This paper undertakes a critical review of existing spillover analyses and proposes a unique analytical framework for examining technological spillovers in a manufacturing industry setting. The proposed framework overlaps three different literature strands; cluster and network dynamics, technological innovations; and spillover literature. It enables determination of the extent to which multinational presence in a host country stimulates spillover occurrence to local firms as well as their nature. Using this framework, the kind and the channels through which spillovers occur most can be equally determined - this is particularly relevant for policy intervention in a technically backward country. Lastly, it allows determination of factors and conditions under which spillovers from multinationals occur.
In the 2000s a new aid regime evolved. This promised to move beyond the former neoliberal approach in a number of ways. It would involve greater consultation between donors and recipients, shift the focus from economic growth to broader factors, including poverty, and hand back the responsibility for this to the nation-state. This approach bears strong resemblance to the rise of neostructuralism, a development paradigm that has become highly influential in Latin America. In this article we trace the shifts in the aid regime and ask to what extent the contemporary regime can be defined a postneoliberal paradigm.
Individuals may have different perceptions of how development interventions meet their well-being. Using the Volta Rural Water Supply project in Ghana as a case study, it was found that women and men were able to save considerable amount of time by having easy access to clean water through the project, and also uses of time saved corresponded to their well-being indicators. Women, more than men, spent their saved time on activities that provide common benefits to the entire household. It is recommended that a balance of economic opportunities for both men and women, fee breaks and in-kind purchase of water, be encouraged in order for water projects to effectively advance rural people’s well-being.
This is a case study based on an application of the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) methodology in a rural area in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The article adopts a participatory approach to quantify accessibility needs for water source, education and health care for all 13 villages in the study area. The villages were then prioritized according to their needs for better accessibility. Villages with the worst accessibility levels in all three sectors are identifi ed. A number of alternative proposals, generated in consultation with the representatives of the villagers, are evaluated and then the most suitable solutions are identifi ed.
This paper uses the experience of a recent programme of action research in Eastern India to reflect on the use of participatory ideals within governance reform. In a situation where there are profound difficulties in local governance, it assesses the potential for participatory forms of stakeholder engagement to begin a process of reform. It criticizes views of reform put forward by both the World Bank and Robert Chambers, and argues instead that critical self-reflection and the construction of alliances among a variety of reform-minded actors are important first steps in building political capabilities to challenge structural blockages to pro-poor governance.
Although the role of religion in the lives of immigrants has recently been a subject of interest by scholars, there has not been much focus on the importance of the religio-political activism of faith-based and community organizations in favour of immigrants. This article focuses on a religious congregation, Immanuel Presbyterian Church, and a community-organizing network, the Salvadoran American National Association, to demonstrate how religion is actively promoting and aiding political engagement on behalf of and with immigrants in Los Angeles, with a particular, although not exclusive, focus on immigrants of Latino origin, who comprise the lion’s share of immigrants in Los Angeles County. The theoretical analysis builds on concepts drawn from religious activism for immigrant rights and theories of social mobilization, interest groups, symbolic and social capital, and economic and morality politics. We use a triangulated methodological approach that includes observation and participant observation, interviews, content analysis of multimedia and intellectual advocacy for the immigrant rights movement.
This study discusses the relationship between poverty and vulnerability. It investigates how vulnerability can be integrated into the livelihood framework for poverty alleviation and vulnerability mitigation, as well as the development of adaptive livelihood mechanisms to combat increased risk from natural disasters. Vulnerability is conventionally viewed as risk factors threatening livelihoods; this study provides new insights into vulnerability by viewing vulnerability as endogenous to the development process and embedded in everyday lives and livelihood practices. Poverty and vulnerability reduction are holistically grounded in the coupling of human and environmental systems to facilitate a positive feedback loop between human economic activity and the environment. Social and cultural capitals are highlighted in this study for the significant role they play in inspiring positive change and empowering inner (grass roots) and outer (social welfare institutions) networks as well as social learning to help people to adapt during development.
The debate on whether genetically engineered (GE) crops can alleviate poverty in Africa continues to intensify. Thus far only one GE crop has been commercialized among smallholders – a pest resistant form of cotton – and only in two sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We present evidence from Burkina Faso to argue that GE cotton adoption may increase the risk of all producers, may only bring benefits in the short term and may only benefit the relatively rich more than the relatively poor. These findings challenge the popular assumption that GE crops are the best way to alleviate rural poverty in SSA.
The current approach to peacebuilding is to focus on the specific building blocks of the process. However, such attention and building blocks are to date largely isolated from each other in their planning, analysis, implementation and measures for success with regard to contributing to overall peace. While two of these, land rights and road infrastructure, are regarded separately as crucial to post-war recovery, their interaction has not yet been examined. This article looks at these two priorities for Afghanistan, and finds in their interaction a large and acute problem of land seizures which the government and the international community in-country are unable to manage. This land grabbing is a direct result of a context of pervasive corruption, ongoing conflict, a mistaken understanding of the nature of the benefits of road reconstruction, large-scale dislocation and widespread use of explosive devices. Such a pervasive problem sets back recovery, detracts from durable peace and fuels the insurgency.
Hunter, M. 2010: Love in the time of AIDS: Inequality, gender and rights in South Africa. Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. xviii + 303 pp. £16.99 paperback, £49 hardback. ISBN: 978-0-253-22239-8 paperback. ISBN: 978-0-253-35533 hardback.
The criticism that the mainstream corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda was largely driven by the concerns and priorities of western countries and therefore tends to be insensitive to local priorities as well as inadvertently harm prospects for sustainable livelihood in developing countries set the tone for the emergence of a South-centred CSR agenda. The efforts to broaden the scope and content of mainstream CSR discourse and practice has meant three principal themes have come to dominate the emerging South-centred critical CSR agenda. The emergence of this critical perspective to CSR has not only contributed to the maturation of contemporary CSR agenda but has also generated rich insights with regard to the strengths and limitations of CSR practices within developing countries. However, the failure to critically engage with the role of government, adopt a bottom-up approach to CSR analysis and avoid a piecemeal research focus has meant the emerging Southern perspective to CSR is yet to achieve its full potential. This article suggests ways to address these shortcomings and contributes to the strengthening of the emerging critical CSR research agenda in Africa.
Government policy in post-1994 South Africa, whilst upholding the principles of community participation and development, has been firmly wedded to a neoliberal growth agenda. This paper critically examines whether one element of that new growth agenda, that of Spatial Development Initiatives, has catalysed both ‘bottom-up’ development and also meaningfully assisted micro-entrepreneurs through more ‘top-down’ interventions. The paper focuses on two specific projects, namely the Saldanha Steel Plant and the Paternoster Fish Market, which have been components of a Spatial Development Initiative in the Western Cape. The serious constraints faced by communities in engaging with opportunities for socio-economic upliftment is clearly a cause for concern, and it is suggested that a careful re-evaluation of South Africa’s development paradigm is urgently required.
This paper reviews the current state of literature on peri-urban research in sub-Saharan Africa. This research has been led by multi-lateral and bilateral development agencies that have sought to find a role in urban development. The review finds that the donor-driven research has remained largely descriptive. It has neither emphasized nor theorized the rapid and contentious peri-urban transformations associated with globalization. The paper identifies these contradictory transformations and then reviews a range of social development theories, suggesting to what extent they are useful to a meaningful engagement with these contradictions. It highlights in particular the potential role of structuration theory.
Poverty in Africa is multifaceted. It is characterized by, among other things, a lack of purchasing power, rural predominance, exposure to risk, insufficient access to social and economic services and few opportunities for formal income generation. On average, 45-50% of sub-Saharan Africans live below the poverty line - a much higher proportion than in any other region of the world. This article assesses the socio-economic dilemma of poverty in Africa and suggests an alternative policy framework for improving the well-being of the region’s poor. The premise of the article is that including the poor is a necessary and progressive step in any attempt to sustain growth, development and socio-economic transformation in Africa.
This article examines the flows of physicians and nurses from African countries to Europe and North America using available data sets. It offers a geographic perspective of the magnitude and flow of these skilled health care professionals and highlights positive and negative impacts of the flows on Africa’s development. The article further discusses the coercive and ‘carrot and stick’ strategies that African governments have employed during the past two decades in attempts to stem the tide of the flows of its health care professionals. It concludes by noting that while Africa can do nothing about the pull factors, it can mitigate the push factors by creating conducive working environments to help retain its health care professionals.
State failure is both a key cause and symptom of underdevelopment in Africa. This article provides a geopolitical perspective on the reasons for state failure in Africa, and offers the following solutions to dealing with this phenomenon. First, local and external actors should prioritize state building and order over quick democratization. Second, in rare cases, the principle of national sovereignty may be overridden in the interests of security and development. Third, in very carefully selected cases, international boundaries may need to be redrawn.
As the urban share of Africa's population increases, the importance of understanding how food supply is shaped by market institutions has grown. However, this topic has received little attention from policy makers and researchers despite the implications of market institutions and regulatory systems for livelihoods and poverty. This paper reviews the existing literature on market intermediaries, access to selling spaces, finance for traders and sources of information on prices and supplies. The gaps in research are identified and a set of key research issues in this crucial, yet under-researched, area are articulated.
Genetically modified (GM) crops and sustainable development remain the foci of much media attention, especially given current concerns about a global food crisis. However, whilst the latter is embraced with enthusiasm by almost all groups, GM crops generate very mixed views. Some countries have welcomed GM, but others, notably those in Europe, adopt a cautious stance. This article aims to review the contribution that GM crops can make to agricultural sustainability in the developing world. Following brief reviews of both issues and their linkages, notably the pros and cons of GM cotton as a contributory factor in sustainability, a number of case studies from resourcepoor cotton farmers in Makhathini Flats, South Africa, is presented for a six-year period. Data on expenditure, productivity and income indicate that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is advantageous because it reduces costs, for example, of pesticides, and increases income, and the indications are that those benefits continued over at least the six years covered by the studies. There are repercussions of the additional income in the households; debts are reduced and money is invested in children's education and in the farms. However, in the general GM debate, the results show that GM crops are not miracle products which alleviate poverty at a stroke, but nor is there evidence that they will cause the scale of environmental damage associated with indiscriminate pesticide use. Indeed, for some GM antagonists, perhaps even the majority, such debates are irrelevant – the transfer of genes between species is unnatural and unethical. For them, GM crops will never be acceptable despite the evidence and pressure to increase world food production.
Several decades of research on ‘urban agriculture’ have led to markedly different conclusions about the actual and potential role of household food production in African cities. In the context of rapid urbanization, urban agriculture is, once again, being advocated as a means to mitigate the growing food insecurity of the urban poor. This article examines the contemporary importance of household food production in poor urban communities in 11 different Southern African Development Community (SADC) cities. It shows that urban food production is not particularly significant in most communities and that many more households rely on supermarkets and the informal sector to access food. Even fewer households derive income from the sale of produce. This picture varies considerably, however, from city to city, for reasons that require further research and explanation.
Despite general agreement that land reform can be a catalyst for positive rural change in sub-Saharan Africa, the means towards this end are frequently coloured in ideological hues, which manifest themselves in confounding binaries like racial justice/environmental justice, market/state and equity/efficiency. The fractures surrounding sub-Saharan land reform are most obvious in the south, where the land question traces its roots to racially motivated colonial policies. The South African government, like others in the region, is attempting to combat landlessness through market-led land reform. This article assesses the implementation of the country’s Land Restitution Programme in the Polokwane district. Its main argument is that the modernist mega-narratives, which inform the programme, create a disconnect between the state and the landless. To address this problem, the article proposes a reorientation in which local narratives will replace theoretical mega-narratives at the centre of land reform programmes.
The explosion in mobile phone subscription notwithstanding, benefits from ICT deployment are far from being realized in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A clash between the rationality for development and local systems of reasoning, and the failure to cultivate behaviours that support technological innovation provide little hope for sustained information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in the region. The article discusses failures in technological innovation and then explores ways that SSA countries can manage ICT deployment to stimulate sustained adoption.
This article profiles the Agahozo-Shalom Youth Village in Rwanda, a holistic response to the needs of Rwandan orphns. It places particular emphasis on the positive impact of the Village or orphans who survived the genocide and explores their unique circumstances and the social challenges and distinct vulnerabilities they face. It examines the philosophy, educational values, practical challenges of the Village and the full range of programmes it offers and the various ways in which the Village enables the healing, rehabilitation and empowerment of orphans enabling them to integrate into Rwandan society and benefit from and contribute to Rwanda’s development.
This article considers how, in the context of development, the negotiation of meanings and individual values can create a crucial link between an awareness of gender relations and actual changes in the norms and practices of an organization. I use the concept of institutional agency to question whether as gendered individuals, development practitioners can challenge how development organizations go about their work? Or whether we are all trapped in a ‘meta structure’ of norms, practices and meanings that ultimately block both our own agency and the changes we are trying to bring about?
Poverty has arguably become the leading development agenda of the past decade and a poverty ‘consensus’ is said to have emerged in recent years, at least among key donors. On the surface, there appears to be agreement about what poverty is and how it might be measured, despite some lack of clarity over detail. But while the concern for poverty may have clarified the raison d’être of aid it has done little to significantly change the practice of development or usher in fundamental institutional change. Neither does the so-called ‘poverty consensus’ signify a break from orthodox neo-liberal agendas which have exacerbated inequality. In part, this is because the apparent shift in priorities looks back as much as heralds a break with the past – the focus on poverty is conservative as it is radical. Finally, we argue that consensus is not necessarily a beneficial state of being, and urge that there be vigorous and robust debate among those involved in development studies and practice over questions of poverty. Still, can one really argue against a focus on poverty – and still have friends? These issues and questions are examined with an appreciation of the challenges facing a credible and independent New Zealand (NZAID) approach to poverty.
This paper discusses the political response to HIV/AIDS in Eritrea, a country where the epidemic appears to have stabilized at an average prevalence rate of around 3%. It shows that Eritrea has mobilized an effective multisectoral response to cope with the epidemic and its impact under conditions of full-scale war followed by a still-fragile postconflict situation, compounded by recurring drought and economic decline. As one key factor for successful policy action, the commitment of a centralized government with the capacity to implement its decisions and mobilize other stakeholders is identified. Another important factor might be the high level of social cohesion prevalent within Eritrean society
McDonald, D.A. and Ruiters, G., editors. 2012: Alternatives to Privatization: Public Options for Essential Services in the Global South. London: Routledge. xii + 520 pp. £85.00 hardback. ISBN: 978-0-415-88668-0 hardback. ISBN: 978-0-203-14706-1 paperback.
Reviewing existing scholarship and drawing on our own experience of microlevel qualitative research on gender in countries in three regions of the Global South (Cambodia, the Philippines, Costa Rica and The Gambia), this article examines patterns of women’s altruistic behaviour within poor family-based households. As a quality and practice labeled as ‘feminine’, the article illuminates the motives, dimensions and dynamics that characterise this apparently enduring female trait. It also makes some tentative suggestions as to how the links between women and altruism might be more systematically examined, problematized and addressed in development, and gender and development (GAD) analysis and policy.
The field of development studies owes a great debt to Amartya Sen. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of Sen’s account of ‘development as freedom’. It considers how Sen has developed his arguments in terms of four key ‘spaces’: what he calls the space of economic or moral evaluation, and what I call the spaces of geography, culture and politics. If there are problematic areas in Sen’s work, they lie in his treatments of authoritarian rule, of the rights to difference of certain social groups, and of political power, and in the indeterminacy of some of his policy recommendations.
In recent years, there has been a surge in hydropower projects in the North-east part of India, constructed under the aegis of the national state. Foregrounding this fact, our article conceptualizes North-east India as a ‘region’ that is not only physiographic in nature but also discursively constructed by history, culture and politics, in the colonial and postcolonial times. We argue that when large developmental projects such as hydropower projects are commissioned in this messy context of the North-eastern region in India, it gives rise to myriad problems of ethnic strife, cultural identity and indigenous rights that reflect a ‘regional pattern’. In tandem with these various dispossessions brought about by such developmental projects, there is a slowly emerging political consciousness at the regional level to counter these developmental projects. This is still in a very burgeoning stage. In this article, we have envisioned such a regional level collaboration among various ethnic identity based mobilizations, as a counterpart of civil society. Such an ethnic alliance is an imperative, to balance the ‘excesses’ of the ‘sovereign nation state’ and its notion of ‘development’.
Partnerships are complex, diverse and subtle relationships, the nature of which changes with time, but they are vital for the functioning of the development chain. This paper reviews the meaning of partnership between development institutions as well as some of the main approaches taken to analyse the relationships. The latter typically revolve around analyses based on power, discourse, interdependence and functionality. The paper makes the case for taking a multianalytical approach to understanding partnership but points out three problem areas: identifying acceptable/unacceptable trade-offs between characteristics of partnership, the analysis of multicomponent partnerships (where one partner has a number of other partners) and the analysis of long-term partnership. The latter is especially problematic for long-term partnerships between donors and field agencies that share an underlying commitment based on religious beliefs. These problems with current methods of analysing partnership are highlighted by focusing upon the Catholic Church-based development chain, linking donors in the North (Europe) and their field partners in the South (Abuja Ecclesiastical Province, Nigeria). It explores a narrated history of a relationship with a single donor spanning 35 years from the perspective of one partner (the field agency).
While decentralization is a prominent theme in contemporary natural resource policy and management discourse, questions have been raised concerning the sustainability of participatory approaches. Drawing on theoretical and empirical research on common pool resource management and participation, we develop a framework to evaluate community–level stakeholders’ potential suitability for engagement in co–management. Four criteria are assessed: stake in the resource, discount rate, social capital and capacity (leadership, organizational, enforcement of rules and knowledge). Inclusion of local actors who fit the framework in a governance arrangement could lead to more sustainable outcomes. We tested this screening strategy by assessing potential organizational partners for comanagement of non–wood forest products in community forests in Cameroon.
This paper discusses relevance in development studies. We argue that current debates around relevance assume a hegemonic view of development, which is bolstered by the high levels of research funding from key policy-making institutions. We feel relevance can be pluralized and radicalized, but that this requires us to be ideologically transparent and to examine other ways of undertaking and validating knowledge production. This involves frst, acknowledging the material and ethical connectedness, but not sameness of people; secondly, a relational tension between discipline and interdiscipline; thirdly, that problem-framing and influencing involves 'researchers' and 'users', whereby 'users' include students, practitioners, decision-makers and 'the poor'. Further, we argue that such dialogic approaches require alternative criteria for rigour. Positivistic criteria imply a distinctive form of rationality; but if rationality is also pluralized then alternative epistemologies and methodologies of working with multiple rationalities is necessary.
Recent debates concerning religion and development have adopted anthropological concepts in the quest to develop new and exploratory ways in which the relationship might be understood. This article is the first of three articles which discusses the problems of integrating anthropological knowledge and approaches within the current religion and development discussion. Particularly problematic for the debate has been the role of gender in fostering development through religion. As an initial case study the article examines recent development policy concerns with ‘Islam, transnationalism and violence against women’ as an instance which points to unresolved tensions surrounding the academic role of development studies, and where anthropological analyses of transnationalism may assist in a reorientation for development theory which can no longer perpetuate a North-South focus.
This paper explores the connections between colonialism and development in order to understand more clearly how discourses on North-South relations continue to be imbued with the imperial representations that preceded them. Beginning with a concern to examine how anti-racism can inform our understanding of the spaces of international development, the paper interrogates the colonial heritage of development studies and related disciplines and speculates on the possibility and necessity of disciplinary decolonization. Using the specific example of Portuguese imperial discourses of development in the 1950s and the 1960s, and the emergence of the heavily racialized ‘science’ of Lusotropicalism, the paper then examines the importance of deconstruction as a way of understanding the différance between colonialism and development in the Lusophone empire. The paper goes on to examine the particular example of postcolonial Mozambique, exploring the ways in which, between 1975 and 1988, Mozambicans struggled to acknowledge and deal with racism in postcolonial society, particularly in the context of Mozambique’s growing relationship with the World Bank in the mid-1980s. The paper concludes by suggesting that a more direct focus on ‘overdevelopment’ rather than just ‘underdevelopment’ may be one important (if neglected) way forward in ending the silences around ‘race’ and racism in development studies.
The early 1980s lead to a flurry of analysis regarding the role of women workers in the apparel sector. These incipient feminist interventions tended to hone in on the economic status of women workers to the exclusion of understanding the multiple ways in which their social and cultural lives was also transformed through this process. This research lacuna was primarily filled through the works of cultural and social anthropologists. The past three decades’ academic debates then have witnessed an intellectual and scholarly transition from the economic to the cultural, alongside strident calls for ethical corporate codes in the apparel sector. This journey, however, has not necessarily had an abiding focus on feminist concerns to do with the gendered nature of work itself.
This is the second in a series of three articles that considers the relationship between sport and furthering international development assistance. The first highlighted a significant growth in this relationship, yet evaluation of sport-for-development was criticized for being insufficient. This article therefore details the current level of evaluation of sport-for-development and highlights the approaches used whilst contextualizing it against the evaluation debate in development studies. The picture that emerges is that considerable evaluation is being conducted, particularly of programmes that have won plaudits. They tend to employ a positivist logical framework either by itself or as part of a blended methodology with some instances of participatory methods also. Concerns expressed about these approaches in the general development literature are traced in sport-for-development evaluation.
As the emphasis on evidence-based policymaking in international development increases, so too should the attention paid to the quality of the research on which this evidence is based. One way to encourage this is by archiving research data to enable reanalysis, but this requirement is often ignored or resisted by development researchers. Similarly, ambivalent feelings are expressed about revisits to former research sites to conduct further research by original and other researchers. In this article, we outline why and how researchers archive and reanalyze qualitative data and revisit research sites, and discuss the potential benefits and challenges of these practices for development research.
The toxicity of a single project of US ‘technical assistance’ to Iraq is demonstrated: first, by virtue of its unilateral design and implementation and hence its violation of state sovereignty and basic norms of well-intentioned development; second, by its support of a strong form of decentralization, which risked inflaming an already volatile political condition that its sponsors had helped to create and that could have contributed to the destabilization and fragmentation of the state; third, because the commercial interests of the US implementing firm seemed likely to drive the project along its toxic path at the greatest possible speed; and fourth, because, while the dysfunctional management of the project seemed likely to impose severe constraints on the achievement of its stated objectives and the speed at which it could progress, it nevertheless constituted a bad example of governance and one that seemed likely – whatever its objectives might have been – to do more harm than good. This constituted a striking instance of wilful violation of national sovereignty under the guise of development assistance, one that was perpetrated knowingly in the gravest of national circumstances and by the same hand that had created the crisis in the first place. A method of managing development assistance that gives greater control to the host government is suggested.
While randomized experiments can be valuable tools in evaluating aid effectiveness, research designs limit the role of qualitative methods to ‘field visits’ or description of contexts. This article suggests expanding the role of qualitative methods and highlights their advantages and limitations relative to survey methods. It reviews a range of qualitative methods and suggests that life histories are compatible with the internal and external validity criteria of randomized experiments. It illustrates this with a case study of their proposed use in an evaluation of the promotion of Jatropha curcas, a second-generation biofuel, in Malawi.
This paper traces the evolution of Technical Assistance to Technical Co-operation alongside more recent concepts of knowledge Management and Innovation Systems. Originally conceived as transfer from a knowledge-rich North to a knowledge-poor South, the later terminology represents a more co-operative and dialogic conception. The evolution has been driven by persistent issues concerning capacity and knowledge-in-context and by changing approaches to development practice. The paper argues, however, that a further epistemological turn is needed that conceives of co-operative learning as ‘learning with’, where difference between actors is conceived as a resource, rather than a problem, for knowledge production.
Although the promotion of women’s rights is often seen as a ‘secular enterprise’, efforts to incorporate religion within gender-related advocacy are growing. Muslim faith-based organisations (FBOs) are also being encouraged to engage in gender-related projects because of their supposed ‘comparative advantage’ in Muslim communities. This article critically analyses the efforts made by development agencies and women’s organisations to promote women’s rights within an Islamic framework or with the involvement of religious leaders. It then explores the possibilities and dangers of such approaches with a particular reference to Muslim FBOs.
This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study of a relatively new group of Caribbean migrants, namely second-generation overseas-born Barbadians who have decided to migrate to the country of birth of at least one of their parents, paying particular attention to the development-oriented implications of these migrants. After a brief review of the circumstances surrounding this relatively new and innovative migratory cohort, the insights gained from in-depth interviews with 25 such migrants are presented. The account focuses in particular on the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the young returnees, as well as their pattern of visits to the island prior to migration, and the reasons for their move. The paper then tentatively explores the adjustments made by the returnees and those that they feel they still face. In a number of respects, the essentially ‘hybrid’ and ‘inbetween’ positionality of these young transnational migrants is emphasized. Thus, they report difficulties in making friends (especially female friends), problems regarding their accents, feeling like an outsider, culture shock, the Americanization of society, being regarded as ‘mad’, aspects of resentment and having to accept things as they are. Through the analysis, issues of national and racial identity are shown to be of particular salience.
Community re-studies can inform our understanding of what members of communities want from research and the extent to which they feel that they get it. The history of community research suggests that what is expected of researchers by community members can differ from what it is felt that they actually deliver, especially if the published reports have a critical edge. Challenges relating to this legacy of previous studies can be encountered by researchers returning to fieldwork locations. Re-studies also provide opportunities to rectify matters, but these may be beyond the control of researchers who go back to communities studied previously.
This paper analyses the impact of the Bali bombings on international visitor arrivals in Bali and compares this crisis with previous crises with reference to Butler’s hypothetical tourism area life cycle. The paper demonstrates that the Bali bombings had by far the greatest impact on international tourism visitation than any other crisis in the island’s history. Such was the severity of the decline in Bali that both national and local measures were taken to restore confidence. Important though these measures were, they do not fully account for the strong resurgence in international arrivals, suggesting that the destination has not yet reached consolidation in accordance with Butler’s hypothesis and that the strength of the resurgence owes much to the underlying trend of the development phase associated with the general picture proposed by Butler.
The importance of good health of a population is crucial when determining social welfare. A new health-adjusted national income indicator that explores the relationships between economic growth, health and social welfare in Bangkok, Thailand from 1975 to 1999 is applied. This new approach to social welfare analysis is based on normative social choice theory, cost-benefit and systems analysis and is called (new)3 welfare economics. This paper argues that traditional measures of welfare, such as national income, fail to reflect accurately the impact of health on social welfare.