doctoral dissertations, grants for training university teachers, Doctoral Programs with Quality Mention and patents. From the results obtained show that universities with higher production were Complutense de Madrid, Barcelona and Granada. The most productive were the Pompeu Fabra University, the Pablo de Olavide, and the Autonoma de Barcelona.
 
Article
Learning to search on the Web of Science: A reply to the Aluja, Becoña, Botella, Colom, Echeburúa, Forns, Pérez and Vila (2011) study. The aims of this paper are, on the one hand, to present the differences in the results that may be incurred when working with some automated database functions to obtain scientific production and, on the other hand, to reveal the mistakes made by Aluja et al. (2011) in their considerations and suggestions to the study of Olivas-Avila and Musi-Lechuga (2010a). In this paper, we show that the procedure used to replicate the study is incorrect and, therefore, the authors did not only confuse production with diffusion indicators, but also suggest many indicators that have no discriminative power with the sample studied,- and the most striking-one hundred percent out of the ten cases analyzed were incorrectly analyzed and, therefore, the results do not correspond to the real record count in the Web of Science (WoS). In some cases, the errors involved items omitted from the WoS. The authors also propose rates like the percentage of articles in journals of Spanish spheres, or the percentage of items as first author. These indexes have no theoretical or empirical justification or previous studies that support them.
 
Article
Unlabelled: 2012 ranking in research in Spanish public universities. Background: In order to guarantee the usefulness of promotion policies for the investigation of educational institutions, in recent years studies analyzing different indicators have been developed, with the intention of valuing possible changes in the future. The objective of this work is to update the research production and productivity ranking of Spanish public universities, using data from 2012. Method: The same methodology as previous years has been followed. Seven indicators have been evaluated: articles from journals indexed in the JCR, research lines, R+D projects, doctoral theses, Spanish research and training grants, doctorate courses awarded a mention of excellence and patents. Results: Amongst the results obtained in the global ranking there are differences between the universities with a higher production (University of Barcelona, Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Granada) and those with a higher productivity (Pompeu Fabra, Pablo de Olavide and Miguel Hernández de Elche). Conclusions: When comparing the results to those of 2011, it can be observed that the three most productive universities remain in the same positions.
 
Article
GABA-A receptors are involved in the control of aggressive behaviour. Various studies suggest a role for a1-containing GABA-A receptors in modulating aggression. However, the possible involvement of a3 subunit of GABA-A receptors has not been examined. In this study, we analysed the effect of SB-205384 (0.5-4 mg/kg, i.p), a positive modulator of GABA-A receptors containing a3 subunit, on agonistic behaviour elicited by isolation in male mice. Half of the mice were housed during 30 days and employed as experimental or control animals; the remainder were used as and were temporally rendered anosmic by zinc sulphate. Individually housed mice were exposed to anosmic opponents in a neutral area 30 minutes after the drug administration and encounters were videotaped and evaluated using an ethopharmacologically-based analysis. The results indicated that SB-205384 did not produce any significant behavioural changes, suggesting that GABA-A receptors which contain the a3 subunit may not be involved in the modulation of aggression.
 
Median values with ranges of classical behavioral measures in the elevated plus-maze after SB-205384 treatment 
Median values with ranges of ethological behavioral measures in the elevated plus-maze after SB-205384 treatment 
Article
Recent studies point to a major role for alpha2-containing GABA-A receptors in modulating anxiety. However, the possible implication of GABA-A receptors containing the alpha3 subunit on anxiety is less known. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of SB-205384 (0.5-4 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha3 subunit positive modulator of GABA-A receptor, on anxiety tested in the elevated plus-maze in male mice, using classical and ethological parameters. Mice treated with SB-205384 showed an increase in the frequency of entries and the time spent in open arms, as well as a reduction in the time spent in closed arms, as compared with the control group. A notable increase of "head-dipping" unprotected and a reduction of "stretched-attend posture" protected was also evident. These findings indicate that SB-205384 exhibits an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated plus-maze test, suggesting that GABA-A receptors which contain the alpha3 subunit might be involved in regulation of anxiety.
 
Sedimentation graph and parallel analysis of the QFI-22 
Article
Background: The aim of this article is to develop the Spanish adaptation of the internal functioning of Work Teams Scale (QFI-22). Methods: The scale was adapted from the French version, and was applied to a sample of 1,055 employees working for firms operating in Spain. The article analyses the internal structure (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and internal consistency, and provides convergent validity evidence of the scale. Results: The QFI-22 scale shows the same internal structure as the original. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two factors: interpersonal support and team work management, with good internal consistency coefficients (α1 = .93, α2 = .92). Regarding validity evidence, the QFI-22 scale has significant correlations with other correlates and alternative scales used for comparison purposes. The two factors correlated positively with team vision, participation safety, task orientation and support for innovation (Team Climate Inventory, TCI scale), with progressive culture (Organisational Culture, X-Y scale), and with creating change, customer focus and organisational learning (Denison Organizational Culture Survey, DOCS scale). In contrast, the two factors correlated negatively with traditional culture (X-Y scale). Conclusion: The QFI-22 scale is a useful instrument for assessing the internal functioning of work teams.
 
Article
Background: Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. Method: The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). Results: The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. Conclusions: The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.
 
Descriptive statistics of the ACSI-28 scales for the groups of sports performance level and ANCOVA results
Article
This study involved the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) for a Spanish-speaking sport environment. The sample was made up of 1,253 Spanish athletes, 967 males and 286 females. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the 7-factor structure found in the English version was replicated in the Spanish translation in both males and females. Likewise, the reliability coefficients were similar to those of the English version, with values exceeding .80 for the total score. Several of the subscales correlated positively with sports experience and performance level. The Spanish version of the ACSI-28 thus maintains the factor structure of the original and exhibits similar psychometric properties. Consequently, it can reliably be applied to Spanish-speaking athletes for research and evaluation purposes.
 
IAT task sequence 
Article
Preliminary evidence suggests that within-sex individual variation in the length ratio of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen levels, may be more strongly or consistently related to implicit measures (Implicit Association Test, IAT) than to corresponding explicit (self-report) measures of candidate personality traits. The underlying logic is that the non-introspective IAT may reflect earlier and inaccessible experiences, whereas introspective self-reports reflect more recent and necessarily accessible experiences. Associations of 2D:4D and absolute finger length (a marker of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels) with implicit versus explicit aggression measures (IAT vs. Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and a feeling thermometer) were examined in two samples with identical procedures (Ns=244 and 233). Attesting to procedural validity and data typicality, several experiments of related research were replicated in both samples, including sex differences in 2D:4D and theory compliant interrelations among psychometric measures. However, no theory compliant, reliable, or replicable associations of 2D:4D or finger length with implicit or explicit aggression measures resulted. These nil findings cast doubt on hypothesized advantages of implicitly (over explicitly) measured target traits for 2D:4D research. More generally, they add to a growing number of replication failures in this area.
 
Article
CONS-32: Factor structure and psychometric properties. Risk prevention in the construction industry has a psychosocial etiology. This article studies the psychometric properties of a scale (CONS-32) created to detect personal prevention and job-related risks. The 336 participants in the present study are from the construction industry and reside in Catalonia. After exploratory factor analysis of the scale, the structure is shown to consist of four factors that involve job characteristics and individual behaviours. The results indicate adequate reliability. Therefore, the present scale may be ideal for identifying safety risks in the construction industry.
 
Article
The Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45) is a 45-item self-report instrument of psychiatric symptomatology derived from the original SCL-90. The SA-45 consists of nine 5-item scales assessing each of the same symptom domains as its parent instrument with no item overlap across domains. This paper provides preliminary validation of the Spanish version of the questionnaire in an undergraduate sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-factor structure, which corresponds to the nine proposed scales. Normative data, reliability (internal consistency) and validity were also examined, finding support for sound psychometric properties.
 
Distribution of participants by grade, gender and group 
Article
Background: Various investigations have revealed that the promotion of cognitive and metacognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension and that when readers receive this type of instruction, they can use monitoring processes and regulation strategies adequately. The goal of this work is to analyze the effects of strategic and metacognitive instruction on reading comprehension processes and strategies, using the "Aprender a Comprender" [Learning to Understand] program. Method: Instruction was carried out in the classroom by two teachers during six months. Ninety-four students participated, 49 from 5th grade and 45 from 6th grade. A pretest-intervention-posttest-follow-up design was used with a comparison group by grade. Results: The analysis of variance shows an impact of the intervention and its differential maintenance in each grade. The 5th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the reading comprehension test, both at posttest and at follow-up. The 6th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the Planning scale, both at posttest and at follow-up. Conclusions: Textual strategy instruction favors reading comprehension and the progressive development of planning, which is necessary for supervision and regulation, and its effects are maintained over time.
 
Article
This work analysed the psychometric properties of the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6) translated and adapted to the Spanish language. A multicentre, observational and prospective design was used. A total of 258 participants were included, 217 were patients (35 stable patients and 182 unstable patients), and 41 were controls. The results show satisfactory psychometric performance of the ASI-6. The degree of the internal consistency of the standardized objective scores ranged between .47 and .95. As for test-retest reliability, the values were acceptable, varying from .36 to 1. The study of the internal structure revealed a good fit to a unidimensional solution for all scales taken independently. Regarding convergent-discriminant validity, the correlations between the primary and secondary scales of the ASI-6 and the Clinic Global Impression score were low, with values from .01 to .26. Likewise, 8 of the 15 scales differentiated between controls and unstable patients. The psychometric properties of the ASI-6 Spanish version seem to be acceptable, though it is necessary to carry out new studies to test metric quality with independent samples of patients.
 
Article
Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate data for ABAB designs of different lengths. The points of change in phase are randomly determined before gathering behaviour measurements, which allows the use of a randomization test as an analytic technique. Data simulation and analysis can be based either on data-division-specific or on common distributions. Following one method or another affects the results obtained after the randomization test has been applied. Therefore, the goal of the study was to examine these effects in more detail. The discrepancies in these approaches are obvious when data with zero treatment effect are considered and such approaches have implications for statistical power studies. Data-division-specific distributions provide more detailed information about the performance of the statistical technique.
 
Article
Personal and social adjustment of high-ability children and adolescents is a very important issue in the specialized literature. The differences found between data for and against appropriate adjustment in gifted children and adolescents could be explained by conceptual or methodological biases. In this work, the relation between adjustment and high abilities are contrasted in a sample of teenagers from the Canary Islands, using a screening procedure based on their scores in intelligence tests. Results show that, although gifted adolescents differ significantly from their peers in the control group in socio-economic variables and academic performance, there are no differences in personal, social and educational adjustment. We conclude that adjustment problems and high ability are independent variables, and there is no evidence to support that gifted individuals have adjustment problems.
 
Article
The influence of students' sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students' cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents' higher involvement in school.
 
Article
Mathematical abilities and executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in mathematics. Even though 26% of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show a specific mathematic learning difficulty (MLD), the studies have been scarce. The present study had the following goals: 1) to study the profile related to cognitive and metacognitive skills implied in calculation and problem-solving in children with ADHD+MLD, and to compare them in children with ADHD, children with MLD, and children without problems; 2) to study the severity of the deficit in executive function (EF) in children with ADHD+MLD. Comparing the groups MLD, ADHD, ADHD+MLD, and children without problems, the results highlighted that children with ADHD+MLD showed a cognitive and metacognitive deficit in mathematic achievement. Furthermore, results showed a more severe deficit in the EF in children with ADHD+MLD.
 
Article
This study is a neuropsycholinguistic research of a rare genetic syndrome with microdeletion that co-occurs with intellectual disabilities and relatively good language abilities, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS). Nevertheless, there are no cognitive and psycholinguistic profile analyses performed with Spanish population. In this sense, we characterized the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile of a sample with 9 participants with SMS (7 to 11 years of age). The cognitive and psychological profile was assessed with diverse standardized tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV version, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Results suggest a specific cognitive and psychological profile characterized by a low IQ and relative good abilities in integrating information, whereas attention problems and hyperactive behaviors were displayed when interacting with the child during the assessment. This work is the first evidence of the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile characterization in patients with SMS in Spain, and will help to guide a more accurate diagnosis and differential intervention in rare genetic diseases with similar cognitive and psycholinguistic profiles.
 
Article
El Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) es un cuestionario de 15 ítems que mide tres componentes del burnout en deportistas: agotamiento físico/emocional, reducida sensación de logro y devaluación de la práctica deportiva. En una investigación preliminar, el ABQ fue traducido al castellano y aplicado a una muestra de 140 jóvenes futbolistas varones. Basándonos en las conclusiones obtenidas en dicho trabajo, en el presente estudio se incluyeron enunciados alternativos para aquellos ítems cuyo funcionamiento no fue satisfactorio. Se aplicó una versión de 21 ítems a 326 futbolistas de ambos sexos con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y 23 años. Mediante análisis de ítems y análisis factorial, el cuestionario fue reducido a 15 ítems. El ajuste de la estructura tridimensional hipotetizada se comprobó mediante un análisis factorial confirmatorio, obteniéndose índices de ajuste aceptables con valores de ,97 para CFI; ,96 para NNFI; ,93 para GFI; ,059 para RMSEA y ,061 para RMR. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) is a 15-item questionnaire that comprises three subscales: emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation. In a preliminary work, the ABQ was translated into Spanish and administered to 140 male soccer players. In the present study, we include alternative statements for weaker items. A 21-item version was administered to a sample of 326 soccer players of both sexes aged 14-23 years old. Using item and factor analyses, the questionnaire was shortened to 15 items. Then, the data was submitted to confirmatory factor analysis to corroborate the usual three-factor structure. Overall fit of the model was acceptable with a value of .97 for CFI, .96 for NNFI, .93 for GFI, .059 RMSEA, and .061 for RMR.
 
Porcentaje medio (± error típico) de pérdida de peso de los animales de todos los grupos experimentales (con rueda-R-) y de control (sin rueda-NR-) según el cambio de contexto (C) o no cambio (NC) a lo largo de los diferentes días del experimento
Article
The goal of this study was to analyse how the context in which animals remain during the period of access to food modulates the development of activity-based anorexia in rats. For this purpose, the effect of changing the context of the activity period and the eating period was measured in terms of body weight loss, reduction in food intake and increase in physical activity. A 2 yen 2 factorial design was implemented, by having or not having access to a running wheel, and by being exposed or not exposed to a context change. Results showed that exposure to different contexts for the wheel and for the food did not affect weight loss, food intake or activity levels. These results are in line with the theoretical position of Epling and Pierce (1992) that activity is induced by the food restriction regime.
 
Article
Clinical personality trait differences in the maintenance of abstinence and in relapses in the treatment of smoking cessation. The aim of this study is to describe and compare personality characteristics of participants who quit smoking voluntarily by means of group treatment. The assessment instrument used was the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). It was administered to a sample of 105 persons in Málaga (Spain) in The Spanish Cancer Association (Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer). The analysis consisted of comparing two sample groups: abstinence and relapse. The results revealed a higher rate of avoidant, masochistic and negativistic clinical personality traits in the relapse group. However, people with dependent personality traits maintained abstinence. There were also differences, in the direction of more relapses, in schizotypal and borderline personality disorders. This suggests that certain personality traits could be risk factors for relapse, whereas others increase the probability of success in the process of smoking cessation.
 
Article
The relationship between the presence of personality disorders and the effectiveness of a psychological treatment to stop smoking, measured in terms of abstinence at the end of treatment and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups was studied. The sample was made up of 202 smokers who received Becoña's psychological treatment called Program to stop smoking . The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) was used to assess personality disorders. Abstinence at the end of treatment and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups was confirmed by a test of carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The results revealed no differences in the percentage of abstinent individuals with and without personality disorders at the end of treatment. At 6 months, the percentage of abstinent individuals was significantly higher in smokers with an antisocial personality disorder. However, the percentage of abstinent individuals was significantly lower in smokers with a dependent personality disorder at 6 and 12 months. We conclude that not all personality disorders have a negative impact either on smoking cessation or on maintaining abstinence.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate a procedure to reveal the emergence of full naming in typically developing children. In Experiment 1, five 6-year-old children (a) learned tacts of pictures and the emergence of the selection of these pictures upon hearing their names was tested; and (b) the selection of other pictures was taught and the emergence of the tacts was tested. All children showed the emergence of picture selection and 3 children showed the emergence of the tacts. In Experiment 2a, the children's correct repetition of the names of 3 pictures was verified first, then the experimenter presented the pictures with their names without requiring any behavior other than attending. Finally, the emergence of picture selection and the tacts was tested. Experiment 2b replicated Experiment 2a with words that were easier to pronounce. Picture selection and the tacts emerged; this performance documented full naming for the first time with typically developing children. These procedures can be used to induce naming capacity in children who lack it; hence, they can be applied to teach children with learning delays.
 
Article
Generally speaking, this paper comments on the role of qualitative methods in scientific psychology. To begin with, general and special methodology are defined; then, the main uses of qualitative methods are described and the focus of the paper on the study of meaning and of abstract concepts in the context of embodied cognition is justified. It is emphasized that three uses of qualitative methods converge in the study of embodied cognition: (1) classification, given that it is centered on concepts, (2) discovery, because theories are not yet well articulated and inductive effort is required, and (3) the study of meaning. The final recommendation is to profit from the opportunity of constructing special techniques that the transformation of cognitive psychology is favoring; in this context, varieties of emotion become a privileged object of study.
 
Article
In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.
 
Article
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.
 
Article
The aim of the study was to analyze the consequences of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) on the psychological adjustment of university students, as well as the way in which several avoidance and approach coping strategies affect that adjustment. The sample comprised 1162 students from the University of Granada. Data about CSA was obtained from a questionnaire developed with this aim. We used the How I Deal with Things Scale of Burt and Katz to evaluate coping strategies, whereas depression and self-esteem were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Subjects who were victims of CSA showed significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem. An analysis of coping strategies revealed that only the use of avoidance strategies was related to psychological adjustment. Subjects who used these strategies obtained higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem. These results confirm the idea of CSA as a risk experience that can affect victims' psychological adjustment, to a greater or lesser extent, according to the coping strategy employed.
 
Top-cited authors
Reuven Bar-On
  • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
Paul W. Holland
  • Educational Testing Service
Howard Wainer
  • Independent Statistician and Author
María José Blanca
  • University of Malaga
José Carlos Núñez
  • University of Oviedo