This article reviews "the forces underpinning Chinese urbanization.... This paper is divided into two main parts. The first addresses the (non-spatial) causal mechanisms between 1949 and 1977. Neither the ideological, the class, nor the economic formulation has touched on the more systemic mechanisms related to the socialist state and the shortage economy. This paper attempts to redress the imbalance by examining the advantages of combining Kornai's shortage model with Foucault's concept of governmentality. By drawing on concepts of spatial contingency, spatial boundary and locality effects, the second part of the paper argues that spatial relations do play significant roles in revealing Chinese urbanisation policies and patterns."
This monograph provides a systematic analysis of interprovincial migration in China and regional population dynamics since the 1950s. Data were obtained from the 1% sample survey of 1987. Chapters are devoted to an examination of the main features of population distribution and spatial differences of major demographic indicators, the causes and selectivity of migration, and the structure of migration. Explanatory models are used to estimate regional in- and out-migration rates and to identify factors that determine regional differences between those rates. The analysis of regional population trends since the 1950s is used to produce multiregional population projections at the provincial level for the period 1987-2087. The final chapter discusses the implications for socioeconomic development of regional population trends. Employment, marriage, and reunions with family are the three main causes of migration in China. City migrants tend to move between cities, while town and county migrants move to other towns in the same province or cities in other provinces. The eastern economic zones (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangxi) had net in-migration during 1982-87. Other regions with net in-migration included the middle and western economic zones, with the exception of Hubei and Ningxi provinces, which had net out-migration. Most interprovincial migration flows were between neighboring provinces. The direction of flows was from less developed middle and western economic zones to more developed eastern economic zones. The migration pattern during 1982-87 reversed the pattern during 1949-78. The migration flows were sensitive to the shift in migration policy, to economic reforms, and to strategies of economic development that favored the east coast. The natural components of population change will have a vital impact on regional population changes, which are unevenly distributed across the nation.
This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders’ business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy.
While industralization programmes have been central to the development of Asia-Pacific states and city-regions over the past half-century, service industries are increasingly important as instruments of urban growth and change. The purpose of this paper is to establish service industries as increasingly significant aspects of urban development within the Asia-Pacific, and to propose a conceptual and analytical framework for scholarly investigation within this important research domain. To this end the paper explores a sequence of related themes and issues, concerning the larger developmental implications of urban services growth (or tertiarization), the facets of urban transformation associated with tertiarization, and a preliminary typology of urban service functions which acknowledges the rich diversity of service vocations and stages of development within the Asia-Pacific. The paper concludes that “advanced services”—specialized, intermediate service industries, advanced-technology services, and creative service industries—will be quite crucial to the development of city-regions within the Asia-Pacific, with respect to employment growth and human capital formation, to the urban economic (or export) base, to the operation of flexible production systems, and to competitive advantage. The development of these urban service poles will require innovative policy commitments and regulatory adjustments, as will the multi-centred specialized urban service corridors which function as engines of regional economic growth, and which provide platforms for national modernization and responses to the pressures (and opportunities) of globalization. To date, urban and regional development strategies for service industries within the Asia-Pacific have privileged globalization, industrial restructuring, and modernization aims, but there is also an encouraging record of more progressive planning experimentation in some jurisdictions, incorporating principles of sustainability and co-operative development. There is also increasing interest in policies to support cultural and creative industries among Asia-Pacific city-regions, informed by some recent urban policy experimentation in this domain. These experiences can offer models for further policy and programmatic innovation in the 21st century, as service industries continue to play larger roles in urban and regional development within the Asia-Pacific.
In recent years, attention has been drawn to the fact that now more than half of the world's population is urbanised, and the bulk of these urban dwellers are living in the global South. Many of these Southern towns and cities are dealing with crises which are compounded by rapid population growth, particularly in peri-urban areas; lack of access to shelter, infrastructure and services by predominantly poor populations; weak local governments and serious environmental issues. There is also a realisation that newer issues of climate change, resource and energy depletion, food insecurity and the current financial crisis will exacerbate present difficult conditions. As ideas that either ‘the market’ or ‘communities’ could solve these urban issues appear increasingly unrealistic, there have been suggestions for a stronger role for governments through reformed instruments of urban planning. However, agencies (such as UN-Habitat) promoting this make the point that in many parts of the world current urban planning systems are actually part of the problem: they serve to promote social and spatial exclusion, are anti-poor, and are doing little to secure environmental sustainability. Urban planning, it is argued, therefore needs fundamental review if it is to play any meaningful role in current urban issues.
In the Canadian North the post-contact era has seen the erosion of aboriginal self-determination. State intervention premised on resource exploitation, maintenance of sovereignty, compassion, and implementation of regional development policies intended to address economic inequalities set the pace and boundaries of social, economic and political change. There are now signs of potential opportunities to redress the asymmetrical power balance. However, the limits of the new social contract are becoming clearer. The issue of aboriginal self-determination through self-government has reached an impasse. Breaking this impasse will require a paradigm shift of equal or greater magnitude than occured with the formal recognition of aboriginal rights and title in 1973. The role of communities in a northern development strategy is limited by jurisdictional uncertainty, unfavourable factors of production, chronic economic dependency and factionalism among aboriginal leaders. Prospects for change through the Nunavut proposal for a separate territory and the emerging land claim settlements, are limited. Evidence of emerging centralised aboriginal regimes and provisions are inconsistent with community development and autonomy. Nevertheless emerging strategies offer tangible, but constrained opportunities, to put the momentum into practice.
The U.S. federal government appears committed to the idea of performance measurement. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (1991), provides an opportunity to change the focus of metropolitan transportation planning and policy from fostering mobility (more travel) increasing accessibility (greater potential for desired interaction), which is widely viewed as a desirable objective among planners and the general public. This paper does three things: (1) defines the concept and clarifies questions of measurement, (2) reviews the literature to identify importat issues associated with changing accessibility, including accessibility's relationship to land use and value, poverty and unemployment, race, energy use and air pollution, (3) reports results from a case study of change in gravity-accessibility to employment by automobile in Atlanta, between 1980 and 1990.Other authors have argued that accessibility has been increasing over time, as well as becoming more homogenous in U.S. metropolitan areas. Together these developments are thought to have reduced its policy importance. This case study illustrates that this was not entirely the case in Atlanta in the late 1980s. Overall accessibility declined at the end of the decade, rather than continuing its steady increase, and its influence on residential density at the tract level (the access-density gradient) also changed direction. However, accessibility's explanatory power did decline from 1980 to 1900 in Atlanta, as expected. It seems likely therefore that accessibility will continue to be valuable as an indicator of metropolitan transportation systems' performance, as well as allowing planners to better anticipate change and to be more aware of its consequences.
This is a study of housing supply in three urban areas in Ghana: Accra the capital city, Kumasi, the most important provincial city, and Berekum, a small town. The sample of over 1600 households is divided into renters, recent owners, and longer established owners. The last group is divided into those who have and those who have not extended their home in the previous 6 years. The data provides an insight into who is supplying houses (and extensions), what sort of housing they are building, their reasons for building and the problems encountered in achieving ownership. The study shows that house ownership is available to much lower income households than expected, especially when traditional compounds are built; that owners are relatively old, have large households and occupy considerably more rooms than renters, and build houses larger than they need and let the remainder to tenants or relatives. There is a great need for housing finance because land is currently inappropriate for collateral against a building loan. Research is needed to develop a means by which land could be used as collateral for a loan without unravelling the customary non-marketability of land.
This paper is concerned with the problems of developing policies which stimulate urban economic development without causing sub-optimal damage to the environment. It is, therefore, concerned with policies which lead to sustainable urban growth. The objective is to illustrate not only that the consequences of the inadequate consideration of environmental factors in urban policy making have harmful long term, environmental effects but also that these effects can impede the economic development of urban areas as measured more conventionally in terms of job creation and monetary incomes. Further, it is argued that, given the interactive nature of both environmental effects and the remedial policies available to tackle them, it is preferable to consider the application of a portfolio of policy measures rather than pursue a single problem/target strategy. To this latter end a dynamic approach to the long term application of such a portfolio is explored.
This special issue explores emerging research agendas in planning. It brings together scholars from diverse schools working on new areas of research and application in urban design and planning. Emergent research agendas include both novel areas of research and important shifts in the direction of a research area. The challenge for planning schools is to reflect critically on these changes and develop long-term research agendas that can better position our field in society and academia, and provide a basis from which to assess our academic programmes. The chapters presented in this issue reinforce key aspects of planning: multi-scale, and multi-faceted, yet integrative in its intent, stressing the physical, yet inescapably social. At the same time, they identify research areas that respond to major social and environmental changes. Blanco and Alberti focus on the latest findings in climate change science and on planning for adaptation; they highlight the opportunities that planners have to provide leadership in this area. Forsyth, Krizek and Rodríguez take up the issue of non-motorised travel, a topic of increasing interest for urban designers, public health experts and transportation and energy planners. For Talen and Ellis, an emerging challenge is the need to plan for diverse and compact communities. What social factors, policies, programmes and planning processes facilitate compact and diverse communities?
Over the past 15 years, OECD countries have come to recognise that their elderly populations are already, or will be, the fastest growing segments of their populations in the coming decades. In recognition of these demographic facts, public and private sectors planners with responsibility for housing, health and social services and transportation have divided into two camps. In one camp are those who believe that the full integration of the elderly population within their communities is the best way to insure the maximum life satisfaction of the elderly population over the longest period of time. This view manifests itself in proposals to allow ‘in-law suites’ to be built in areas zoned for single-family dwellings, deinstitutionalisaton and concomitant development of community-based care, and public transit systems made fully accessible to seniors regardless of their level of physical ability. In the other camp are those who believe that the elderly population wants and seeks a built environment which specifically caters for their particular needs. The most visible manifestations of this perspective are the ‘seniors only communities’ with their separate health and social services, and transportation systems.
This research centres on the implementation of settlement policies guiding the erection of agricultural dwellings in the countryside. The research methodology employed different theoretical perspective which sought to recognise the complex and often contentious nature of policy implementation and the key role played by particular actors. The policy framework is characterised as possessing deficiencies attributed to the origins of the policy as an uneasy compromise between the interests of agriculture and other claims on the use of the countryside.The research shows that in practice a significant proportion of applications for agricultural dwellings did not meet clear policy criteria. However, the overwhelming majority of such applications were nonetheless supported by councillors, often to the extent of overtunning recommendations for refusal on policy grounds. Particularly prominent in that decision-making role were those rural councillors from an agricultural background who shared similar “interest-in-land” as applicants and who exercised a disproportionate influence in the determination of such applications. Such interests of the agricultural landowner were found to be in conflict with the officer interpretation of the “public interest”.Recommendations from the research include increased third party involvement in decision-making, tighter monitoring of decisions considered contrary to policy and further liaison between academics and practitioners in analysing the impact of land use planning
The English countryside has, in recent years, been subject to an array of development pressures, many of which have been the focus of both national and local debate. Local planning authorities (LPAs) have been handed the task of negotiating these pressures and navigating a difficult path between the need to permit necessary development and the desire to sustain environmental quality and local amenity. It is within this context that less contentious development sites have been sought which also offer sustainable solutions. Wartime airfields have, in many instances, been seen as suitable sites for redevelopment and it is patterns of land re-use on such sites that provide the focus of this research monograph.Through a national survey of local planning practice on wartime airfields, and a series of local case studies, the research which is reported within this monograph explores both the ways in which re-use has been regulated by the UK planning system and the nature of re-use on different sites. Maintaining the rights of aviation groups is an added pressure upon this process. More specifically, the monograph focuses attention on current uses on these sites, the regulatory role of the planning system and the compatibility of new and established uses.
In this paper we consider the question, ‘What is the the scope for using results of economic valuation studies in the appraisal and assessment of heritage-related projects and programmes?’ This entails assessing the potential role and scope of ‘value transfer’, which is an approach to economic valuation that uses results of previous valuation studies (for example, travel cost or stated preference studies) in the appraisal of projects and programmes. A distinct appeal of value transfer is its expediency and value for money properties in relation to commissioning original valuation studies, which can enable greater use of economic values within decision making. Its potential role in the appraisal of heritage assets depends on whether it is deemed a reliable approach to economic valuation, and whether there is a sufficient body of economic valuation literature concerning the heritage sector. Correspondingly, we examine: (i) the applicability of economic valuation to the historic environment; (ii) the basis for value transfer; and (iii) the literature pertaining to the valuation of the historic environment. We also develop a case study, which demonstrates the use of value transfer in a heritage context. Overall there currently appears to be limited scope for value transfer applications in heritage-related appraisal and evaluation exercises. This is in part due to the heterogeneity and complexity of heritage assets. However, a more fundamental constraining factor is the current extent of heritage valuation literature; only 30 valuation studies were identified relating to the historic environment. We recommend that future work focuses on developing a database of valuation studies relating to the heritage sector, and on establishing a broader base of high-quality original heritage-related economic valuation studies. Moreover, where value transfer is applied in an appraisal and evaluation context to heritage assets, much emphasis should be placed on satisfying the criteria for identifying suitable valuation evidence from existing studies.
Tore Sager is Professor in the Department of Transportation Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. He graduated as an economist and received his Dr.techn. degree at the Nordic Institute for Studies in Urban and Regional Planning, Stockholm, in 1990. Major fields of work have been transport economics, urban land use, transportation planning, and techniques and methods in planning. His current research interest is planning theory, particularly communicative planning theory and the study of bounded rationality in transportation planning processes. He published Communicative Planning Theory (Avebury) in 1994.
Governments and development specialists in Asia are publicly committed to the sustainable development concept. However, there is little evidence that Asian nations are making real progress towards sustainable development, despite signing global and regional agreements on the environment, establishing new environmental agencies, preparing national sustainable development plans, and requiring environmental impact assessments for development projects.This article identifies a missing link in the nested hierarchy of sustainable development plans in Asia, which may be one of the reasons why intentions at the national level are not being translated into sustainable development at the local level (where the social–economic–environmental interactions are most commonly realized). This missing link is integrated economic-cum-environmental (E-c-E) planning at the sub-national level.The article investigates five case studies of integrated E-c-E planning at the sub-national level, through a process of collaborative action research and the case study method. Findings from the case studies are combined with qualitative data from an analysis of success factors and constraints from the literature on sustainable development planning at other levels (from global to project) and other regions, using an iterative process of pattern matching.The results of this analysis are used to derive a checklist and decision trees to guide development specialists in deciding whether to proceed with an integrated E-c-E planning study at the sub-national level in Asia. The article also shows how to improve the design of integrated E-c-E studies to increase the probability of successful outcomes. The probable resource implications of these changes are discussed. The article concludes that an improved approach to integrated E-c-E planning at the sub-national level may play a pivotal role in the hierarchy of planning and thus assist in leading Asian nations towards sustainable development, and provides some ideas for further application and investigation.
The question of how and where to accommodate the growing number of households in Britain is a key issue for both academic and policy debate. The research presented in this paper identifies the principal factors underlying the increasing pressure for residential development in the countryside around major towns and cities. The relative merits of alternative forms of urban development are assessed. The potential significance of a new settlement strategy in meeting the challenge of urban development in the United Kingdom in the 21st century is highlighted. With the United Kingdom policy environment as conceptual framework, the discussion examines three key issues that affect the nature and feasibility of new settlements. These relate to the distribution of the costs and benefits of development; the social balance of new communities; and the appropriate development agency. The conceptual analysis of the new settlement strategy is complemented by empirical evidence from major stakeholders in relation to key aspects of the new settlement option. Finally, a number of policy-oriented recommendations are presented to inform development of a new programme of new settlements for Britain in the early 21st century.
In the last 20 years the issues forming the agenda of Australian planning have been transformed. The challenge of environmental sustainability, new definitions of democracy, a concern for gender and ethnicity issues, and the reduced role of the state in market societies have been major sources of change. The combined effect of these reform impulses has been to muddy the overall sense of purpose within Australia's planning systems. Apart from this sense of confusion over planning values, the deregulatory agenda of neo-liberalism has cut a deep swathe through Australia's spatial regulation systems. Our aim is to locate today's Australian institutional reform agendas in the context of changing values and critiques, and to consider their combined effects on urban and regional planning. We begin by considering the values which informed the generic idea of planning following the Second World War. We then consider, at the intermediate level, the emergence of disillusionment with the effects of modernist urban planning and briefly discuss the four main strands of critique — Marxism, radical democratic outlooks, environmentalism and anti-planning conservatism — which have developed in the last three decades. Detailed empirical analysis is undertaken of contemporary neo-liberal reform processes. From this, we consider the broad field of recent `reform politics' in Australian planning, focusing upon the implications of neo-liberalism for progressive green and radical democratic critiques. Finally, we return to the value positions of earlier critiques with a view to recovering the basis for a political–ethical renewal of Australian planning.
This paper is concerned with the production and reproduction of segregation in Northern Ireland and how territoriality has impacted on the Protestant community in Derry/Londonderry. The city was pivotal in the development of the most recent conflict, has a majority Catholic population, sits on a contested border and has attempted to respond to expressions of alienation that have emerged from the Protestant community. The research used multiple methods to understand the nature of alienation and exclusion using secondary data, a quantitative household survey, in-depth interviews and focus groups. This empirical commitment was important in identifying and unpacking the claims of various stakeholders with an interest in the use and development of the area. It is argued here that a version of Collaborative Planning provides a loosely articulated conceptual and methodological framework for drawing Protestant communities into the wider planning framework for the city. The data, however, suggest that the nature of stakeholders is complex and contradictory, and discursive practice that seeks consensus has limits, especially in validating or legitimating the assertions of self-acclaimed stakeholders. The research shows that the Protestant community had declined and residualised but had little experience of direct conflict with the majority community. Moreover, the Protestant community is now more likely to use the city centre (a predominantly Catholic space) for consumption and work, and its demographic decline has stopped. These findings are important as policy responses and community relations programmes have failed to distinguish between measurable socio-economic needs and claims concerning ethnic alienation based on emotion and manipulation. Such alienation has tended to bolster single identity communities who have little or no prospect and/or knowledge of the collaborative efforts required to deliver meaningful regeneration. More realistic strategies based on agonism focus attention on power relations and the authenticity of positions adopted by competing interests in land use management and change. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to acknowledge and value contestation but to challenge sectarian discourses represented as legitimate claims about community needs and priorities.
This paper assesses the emerging impact of the British government's modernisation programme on the economic development role of local government. New survey and interview evidence is used to compare with earlier surveys, dating from the 1980s. In addition surveys of local government relations with other partner bodies are used to assess how governance has developed in the new institutional setting of devolved institutions in Scotland and Wales, and regional bodies in England. The paper demonstrates that local economic development has stabilised in the level of dedicated staff, with resource of about 2.5% of local budgets, representing a national contribution of approximately £360m. Central government's modernisation programme is, as yet, only a minor influence on these changes. The Community Strategy and new well being powers have as yet had only limited impact on activities. Best Value has, however, induced major change in approach in the majority of areas, especially by focusing on targets. The development of a complex network of regional, sub-regional and local partnerships evidences a complex multi-agent environment for local government in which its role has remained important, but in which its inter-links with other bodies have multiplied and complexity has significantly increased. The paper demonstrates the emergence of a closer inter-linkage of economic and social agendas within the new governance regime since 1997, which continues to be inclusive of private sector concerns, but has also sought greater social inclusion. This appears most evident in areas with access to well-funded urban regeneration programmes, rather than systematically across the system, which tends to confirm the continuing dominance of central government roles in local and regional governance.
The general goal of this research was to address the broad question, does consensus work in resource management decision-making? Its purpose was to identify success factors for employing the consensus decision-making model specifically in land use planning; to examine the models incepted by the government of British Columbia during the period 1992–1995; and to investigate the application and effectiveness of the models as actually employed in integrated resource planning in British Columbia. The specific objective was to develop a general diagnostic framework for evaluation, based on indicators and success factors derived from a review of pertinent literature; from interviews with stakeholder participants in these processes; through review of government documentation, and through interviews with government officials who design and manage those processes.
This study explores the prospects of decentralisation and consensus building within the context of local economic development in Turkey. The broad theoretical concern of this research is the tension between the centre and periphery in the governance structure of Turkey. Over 80 interviews from three rapidly growing medium-sized cities, Denizli, Gaziantep and Kayseri, indicate that considerable decentralisation in recent decades has enabled municipalities and local groups to formulate and realise local projects. However, detailed case studies from Kayseri illustrate both the importance of kinship and social ties in forming alliances and identifying priorities in local politics. Charismatic individuals play a crucial role in initiating and driving local projects. The experience of Kayseri in local economic development through local initiatives demonstrates the current battles among different civic groups, numerous economic interests, and the national party agendas of political leaders.The study concludes that decentralisation has to be considered together with enhancing participatory democracy in governance at the local and national levels in Turkey. This transformation can only be achieved with a strong and credible state. The importance of a strong and credible state is even greater in the absence of a supranational body like the European Union within which localities can co-operate and interact. Perhaps more importantly, in the wake of unpredictable distortions imposed on localities by the globalisation of economic and financial activities, localities need a safeguarding national and/or supra-national mechanism in governance as well as in policy design.
Shifts in developmental and environmental imperatives in the late 1980s and early 1990s have prompted concomitant reassessments of urban management practice. In this context, discourses advancing a ‘traditional’ form of urbanism have emerged as an alternative take on how to create the built landscape. The ideas promoted in the discourses have been quickly adopted internationally, and implemented in a myriad of urban development projects. However, it is the contention of this paper that such endorsement of urbanist principles has been hasty and uncritical.
This project researched the problems of evaluating public sector small business loan and grant schemes. The methodology was to use case studies of four loan and grant schemes run by enterprise agencies on contract from task forces or city challenges. These case studies were selected following a mapping exercise of 27 finance schemes in north east London.Research showed that evaluation relied on performance indicators. The main measures used were deployment of funds, job creation, leverage of additional funds, lender of last resort, ethnicity of recipients, default rate, and enquiry levels. Four technical problems with these performance indicators were found. First, the interpretation of indicators varied between organisations. Second, performance indicators judged agencies on areas which were outside their control. Third, indicators failed to take account of the full range of work involved in managing a loan and grant scheme. Fourth, lender of last resort and leverage were incompatible in their preferred risk position and no attempt was made to reconcile the two.That these technical weaknesses were not taken into account in the weight given to performance indicators led to four organisational effects. First, agencies seemed to have made their own attempt to render the indicators meaningful, reflecting the conditions under which the schemes had been first established. The existence of strong political, auditing, and time pressures led to three management styles designated as client oriented, bureaucratic, and entrepreneurial. Second, the system encouraged managing agencies to distort figures to produce more favourable results. For instance, rescheduling of debts allowed the agency to avoid recording high levels of default. Third, the focus of information gathering on external needs (those of the funders) seemed to have discouraged agencies from contemplating and developing their own data systems. This might reflect either a lack of resources or a fear that any information could be used against them.Several possible explanations for these problems are explored in this report. Objectives were ambiguous because of the under-development of programme theory. Data was not always available because its collection was not of value to the enterprise agency. Communication between funders and agencies was poor because funders had come to see their main power as residing in the re-tendering of contracts.These points present part of the explanation, but a further level of analysis is possible. That theory is under-developed, data unavailable, and communication weak are symptoms of a deeper problem. This is the problem that performance management is operating under a positivist theory of knowledge. Several possible improvements to the evaluation of small business loan and grant schemes are explored in this paper. Key among these is an acknowledgement of the limitations of evaluation through adopting a developmental approach within a culture of organisational learning. This paper illustrates the value of adopting a developmental approach, but also the fundamental transformation which it implies.“With each new evaluation, the evaluator sets out, like an ancient explorer, on a quest for useful knowledge, not sure whether seas will be gentle, tempestuous, or becalmed. Along the way the evaluator will often encounter any number of challenges: political intrigues wrapped in mantles of virtue; devious and flattering antagonists trying to co-opt the evaluation in service of their own narrow interests and agendas; unrealistic deadlines and absurdly limited resources; gross misconceptions about what can actually be measured with precision and definitiveness; deep-seated fears about the evils-incarnate of evaluation, and therefore, evaluators; incredible exaggerations of evaluators' power; and insinuations about defects in the evaluator's genetic heritage (Patton, 1997: 38; Utilisation Focused Evaluation).”
Post-development theorists have argued that ideas such as ‘progress’, ‘growth’, ‘poverty’ and ‘underdevelopment’, are artifacts of a discourse of development that has imposed its normalizing and teleological vision on the world. I intend this essay as a provisional critique of post-development theory. I show with the help of a detailed case study of canal irrigation-led development in central Gujarat, India, that while the general critique of development presented by post-development theorists is valid in many respects, the criticisms they launch are neither novel; nor, are their understandings of development processes particularly nuanced. Morever, I demonstrate that post-development theory is philosophically inconsistent when examined on its own terms. In contrast to the critics of development, whose project concludes, inevitably, in an anti-development stance, I argue that development can be liberatory in particular time–space contexts. We cannot make a priori assessments of development outcomes without understanding the freedoms they enable or curtail: in other words, their moral geographies. I suggest that as development planners and scholars interested in tackling issues of poverty, inequality, and deprivation, we can use our theoretical arsenal to expose and contest capricious and disempowering forms of development; and imagine alternative strategies.
The concept and premises of carrying-capacity are employed as tools for the operationalization of sustainable development. Carrying-capacity of a region, comprising its supportive and assimilative capacities, is defined as the ability to produce desired outputs from a constrained resource base to achieve a higher and more equitable quality of life, while maintaining desired environmental quality, and ecological health. The proposed planning process explicitly includes interaction between the community, experts and decision-makers to arrive at trade-offs between the desired production-consumption levels through the exploitation of supportive capacity within its regenerative potential, and environmental quality within the assimilative capacity of the regional ecosystem. These trade-offs result in structural shifts necessary for reconciling competing demands in the overall process of socio-economic development through appropriate technological, managerial and organizational interventions.A GIS-RDBMS-Neural Network-based system has been used for on-line consequence analysis of regional developmental proposals. The model outputs are used as the indicators of sustainable development. The neural networks have been trained to identify linkages in regional systems and the cartographic inputs have been processed through GIS to obtain spatial data, and through RDBMS to obtain non-spatial data.The exploratory search to identify a preferred scenario considers settlement forms; locations of developmental activities; technological options; and consumption patterns. The preferred scenario maximizes the equitable quality of life levels, and minimizes ecological loading and environmental degradation index. The case of carrying-capacity-based developmental planning in National Capital Region (NCR) in India is presented.
The dominance of ideology, state control and economic planning on urban planning and development in China is rapidly diminishing after economic reforms in 1978. With the declining role of state enterprises in the economy and investment in cities, the introduction of housing and land reform, and the opening up of Chinese cities to foreign investment, the state and centrally-planned economy have less significant role to play in influencing the development of cities. Past urban planning practices, which were legitimized by the socialist ideology of planned growth, are now fundamentally challenged. Economic reforms have triggered reorganization of the economy and society on which urban planning operates. Decentralization of decision making, market-led urban development initiatives, retreat from socialist ideology, deregulation and increase in the number of actors and conflicts of interests in land development have challenged fundamentally the practice of urban planning. The deficiency of the conventional urban planning system has been recognized. The enactment of the 1989 City Planning Act is a major milestone that tries to re-establish and formalize the urban planning system in China to meet the challenges. But, there are still many deficiencies of the urban planning system in dealing with the rapidly changing socio-economic environment. Some of these deficiencies can be traced to the legacies of past planning practice and some are deficiencies of the City Planning Act. Experiments are taking place in Chinese cities which aim to provide better guidance to urban planning and development control from a centrally-planned to transitional economy. These include urban district plans, detailed development control plans and zoning. From a broader examination of current global challenges that confront urban planning in various countries, it can be seen that the problems in China stem from the reorganization of state and market in urban planning. Urban planning in China is now at a crossroads. The urban planning system needs to undergo both institutional and philosophical reforms, such as the setting up of an urban planning commission, making the detailed development control plan statutory, setting up an independent planning appeal system, better coordination between development control and land leasing, increase in public participation, training of planners and strengthening of professionalism, in order for it to achieve its role in guiding urban development into the 21st century.
A major reason for the regeneration of historic city centres in developing countries is the possibility of benefiting from the growing mobility of international tourists. In this competitive global market place, a particular perspective on history and culture is being sold. It is a perspective that celebrates buildings and ignores a history of conflictive social relations. A modern expression of these social relations is the conflict which exists between planners and street traders, whose presence is seen to be inimical to tourism development. This paper investigates the relations between planners and street traders in Quito, in the context of the history of the city as a contested space and where the physical and socio-economic structures are related to cultural conflicts which are deeply embedded. The paper argues that these conflicts can only be resolved, and international tourism can only be successfully developed, if planners recognise the role of the history of their ideas in the process. After providing a brief discussion of the historical context for modern planning in Quito, it explores the recent proposals for the revitalisation of the historic centre of Quito by examining the physical structure of the city centre and the place of informal traders within it; the social, economic and organisational structure of informal trade; and the cultural relations which act as a barrier to the resolution of differences over the future of tourism and street trading. Finally, some proposals for the modernisation of planner–trader relations are discussed.
Waste planning in the UK is confronted with new policy agendas and is under pressure to develop new policy frameworks in the emerging local plans. The changes in policy agendas are pushing waste planning to shift from total reliance on disposal of waste to landfill towards a wider range of waste management techniques based on a hierarchy of options. This change is taking place simultaneously with changing institutional relationships in waste management.This paper examines the ways in which the planning system is responding to these challenging developments. Case studies of development plan-making practices in the West Midlands, Kent and Lancashire are examined in order to provide an account of the processes of change.In conclusion, the paper argues that whilst under the EU-led regulatory pressures, the intention to move away from landfill was universal in all cases, the selection of alternatives was diverse, reflecting the influences derived from locally specific factors. It also argues that although the consultation processes embedded in the British planning system has the potential to open up the debate on strategic waste management to a wider range of stakeholders, the sectoral nature of the system and the end-of-pipe approach to participation has largely undermined such achievements.
Zhujiang delta region has been at the forefront of China's reforms and open door policy. There has been enormous investment from Hong Kong and elsewhere. The region has undergone dramatic economic growth and spatial transformations. Such changes have been brought about by various factors and the consequence of the development has not been evenly distributed in the region. This monograph will assess the urban and regional development comprehensively by employing a county-level demographic/economic data set of the region. This will be complimented by other data. This monograph will update the previous studies that mainly used larger spatial units such as prefecture-level cities and a few key economic indicators such as GDP. The monograph focuses on the inflow of non-local investment, infrastructure development, factor contributions to regional economic growth, polarized development and the increasing links between Hong Kong and Zhujiang delta region. The development experience of the Zhujiang delta region will in no doubt shed light on the urban and regional development in both China and many developing countries.
As metropolitan regions continue to fuse into giant megalopolises, nations are confronted with new challenges for governing large metropolitan regions. This monograph addresses three main themes in the burgeoning study of global cities and regional governance in a comparative context. First, what is the importance of city regionalism in the world economy and how are they formed? Second, what is the politics of city regionalism and what political-administrative forms can it take? Third, are these processes the same in China and the West?
Utility networks are physically embedded in places and they also operate within a regulated environment which imposes obligations on them. Within this framework they need to demonstrate commercial success which is directly related to new management strategies that have profound implications for the economic social and environmental performance of localities and regions. Privatisation and liberalisation have heralded a movement from relatively uniform service provision to a utility patchwork with increased variations in tariffs, and styles of service provision. Realisation amongst urban studies and policy makers communities that utility strategies raise important issues for urban and regional development has been slow to emerge. But this is now rapidly changing. Voluntary and community groups and charities have attempted to ensure that low income households gain access to affordable water, heat, light and communication services. Economic development agencies have begun to realise that utilities can act as powerful allies for attracting inward investment. More slowly, they are turning attention to the implications of take-overs and job losses. Environmental groups have recognised the benefits of policies to cut demand and are working with utility companies on energy and water saving strategies. This paper explores the socio-spatial implications of emerging utility strategies within contemporary UK cities.
It has become common to say that social cohesion and economic competitiveness go together, indeed to claim that cohesion actually promotes prosperity. This is a reversal of the previous belief in economic determinism and individualism. The shift in perspective stems partly from concerns about a growing malaise in society with the potential for unrest. Social stability and trust are thought to encourage long-term investment decisions, while conflict and crime may deter productive activity and make growth less secure. The notion that a strong society supports and sustains a successful economy has begun to influence government policy. It also coincides with a more positive view of the economic potential of cities in the contemporary economy. Yet, the arguments linking cohesion and competitiveness are typically couched in very general terms. They conflate different kinds of phenomena in fuzzy concepts and can confuse the underlying causal relationships.
Contemporary international migration shows points of departure from the immigration of the past. First, all continents are now significantly implicated in the transfers of populations. Second, there is immense diversity among immigrant characteristics and human capital, including both legal and illegal status, and ranging from the movement of well-resourced cosmopolitans to the flows of refugees who may well be poverty-stricken and without documentation. Third, the numbers of international migrants are at a very high level. Fourth, destinations are more concentrated than has been the case in recent history, focussed upon large metropolitan centres, or gateway cities, in advanced societies.
This paper explores the potential application of spatial analysis and modelling techniques to the merger problem, and introduces a conceptual spatial modelling framework to improve retail merger and acquisition planning from both a commercial and regulatory perspective. Focusing on the UK retail sector, the paper demonstrates the importance of local scale market ‘dynamics’ in merger and acquisition (M&A) planning and evaluation; reviews the range of existing spatial modelling approaches to retail location problems, and illustrates how these models can be applied to M&A planning.
The purpose of this article is to stimulate and inform discussion about the community role in sustainable development and to broaden our understanding of the opportunities for sustainable community development activity. It begins with an overview of sustainable development, questioning its focus on poverty as a major source of environmental degradation, and suggesting instead that both poverty and environmental degradation result largely from wealth. It next examines the concepts of natural capital and social capital, whether (and if so, how) they are linked, and explores their implications for sustainable development at the community level.Chapter 3 examines planning theory and sustainable development, finds that while planning theory is, or should be, relevant to sustainable development, planners concerned with key aspects of sustainable development will have to look to “greener” pastures for relevant theoretical guidance.Chapter 4 considers the implications for achieving sustainable development in communities, particularly regarding the future of work and community economic development. Chapter 5 details a framework for sustainable community development. Chapter 6 concerns questions of governance for sustainable community development and it focuses on public participation, decision-making, the role of local government, and planning for action. Chapter 7 examines relevant policy instruments and planning tools. Finally, Chapter 8 explores the challenge ahead for sustainable community development.
This study compares urban planning mechanisms that operate within Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. The political economy of Hong Kong is in a state of flux. While the power of the government and the corporate interests remain largely intact, they are challenged by pro-China interests and a democratizing civil society. The land use planning system reflects this power contest. In face of both strong resistance from the development industry and China's eagerness to perpetuate a market-led society in post-1997 Hong Kong, the outcome of the power contest remains uncertain. The state-centred political economy of Singapore has bred a top–down land use planning system centrally controlled by the government. Not only has the government dominated the plan making process, the legislation has entrusted the public sector to scrutinize and guide private development through a discretionary development control system. The government is able to mobilize resources to implement plans with the tacit consent of a regulated and meritocracy-based society. In contrast, Taiwan's multi-layered government structure and its complicated relationships with business interests (`gold-power' alliance) within a cultural milieu with scant respect for rules and regulations, have produced a complex and yet loosely coordinated land use planning system. The Urban Planning Law emphasizes plan making and implementation by the public sector at the district level, but local authorities lack resources to implement plans. The regulatory development control system, to a large extent, is abused by the community and land use zoning is not taken seriously in general. As plan amendments can be made behind closed doors, the `gold-power' alliance has tried to rezone land for speculative purposes. The impact of the recent democratization process on the society's legal attitudes and the roles of planning in urban governance in Taiwan remains to be seen.
For want of appropriate and effectual methodological approaches or analytical instruments, analysis of socio-economic phenomena can sometimes be problematic. As Frances et al. have aptly noted, any analysis of social nature begs the question: ‘with what theoretical tools do we approach the analysis of events and processes?’ (p. 1). In land matters, for example, Malpezzi (1999b,c) has keenly observed that most of the studies on land reforms have focused on the rural and agricultural sectors, at the expense of the urban sector. Arguably, the paucity of land policy/reform studies on the urban sector could be explained, to a large measure, by the fact that most of the studies carried out in this area apply theoretical frameworks or models that are highly abstract (e.g. neoclassical economic models) or too simplistic in approach.1 Such models or methodological frameworks may not be readily applicable or efficacious in explaining the convoluted urban land market realities. The narrow option for alternative tools of analysis for studying land market ‘events and processes’ (to use Frances et al.’s (1991) terminology) may well have hindered land policy/reform research in the urban sector. Against that background, this paper advances an eclectic, property-rights-based approach that is robust and versatile enough to have wide application. An empirical study conducted under the framework attests to the relevance of such an approach to land use policy and urban land market analysis.
In the face of an estimated one billion people living in inadequate housing conditions in developing countries the need for scaling up housing supply has become an urgent focus of policy debate. To this end the expansion of the role of the private markets has formed the central thesis of the ‘enabling strategy’ for developing the housing sector as a whole rather than relying on project based approaches such as sites and services and settlement upgrading programmes. Policy recommendations emanating from such a standpoint concentrate on adjustments to supply and demand through deregulation and institutional development of the land and housing markets in developing countries in order to overcome largely external constraints to a more efficient market mechanism. This conception of the enabling strategy, however, has been subject to much debate and criticism for its over-concentration on the private markets and exclusion of alternative/complementary modes of housing provision from serious policy consideration. By utilising the structure and agency approach as its basic methodological tool of analysis this paper provides a comprehensive review of the scope and potential of different modes of housing provision in different contexts in developing countries. Thereby providing a firm comparative basis for examining the potential for expanded private market activity.
This paper explores the concept of urban renaissance and how it applies to the South East of England, the region where pressure for new housing development is at its most extreme and the responses of the planning process in the past have been at their most conservative. The paper initially explores the notion of urban renaissance and its probable alternative—urban malaise. This analysis is contextualised through a review of national policy on planning and sustainability, before the concept is pulled apart and a range of its key constituent dimensions reviewed. This wide-ranging policy and research review subsequently forms the basis for an analysis of South East planning policy in the second half of the paper.Initially the problems and pressures in the South East are explored before a review of the developing regional planning guidance examines how these concerns are being addressed. The key empirical work next reviews development plans from across the region as a means to gauge the extent to which the planning process is already addressing the urban renaissance agenda, and to assess the evolving nature of policy. A final chapter presents the key findings and looks to the future, discussing the role of the development plan in delivering an urban renaissance in the region and offering an agenda to take practice forward. The argument is made that the planning process provides potentially the central focus around which contributions to implementing an urban renaissance may converge. In this role the development plan can have a central co-ordinating and visionary function, although as yet examples of this potential are few and far between.
To think ecologically is to think complexly, recognising that reality is rarely singular, and that there is usually more than just one thing going on at the same time. Additionally, the world is lumpy, in that some few aspects of a phenomenon usually matter much more than others, and so the world is not actually infinitely variable. Besides, the physically tangible world that we care most about is usually shaped by apparently intangible sets of processes and functions. What we see is rarely all that we get. Under these conditions, planning becomes the informative telling of context, and the savvy tracing of consequence.I propose an ecosystem approach to planning, and lay out the parameters of the worldview necessary to take such an approach to an integrative regional planning. Nested scale hierarchic ecosystem ecology, or process-function ecology, provides a pragmatically robust frame from within which to come to know what it means to plan ecologically. The key insights from such a view are: (a) that complex systems are best seen to be organised into nested levels, with purposively named systems emergent from subsystems, and interactively giving rise to suprasystems; (b) that descriptions of such systems are inherently purposive and perspectival, and so why we make a description, and where we position ourselves to make that description, will significantly influence what it is we can come to see; and (c) that such systems can only be known meaningfully if they are considered to have multiple process-driven boundaries, and are depicted using multiple functionally relevant spatial and temporal scales.I use cases from the interwoven history of ecological science and social theory, habitat conservation planning, heat island mitigation, urban forestry, and impervious surface management to synthesise a description of what it means, pragmatically, to think and plan in an ecologically integrative way.
This monograph reports on a study comparing the regulation of internal housing space in Italy – since the introduction of broad, generic standards in 1975 – and in England, where there are no universal rules governing internal space. After tracing the evolution of standards in both countries from public health legislation in the late 19th century to specific building and urban codes in Italy today, and a range of standards applied to some social housing in England, it outlines the space characteristics of homes in the two countries, before drawing on a series on interviews with key built environment professionals in the cities of Turin and Manchester, to unpack the ‘conditions’ of space standard regulation in both countries. The purpose of the study has been to explore the politics, practicalities, acceptability and impact of internal space regulation in Italy and England, and to ask why regulatory standards in Italy seem more palatable than they are in England and Wales: the only remaining part of the EU where legal minimum space standard for residential development remain absent. Discussion also centres on how regulatory approaches to delivering housing quality compare with approaches based on local negotiation through planning, and how these are situated in the context of different market drivers, lending and planning cultures. Moving to a regulatory approach in England (with fixed space standards) may be problematic given that such a move would not address the market fundamentals – speculative production and investment consumption – that, alongside land supply constraints, determine the amount of space in homes. In this context, a more effective strategy might be to expose home buyers to more information on internal space, thus influencing market behaviour and thereafter, the types of homes built to supply future demand.
The provision of public services is a major function of local governments. The capability of local jurisdictions to fulfil this role depends upon the relationship between fiscal capacity and expenditure needs. The extent of the capacity–needs gap varies between jurisdictions in response to a host of economic, social and political factors. Such differences can lead to major socio–spatial disparities in levels of public service provision and in the quality of life for residents of different jurisdictions. These variations are particularly acute within metropolitan regions of advanced capitalist societies in which there is a geographical mismatch between increasingly extensive functional urban regions and politically constrained urban administrative units. This research examines the geography of public finance at the metropolitan level with particular reference to the Glasgow metropolitan region of west central Scotland, identifies major spatial variations in fiscal health among metropolitan local authorities, and evaluates possible strategies to promote fiscal equity. It is concluded that achieving fiscal equity in metropolitan regions will require a new form of fiscal politics informed by the existing fiscal geography but propelled by the goals of territorial and social justice.
Land Readjustment (LR) is a land development technique used in many countries around the world including Germany, Sweden, Japan, Taiwan and Korea. In essence it is a method whereby an irregular pattern of agricultural land holdings is re-arranged into regular building plots and equipped with basic urban infrastructure such as roads and drains. A percentage of each landowner’s holding is contributed to provide land for roads and parks, and for some plots to sell to pay the costs of the project. Its use has been particularly widespread in Japan where it is responsible for some 30% of the existing urban area, and is commonly referred to as ‘The Mother of City Planning’ (Toshi Keikaku no Haha). LR has for 20 years also been the focus of an international effort to introduce the technique to the developing countries of South East Asia. Although there is now a large literature on Japanese LR as a result of that project, however, virtually all of that literature focusses on practical aspects of how to implement projects, and on case studies of individual projects. Little attention has been paid to the role of LR in Japanese urban growth and urban planning at a city or regional scale, although such an examination is necessary to understanding LR in Japan, and Japanese urbanisation and urban planning more generally. The present research examines the role of LR in shaping patterns of urban development in the rapidly growing northern suburbs of Tokyo in Saitama prefecture. In particular, the claim commonly made by Japanese writers that LR prevents urban sprawl is examined. Sprawl and its prevention have long been a preoccupation of both Western and Japanese urban planners for aesthetic and efficiency reasons. However, it has recently gained importance as the critical interconnections between urban form and urban travel patterns, and greenhouse gas emissions and global warming have become more widely recognised. The case studies examine the role of LR in land development and urban growth at the regional scale (Saitama prefecture) and at the local scale (Urawa, Omiya and Ageo cities). GIS mapping and analysis of the case study areas, and interviews with planners and participants are used to examine the role and impacts of LR projects in suburban land development in Japan. The research suggests that while there are various impacts of LR projects because they are so widely used, in a range of different contexts, it is fair to say that LR projects contribute to increased sprawl at the regional scale, while largely failing to prevent it at the local scale.
This monograph examines the challenges facing major city regions in coping with dynamic processes of societal change. Particular attention is paid to the structure of metropolitan governance and the contribution of strategic spatial planning frameworks in managing urban development processes, focusing on recent experiences in Greater Manchester, Metropolitan Melbourne and the Greater Toronto Area. The study exemplifies the processes and inherent tensions involved, focusing on issues of economic competitiveness, social equity and cohesion, and the promotion of sustainably compact urban form. Institutional capacity-building measures are set firmly, however, within overarching neo-liberal perspectives, generating considerable tensions that clearly demonstrate the difficulties of translating metropolitan-wide visions into local implementation realities. The study concludes that the growing complexity of multi-nodal metropolitan structures and the increasing significance of interactional networks, linkages and flows within and beyond metropolitan boundaries, makes the task of metropolitan governance problematic.
This monograph provides an assessment and evaluation of certain key aspects of the development and operation of the European Structural Funds regional programmes. These programmes, which have been and still are co-financed by the European Community/Union and a range of national and regional partners in member states, were introduced in the late 1980s and are now an established feature of regional development and planning in Europe. Many lessons can be identified from the operation of the programmes, some of which are applicable to other aspects of regional planning, development and management. There are also a number of important lessons related to the extent to which member state planning and management arrangements are able to accommodate the programmes and associated partnerships; these lessons are of particular significance for countries considering the devolution of government functions or the implementation of regionalisation.
There are three main objectives of this monograph: (i) to provide an introduction to geographical information technology along with an historical perspective on the evolving role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in planning, (ii) to overview relevant methods and techniques for GIS-based land-use suitability mapping and modeling, and (iii) to identify the trends, challenges and prospects of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. The monograph focuses on two perspectives of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: the techno-positivist perspective and the socio-political, public participation perspectives. It is organized into six chapters. After an introductory setting chapter, which defines the scope of land-use suitability analysis, an overview of relevant GIS technology is provided in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 offers an historical account of the development of GIS. It also discusses the development of GIS in the context of evolving perspectives of planning. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the methods for GIS-based land-use suitability modeling. The overview provides a background against which selected case studies are discussed in Chapter 5. The concluding chapter summarized the main points of the monographs and discusses problems and prospects for GIS-based land-use suitability analysis.
The search for meaningful definitions and ways to measure and describe the quality of life (QOL) is the focus of this paper. It is argued that planners need to pay close attention to the concept of QOL in order to assess the effects of plans and projects on places and lives of all citizens. The linkages between QOL and the concept of sustainability are explored. A review of a wide variety of literature on QOL is presented and a discussion of the relationships between QOL and the public good. An overview and critique of the variety of indicators used to measure QOL is offered with example of specific projects. A number of case studies are reviewed and particular attention is placed on a set of six recent initiatives in Canada to define and measure QOL. A detailed case study on the perceived QOL of residents in three towns near to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico is presented as part of a larger project on the effects of tourism on the QOL of residents in small communities near to international tourist resorts. A description of the use of multi-criteria techniques for analyzing data on QOL is presented as part of the Puerto Vallarta project.
There is debate about the problems of communication between scientists, planners and stakeholder, and the scale at which environmental planning should take place. A review of the literature reveals that the concept of holistic landscape ecology is gaining ground in the scientific community. It also becomes clear that participation by stakeholders is not only important in satisfying the requirements of Agenda 21 but also of ensuring cooperation by local inhabitants in the final plan. Moreover, participation is becoming accepted as a vehicle for the planners to gain access to local knowledge, which is a vital complement to scientific knowledge. The challenge is to create a methodology that will overcome the shortfalls currently encountered and allow participants to be proactive in their definition of their landscape. This is possible by extending the experiments in public participation geographical information systems so long as care is taken to overcome problems in public unfamiliarity with the technology. The purpose of this paper is to draw together research in the fields of landscape ecology and planning to enable the formulation of a methodology for achieving greater and more proactive input in participation. The methodology proposed is currently actionable and this paper also points to the potential for a new emphasis in research.