The turnover of callose (β-1,3-glucan) within cell walls is an essential process affecting many developmental, physiological and stress related processes in plants. The deposition and degradation of callose at the neck region of plasmodesmata (Pd) is one of the cellular control mechanisms regulating Pd permeability during both abiotic and biotic stresses. Callose accumulation at Pd is controlled by callose synthases (CalS; EC 188.8.131.52), endogenous enzymes mediating callose synthesis, and by β-1,3-glucanases (BG; EC 184.108.40.206), hydrolytic enzymes which specifically degrade callose. Transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of some CalSs and BGs are strongly controlled by stress signaling, such as that resulting from pathogen invasion. We review the role of Pd-associated callose in the regulation of intercellular communication during developmental, physiological, and stress response processes. Special emphasis is placed on the involvement of Pd-callose in viral pathogenicity. Callose accumulation at Pd restricts virus movement in both compatible and incompatible interactions, while its degradation promotes pathogen spread. Hence, studies on mechanisms of callose turnover at Pd during viral cell-to-cell spread are of importance for our understanding of host mechanisms exploited by viruses in order to successfully spread within the infected plant.
In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.
Antisense suppression is a powerful tool to analyze gene function. In this study, we show that antisense RNA suppressed the expression of a target gene in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In this study, the antisense strand of the catalase gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector upstream of the GFP gene. This plasmid was introduced into C. merolae cells using a polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation protocol. Using the expression of GFP as a marker of transformed cells, the expression of catalase was examined by immunocytochemistry. Decreased expression of catalase was observed in cells that were transformed with the antisense strand of the catalase gene. These results indicate the utility of this antisense suppression system.
The adaptability of cyanobacteria in diverse habitats is an important factor to withstand harsh conditions. In the present investigation, the impacts of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm), and PAR + UV-B radiations on two cyanobacteria viz., Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 inhabiting diverse habitats such as hot springs and rice fields, respectively, were studied. Cell viability was about 14 % in Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and <10 % in Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 after 48 h of UV-B exposure. PAR had negligible negative impact on the survival of both cyanobacteria. The continuous exposure of UV-B and PAR + UV-B showed rapid uncoupling, bleaching, fragmentation, and degradation in both phycocyanin (C-PC) and phycoerythrin (C-PE) subunits of phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Remarkable bleaching effect of C-PE and C-PC was not only observed with UV-B or PAR + UV-B radiation, but longer period (24-48 h) of exposure with PAR alone also showed noticeable negative impact. The C-PE and C-PC subunits of the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 were severely damaged in comparison to the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 with rapid wavelength shifting toward shorter wavelengths denoting the bleaching of both the accessory light harvesting pigments. The results indicate that PBPs of the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 were more stable under various light regimes in comparison to the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 that could serve as a good source of valuable pigments to be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications.
The NADPH oxidase of neutrophils is a transmembrane electron transfer complex, containing a flavin adenine dinucleotide and two hemes, all of which are suggested to be contained within gp91phox
, one of four subunits of the enzyme. The transfer of electrons through the NADPH oxidase is associated with an efflux of protons. gp91phox
has previously been demonstrated to function as the proton conduction pathway. The mutation of histidines 111, 115, and 119 to leucines and of histidine 115 to leucine within the N-terminal 230-amino-acid fragment of gp91phox
has previously been demonstrated to result in the loss of proton conduction through this N-terminal fragment. In this paper we have investigated the role of these histidines in proton conduction by the full-length gp91phox
. Stable CHO cell lines were established which expressed full-length gp91phox
in which histidines 111, 115, and 119 had been mutated to leucines (CHO91H111/115/119) and in which histidine 115 had been mutated to leucine (CHO91H115L). The expression of gp91phox
and its cellular localisation in these cell lines were comparable between wild-type and the mutant gp91phox
. The mutation of histidines 111, 115, and 119 to leucines or just histidine 115 to leucine resulted in an almost total loss of both the arachidonate-activated influx and efflux of protons, in comparison with that observed for wild-type gp91phox
. Therefore, histidine 115 is required for proton conduction by both full-length gp91phox
and the N-terminal 230-amino-acid fragment of gp91phox
. Histidine 115 has recently been proposed to act as a coordinating ligand for the outer heme iron of the NADPH oxidase. On the basis of observations for cytochrome c oxidase, we propose a model for this dual role of histidine 115.
Flow cytometric analysis of mitochondria isolated from maize leaves revealed two distinct rhodamine-123-stained fluorescence populations distinguishable by their main fluorescence channel. Further microscopic observation of mitochondria stained with Janus Green B and rhodamine-123 revealed the occurrence of differently sized mitochondrial particles. It was shown by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis that the DNA from the isolated mitochondria ranged in size from 45 to 100 kb. These results suggest that different types of mitochondria with different physiological status, mass, and genomic DNA size probably coexist and carry out different physiological functions throughout the whole process of maize leaf growth and development.
Protein phosphorylation is essential for many aspects of plant growth and development. To fully modulate the activity of specific proteins after phosphorylation, interaction with members of the 14-3-3 family is necessary. 14-3-3 Proteins are important for many processes because they "assist" a wide range of target proteins with divergent functions. In this review, we will describe how plant 14-3-3 proteins are as spiders in a web of phosphorylation: they act as sensors for phospho-motifs, they themselves are phosphorylated with unknown consequences and they have kinases as target, where some of these phosphorylate 14-3-3 binding motifs in other proteins. Two specific classes of 14-3-3 targets, protein kinases and transcription factors of the bZIP and basic helix-loop-helix-like families, with important and diverse functions in the plant as a whole will be discussed. An important question to be addressed in the near future is how the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins has diverged, both structurally and functionally, between different members of the same protein family, like the kinases and transcription factors.
Cysteine proteases are known to be associated with programmed cell death, developmental senescence and some types of pathogen and stress-induced responses. In the present study, we have characterized the cysteine protease Tr-cp 14 in white clover (Trifolium repens). Tr-cp 14 belongs to the C1A family of cysteine proteases with homology to XCP1 and XCP2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and p48h-17 from Zinnia elegans, which previously have been reported to be associated with tracheary element differentiation. The proform as well as the processed form of the protein was detected in petioles, flowers and leaves, but the processed form was more abundant in leaves and petioles than in flowers. The Tr-cp 14 protein was localized to differentiating tracheary elements within the xylem, indicating that the cysteine protease is involved in protein re-mobilization during tracheary element differentiation. Immunogold studies suggest that the protease prior to the burst of the vacuole was associated to the ER cisternae. After disruption of the tonoplast, it was found in the cytoplasm, and, in later stages, associated with disintegrating material dispersed throughout the cell.
Rumex acetosa (sorrel) is a dioecious plant with a XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Both the Y chromosomes are nearly entirely heterochromatic and it has been hypothesised that they can persist as chromocenters in male interphase nuclei. Using specific antibodies against 5-methylcytosine and histone H4 acetylated at terminal lysine 5, global levels of DNA methylation and histone acetylation were studied on the sex chromosomes and autosomes of both sexes. The heterochromatic Y chromosomes did not display a higher methylation level compared to the autosomes. The only prominent hypermethylation signals were found at two nucleolar organising regions located on the autosome pair V, as confirmed by in situ hybridisation with 25S rDNA probe and staining. Immuno-analysis of DNA methylation on female and male interphase nuclei neither revealed any sex-specific differences. Two active (silver-positive) nucleoli and two likely inactive nucleolar organising regions (displaying prominent methylation signals) were found in both sexes. In a fraction of nuclei isolated from leaf cells, two peripheral bodies strongly positive for 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were observed only in males, never in females. These heterochromatin regions were depleted in histone H4 acetylation at terminal lysine 5 and corresponded, according to in situ hybridisation with a Y-chromosome-specific repetitive probe, to the two Y chromosomes. We conclude that the peripheral condensed bodies observed exclusively in male nuclei represent the constitutive heterochromatin of the Y chromosomes which is characterised by a substantial histone H4 underacetylation.
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the process of shoot regeneration in vitro requires the presence of specific miRNAs. We describe here the β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression domains for miR165a/166b, REV, and WUS/CLV3 during direct shoot regeneration. Increased GUS activity of miR166b and REV were first detected within the shoot apical meristem of explants, while no pmiR165a::GUS activity appeared there. The zone of pWUS::GUS activity covered the inner sides of developing protuberances, while that of pCLV3::GUS was more restricted. Once the primary shoot had emerged from the protuberance, pREV::GUS activity was turned on throughout the protuberance. pmiR165a::GUS activity was detected in a small number of protuberance surface cells, while pWUS::GUS activity was restricted to within a few cells beneath the protuberance surface. After the differentiation of leaf-like structures, GUS activity for miR165a and miR166b appeared largely on their abaxial surface, while pWUS::GUS activity was concentrated at the apex of the primary shoot, and no pCLV3::GUS activity was detectable. Following the formation of secondary shoots, pmiR165a::GUS activity was detected on their abaxial surface. GUS activity for miR166b, REV, and WUS/CLV3 were concentrated in the stem apical meristem. The observations suggested that each member of this set of genes might play a distinct role in both primary and secondary shoot regeneration.
Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.
Being a professor of physiology in Wrocław/Breslau till the half of nineteenth century, Jan Evangelista Purkyně/Purkinje made, along with his students, many crucial discoveries combining original experimental approaches with new advanced microscopy and histology techniques. Here, he established first Institute of Physiology worldwide and created a framework for the new science of cellular physiology. With his work, he not only substantially contributed to the establishment of cellular and protoplasmic concepts in biology but represented a rare type of Central European scholar by bridging communities separated by ethnicity and language.
Eduard Strasburger, director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden at the University of Bonn from 1881 to 1912, was one of the most admirable scientists in the field of plant biology, not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but in addition as an excellent teacher who strongly believed in "education through science." He contributed to plant cell biology by discovering the discrete stages of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in algae and higher plants, describing cytoplasmic streaming in different systems, and reporting on the growth of the pollen tube into the embryo sac and guidance of the tube by synergides. Strasburger raised many problems which are hot spots in recent plant cell biology, e.g., structure and function of the plasmodesmata in relation to phloem loading (Strasburger cells) and signaling, mechanisms of cell plate formation, vesicle trafficking as a basis for most important developmental processes, and signaling related to fertilization.
19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and 19F NMR chemical-shift imaging (19F CSI) have been used to localize fluorinated compounds administered to stems of Ancistrocladus heyneanus and A. abbreviatus for the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways in living plants. This first application of 19F CSI on plants proved CSI to be a valuable technique for mapping fluorinated molecules in plants. Exemplarily using trifluoroacetate as a model compound allowed to select appropriate feeding methods and to optimize both concentration and duration of the application to the plant. The time course of the uptake and distribution of trifluoroacetate was monitored by both 19F imaging and 19F CSI. Fluorinated metabolites formed by uptake of 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose were detected with 19F CSI.
An endophytic fungus was isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma amada (Zingiberaceae), which was identified as Fusarium oxysporum on the basis of its morphological and molecular characters. Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis of the fungal metabolite (chloroform extract) led to the identification of one pure compound having molecular formula C5H12O2, i.e., 2,3-pentanediol (1). Activity analysis of compound 1 demonstrated improved antiaging (antioxidant, thermotolerance) properties against Caenorhabditis elegans, in comparison to a similar, commercially available molecule i.e., 1,5-pentanediol (2). The effective (lower) concentration of 1 significantly showed (28.6 %) higher survival percentage of the worms under thermal stress (37 ºC) compared to its higher concentration (25.3 %), while similar trends were followed in oxidative stress where (22.2 %) higher survival percentage was recorded in comparison to untreated control. The compound 1, however, lacked potential antimicrobial activity, indicating the plausible ramification of the position of OH group in such bioactive molecules. In silico evaluation of these molecules against common as well as unique targets corroborated better antiaging potential of 1 in comparison to that of 2. The results for the first time indicated that the utilization of the endophytic fungi of C. amada could, thus, be a possible source for obtaining non-plant-based bioactive compounds having broader therapeutic applications pertaining to age-related progressions.
The effectiveness of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) as an inhibitor of plant myosins has been investigated. Three myosin-dependent motility phenomena in plants, namely cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina, light-dependent chloroplast repositioning in Elodea sp., and brefeldin A(BFA)-induced Golgi membrane dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kite) root-tip cells were investigated. All three processes were inhibited by the sulfhydryl-modifying agent N-ethylmalemide (NEM), indicating the probable involvement of myosin as the motor protein in each case. However, none of these myosin-dependent processes were inhibited by BDM at concentrations as high as 20 mM in some instances. These results therefore question the general usefulness of BDM as an inhibitor of myosin-based activities in plant cells.
BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations.
When suspensions of sycamore cells are cultured in a synthetic medium containing 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.25 mg/l kinetin, maximum cell yield is obtained with an initial concentration of 6 per cent sucrose. There is a progressive increase in dry weight per cell, decline in extractive-free weight as a percentage of cell dry weight and increase in lignin content per cell as the initial sucrose concentration is increased from 1 per cent to 15 per cent. The percentage of lignin in the extractive-free cell residue is further enhanced by increasing the level of 2,4-D to 10 mg/l or by growing the cells in an auxin-free medium containing 10 mg/l kinetin.When the cell suspensions are treated with phloroglucinol/HCl it is found that only a proportion of the cells contain lignin, that this lignin occurs in the protoplasts and in plates between the cells, and that lignin is present in the culture medium.Electron micrographs confirmed the absence of any secondary wall such as is characteristic of tracheary elements. Cells cultured in the presence of 6 per cent sucrose or higher levels showed numerous amyloplasts and frequently the presence of electron opaque material. This occurs in the irregular but not frequent wall thickenings, as droplets in the vacuoles and as amorphous sheets between the cells. Pictures showing such electron opaque droplets clustered on the inner face of the tonoplasts suggest that this material is formed in the cytoplasm and released into the vacuoles. In addition these cells are characterised by the presence of fine electron opaque granular material in their vacuoles and external to their protoplasts. Cultures richest in lignin showed the highest content of electron opaque globules in, and amorphous sheets between, the cells and it is suggested that these correspond to lignin or a lignin-hemicellulose complex. In the presence of 15 per cent sucrose many cells showing breakdown of organised structure were observed; they were characterised by the persistence of mitochondria and particularly of the amyloplasts and by their high content of the electron opaque material equated with lignin. This material was also present in the dead cells.
More than 60 attendees from more than a dozen countries attended the International Plasmodesmata Meeting (Plasmodesmata 2010) held in Sydney, Australia. The structure of plasmodesmata continued to attract interest, with particular focus on how technological progress is advancing our ability to identify and characterise proteins associated with plasmodesmata. Also of major research interest was the movement of proteins and RNAs through plasmodesmata and how this is controlled by host chaperones, cytoskeletal elements and callose. There was also much new information on viral movement through plasmodesmata, with a focus on the ways that viral movement proteins interact with host cell components to modify plasmodesmata. The conference, as a whole, provided a stimulating forum for the discussion of future directions in this expanding field.
Mitochondrial-nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence showed that a 22 kDa protein which is unique in the mt-nucleoid fraction is an unidentified protein encoded in the open reading frame YGL068W and shows a homology with the ribosomal protein L7/L12 of bacteria. We named this protein Mnp1p (for the mitochondrial-nucleoid protein 1). Immunoblotting of each fraction with an anti-Mnp1p antibody during the mt-nucleoid isolation showed that Mnp1p is highly concentrated in the mt-nucleoid fraction. Immunofluorescence microscopy suggested that Mnp1p is localized to mitochondria in vivo, and a significant amount of Mnp1p is associated with the mt-nucleoids. On the other hand, Northern blotting showed that a large amount of large and small mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs was not associated with the mt-nucleoids and remained in the supernatant after the isolation of mt-nucleoids. The null mutation of MNP1 led to a respiratory-deficient phenotype, but the morphology of the mt-nucleoids in the transformants carrying the null mutation was normal. These results suggest that a significant amount of Mnp1p plays a role as a major component of the mt-nucleoids.
561) is a trans-membrane cytochrome probably ubiquitous in plant cells. In vitro, it is readily reduced by ascorbate or by juglonol, which in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from plant tissues is efficiently produced by a PM-associated NAD(P)H∶quinone reductase activity. In bean hypocotyl PM, juglonol-reduced cytb
561 was not oxidized by hydrogen peroxide alone, but hydrogen peroxide led to complete oxidation of the cytochrome in the presence of a peroxidase found in apoplastic extracts of bean hypocotyls. This peroxidase active on cytb
561 was purified from the apoplastic extract and identified as an ascorbate peroxidase of the cytosolic type. The identification was based on several grounds, including the ascorbate peroxidase activity (albeit labile), the apparent molecular mass of the subunit of 27 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the dimeric native structure, the typical spectral properties of a heme-containing peroxidase, and an N-terminal sequence strongly conserved with cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases of plants. Cytb
561 used in the experiments was purified from bean hypocotyl PM and juglonol was enzymatically produced by recombinant NAD(P)H:quinone reductase. It is shown that NADPH, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, juglone, cytb
561, the peroxidase interacting with cytb
561, and H2O2, in this order, constitute an artificial electron transfer chain in which cytb
561 is indirectly reduced by NADPH and indirectly oxidized by H2O2.
The subcellular localization of the sorting nexins (SNXs) in higher plants is a matter of controversy. Previous confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM studies on root cells from a transgenic Arabidopsis line expressing SNX1-GFP have suggested that this SNX is present on an endosome having characteristics of both the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular body (MVB). In contrast, SNX2a locates exclusively to the TGN when transiently expressed in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. By performing immunogold electron microscopy on cryofixed Arabidopsis roots, we have tried to clarify the situation. Both SNX1-GFP and endogenous SNX2a locate principally to the TGN. Labeling of MVBs could not be confirmed with any certainty.
The young cells of the second agamogony generation of Allogromia laticollaris, which are derived from a mature agamont of the first agamogony generation by a multiple cell division, may be differentiated into peripheral or central cells within the parental test on the basis of the size of the cells and the amount of organelles, lipoid droplets and osmiophilic granules. These structural differences are related to the cytoplasmic organization of the parental cell before cell division. Also the nuclei of all the daughter cells and even the nuclei in one cell show in size as well as in ultrastructure considerable differences and the adjacent cytoplasm already shows the characteristic differentiation related to older interphase nuclei. In smaller nuclei, which are never larger than 12-14 μm, one finds only large nucleoli which may fill the entire nuclear space, whereas in the larger nuclei one finds multiple small nucleoli near the nuclear periphery identical with those of nuclei of later stages of development. One may assume that the nuclei do not develop synchronously and that we are observing many intermediate stages in which the individual nucleoli grow until reaching a large size and then disaggregate into many small nucleoli. In the karyoplasm cross-striated fibrils, which may be in contact with the nucleoli, are observed near the nuclear envelope. Nothing is known of their chemical nature or function.
Subcellular fractionation studies have demonstrated convincingly that microbodies in the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum contain catalase as well as other oxidative enzymes such as uricase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (STABENAtJ and BEEVI~RS 1974, STABENAU 1974). As such, the microbodies of Chlorogoniurn satisfy the biochemical definition of the organelle initially proposed by DE DUVE (1969). Surprisingly, GrRHARDT and BERGrR (1971) were unable to cytochemically detect DAB staining in microbodies of this alga although photometric assay of the enzyme revealed catalase to be particle bound. Although the precise physiologic function of algal microbodies is not fully understood, it is known that the oxidases compartmentalized in microbodies are capable of producing hydrogen peroxide as a reaction product, while catalase is able to reduce H~O.2 to water by either the peroxidatic or the catalytic mechanism (DE DuvE and BAUDHmN 1966). The staining of microbodies by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) presumably is due to the peroxidatic activity of the catalase which they contain (NovIKOFF and GOLDHSCHER 1969). It has already been suggested (SILvERBEV, G and SAWA 1974) that the conditions of DAB incubation employed by GERHAI~DT and B~RGER (1971), namely, a low alkaline pH and a relatively short incubation period were not optimal to produce a catalase-mediated DAB reaction. By using the DAB reaction catalase has been demonstrated in the matrix of the organelle in a variety of algal species (SILVERBrRG 1975). Since Chlorogoniurn microbodies were shown biochemically to contain catalase, it should be possible to detect enzyme presence by a cytochemical study of catalase activity in the microbody population of Chlorogonium cells.
Glyoxal oxidase (GLOX), an extracellular H(2)O(2)-producing enzyme, has been reported in Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ustilago maydis. We previously isolated a grapevine GLOX gene from the highly resistant to Erysiphe necator Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1 and designated it as VpGLOX (GenBank accession no. DQ201181). Transient expression of VpGLOX can suppress Powdery Mildew in susceptible genotype were studied. To further investigate the function of the VpGLOX gene, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine expression patterns at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. The results showed that VpGLOX expression at the transcriptional level increased significantly in the disease-resistant accession Baihe-35-1 after Erysiphe necator inoculation, but no significant changes in the susceptible accession, V. pseudoreticulata accession Guangxi-2 could be observed. As evident from a Western blot analysis, VpGLOX protein increased slightly in Baihe-35-1 after E. necator inoculation, but not statistical significant difference changes in Guangxi-2. The immunolocalization via immunogold electron microscopy showed that VpGLOX was mainly located in the adaxial epidermal cell wall of E. necator-inoculated leaves of both Baihe-35-1 and Guangxi-2. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays revealed that VpGLOX expression could produce H(2)O(2), which may directly play a role in defense mechanism during plant-pathogen interactions. Our results could provide further insight into the biological role of VpGLOX in the defense response against E. necator in V. pseudoreticulata.
Ultrastructural investigations of cells and organelles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) usually lead to two-dimensional information of cell structures without supplying exact quantitative data due to the limited number of investigated ultrathin sections. This can lead to misinterpretation of observed structures especially in context of their three-dimensional (3D) assembly. 3D investigations and quantitative morphometric analysis are therefore essential to get detailed information about the arrangement and the amount of subcellular structures inside a cell or organelle, respectively, especially when the plant sample was exposed to environmental stress. In the present research, serial sectioned chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes from first year spruce needles (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were 3D reconstructed and digitally measured using a computer-supported image analysis system in order to obtain a detailed quantitative characterization of complete cell organelles including precise morphological data of drought-induced fine structural changes. In control plants, chloroplast volume was composed of 56% stroma, 15% starch, 27% thylakoids, and 2% plastoglobules. In drought-stressed chloroplasts, the relative volume of both the thylakoids and the plastoglobules significantly increased to 37% and 12%, respectively. Chloroplasts of stressed plants differed from control plants not only in the mean thylakoid and plastoglobules content but also in the complete lack of starch grains. Mitochondria occurred in variable forms in both control and stressed samples. In stressed plants, mitochondria showed a significant smaller mean volume which was only 81% when compared with the control organelles. Peroxisomes were inconspicuous in both samples and their volume did not differ between control and drought-stressed samples. The present study shows that specific subcellular structures are subject to significant quantitative changes during drought stress of spruce needles giving a detailed insight in adaptation processes of the investigated cell organelles.
The cells in animals face unique demands beyond those encountered by their unicellular eukaryotic ancestors. For example, the forces engendered by the movement of animals places stresses on membranes of a different nature than those confronting free-living cells. The integration of cells into tissues, as well as the integration of tissue function into whole animal physiology, requires specialisation of membrane domains and the formation of signalling complexes. With the evolution of mammals, the specialisation of cell types has been taken to an extreme with the advent of the non-nucleated mammalian red blood cell. These and other adaptations to animal life seem to require four proteins--spectrin, ankyrin, 4.1 and adducin--which emerged during eumetazoan evolution. Spectrin, an actin cross-linking protein, was probably the earliest of these, with ankyrin, adducin and 4.1 only appearing as tissues evolved. The interaction of spectrin with ankyrin is probably a prerequisite for the formation of tissues; only with the advent of vertebrates did 4.1 acquires the ability to bind spectrin and actin. The latter activity seems to allow the spectrin complex to regulate the cell surface accumulation of a wide variety of proteins. Functionally, the spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin complex is implicated in the formation of apical and basolateral domains, in aspects of membrane trafficking, in assembly of certain signalling and cell adhesion complexes and in providing stability to otherwise mechanically fragile cell membranes. Defects in this complex are manifest in a variety of hereditary diseases, including deafness, cardiac arrhythmia, spinocerebellar ataxia, as well as hereditary haemolytic anaemias. Some of these proteins also function as tumor suppressors. The spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin complex represents a remarkable system that underpins animal life; it has been adapted to many different functions at different times during animal evolution.
Phase-contrast microcinematography of cultured HeLa cells reveals that cell separation is considerably delayed after telophase. During this period of delay, the daughter cells lose their rounded morphology and become flattened against the substrate, as occurs in interphase. After two or more hours, the cells again become rounded while the thin intercellular bridge connecting them begins to elongate. This active elongation involves the migration of thickenings (waves) along the bridge from the midbody at its center toward either cell. Later, waves occur only on one side of the midbody as this half of the bridge alone continues to elongate. The arrival of waves at the cells is accompanied not only by discrete increases of length in that half of the bridge, but also by blebbing activity in that cell. Rupture of the bridge finally occurs just adjacent to the cell receiving these latter waves.Electron microscopic examination of cells in post-telophase delay has demonstrated a bundle of microtubules passing into either cell from the midbody in the center of the intercellular bridge. These microtubules are of constant length during bridge elongation; the cells are simply forced distally along the surface of the microtubule bundle. The waves themselves are found to contain microtubules just as straight as those in the rest of the bridge, so it is concluded that the force apparently generated here consists of the longitudinal translation of material along the surfaces of the rigid microtubules. It is pointed out that these forces may operate in the earlier phases of mitosis and in other systems of microtubule-associated motility. We also discuss the possible roles of post-telophase delay and of active bridge elongation in the organization of normal tissues.
The mitotic chromosome structure of 45S rDNA site gaps in Lolium perenne was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) combining with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in the present study. FISH on the mitotic chromosomes showed that 45S rDNA gaps were completely broken or local despiralizations of the chromatid which had the appearance of one or a few thin DNA fiber threads. Topography imaging using AFM confirmed these observations. In addition, AFM imaging showed that the broken end of the chromosome fragment lacking the 45S rDNA was sharper, suggesting high condensation. In contrast, the broken ends containing the 45S rDNA or thin 45S rDNA fibers exhibited lower density and were uncompacted. Higher magnification visualization by AFM of the terminals of decondensed 45S rDNA chromatin indicated that both ends containing the 45S rDNA also exhibited lower density zones. The measured height of a decondensed 45S rDNA chromatin as obtained from the AFM image was about 55-65 nm, composed of just two 30-nm single fibers of chromatin. FISH in flow-sorted G2 interphase nuclei showed that 45S rDNA was highly decondensed in more than 90% of the G2/M nuclei. Our results suggested that a failure of the complex folding of the chromatin fibers occurred at 45S rDNA sites, resulting in gap formation or break.
Some reports have shown that nucleolar organizer regions are located at the telomeric region and have a structural connection with telomeres at the cellular level in many organisms. In this study, we found that all 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) signals were located at telomeric regions on the chromosomes in Chrysanthemum segetum L., and the 45S rDNA showed distinct signal patterns on different metaphase chromosome spreads. The bicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization experiment on the extended fibers revealed that telomere repeats were structurally connected with or interspersed into rDNA sequences. The close cytological structure relation between rDNA and telomere sequences led us to use PCR with combinations of the telomere primer and the rDNA primer to obtain some fragments, which were flanked by different rDNA and telomere primer sequences. One representative clone CHS2 contains closely connected rDNA and telomere sequences, suggesting that the telomere sequence invaded into the conserved rDNA sequence. In addition, the sequences of some PCR clones were flanked by the single telomeric primer sequence or the rDNA primer sequence. These results suggested that homologous recombination occurred between tandem repeat units of rDNA sequences or telomere repeats at the chromosome terminus.
The epidermal salt glands of the leaf of Distichlis spicata 'Yensen 4a' (Poaceae) have a direct contact with one or two water-storing parenchyma cells, which act as collecting cells. A vacuole occupying almost the whole volume of the collecting cell has a direct exit into the extracellular space (apoplast) through the invaginations of the parietal layer of the cytoplasm, which is interrupted in some areas so that the vacuolar-apoplastic continuum is separated only by a single thin membrane, which looks as a valve. On the basis of ultrastructural morphological data (two shapes of the extracellular channels, narrow and extended, are found in basal cells), the hypothesis on the mechanical nature of the salt pump in the basal cell of Distichlis leaf salt gland is proposed. According to the hypothesis, a driving force giving ordered motion to salt solution from the vacuole of the collecting cell through the basal cell of the salt gland to cap cell arises from the impulses of a mechanical compression-expansion of plasma membrane, which penetrates the basal cell in the form of extracellular channels. The acts of compression-expansion of these extracellular channels can be realized by numerous microtubules present in the basal cell cytoplasm.
Despite the presence of intraspecific polyploidy (2x, 4x, 5x and 6x) in Agrimonia eupatoria, origin of these cytotypes has never been addressed adequately. The aim of the present study was to record the original chromosome counts and characterize chromosomal pairing during meiosis and microsporogenesis in the 5x cytotype, and discussing the hypothesis regarding the possible origin of polyploid cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) in the species. The geographical distribution pattern of cytotypes in the Indian Himalayas and elsewhere has also been analyzed. The present meiotic analysis revealed three chromosomes counts, the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 56), the pentaploid (2n = 5x = 70) and the hexaploid (2n = 6x = 84) cytotypes based on x = 14. Meiotic course was perfectly normal in the 4x and 6x cytotypes resulting into high pollen fertility (94-100 %). Meiotic course in the imbalanced 5x cytotype has been found to be irregular characterized by the presence of high frequency of univalents at diakinesis and metaphase-I. Abnormal meiotic course contributed towards high pollen sterility (74-88 %). Even the apparently fertile/stained pollen grains were of irregular shape and of heterogeneous sizes. Meiotic behaviour of the 5x cytotype is like typical of allopolyploid. Individuals of 5x cytotype did not produce seeds and propagate vegetatively (root suckers) while 4x and 6x cytotypes exploited sexual (seeds) as well as vegetative means for propagation. Chromosomal pairing in pentaploid cytotype is like typical of an allopolyploid and we assume that it might have originated owing to natural inter-cytotype hybridization between 4x and 6x cytotypes in a mixed population. Analysis of geographical distribution pattern of cytotypes shows that Indian Himalayas represent the most cytotype-diverse region for A. eupatoria with the existence of all the four cytotypes (2x, 4x, 5x, 6x). This shows the dynamic nature of the species at chromosomal level in this part of the world.
The detergent Brij 58 has been introduced to reverse plasma membrane (PM) vesicles from the right-side-out to the inside-out form. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of Brij 58 on the formation of an ATP-dependent proton gradient and on the fluidity of the lipid phase of PM vesicles. PMs of corn (Zea mays L.) roots were isolated by phase-partitioning. The fluidity of PMs was estimated by measurement of fluorescence polarization with 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The PMs of corn roots were relatively rigid. The hydrophobic part of the lipid bilayer was more fluid than the hydrophilic part. After intercalation of Brij 58 into the lipid bilayer the membrane fluidity changed in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with the detergent Brij 58 increased the degree of fluorescence polarization for TMA-DPH, while it decreased it for DPH. This effect was saturated at a detergent-to-protein ratio of 1:4 for both fluorescence probes. Although the biophysical characteristics of the membrane were changed after Brij 58 treatment, the formation of ATP-dependent proton gradients could still be measured with those vesicles. The generation of an ATP-dependent proton gradient with Brij 58-treated PM vesicles suggests that the detergent treatment indeed turned the originally right-side-out vesicles to sealed inside-out vesicles. The limits of the effect caused by Brij 58 in the context of PM enzyme activities are discussed.
Among prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are unique in having highly differentiated internal membrane systems. Like other Gram-negative bacteria, cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 have a cell envelope consisting of a plasma membrane, peptidoglycan layer, and outer membrane. In addition, these organisms have an internal system of thylakoid membranes where the electron transfer reactions of photosynthesis and respiration occur. A long-standing controversy concerning the cellular ultrastructures of these organisms has been whether the thylakoid membranes exist inside the cell as separate compartments, or if they have physical continuity with the plasma membrane. Advances in cellular preservation protocols as well as in image acquisition and manipulation techniques have facilitated a new examination of this topic. We have used a combination of electron microscopy techniques, including freeze-etched as well as freeze-substituted preparations, in conjunction with computer-aided image processing to generate highly detailed images of the membrane systems in Synechocystis cells. We show that the thylakoid membranes are in fact physically discontinuous from the plasma membrane in this cyanobacterium. Thylakoid membranes in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 thus represent bona fide intracellular organelles, the first example of such compartments in prokaryotic cells.
A reconstructed barley karyotype (T-35) was utilised to study the influence of chromosomal rearrangements on the DNA methylation pattern at chromosome level. Data obtained were also compared with the distribution of Giemsa N-bands and high gene density regions along the individual chromosomes that have been previously described. In comparison to the control karyotype (T-1586), the DNA methylation pattern was found to vary not only in the reconstructed chromosomes but also in the other chromosomes of the complement. Significant remodelling process of methylation pattern was found also in the residual nucleolus organiser regions (NOR) on chromosome 5H as a consequence of deletion comprising the whole NOR of chromosome 6H in T-35. Moreover, differences between corresponding segments of the homologues with respect to some other chromosome locations were also observed. Repositioning of genomic DNA methylation along the metaphase chromosomes following chromosomal reconstruction in barley seems to be essential to ensure correct chromatin organisation and function.
We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments.
Two cell division mutants (Ftn2 and Ftn6) of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 were studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy methods. This included negative staining and ultrathin section analysis. Different morphological and ultrastructural features of mutant cells were identified. Ftn2 and Ftn6 mutants exhibited particularly elongated cells characterized by significantly changed shape in comparison with the wild type. There was irregular bending, curving, spiralization, and bulges as well as cell branching. Elongated mutant cells were able to initiate cytokinesis simultaneously in several division sites which were localized irregularly along the cell. Damaged rigidity of the cell wall was typical of many cells for both mutants. Thylakoids of mutants showed modified arrangement and ultrastructural organization. Carboxysome-like structures without a shell and/or without accurate polyhedral packing protein particles were often detected in the mutants. However, in the case of Ftn2 and Ftn6, the average number of carboxysomes per section was less than in the wild type by a factor of 4 and 2, respectively. These multiple morphological and ultrastructural changes in mutant cells evinced pleiotropic responses which were induced by mutations in cell division genes ftn2 and ftn6. Ultrastructural abnormalities of Ftn2 and Ftn6 mutants were consistent with differences in their proteomes. These results could support the significance of FTN2 and FTN6 proteins for both cyanobacterial cell division and cellular physiology.
Summary The 80 S ribosomes of the unicellular green algaAcetabularia are evenly distributed throughout the cell. In pulse-labeling experiments it has been ascertained that newly-formed ribosomes are entirely restricted to the basal part of the cell. They first appear as free polyribosomes and become largely membrane-bound within 5 to 7 days. Labeled ribosomes are not observed in the apical half of the cell until ten days after their formation. Two or three weeks later labeled ribosomes are primarily concentrated in the apical half of the cell. These results favor a directed mechanism of transportation. The half-life of the 80 S ribosomal RNA was estimated to be about 80 days. On the average each cell yields 200 ng of 80 S ribosomes, an amount which is synthesized within a period of 2 months. From this rate of synthesis it can be concluded that the genes for the RNA of the 80 S ribosomes have a redundancy of more than 10,000.
Summary High redundancy of rRNA cistrons inAcetabularia has been postulated from an estimation based on the rate of synthesis and on the long half life of rRNA in this organism. This hypothesis was proved inAcetabularia major by means of Miller's spreading technique. The rRNA cistrons in this giant single cell alga have been shown to be highly redundant. The redundancy seems to be correlated to the length of the cell indicating that the amplification takes place during at least the greater part of the vegetative phase. Up to 52 cistrons have been detected on one DNA matrix. The length of the rRNA cistron corresponds quite closely to what would be expected for a DNA coding for RNA of the molecular weight 2.1×106 daltons. This value indicates that there is little if any loss of nucleotide material during the maturation of the 18 S and 26.5 S rRNAs inAcetabularia.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an abundant cytosolic protein. In higher eukaryotes two isoforms of Hsp90 exist, Hsp90 alpha and Hsp90 beta. Hsp90 was purified from rat liver and after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a double band at about 90 kDa. The two bands were separated and identified as the Hsp90 alpha and Hsp90 beta isoforms. There was no entry in the protein databases for the Hsp90 alpha isoform from rat. Furthermore, the ratio of the two Hsp90 isoforms was determined.
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, has been reported to induce cancers in animals and humans. Several models have been developed to study multistage carcinogenesis in rat liver; these include the Solt-Farber-resistant hepatocyte model. In the Solt-Farber model, the initiation consists of either a necrogenic dose of a hepatocarcinogen or a non-necrogenic dose in conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH). We report a novel protocol for tumor induction in liver which eliminates the need for PH. Male Wistar rats were injected with single i.p. dose of DEN (200 mg/kg body weight), controls received saline only. After 1 week of recovery, the DEN-treated animals were administered with the repeated doses of 2-acetyamino fluorine (150 mg/kg body weight) orally in 1 % carboxymethyl cellulose that served as promoting agent. Thirty days after the DEN administration, hepatocellular damage was observed as evident by histopathological analysis. The marker enzyme analysis showed elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase and a decrease in the levels of liver superoxide dismutase and catalase. The oxidative stress in liver was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidant parameters.
Plant growth and development are intimately attuned to fluctuations in environmental variables such as light, temperature and water availability. A broad range of signalling and dynamic response mechanisms allows them to adjust their physiology so that growth and reproductive capacity are optimised for the prevailing conditions. Many of the response mechanisms are mediated by the plant hormones. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a dominant role in fundamental processes such as seed dormancy and germination, regulation of stomatal movements and enhancing drought tolerance in response to the osmotic stresses that result from water deficit, salinity and freezing. Whereas plants maintain a constant vigilance, there is emerging evidence that the capacity to respond is gated by the circadian clock so that it varies with diurnal fluctuations in light, temperature and water status. Clock regulation enables plants to anticipate regular diurnal fluctuations and thereby presumably to maximise metabolic efficiency. Circadian clock-dependent gating appears to regulate the ABA signalling network at numerous points, including metabolism, transport, perception and activity of the hormone. In this review, we summarise the basic principles and recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of circadian gating of the ABA response network and how it can affect fundamental processes in plant growth and development.
In the germ line of the chironomid Acricotopus lucidus, two cells with quite different chromosome constitutions result from the last unequal gonial mitosis. In the male, the future primary spermatocyte receives all the germ line-limited chromosomes (=Ks) together with somatic chromosomes (=Ss), and later on undergoes meiotic divisions, while the connected aberrant spermatocyte gets only Ss and remains undivided with chromosomes inactivated in a metaphase-like condensed state. This raises the question whether the centromeres of the permanently condensed Ss of the aberrant spermatocyte remain active during meiosis of the connected regular spermatocyte. Active centromeres exhibit an epigenetic phosphorylation mark at threonine 120 of histone H2A. To visualise the centromeric H2A phosphorylation of the Ss in the aberrant spermatocyte, meiotic stages were immunostained with different anti-phospho histone H2AT120 antibodies. Clear H2AT120ph signals appear at the centromeres of the Ss during prophase, persist on the metaphase-like condensed Ss during meiosis I of the connected primary spermatocyte and disappear during transition to meiosis II. The centromeres of the Ss and Ks of the regular spermatocytes display H2AT120ph signals from prophase I to anaphase II. The loss of the H2AT120 phosphorylation detected on the centromeres of the Ss of the aberrant spermatocyte indicating their deactivation supports the idea of a programmed inactivation of the Ss to block the entry of the germ line-derived aberrant spermatocyte, lacking Ks, into meiosis, and thus to prevent the generation of sperms possessing only Ss. This mechanism would ensure the presence of the Ks in the germ line.
Chrysomyxa rhododendri is a rust which infects Picea abies growing near the alpine timberline. Attacked needles are normally shed, but few remain on shoots. We hypothesised that these needles increase transpiration of Picea during winter. Partly damaged, completely damaged and healthy needles of an infected tree as well as healthy needles of a resistant tree were compared in a microscopy analysis, and needle conductance of shoots was measured gravimetrically. Despite needle shedding, more than 6% of needles remaining on infected tree shoots were damaged. Partly damaged needles showed local brownish areas in the periphery and completely damaged needles necrotic parenchyma and epidermal tissues. Cuticular conductance of affected shoots was up to 25.23 +/- 2.75 mmol m(-2) s(-1) at moderate water potential and thus twofold higher than in the resistant tree. Needle shedding reduces negative effects of Chrysomyxa infections during summer, but remaining damaged needles impair tree water relations in winter.