Progress in Nutrition

Online ISSN: 1129-8723
Publications
Article
The pronouncement object of this work concerns a conviction for trade of noxious food products, punished as a blame, pursuant to art. 452 p.c. in connection with art. 444 p.c., following the discovery in a pack of milk intended for human consumption, of microorganisms of the type Bacillus licheniformis. A glass of the milk where the mentioned microorganism was traced was drinken by a consumer who then accused vomiting and abdominal algia a few hours after swallowing it. Finding in the milk a microorganism featuring peculiar characteristics which, because of its ubiquitous presence in both the soil and the dust in the form of a spore, is a well known pollutant of food products, together with the probative elements which led to the conviction of the defendant, cause great perplexity. There is not in fact, on the part of the Magistrate, the ascertainment of the concrete hazardousness of the food of reference and of the link between consumption and damage to health.
 
Article
In the last few years, has been growing a huge interest in the fat content of the nutrients due to the relationship between many studies made on diets with high percentage of saturated fatty acids and heart diseases. Limiting the input of saturated fatty acids and consuming large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly those of ω3-PUFA series [acid α-linoleic, EPA (C20:5 ω-3), DHA (C22:6ω-3), acids of the CLA series] have as a result the reduction of the heart pathologies, the increase of the immunological, anti-inflammatory and against cancer defenses; the cerebral and visual system development of fetus. Our studies were based on evaluating the nutritional characteristics and the nutraceutical propriety of podolian meat with a particular attention on the content of fatty acids of the series mentioned before. For this reason, we compared all the results taken by the analysis of samples of Longissimus dorsi of podolian bulls slaughtered at 14 or 18 months of age, reared in groups of 6 animals with two different systems (indoor rearing-system and semi free-range). Their comparison shows that, generally, the content of fatty acids of the ω3-PUFA series is higher on the animals reared with the semi-free range, both on 14 and 18 months of age, trend showed by the raw and the cooked samples.
 
Demographic characteristics of participants (n=761) 
Consumption of probiotic products status according to the health problems and state in the age group. 
Status of individual consumption of probiotics products according to the ages, gender, income and education (n=761). 
Reasons for consumption of probiotic products according to age group 
Article
Aim: This study was planned in order to determine the level of knowledge and consumption of probiotic products featured on their status in adults aged 15-69 living in Samsun. Methods: A total of between 15-69 years, with 761 volunteers, applying the survey data was collected. All data were analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 package program recorded on the computer. Results: Consumption of the probiotic product is 59.5%. They are also on the recommendation of 8.2%, 14.6% due to digestive problems, she loves the taste of 34.9%, to protect the health of 35.1%, and 7.2% reported that they consume for other reasons. No consume the probiotic product is 40.5%. They are not like the taste of 25.6%, 32.8% find it expensive, there is not knowledge about probiotics of 41.6%. 250 participants who have health problems, in terms of distribution according to age in the use of probiotic products, showed an increase with age (p = 0.024). Gender, age and education level had no effect on the consumption of probiotic products (p>0.05). There is a statistically significant relationship between the level of income or health problem and probiotic products consumption (p = 0.023; p = 0.015). Conclusion: 59.5% of the participants probiotics product is consume. Probiotic product consumption make a difference not statistically significant by level of education but it is considered a bit of a younger generation through education. Health problems of participants use probiotic products showed an increase with age.
 
Article
Introduction Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological development in childhood. Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia can be listed among hematologic findings in vitamin B12 deficiency, however, these changes occur in the advanced stages. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of vitamin B12 deficiency and hemogram parameters and to evaluate the value of hemogram parameters in early detection of vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. A vitamin B12 level ≤200 pg/mL was considered severe deficiency (Group 1) and a vitamin B12 level >200 pg/mL was considered as a moderate deficiency (Group 2). Vitamin B12 level, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell distribution width, platelet count, mean erythrocyte volume, mean platelet volume, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were compared between the two groups. ResultsThe mean red blood cell count (RBC) in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2 (p=0.047) and the mean red cell distribution width (RDW) in Group 1 was significantly higher than in Group 2 (p=0.003). The mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in Group 1 was found to be significantly lower than in Group 2 (p=0.026 and p=0.025). As a result of the logistic regression analysis performed with these parameters, it was observed that the only factor affecting vitamin B12 deficiency in children in our region was elevated RDW (p=0.01). Conclusion In this study, it was observed that only elevated RDW can be used as an early indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency in children.
 
Article
The study has been financed by the Regional Direction for the Social Services of the Veneto Region. The objective is to know the real situation in the elderly regarding the malnutrition risk. The study has been carried out on a group of 458 subjects with the purpose to know food and energy intake and Body Mass Index (BMI). Examined data can demonstrate that self reported intake underestimates the energy needs of a subject, in fact the greater part of the subjects have BMI 25, also having declared a food intake correspondent to LARN. The average values of intake of A vitamin and in particular calcium and D vitamin, are lower than LARN for elderly; moreover also the Ca/P relationship (0,7) is lower than LARN (v.n. 1,3). On the other hand, the water intake with food is ok.
 
Article
We evaluate the number of alert notifications in the period between January 2004 and December 2008. About each notification we analyse the provenience, the method utilized, the kind of risk, the product contaminated and the elapsed time to the inspection visits to value the activity response quickness of local Public Healt Food and Nutritional Hygiene Service staff. Moreover we analyse the data capture of commercial activities and we branch them between wholesale and detail activities. Also we recorded the presence or absence of the sale responsible. We regard important to focus on the presence of the contaminated food in the detail shop and on the activation of the call in processes. Finally we check the wrong information from the detail sale responsibles that were present in the local Public Healt Food and Nutritional Hygiene Service alert list's but that had never received the product.
 
Article
Coronavirus disease arose in 2019 (COVID-19) and has been defined a current global pandemic by the WHO (Word Health Organization). Several challenges have arisen on how to treat the disease and how to prevent it. A key role for prevention is to optimally support the immune system in the general population so that the immune response is as effective as possible. This depends also on an adequate nutritional intake able to strengthen the defenses against infection. In this review we will review the most important nutrients related to COVID disease defense.
 
Article
After 40 years since I entered the glorious Institute of Biochemistry, University of Bologna and began to deal with lipids, fatty acids and their tissue and cellular metabolism. That was the time of the demonization of saturated fat and cholesterol; substances that were considered "hurt" the body. I must say, for intellectual honesty, that our "School" never for a moment believed in this axiom, as documented in the long sequence of scientific papers produced. Even science as politics is often dominated by movements of thought and leadership affected by interests that have little to do with the knowledge of phenomena, with a genuine scientific speculation, documented and critics. However, it is not this, the time of polemics but to restore some truth, that not only give confidence to those who believe in science, but that lead back the thought and knowledge in the right direction. This is the case of fatty substances, of the lipids that with the daily eat, with the worry of mind, almost religious, committing sin. Even in science, with the economic power and the misuse of the mathematical discipline called statistics, you can prove everything and support it in the face of scientific, complacent, communities. Well, Aseen Malhotra, says in his "observations" in the British Medical Journal: "Correlation" does not mean "Cause". Lipids, fatty acids and cholesterol are living a new course, their roles and functions are restoring, roles and functions that, too often and superficially, have been addressed and discussed. During those glorious years in the Biochemistry of Bologna we realized that most of the phenomena related to the "lipid handling" should be interpreted through the behavioral study of biological membranes and the relationships that they contracted between the inside and outside of the cell. We were, from the beginning, convinced that it was inappropriate to make excessively fluid the cell membranes and that it was also inappropriate to demonize saturated fats and cholesterol. Even, and especially from them, depended the functioning of regulatory activities, in the biochemical sense, of the cellular traffic. Today, with searches that investigate the man and the animal, with a simple blood test, and with the aid of complexes mathematical tools, which can not be manipulated, many of the phenomena which was convinced are confirmed for a role of saturated fat and cholesterol as essential agents in the control of the correct function of the membrane which, however, does not tolerate nor extreme excesses or deficiencies, to the detriment of of the entire biochemical system. The drastic elimination of the visible fat from foods of animal origin and the push for more and more desired reduction in serum cholesterol will dispense, with both hands, rebound of clinical problems, to say the least, devastating. The different chapters of research addressed, faced the lipid and fatty acids research in various experimental conditions: cell culture, animal, man. Below is summarized the search path made up to the latest experimental evidence in areas that have proved indispensable links with lipids and in particular with fatty acids. The study of lipids, and of the fatty acids of tissues and cells, allows important nutritional and diagnostic interpretive skills, as well as has been proved essential, on some occasions, the use of complex mathematical functions (Artificial Neural Networks) to the understanding of phenomena that otherwise would not have been possible, and that led to the opening of new frontiers of knowledge in biological and clinical conditions of high complexity. They involve the heart and the brain.
 
Article
During the time, school lunch has assumed a big importance for the promotion of correct nutritional lifestyles that can influence the customers in positive sense. From 2001 to 2006, the ULSS16-Padova, has carried out a epidemiological study on the children from the 6 months to the 13 years old, for a total number of 101.050 children relatively to "special diets". It was considered the incidence of celiac disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and intolerances/ allergies to milk proteins, because these are frequent in babies and children. The authors have included also those who have demanded a special diet for religious reasons. From 2001 to 2006, on a total of 101.050 children the 0,03% is affected by celiac disease, the 0,09% by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, the 0,35% has a milk protein intolerance, and the 0,23% is allergic to milk protein. The 0.63% has requested a diet for religious reasons. The phenomenon is contained for about real pathologies, instead the number of presumed real pathologies is hight, probably due to the excessive mothers apprehension and the tastes of the children. It is elevated too the number of children who exclude a food rather than another for religious reasons.
 
Article
Italian families, affected by the recession, have reduced consumption not only in terms of expenditure, but also on the amount of goods and services purchased. The analysis shows that expenditure, in real terms, for food and beverages fell by -21 percent in 2007-2013; contraction in 2001-2007, always net of price dynamics, was found to -5 percent only. The food can reduce spending through its recomposition favoring merchandise less "rich" and processed within the different food categories. The affirmation of a style marked by purchasing savings depends not only upon the constraints dictated by the family budget, but also by ethical values that inspire respect for the environment and sustainability and that helped to increase the consumption of organic products in contrast to the food expenditure as a whole.
 
Demographic data
Duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of stay
The APACHE II and SOFA scores
The albumin and prealbumin values
Total lymphocyte measurements
Article
Aims: The assessment of nutritional status aims to specify individuals and communities that are malnourished or under malnutrition risk, to develop healthcare programs aimed at meeting society's needs in the wake of the assessment. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 is assessed for intensive care patients, it turns out to be indicative of their prognosis simply and effectively. Methods: The age, weight, body mass index (BMI), APACHE II, SOFA score, biochemical parameters (albumin, prealbumin, total lymphocyte levels), triceps thickness from anthropometric measurements were recorded during the hospitalization process. The patients were classified as nutritionally risk (NRS2002 +) or nutritionally risk-free (NRS2002 -) after NRS2002 assessment. According to SGD, the patients were categorized as well-fed (SGD-A), slightly or moderately malnourished (SGD-B), and heavy malnourished (SGD-C). The nutritional changes in the patient were categorized as NRS2002 -/SGD A (good nutrition), NRS2002 +/SGD B (slight or moderate malnutrition), or NRS2002 -/SGD C (severe malnutrition). Results: It is found that 49,8% of the patients were in the well-fed group, 42,2% of them in the slightly-moderately malnourished group, and 8% of them in the heavy-malnourished group. While the rate of malnutrition increases as the patients' age increases, and as their weight and BMI decrease, albumin, prealbumin, total lymphocyte, triceps skinfold thickness values decrease as malnutrition increases. For the patients with higher malnutrition rate, the duration of stay in the intensive care unit and mechanic ventilators and the mortality rate increase. Conclusions: We found that mortality increased with malnutrition. The nutritional status should be followed, and a treatment plan should be drawn up in critical care patients. Thus; SGA, NRS 2002 and other objective methods for assessing nutritional status with high sensitivity and specivity can be recommended for evaluation of critically ill patients.
 
Article
Background: The Italian national regulations, to verify the suitability of water intended for human consumption, require the monitoring of a concentration of about 70 chemical, physical and microbiological parameters. In Piedmont, where 4,357,663 residents are divided into 1,207 municipalities (2012), analytical monitoring is implemented by 12 local health authorities in collaboration with the laboratories of the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection. Objectives: We present the results of monitoring the quality of water intended for human consumption implemented by the Health Service and other information provided by the Managers of the water service. Methods: The official results of the analytical control of water intended for human consumption are recorded in Regional Health Service databases. These databases also collect information on the managers of the water service and the characteristics of the distribution network. Results: Most of the 2,222 water networks in Piedmont can serve up to 500 people and less than 40 networks could provide a sufficient quantity of water to meet all regional households demands. The Local Health Authorities make at least 21,000 samples of water per year, by some of the 8,478 sites selected for sampling, mainly in the terminal part of the distribution network. In the years 2008-2012, it have been implemented 790,306 analytical determinations about 74 different parameters, including 23 residues of plant protection products. The highest fraction of non-compliant parameters, taken over by some local health authorities, was equal to 2% of the researches which were carried out. Among the parameters that do not comply, it should be noted: coliform bacteria at 37 degrees C, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, aluminum, arsenic, iron, manganese, nitrates and sulfates; atrazine, bentazone, desethylatrazine, metolachlor and terbuthylazine. Conclusions and recommendations: The management of the analytical control officer provides annual regional planning that could be improved by making it more flexible and adaptable to different local contexts.
 
Article
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal-recessive disorder in the Caucasian population.The pulmonary disease is the most relevant clinical expression of CF. Cystic fibrosis airways are under the effect of oxidants that are generated from increased inflammation and infections present in the lungs. Low glutathione (GSH) levels in epithelial lining fluid and neutrophils/blood plasma can impair antioxidant defences thus magnifying the oxidative stress in patients suffering from CF. On these basis increasing or restoring normal GSH levels has been proposed as a potentially useful strategy in CF. Cow's milk whey proteins because its high levels of cysteine and cystine, that are both precursors of endogenous GSH synthesis, can increase tissue levels of GSH as required in CF.Therefore the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a diet supplementation with a cow's milk whey protein formula (WPF) on oxidative stress in CF patients. The secondary goal was to assess the effects of this supplementation on clinical status and its tolerability. This is a prospective, open, clinical study conducted among CF patients in regular follow up at CF Centre of Genova, Italy in the period 2007-2010. Participants received whey proteins with WPF, which was administered orally once a day. This study deals with 59 patients.Mean follow up period was 18 months (range 3-36).Oxidative balance was evaluated as BAP test and d-ROMs test while improvement of respiratory function was assessed as FEV1% predicted for sex and age. In our data stress oxidative status showed to be favourably influenced byWPF administration as a matter of fact mean BAP value increased, even if in a not significantly way and,mainly, the d-ROMs value significantly decreased after WPF intake. Unfortunately stress oxidative condition in our data is not really associated with clinical status improvement. Conclusively we can say that, a nutraceutical formula, as WPF, has demonstrated a real effect on improvement oxidative stress in CF patients and is well accepted and well tolerated.
 
Article
The prevalence and suffering of diabetes and obesity has been increasing among the various communities of the world including Malaysia. The cost of treatment is also rising. Therefore, it is important to explore non pharmacological regimens that are non-invasive and with less health risks and cost burden to the patients, healthcare professionals and nations. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the traditionally used antidiabetic herbs. Methods: Water extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Orthosiphon stamineus (Cat whisker) were prepared and evaluated for their effects on cell proliferation, adipogenesis, glucose uptake, quantification of mRNAs for Ppary, Glut4, adiponectin and leptin using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Result and Discussion: There were significant (P<0.01, P<0.05) increase in adipogenesis activity for cells treated with insulin, A. paniculata and O. stamineus compared to control. There was significant (P<0.01, P<0.05) increase in glucose uptakes in the cells treated with Sodium Orthovanadate, L. speciosa, A. paniculata and O. stamineus compared to control. Pparã transcriptional levels in cells treated with A. paniculata extract was similar to control. However, L. speciosa extract (P<0.01) showed significantly lower levels of Pparã mRNA expression compared to control. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that A. paniculata and L. speciosa extracts significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05) induced Glut4 mRNA transcription compared to control in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus possess insulin-mimicking effects.
 
Article
Introduction: Malnutrition commonly occurs among hospitalised patients. Should the condition be diagnosed early, it is possible to counteract development of negative effects associated with a weight loss and the systemic consequences of malnutrition. Objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormal nutritional status in patients aged 65 and over using various criteria for diagnosis, as well as an analysis of correlations between the criteria that were used. Material and methods: The study included 102 patients over the age of 65 years. Basic anthropometric measurements and a body composition analysis were performed. An abnormal nutritional status was diagnosed based on the results of the MNA-SF test, laboratory tests (serum albumin levels, total lymphocyte count - TLC) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism’s (ESPEN) 2015 criteria regarding nutritional status. Results: An abnormal nutritional status was found in 75% of the subjects. It was most frequently diagnosed based on the MNA-SF score (66%) and laboratory test results (53%), and most rarely based on a BMI measuring less than 18.5 kg/m ² (5%). There was no statistically significant correlation between a BMI < 18.5 kg/m ² , the MNA-SF score and laboratory test results. The MNA-SF test score had the strongest correlation with results obtained using the ESPEN criteria which included a reduced fat-free mass index (FFMI) combined with an unexpected loss of body weight. Conclusions: Of the analysed criteria used to assess nutritional status, the MNA-SF screening tool and the laboratory test results had the highest sensitivity. In this age group, the ESPEN criteria including FFMI were the most useful, and the criterion based only on a BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m ² was the least useful.
 
Article
Twenty male alcoholics (age (mean±SE): 31.2±2.6 yr), with hepatic steatosis and abnormal laboratory indexes of cholestasis (increased values of total and direct bilirubin, gamma-glutamil-transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase) were studied after 2 weeks of abstinence from alcohol. For three weeks alcoholic subjects drunk 500 ml/day of a placebo-water (N. 10) (group I) or bicarbonate-sulfate-calcic-mineral water ("Antica Fonte" of Boario Thermae-Italy) (N. 10) (group II). The abovementioned laboratory indexes of cholestasis, measured before and after the experimental period, were compared with those obtained in 12 healthy male subjects (normal controls) (age: 28.2±3.9 yr). Furthermore, in order to evaluate the effect of mineral water on cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion and gallbladder contraction, plasma CCK levels were measured by RIA and gallbladder volume was evaluated by echography in normal controls and alcoholics before (time 0) and after 20, 40 and 60 min from the intake of 500 ml mineral water or placebo. Results did not show any variation in plasma CCK levels and gallbladder volume after placebo administration in any group. In contrast, a similar and significant increase in CCK levels at 20 and 40 minutes with a decline to basal values at 60 minutes was observed in normal subjects and alcoholics after administration of mineral water. Furthermore, gallbladder volume significantly decreased in both alcoholics (at 20 and 40 minutes) and normal controls (at 40 minutes) with restoration of basal values at 60 minutes after administration of mineral water. When gallbladder volume and plasma CCK values at each examined time after mineral water intake were combined, a significant negative correlation was observed in both normal controls and alcoholics. Three weeks of treatment with "Antica Fonte" mineral water significantly reduced the serum concentrations of total and direct bilirubin and the enzymatic indexes of cholestasis in group II alcoholics. These parameters did not change in placebo-treated alcoholics of group I. These data demonstrate that the oral administration of bicarbonate-sulfate-calcic-mineral water "Antica Fonte" exerts a cholagogue activity in humans through stimulation of CCK secretion. The cholagogue activity together with the wellknown choleretic effect of this water argue in favor of the possibility for its use as support treatment to the therapy of biliary cholestasis in alcoholism.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of anabolic steroids (AS) abuse on liver enzymes activity and lipid profiles in male bodybuilders. 40 well-trained bodybuilders, with 20 self-reporting regular AS use and 20 self-reporting never taking AS (NAS) were recruited for this study. Participants reported to the laboratory for blood sampling to assess liver enzymes activity (Aspartate transaminase [AST], Alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and Alkaline phosphatase [AP]), lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Moreover, maximal strength and muscle volume were measured. The results indicated that AS users had higher strength in the bench press (113±11.8 vs. 93.7±13.3 kg) and leg press (329.5±40.4 vs. 248.5±41.0 kg), muscle volume (arm, 41.2±3.5 vs. 35.1±4.2 cm and thigh, 60.6±6.4 vs. 53.7±5.6 cm), LDL (179.2±34.1 vs. 155.8±37.7 mg/dL), TG (166.5±74.4 vs. 126.9±48.2 mg/dL), TC (253.2±59.6 vs. 143.5±48.0 mg/dL), AST (53.2±14.3 vs. 34.5±11.11 IU/L) and ALT (53.5±15.1 vs. 33.3±7.8 IU/L) (p < 0.05). However, NAS users indicated higher HDL (43.5±15.2 vs. 30.7±10.0 mg/dL) and AP (82.7±30.6 vs. 75.6±30.1 IU/L) (p < 0.05) in comparison to AS users. In conclusion, AS abuse is associated with alterations in liver enzymes function and lipid profiles that, represent an increased risk profile in athletes who used AS.
 
Article
Breakfast consumption is important especially for children and young people for mental development and school/academic success and also it has shown to be protective against obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether breakfast habits and diet quality affect anthropometric measurements and academic success among university students. Materials and Methods: A total of 365 students, aged between 17-27 years, attending a state University in Turkey, were enrolled for this study. A questionnaire on their eating habits and a diet quality index was designed for the students, anthropometric measurements and students' final Grade Point Average (GPA) were taken. Results: Having regular breakfast and a high quality diet has been recorded to have positive effects on the waist circumference as well as waist/hip ratio and GPA scores. Conclusion: It was concluded that regular breakfast habits and a diet of good quality have positive impact on school, academic and the overall health.
 
Article
The term "Fare" indicates the payment rate that users must implement to use the service water supply. The Price for drinking water supply distinguishes between a domestic use and other types of use, such as the agricultural or the industrial one, and it is given by the sum of a fixed quota and another proportional to consumption. Method: We compared the fares of different categories of users applied by the Managers of the Water Service operating in the Province of Asti area (Piedmont, Italy), where 222,500 inhabitants live. Results: In the Province of Asti, over 13 Managers of Water Service are active to supply more than 100 water networks and in various municipalities very different prices have been applied: they can vary up to 3-4 times. Generally, the prices applied to households are more than the double of those applied to agricultural and livestock utilities, but at least 80-90 times lower than bottled water prices. In this paper, we examine the prices applied by the different municipalities in the Province of Asti and we propose strategies to modulate the costs on the basis of "efficiency and sustainability" in order to encourage savings and a better use of water resources.
 
Article
More recently, research has been focused on the use of medicinal plants or plants derived compounds for treatment of many diseases including hypertension. Melothria maderaspatana commonly used in traditional medicine for hypertension and numerous preclinical studies have shown wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Melothria maderaspatana (EAFM) leaf on membrane bound ATPases in uninephrectomized deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized rats by weekly twice subcutaneous injection of DOCA (25 mg/kg) and 1% NaCl in drinking water for six weeks. EAFM was administered orally once a day for 6 weeks. In the present study, administration of DOCA-salt significantly increased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure while treatment with EAFM, reverted the abnormal level of blood pressure significantly to near sham-operated control rats. The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase were significantly decreased in DOCA-salt induced hypertensive rats when compared to that of sham-operated control rats. Administration of EAFM to hypertensive rats restored the abnormal membrane bound ATPases activity toward the sham-operated control rats. Thus, results indicate that administration of EAFM is having good blood pressure control and to protect deranged activity of membrane-bound ATPases in DOCA-salt induced hypertensive rats. Further detailed investigation is necessary to discover M. maderaspatana mechanism of action.
 
Article
This study was designed to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Melothria maderaspatana (EAFM) leaf on uninephrectomized deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. A midscapular incision was made on each rat and the left kidney was excised after ligation of the renal artery. The surgical wound was closed using an absorbable suture. After one week recovery period, hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of DOCA-salt solution, twice a week, and the rats received a 1% sodium chloride solution as drinking water throughout the experimental period. EAFM or nifedipine was administered orally once a day for 6 weeks. Administration of DOCA-salt significantly increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate while treatment with EAFM significantly lowered the blood pressure. In DOCA-salt rats, the level of kidney function markers such as urea, uric acid and creatinine were increased significantly and treatment with EAFM brought these parameters to control rats. In addition, the levels of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were decreased significantly in hypertensive rats and administration of EAFM brought these parameters to normal levels. The present study indicated that the EAFM provides good blood pressure control and also protect the renal damage by preventing the abnormal activities of plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone as evidenced by decreased plasma levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine.
 
Article
Obesity and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular events. Some plant-based diets lower the prevalence of hypertension and prevent weight gain. Capsaicin, a major pungent ingredient in chili pepper, can specifically activate transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel. Our previous studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 channel by dietary capsaicin prevents adipogenesis and obesity in mice. However, little is known about the mechanism of TRPV1 activation mediated the reduction of adipogenesis and prevention of obesity. Furthermore, it is unclear whether long term dietary capsaicin could modulate blood pressure. Here, we report that capsaicin significantly increased the uncoupling proteins (UCP2 and UCP3) expression in mature adipocytes which indicated that capsaicin promoted the fat oxidation. Mice on high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 months developed obesity and increased UCP2 and UCP3 expression in visceral fat. Dietary capsaicin markedly prevented the development of obesity and further increased UCP2 and UCP3 expression in visceral fat from mice on HFD. Chronic administration of capsaicin also dose-dependently increased the acetylcholine-mediated hypotensive responses in mice, however, this effect was absent in TRPV1 deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased fat oxidation and promoted hypotensive effects in mice. Dietary capsaicin may become a novel therapeutic strategy for obesity and its related cardiometabolic diseases.
 
Article
In a previous research realized on dairy cows, the administration of ω3 fatty acids caused a worsening of inflammation status during chronic inflammations. To improve the knowledge of metabolic effects after administration of ω3 fatty acid, 12 dry cows received a supplement of rumen protected formulation of cod liver oil (80 g) for 3-4 days associated with an antinflammatory (acetylsalicylic acid), to prevent the eventual activation of latent inflammatory phenomena. After 3-4 weeks the treatment was repeated on 10 cows. The treatment caused the increase of ceruloplasmin (AC) in 7 cases on 22. These animals, in comparison to those without an increase of ceruloplasmin (IC), were characterized by: higher body temperature before treatment; higher frequency of cases with a raise of body temperature after 1 day or at the end of treatment (about doubled vs IC); a lower dry matter intake (11.25 vs 13.62 kg d.m.) and some differences at metabolic level (i.e. reduction of zinc and NO2, increase of ROM and globulin, higher percentage of ROM septic although unchanged by treatment). Therefore, the sudden administration of cod liver oil (likely through the action of ω3 fatty acids) had determined an enhancing of inflammatory phenomena in progress, as confirmed by the agreement of clinical remarks and haematic indices. However, the contemporary administration of acetylsalicylate could have attenuated the extent of that inflammatory answer.
 
Article
Cheese characterization is the first step in order to protect its typical origin. This is the reason why it seems to be essential obtain information not only about raw materials, processing techniques, microbiological characteristics and sensory evaluation but also on chemical and physical evolution of cheese during its ripening. The aim of this study was the proposal of quality index of "Provolone del Monaco D.O.P." cheese by the evaluation of its lipidic composition and in particular of the "minor" acidic fraction, and their variation due to the ripening and type of sample, throught High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC) technique. 43 fatty acids were identified. The main constituents of fatty acids composition were medium molecular weight fatty acids (43%) from C11 to C16:1 cis during all ripening time, then there were high molecular weight fatty acids (41%) and low molecular weight fatty acids (8%). As regard the minor acidic component, CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid), the highest content was of 9-cis, 11-trans isomer but there wasn't significant differences during ripening. There was significant differences only for the 8t, 10c; 7t, 9c isomer (Δ=25%). These results contribute to improve the D.O.P (Protected Designating of Origin) procedure of Provolone del Monaco cheese and to preserve a traditional food with good-tasting qualities.
 
Article
The aging process leads to sarcopenia that is a progressive skeletal muscle weakening due to reduction of mass and concomitant change in phenotype. Several studies indicate that amino acids supplementation and, in particular, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and contraction may activate protein synthesis through the activation of mTOR/ p70S6K signaling pathway. In the present study we used an in vitro assay to analyze the effects of tetanic contractions and acute exposure to branched chain enriched amino acid mixture on mTOR/ p70S6K signaling activation in soleus muscle of elderly rats. Methods: Soleus muscles from Wistar male elderly rats (18 mo of age) were grouped as follows (n = 5 each): nc, not contracted; C, contracted (10 tetani of 0.5 sec/100Hz at 0.02Hz) and contracted and acutely incubated with BCAA enriched mixture at 1% (C+BCAA). Following treatment the activation level of mTOR and p70S6K was measured by Western blot. Results: Contracted muscles (C) showed no increase of mTOR activation relative to uncontracted muscles (nc) and a significant increase of the level of p70S6K activation (+80%). On the contrary following acute BCAA enriched mixture exposure contracted muscles displayed higher mTOR activation (Figure 1) in comparison with C and nc muscles (+40%) and a further increase in p70S6K in comparison with C (+180% vs nc and +55% vs C). Conclusions: Tetanic contractions and acute exposure to BCAA enriched mixture are able to synergically activate the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway in the soleus muscle of elderly rats.
 
Article
The study was carried out in a zone of Pisa Province (Italy) on 12 Massese race lambs reared with grazed mothers. The lambs were slaughtered at 11 kg, 14 kg and 17 kg. The aim af the study was to define the effect of slaughtering age on the intramuscular lipid fraction and its oxidation conditions at the slaughtering. Total lipids (IT), were trans-esterified according to Christie et al. (1990) and were separated and quantified by capillary GC. An aliquot of LT was saponified and the COP were separated by SPE-NH2. After the derivatization, the COPs and the Cholesterol were separated and quantified by capillary GC. The most Cholesterol content was resulted in the meat of lambs slaughtered at 11 kg (4.14 mg/100 g LT). The lipid oxidation condition resulted generally good, and not affected by animals age, as well as the intramuscular lipid fraction.
 
Article
The long chain ω6 and ω3 fatty acids are involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes. To study this relationship, 7 ill (4 with and 3 without mastitis) far from calving and 7 healthy cows were retrospectively selected. On 3 plasma samples (before, during and after inflammation) of each cow, extensive metabolic and fatty acid profiles were determined. Feed intake, health status, rectal temperature, milk yield and body condition score were also regularly measured. As expected, the typical changes of inflammation were induced (e.g. fever, reduction of feed intake and milk yield; plasma rise of the positive acute phase proteins and reduction of the negative ones). As to plasma fatty acids, ω06 were reduced, while saturated, monounsaturated, ω3/ω6 ratio and arachidonic acid/precursors ratio were increased. After inflammation, the plasma fatty acid content was reduced, according to the lipoprotein changes, and their profile recovered the previous composition. Thus, any important change appeared during inflammatory events as well as between healthy and ill cows; on the contrary the lower content of ω3 (total or with long chain) in some herds with inflammations vs herds characterized by a low incidence of diseases, needs further investigations.
 
Article
In our study we have evaluated the theme of the platelet fatty acid composition in 84 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Major Depression (MD) according to the clinical diagnosis and the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD), 50 subjects with ischemic cardiovascular disease, under coronary catheter, compared with 60 apparently normal people. We have analysed the groups without taking in account therapies, gender and age. The results obtained show the evidence of three fatty acids, Arachidonic Acid (AA), Linoleic Acid (LA), and Palmitic Acid (PA) in a peculiar position with respect to the biochemical characterization of MD, and three fatty acids, Oleic Acid (OA), Linoleic Acid (LA) and Arachidonic Acid (AA) in a peculiar position with respect to the biochemical characterization of Ischemic Heart Disease. These findings in platelets seem to be more specific indicators with respect to red blood cell fatty acids and plasma phospholipid fatty acids.
 
Macronutrient and diet fatty acids intake of adolescents
Red blood cell membrane fatty acid concentrations of adolescents
Article
Background: Dietary lipids may lead to significant changes in the composition of cell membrane structure. Objective: The association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition and dietary fatty acids intake in obese adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome was investigated. Methods: Ninety-six adolescents (59 obese and 37 lean) were included in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups with (n=26, aged 12.3 years) and without (n=33, aged 12.7 years) metabolic syndrome. The mean age of lean participants was 11.8. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were: 10 <16 age group; BMI ≥ 95th percentile, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL- C< 40 mg/dL, blood pressure systolic ≥ 130, diastolic ≥ 85 mm Hg, glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects with any 3 of these 6 items were accepted with metabolic syndrome. Nutrient intakes were recorded for 3 days by a dietitian. Anthropometric and blood chemistry variables and RBC membrane fatty acid levels were measured. Results: BMI, BMI-SDS, body fat percentage, blood pressure, TG, ALT, insulin, HOMA-IR levels (p<0.001) of obese were significantly higher than lean adolescents whereas HDL-C levels were lower (p<0.001) in obese than lean. Fiber, C22:1 ω-9 MUFA, C20:4 ω-6 PUFA consumption were higher (p<0.05) in obese with metabolic syndrome. Consumption of total ω-3 PUFAs were higher (p<0.05) in obese with metabolic syndrome and in leans than those without the metabolic syndrome. The RBC membrane C16:1 ω-7 fatty acid levels were higher but C20:5 ω-3 levels were lower (p<0.001) in obese. Diet fiber was positively associated with RBC C16:1 ω-7 fatty acid (r=0.239, p<0.05). A positive slight correlation was determined between diet and RBC membrane C20:5 ω-3 (r= 0.200, p= 0.051). Conclusion: Dietary fatty acids affected some anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry. The RBC membrane C20:5 ω-3 slightly correlated with diet C20:5 ω-3.
 
Article
The importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) intake has long been recognized in human nutrition, lowering the incidence of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, inflammatory disease and cancer. Although health benefits, n-3 PUFA are subject to rapid and/or extensive oxidation during processing and storage, resulting in potential alteration in nutritional composition and quality of food. Bottarga, the salted and semidried mullet (Mugil cephalus) ovary product, is proposed as important source of n-3 PUFA, having high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this work we investigated the extent of lipid oxidation of grated bottarga samples during 7 months at different storage conditions (-20°C, 2°C, room temperature under light/dark exposure). Cell viability, lipid composition and lipid peroxidation were measured in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers after 6-48 h incubation with lipid and hydrophilic extracts obtained from bottarga samples at different storage conditions. Storage of bottarga did not affect the n-3 PUFA level, but significant differences were observed in hydroperoxide and malondialdeyde levels of samples from different storage conditions. Bottarga extracts did not show a toxic effect on cell viability. Epithelial cells incubated with bottarga oil had significant changes in fatty acid composition with an accumulation of EPA, DHA, and 22: 5, however, did not accumulate more cholesterol than control cells.
 
Article
To investigate the effect of diets containing fatty acids of the ω-3 series on productive traits, on carcass cut composition, on meat chemical composition as well as on meat fatty acid composition, eight Martina Franca don-key foals were utilized. The animals, weaned at 8 months of age, were divided into two groups of 4 subjects each, homogeneous for age and live weight. The first group (control) was given wheat straw and a complete feed non supplemented with ω-3; the second (trial) was given wheat straw and a ω-3 supplemented complete feed. All the animals were slaughtered after 138 days of trial. From the collected data, it emerges that the utilization of ω-3 enriched feed, even though with different levels of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.05 and/or P ≤ 5 0.01), determines differences in the content of fat, meat and bone of shoulder and loin and in the meat ashes percent. As regards the meat fatty acids distribution, no remarkable differences are observed as to the saturated series, whereas the unsaturated one (P ≤ 0.05) seems to increase the content of C18:3ω3 (ALA - α-linoleic), of C22:5ω3 (DPA - docosapentenoic acid), of C22:5ω3 (DHA - docosahesanoic acid) and of UFA, PUFA and total ω-3 acids.
 
Article
Recently we have investigated the platelet fatty acid profile in normal and depressive subjects. The data have allowed us to realize a particular Artificial Neural Network, the so called Self Organizing Map (SOM). The SOM has distributed, over a plane, all the subjects investigated, also according to the degree of saturation/unsaturation of the fatty acids identified as markers of the depressive pathology (Palmitic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Arachidonic Acid). In this way it has been possible to distribute all the animals and humans over the Map according to the per cent of the fatty acids (Palmitic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Arachidonic Acid), characteristic of each of the animal species investigated. Because of the peculiar characteristics of the SOM and of the affinity of the platelet with the neuron, we have thought that the SOM could be able to classify also the brains of the different animal species. Because of the low level of the brain Linoleic Acid, all the brain have been classified in the same position of the map, very close to the area of the depressive subjects. Is the brain genetically organized for the risk of depression? Is the brain, in this direction, influenced by the modulation of the fatty acids or by the gene expression of the fatty acids? We don't know the answer, but, it is very strong to think that the fatty acids which make the difference between the normal condition and the depressive condition are figuring the brain in the way we found. In any case we just know that the Major Depression is characterized by the high level of Arachidonic Acid, both, in platelets and brain.
 
Article
Acidic and sterol composition, pigment fraction and antioxidant compounds (tocopherols, total phenols and polar phenols) from eight monovarietal Sicilian olive oil samples, analyzed during the crop seasons from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006, are reported. Cultivars were divided, according to their diffusion, in main, minor and neglected cultivars. Encouraging data were observed for minor and neglected cultivars, for some revaluation in regard to their relevance, because they showed the highest content in tocopherols, in total phenols and polar phenols compared with main cultivars.
 
Conference Paper
The massive and rapidly growing interest in the effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids (FA) on human health requires awareness of: a) the biological and nutritional "peculiarities" of these compounds, and b) the very relevant and yet not adequately appreciated issues concerning the design, development and the evaluation of results of epidemiological and controlled intervention studies. In fact: a) Omega 3 FA are present in very limited amounts in conventional diets, especially when compared to the Omega 6 FA, being present exclusively in organisms that in the course of evolution have adapted to the aquatic environment; in certain, not yet adequately explored, "niche" foods, and, in organisms at higher levels in the evolutionary scale, only in functionally specialized biological structures (e.g.. synapses, contractile cells, ecc.), where they play essential roles. b) The assessment of the basal and the final Omega 3 FA "status" (information that cannot be adequately derived from the use of food questionnaires) is required in any population or group in planning epidemiological or intervention studies. These data can be obtained exclusively with the analys s of the FA composition of c rcula1 ting lipids (plasma, whole blood), and in turn can be correlated with dietary intakes of Omega 3 FA, and with physiopathological parameters. In addition this type of information is useful in the assessment of the bioavailability of Omega 3 FA in relation to the sources and types of formulations. An innovative analytical strategy developped in our lab for the collection of blood drops from a fingertip and the direct preparation of FA derivatives for gas chromatographic analysis, allows to assess the Omega 3 FA "status" in large populations, including groups that cannot be easily handled, such as neonates, pregnant women, population groups in remote countries (e.g.. Cambodia and Tibet), and to address all the issues that have been raised (from foods to humans).
 
Article
Trials were carried out on 6 Noriker (N),12 Thoroughbred (TH), 38 Haflinger (H) and 9 Amiata donkeys milk samples collected at 30, 60 and 90 days from delivery. FA profile was investigated referring mainly to linoleic acid (LA), a-linolenic acid (ALA), LA/ALA ratio and satura-ted/unsaturated ratio. LA content was higher in Thoroughbred milk samples at 30, 60 and 90 days. LA/ALA ratio was 0.51, 0.49, 0.39 in Noriker samples at 30, 60, 90 days with a saturated/unsaturated ratio about 1. In Thoroughbred milk samples saturated/unsaturated ratio was 0.87, 0.71, 0.57 and in Haflinger samples 1.24, 1.09,1.29 respectively at 30, 60, 90 days after delivery. Investigations concerned also milk FA content from Haflinger, Noriker, Thoroughbred and Amiata milk samples collected at 60 lactation days compared with cow, goat and human milk collected at the same time. Unsaturated FA were found about 55% in mare samples, higher than cow and goat (33.49%-30.21%) and similar to human milk (54.62%). Lower levels (25.13%) were found in Amiata samples. All mare samples were rich in LA (6.22%-15.41% FA) and ALA (7.88%-12.50%). In human milk LA and ALA were 13.54% and 1.02%, respectively; LA and ALA content was high also in donkeys samples (8.17% and 6.69%) and lower in goat (2.62% and 0.63%) and in cow (1.86% and 0.57%). Saturated/unsaturated ratio range was between 0.70 and 1.09 in different horses breed samples, 3.04 in Amiata 2.30 ratio was observed in goat samples, 1.88 and 0.83 respectively in cow and in human milk samples.
 
Article
Long Chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFA) Omega 3, EPA and DHA, play essential roles in modulating important functions in biological systems (e.g. Cardiovascular, Nervous, etc), and must be provided by the diet since they cannot be synthesized in animals. Their levels in the circulation change in the various life phases: high in the neonate, somewhat reduced in infants, they rise in adults and are reduced again in aged subjects. There are also significant differences in levels of these FA between populations with different dietary habits. Their limited supply by conventional diets, with the exception of fish, results in low intakes, and the use of Omega 3 containing food preparations, pleasant to the consumer and allowing efficient absorption, is required. Milk is an optimal vehicle of nutrients and of fats, present in micelles. Studies in healthy subjects consuming the Omega 3 Plus® Milk, with EPA and DHA, show that consumption of this type of milk, even for few weeks results in appreciable increments of blood levels of these FA. This dietary approach therefore represents a valid strategy aimed to reach optimal and recommended intakes of these very "precious" FA, also in subjects who do not consume fish.
 
Article
This work presents some preliminary data on the bioavailability of ω3 fatty acids in chicken meat and cow's milk from animals, which had been fed with PUFA from sea algae. This research has been financed by the Regione Marche. Chicken fed with ω3 algae showed an increase in the ω3 fatty acid content, being higher in the breast muscle tissue (about 300%) than in the leg. In the breast tissue, DHA enrichment was higher than that observed for EPA; in fact, the C22:6/C20:5 ratio was about 3 in the tissue of animals fed in the traditional way, whereas animals fed with ω3 fatty acids displayed a ratio equal to 6. Data obtained with cow's milk showed that the DHA content increased from some mg to 50 mg per 100 g of milk. The accumulation of ω3 PUFA in milk was not linearily correlated with the diet intake. Moreover, the difference between morning and evening milkings was evaluated; the ω3 content was higher in the evening milk than in the morning one, with respect to the different lipid content.
 
Article
Mare's milk fat composition, in addition to the protein fraction characteristics and lactose content, suggests that this product is more similar to human milk than cow's and, more, the evaluation that could be utilized in cow's milk allergic children diets, as a substitute, supports its potential utilization in pediatric dietetics and, generally, in human nutrition. Mare colostrum and milk samples from 8 mares belonging to the same stud-farm were collected at foaling and during the first three months of lactation, in order to evaluate the fatty acids contents variation, saturated/unsaturated ratio and, particularly, linoleic/α-linolenic ratio. Linoleic acid amount was more than 22% on total fatty acids in colostrum, with a significative decrease until the end of the first month (about 15%) and a significative increase at 60 day (about 18%). α-linolenic significantly increased from 4.5% on total FA in colostrum samples until more than 10% in 90 days milk samples. The arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA were present only as traces. Linoleic/α-linolenic ratio was about 5:1 in our presuckle samples and a progressive decrease, with an increasing linolenic acid amounts during lactation, until about 1.6:1 on the third month, was observed. Saturated/unsaturated ratio was more favourable to the second ones in presuckle and 90 days samples.
 
Article
Furan fatty acids (FFA) are characterized by a furan ring, which carries an unbranched fatty acid chain with 9, 11 or 13 carbon atoms in one α-position and a short straight-chain alkyl group with 3 or 5 carbon atoms in the other α-position. The β-positions of the furan ring can be substituted with two methyl residue or just with one methyl group in the β-position adjacent to the long aliphatic chain. The structure of furan fatty acids is similar to that of some prostaglandins (a five-membered ring with an alkyl chain and an alkyl carboxylic chain). The biological role of the FFA is still not clear, but it has been pointed out that FFA act as antioxidants as they prevent linoleic acid oxidation. The connection between consumption of fish rich in FFA and protection against coronary heart disease mortality has been confirmed in several research studies. In the present study, the fatty acid profile of six species of Adriatic fishes (european pilchard, european anchovy, european hake, horse mackerel, common sole, atlantic mackerel), three species of freshwater fish (perch, indigenous catfish, trout) and three molluscs (clam, mussel, oyster) were determined. The identification of different FFA obtained from muscle, liver, testes, ovaries, eyes and brain was carried out using comprehensive bidimensional gaschromatography coupled on-line with mass spectrometry. The identified FFA were both the saturated series 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid [MonoMe(9,5)], 10,13-epoxy-11,12-dimethyloctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid [DiMe(9,5)], 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethyloctadeca-12,14-dienoic acid [DiMe(11,3)], 12,15-epoxy-13-methyleicosa-12,14-dienoic acid [MonoMe(11,5)], 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethyleicosa-12,14-dienoic acid [DiMe(11,5)], 14,17-epoxy-15,16-dimethyldocosa-14,16-dienoic acid [DiMe(13,5)], and the unsaturated series 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethyleicosa-12,15,16-trienoic acid [DiMe(11,5:1)], 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethyleicosa-10,12,14-trienoic acid [DiMe(11:1,5)]. The ubiquitary FFA were [MonoMe(9,5)], [DiMe(11,3)], [MonoMe(11,5)] and [DiMe(11,5)]. FFA were absent in the molluscs and in the indigenous catfish. The unsaturated FFA were absent in the testes and ovaries of european anchovy and european hake.
 
Article
The mechanisms through which ω-3 ed ω-6 fatty acids influence man's health have been thoroughly investigated over the last years and their importance in man's diet is known. The author compares the palaeolithic diet with our current diet, with special reference to the absorption of nutrients and fatty acids. He also emphasizes the positive physio-metabolic effects of the ω-3 fatty acids. Thus, our current dietary models need a ω-3 integration and/or a further supply of such acids to other foods which become "functional" products.
 
Top-cited authors
Massimo Cocchi
  • University of Bologna
Giovanni Sogari
  • Università di Parma
Giovanni Lercker
  • University of Bologna
Lorenzo Cerretani
Alessandra Bendini
  • University of Bologna