Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies

Published by FSBEI HE Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
Print ISSN: 2226-910X
Improvement of production systems of the organization is carried out through the introduction of quality management systems, changes in the model of production organization, the use of modern approaches to improve product quality and customer satisfaction. Measurement, evaluation and analysis of the production system allows to set the direction of activity to improve production processes and to develop activities aimed at ensuring the effectiveness of the whole system. The production system is an open system, it is connected and exchanged with the external environment information, resources, etc. the production system is Called the operating system, which consists of three subsystems: processing subsystem, directly related to the technological processes of raw materials and semi-finished products conversion into finished products; support subsystem, which performs auxiliary functions necessary for the implementation of the main technological processes; planning and control subsystems that receive and process information from the internal and external environment of the organization. The task of building an automated information system is connected with the need to integrate with the subsystem of data collection and analysis, visual representation of information for decision-making at all levels. Building an information management system of the production system is impossible without a powerful infrastructure, without a single information system support and process control. The proposed information system will help to automate the processes of management of the organization, quickly form the strategic and tactical goals of the organization. Within a given period of time, data will be collected and analyzed from the internal and external environment, timely analysis of deviations of the values of indicators from the planned values. The results of information processing will be timely visualized both for each employee and the production system of the organization as a whole.
The effect of different concentrations of ES on the productivity of lettuce plants
This paper presents the results of experimental study on the possibility of improving consumer properties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa – var. Dubachuk MC) grown under the conditions of closed system in ISR-0.1 phytotron by applying foliar treatment of different concentrations of 1-ethoxysilatran - a new silicon based preparation belonging to Silatrans group. The trail demonstrated no effect of the preparation when applied in a concentration of 5.10-4 ml/l in ES1 treatment. However, the effectiveness starts upon using higher concentrations. The best yield components were obtained as a result of foliar treatments of ES3 and ES4 with concentrations of 5.10-3 and 10-2 ml/l respectively. Applying foliar treatment in vegetative phase resulted in complex effect of activation of physiological processes in plants, stimulating the photosynthetic activity and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments by recording a 22.7% increase in chlorophyll-a and 18.6% in carotenoids content in fresh leaves. Nitrate accumulation recorded 792.3 mg/100g in ES4 which is 2.7 times higher than the control. Also, an increase in dry matter content by 12.2%, pigments by 16.3%, total antioxidants capacity, a 40% increase in ascorbic acid content were recorded. While only slight increase in total phenolic content was observed in higher concentrations. These overall considerable influences in metabolic activities lead to a better productivity in case of production mass. Further studies should be concerning the effect of 1-ethoxysilatran on other leafy vegetables and prolonging the storage of them.
Average mineral content (n=5, (standard deviation)), for hydroponically grown mature and microgreen oakleaf lettuce vegetable, Number of repetitions (n=5).
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a major leafy vegetable and is commonly used in salad mixes and sandwiches. Therefore, lettuce can contribute significantly to the nutritional content of healthy diets. One specific nutritional problem that needs attention is mineral (e.g., Fe, Zn) malnutrition, which impacts over two-thirds of the World’s people living in countries of every economic status. Also, consumption of salads Microgreens, the edible cotyledons of many vegetables has been gaining popularity as a culinary trend due to its flavor and density of minerals that can be sustainably produced in almost any locale. In this study, the nutrient contents of both mature and microgreen oakleaf lettuce grown on rockwool mat were assessed and compared to each other together with the phytonutrient contents like ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Of the 10 nutrients examined (P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, N), lettuce microgreens had significantly larger quantities of all nutrients than mature lettuce except for the Ca and K. As microgreens can be grown easily in one’s home using the methods used in this study, they may provide a means for consumer access to larger quantities of nutrients per gram plant biomass relative to store-bought mature lettuce, which had relatively lower nutrient contents than microgreens with respect to most nutrients examined.
The paper presents the results of experimental data on the kinetic characteristics of ultrafiltration tubular elements, such as the output specific flow, retention coefficient, diffusion permeability coefficient, distribution coefficient. To study the purification of milk whey, we used tubular ultrafilters BTU 05/2 with membrane material fluoroplast (F), polyethersulfone (PESF), polysulfone (PS). For theoretical calculation of the retention coefficient, output specific flux, diffusion permeability coefficient, distribution coefficient, mathematical expressions were developed and empirical coefficients were obtained. The developed mathematical expression describes the experimental data with good reliability. The obtained experimental and calculated data can be used with high reliability in calculating mass-transfer fluxes of substances through a semi-permeable membrane, as well as in engineering methods for calculating and predicting efficiency, and using membrane processes for concentrating serum. The protein concentration in real milk whey was determined by formol titration. On the basis of the studies carried out, the dependence of the growth of the output specific flow on pressure was established, that the optimal pressure for concentrating milk whey on the ultrafiltration membranes we have chosen is 0.25 MPa. For three types of ultrafilters, the experimental value of the coefficient was within 99% for protein. For the theoretical calculation of the retention coefficient, a program in the MAXIMA language was developed and registered. Due to the method of applying the membrane to the reinforcing element, the membrane material polyethersulfone (PESF) and polysulfone (PS) have a substrate, due to which they sorb more substances on themselves, because of this, the diffusion permeability coefficient and the distribution coefficient are much higher than that of a filter element with membrane made of fluoroplastic (F), which does not have a substrate.
For the qualitative application of ultrafiltration processes for the concentration and purification of food solutions, both experimental studies and a mathematical description of the processes of the membrane separation process of solutions from the standpoint of the development of computational mathematical models are required. In this work, by analytical solution of equations, that is, by the method of finite differences, mathematical equations are solved. To obtain the system, the flow continuity equations, convective diffusion equations, Navier-Stokes equations and flow equations with boundary conditions were solved in order to build a mathematical model of the process of ultrafiltration protein concentration in cheese whey in the production of rennet cheeses. As a result of the analytical solution of the equations, a system of mathematical equations was obtained that allows one to construct a profile of changes in the flow rates of the solution along the cross-section of the intermembrane channel and to determine the protein concentration in cheese whey along the length of the tubular ultrafiltration element BTU 05/2 of industrial type. The obtained mathematical model makes it possible to theoretically describe the process of ultrafiltration protein concentration in cheese whey along the entire length of the membrane channel of the tubular element under laminar and transient regimes of solution flow. The resulting system of mathematical equations makes it possible to find the numerical values of the mass flow rate of cheese whey, make it possible to calculate the specific output flow when the transmembrane pressure changes and to calculate the concentration of solutes in the secondary milk raw materials on the left and right ultrafiltration membrane of the intermembrane channel. The adequacy of the developed mathematical model was carried out by comparing the calculated and experimental data on the specific output flow when the transmembrane pressure in the intermembrane channel changes from 0.1 to 0.25 MPa with ultrafiltration concentration of cheese whey. The deviation of the calculated data found by the mathematical model from experimental studies obtained on a semi-industrial tubular ultrafiltration plant BTU 05/2 using semipermeable membranes, in which the active layer is made of fluoroplastic, hemisulphone and polyethersulfone, did not exceed 10%.
The production of chemical fibers is an urgent task. Non-woven ultra-thin materials based on thermoplastic elastomers have high physicomechanical and filtering properties. Of particular interest is the production of non-woven materials based on epoxidized derivatives of syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene. In this connection, the possibilities of obtaining nonwoven materials based on epoxy derivatives of syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene by the method of electrospinning and determining the main factors influencing the formation of fibers and the degree of orientation of fibers of syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene in non-woven materials were studied. Epoxidation of syndiotactic 1.2-PB was carried out by the action of tungsten oxo-peroxo complexes. The electro spinning method was used to orient oriented nonwoven materials based on syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene. Optimization of the process for obtaining fibers of syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene was carried out using the mathematical method of planning the Plaquette-Burman experiment. Investigation of the structure of nonwoven fibrous materials was carried out on a scanning electron microscope. The degree of orientation of the fibers of syndiotactic 1.2-polybutadiene was determined using the MBF program. With the use of the method of electrospinning, nonwoven materials with different degrees and variants of fiber orientation in the composition of nonwovens can be produced. The use of epoxidized derivatives of syndiotactic-1.2- polybutadiene with different content of oxirane groups allows to regulate the diameter of fibers in non-woven materials
This paper tackles the economic impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the labor markets and human capital. Specifically, it looks into the issues the pandemic brought upon the human resources and personnel during coronavirus lockdowns. The high level of globalization characteristic of the modern economy has only exacerbated the negative impact of the pandemic. At the moment, it remains impossible to assess the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the damage caused to the economies of countries and regions by this event. However, it is possible to identify the main directions of analysis of the consequences of the pandemic, including in terms of the impact on the state of the labor market, which was the main goal of this study. In particular, the authors highlight a number of consequences, the work on overcoming which is still to be done by the Russian socio-economic system. The most obvious of them is the growth of unemployment, the release of part of the employed and the reduction in the number of jobs, and this is observed extremely unevenly across the sectors of the economy. Nevertheless, the authors point out that the problem of staff release is aggravated by the size of the share of informal employment in the labor market, especially in the sectors of public catering, leisure and tourism that have been most affected by the pandemic. As the second important problem, the authors point to ineffective staff reduction, the dismissal of useful and valuable employees of some organizations while maintaining an unnecessarily bloated staff of others. It also mentions the reasons and forms of staff retention, some of which, being either forced or economically and technologically attractive, give rise to additional problems. The authors call an important social consequence of the pandemic a reduction in the number and level of personal contacts in society, in particular, in working groups. As a result, the author's vision of the long-term consequences of current events for the state of the labor market, employment of the population and the economy as a whole is proposed.)
The article analyzes the aspects of the development of innovation engineering as a tool for maximizing the profit of an enterprise, including through the implementation of diversification measures (the use of various types of engineering in the design of innovative solutions). The feasibility of developing engineering services as an optimal solution to minimize losses from the COVID-19 pandemic has been determined. An overview of key indicators of Russian engineering is presented, the characteristic specifics of the integration of innovations in the project format in the context of engineering are substantiated. Aspects of engineering activities lie in the field of innovative characteristics of the project, in this connection, it is logical to consider engineering as "engineering innovations" - as a set of works performed and / or services provided within the framework of the formation of a project, of an innovative nature (including creation, execution, promotion of a project regarding the object of innovation). The article schematically presents the structural elements of the complex of works performed (services provided). Innovative design as a product of innovation engineering appears to be a significant tool in achieving high production rates and increasing the economic performance of a business entity. Given the nature of the negative impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on the economic environment in all sectors of the economy, innovative design, as meeting the need for innovative solutions (within the framework of engineering as a format for implementation), is seen as a promising option to increase production growth rates.
In Russia over the past 20 years, a series of processes has occurred, which entailed strong changes in the external, internal economy, labor market and the tourist market of the country. Some changes did not receive positive dynamics, others faced a series of failures. Looking at the hospitality industry in a specific way, one can understand that the inefficient development of this cluster is due to the fact that the services provided by this sector are at a very low level. Moreover, the quality of services is always equal to the professional level of employees and their desire to provide a guest with a personalized service with an individual approach to it. It is such a process of work that serves as a factor in the involvement of personnel in the process of providing services and the continued successful existence of the enterprise in the services market and its development. The last 5-10 years can be described as the time for the design of the hospitality industry as an independent industry. Entering the world level followed after a large number of international-class events. An important factor is the global coverage of territories and all subjects of Russia. Attention to the hospitality industry has reached the state level and is reflected in a large number of documents of long-term significance with specific tasks. All the key stages that were set before the industry are outlined in targeted programs and are aimed at both inbound and outbound tourism. The introduction of these programs contributed to the creation of collective accommodation facilities of various levels, which increased the number of jobs and reduced the unemployment rate in the regions, and increased the investment attractiveness of the regions. Over the past 20 years, there has been an increase in investment in the regions by more than 3 times.
Article is devoted to studying of features of consumer crediting in PJSC JSB Metallinvestbank bank. In article definition of a consumer loan according to the legal doctrine is given. The analysis of structure and structure of borrowers, dynamics and structure of the loans granted to natural persons is carried out. The technique of development of the system of actions to introduction of the effective development strategy of the enterprise is supposed. Management of financial risks of the enterprise represents a part of activity of the financial manager. Each enterprise for ensuring stable work in the future, has to have accurately definite purposes. The most effective system of management is the system of strategic management which demands from heads of understanding of essence of strategy, use of receptions and methods of strategic management, development of strategic plans. From here, strategy has to change and adapt to change of conditions, both the external, and internal environment. Therefore, the business management problem is relevant. The analysis of the specified problems has shown lack of effective management of the enterprises taking into account risk situations. Now there are no effective techniques and models of business management representing the relations of the economic subject assuming interrelation in granting and consumption of goods and services. The policy of management of financial risks represents a part of the general financial strategy of the enterprise consisting in system development an action for neutralization of possible negative financial consequences of the risks connected with implementation of various aspects of financial activity. Within this policy the list of financial risks is defined. The conclusion is drawn on a condition of a problem of financial risks at the enterprise: the most priority risk is the risk of decrease in financial stability (or risk of violation of balance of financial development), it has the greatest assessment. Further risks of insolvency (or risk of unbalanced liquidity) the enterprises and criminogenic risk follow. The least priority is the deposit risk. At the final stage the methods of decrease in financial risks of the enterprise including forecasting and monitoring of production and financial activity with establishment of standard ranges, increase in solvency through optimization of management of monetary assets are offered. As methods of decrease in criminogenic risk the methods of transfer of financial risk directed to diversification and insurance are allocated.
One of the most important components of the human diet is the berries and stone fruits. They are rich in sugars, organic acids and biologically active substances - antioxidants. Together, the presented indicators (chemical composition and antioxidant activity) are important for the stable operation of the human body and the technological process when processing plant materials. When analyzing the chemical composition of berries and large fruits from the collection of the Research Institute "Zhigulevskie Gardens", it was revealed that the grade of raw materials influences the determined indexes.The highest value of soluble solids is occupied by the samples of apricot (leading Krugly variety), Black currant (leading Orloviya variety), raspberry (Balzam is leading).The lowest value of soluble solids was observed in strawberry varieties Kama. Analyze berries and fruits differ in the content of organic acids slightly. The maximum content of sugars in apricot, and the minimum for black currant. In the studied fruits, the highest content of phenols was recorded in the black currant. The varieties of flavonoids are different: strawberry Festivalaya, black currant Perun, apricot Khabarovskiy and raspberry Balzam. Low results showed apricot (grade Krugly, Pogremok). The high antioxidant activity was shown by the raspberry varieties Lyubetovskaya and Balzam. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fruits and berries play an important role not only for the human body, but also for the technological process during their processing. For this reason, analysis of the feedstock is an important stage in the development and manufacture of food products with a directed antioxidant effect.
The work noted the relevance of the development of the military-industrial complex of Russia. An analysis of sales volumes of a number of the largest enterprises of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation was carried out, as a result of which two leading organizations were identified. The value of the sales indicator for one analyzed enterprise was evaluated, indicating the reasons for the high results in three enterprises. Based on the analysis of data on the number, conclusions were made about the priority of large enterprises in the structure of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation and about the rather serious attention paid by the state to the development of the military economy in modern conditions. When considering the territorial location of the analyzed enterprises, the employment of employees of large organizations of the MIC industries in various regions of Russia is clearly shown, which serves as one of the main factors in the development of the regional economy throughout the country. It was noted the place of the largest enterprises of the military-industrial complex in the ranking of the 100 largest military-industrial companies in the world, based on income from sales of military products by world manufacturers in 2020. The build-up of the country's military power directly depends on the potential of military-industrial complex enterprises and the directions of their development. In the ranking of the analytical company GlobalFirepower for 2020, Russia was ahead of China, but lost to the United States. There are different opinions about the objectivity of this and similar ratings. However, it is impossible not to pay attention to the values of those factors in the GlobalFirepower rating, which indicate insufficient attention to them from the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation at the present time.
The main indicators of the innovative development of the Russian Federation are considered on the basis of the data presented in two regulatory documents developed in 2008 and 2011. The indicators cover a wide range of areas of socio-economic development, and their values should be achieved by 2020. However, the targets of macroeconomic indicators laid down in the documents at the current moment of time are seen to be overestimated. The analysis of the main achievements in the field of innovative development of our country over a ten-year period is carried out. For the analysis, a set of statistical data published in various sources was used, as well as the values of target macroeconomic indicators published in the concept and strategy. Based on the assessment of indicators and their deviations, an analysis is made of the success of the innovative development of Russia in various areas - from the development of the high-tech sector to the publication activity of the authors. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that these or those target values of macroeconomic indicators have been achieved at the current time and an assumption about achieving these values by 2020. In addition, based on the analysis, it was determined which of the three options for innovative development our country is implementing at the present stage. The main reasons that prevented the experts and the Government of the Russian Federation from reaching the main target indicators of the concept and strategy and transferring our country to “innovative tracks” are summarized.
The article discusses the development of the sphere of small business as one of the factors of innovation development of the country and improving the economic structure. The strategy is aimed at creating a competitive, flexible and adaptive economy that provides a high level of individualization of goods and services, a high rate of technological renovation and stable employment. The implementation of the development strategy of small and medium production is divided into 3 phases:. 2016-2018, 2019-2025 gg. and 2026-2030 gg., each of which has its own problems. In the first phase the task of updating all the instruments of state support of small businesses. The second phase is programmed for the creation of new market niches and ensuring stable dynamics of small businesses. The third stage aims to provide leadership in some sectors of activity at the global level, in accordance with the long-term scientific and technological priorities of Russia. small business sector is concentrated mainly in the spheres of trade and the provision of services to the population. In order to implement the Government strategy target indicators have been developed: an increase of 2.5 times the turnover of small businesses in relation to 2014; increase of 2 times the turnover per employee in the small business sector in relation to 2014; increase in the share of manufacturing in the back of small business from 11.8 to 20%; increasing the share of employed in the subjects of small business in total employment from 25 to 35%. Strategy of development of small business in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, is designed to reduce the pressure of the public and tax authorities to small businesses, to expand the subsidy programs, to increase financial resources and provide small businesses with qualified personnel that will undoubtedly have a positive impact on the economy and all regions country.
The forecast of GDP growth and electricity demand in Russia for the period 2016-2035 according to the base case (in%)
The global market for distributed energy technologies (small distributed generation, demand management, storage, energy efficiency, etc.) is growing at a rate of about 6-9% per year. A threefold increase in the commissioning of the volume of distributed generation capacities is relatively centralized by 2025. Distributed energy will be able to provide up to 75% of new connections during global electrification until 2030, according to the International Energy Agency. The current trends in the development of distributed energy technologies in Russia and the world are identified, the degree of influence of distributed energy technologies relative to the subjects of the UES of Russia is analyzed, the potential for the use of distributed energy technologies is considered.
The structure of installed capacity В 2015 году установленные мощности электростанций по ЕЭС России росли в основном за счёт вводов ТЭС по ДПМ (65%), остальной прирост обеспечили вводы блока АЭС (1 ГВт) и двух блоков ГЭС (в сумме – 1,5 ГВт). В 2014 году прирост мощностей в ЕЭС России составил 6 ГВт (+3% к 2013 году), с 2008 по 2014 год – 21,8 ГВт (+10,4%). Износ основных фондов в электроэнергетике не превышает средний показатель по всем отраслям экономики. В 2013 году износ составил 34% по производству ЭЭ, 43% по передачи 35% по распределению, но наблюдается тенденция к росту по всем направлениям. На данный момент рынок электроэнергетики в России состоит из двух – оптового и розничного рынков энергии и мощности. Больший интерес представляет ОРЭМ (оптовый рынок электроэнергии и мощности), несмотря на то, что на розничном рынке происходит либерализация цен, этот процесс скорее производный от процесса либерализации оптового рынка. Нерегулируемые цены отражают стоимость электрической энергии на конкурентном оптовом рынке, который определяется на основании ежемесячно публикуемых АТС данных о средней стоимости единицы электроэнергии, сложившейся на рынке [1]. Объёмы производства электроэнергии постепенно увеличивались и к 2007 году достигли 1 трлн кВтч., что отражено в таблице 1.  
Electric-power industry has the great influence on the development of economy and status of the country in general. Its stability and reliability has a great effect on national economy and welfare of citizens. Electric-power industry in Russia experienced many reforms but some of the fundamental problems have not been solved and the level of its efficiency is still questionable. Nowadays most experts agreed that Russia and the whole world are on the threshold of energy crisis that is why one of the priorities of economic policy should be energy efficiency which is a way of reducing the consumption of energy resources by enterprises and households. These actions should be taken due to the necessity of reducing negative impact on the environment associated with consuming of energy resources and waste products of enterprises and increasing requirements for energy efficiency in today’s world. At present it’s rather hard to analyze electricity sector in Russia. Statistics from different official sources do not correspond with each other. Sometimes it is hard or even impossible to differentiate electric power from heat energy among all resources. All these facts and many other circumstances make the analysis of electric energy market very difficult. To increase the efficiency of electric-power industry in Russia several problems must be solved, among them environmental protection issues related to reduction of electricity producing in cost. Thus it will help us to prevent possible negative technological, socioeconomic and ecological consequences of certain operations. This article considers fundamental problems of electric-power industry in Russia, their possible solutions, and development strategy of this industry to 2035.
The new model of organizational structure of the center of mortgage lending of PJSC VTB 24 on the basis of the analysis of organizational structure of the center of mortgage lending of PJSC VTB 24 which has revealed the shortcomings following from division of the mortgage direction into the front and the BEK-zone is presented in article. Such division is illogical and isn't built in the general concept of development of the Bank seeking to provide uniform standards of communications and to increase penetration into the operating client base, having increased quantity of banking products on one client. To force the mortgage portfolio to work more effectively, having created conditions to involvement ОЗиСИС into cross-sales of banking products, it is possible having united the CEC under one chief and having set as this uniform chief the purposes both on sales, and on high-quality escort of the acting clients. In 2017 become strategic tasks of bank high-quality portfolio growth, the Bank has passed from extensive development to intensive. It creates prerequisites for strengthening efforts on penetration into the operating client base again. It is also possible to increase commission income if to pronounce with clients structure of the transaction at a consultation stage, actively offering transactions not through cash - non-cash payment, and with use of a letter of credit form of calculation or safety-deposit boxes. The new model of organizational structure of the center of mortgage lending means the high involvement of all staff of department into tasks as sales and high-quality support of department and excludes readdressing of the client between departments, misunderstanding and duplication of functions.
The article consider the influence of replacement of SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production on high viscosity SSBR-2560-TDAE HV in the tread recipe on the tire performance properties. Obtained samples were highly viscosity styrene butadiene rubber did not differ in the microstructure of the SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production. Increasing the molecular weight possible to increase the Mooney viscosity of the rubber, however, is known to one of adverse factors is the deterioration of processability of rubber compounds based on polymers. In this connection, investigated the behavior in the step mixing compound based on high viscosity SSBR rubber. We chose recipes tread of the tire with a high content of organic silicon filler. It is established that the equivalent replacement of the polymer in the tread recipe does not lead to significant changes in the basic parameters of rubber mixing. We observed a slight increase in the energy consumption for the preparation of the rubber compounds, as well as the discharge temperature at each stage. It was shown to improve the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix for the compound based on SSBR-2560 TDAE HV. The results showed that compound based on high viscosity SSBR improves rolling resistance and traction characteristics, while maintaining abrasion in comparison with the SSBR-2560-M27 batch production. Recommended use this brand in the production of rubber car tires.
One of the promising directions of improving the processes of processing plant raw materials is bioconversion using enzyme preparations, the use of which allows you to significantly change, intensify and improve existing technologies for the production of food products as a system of energy-efficient processes. The subject of the study is the enzyme preparation of inulinase Bacillus polymyxa 29, which ensures the conversion of the plant polymer inulin to fructose. Fructose has an increased interest in food technologies as a safer human health alternative to sucrose. Fructose yield reaches 90–95%; the sweetness coefficient of fructose is 1.73 times higher than sucrose. Production of enzyme with maximum activity is achieved by vacuum-sublimation drying at time-programmed mode of heat supply control taking into account limitations due to quality of heat exchange and economic feasibility of the process. Method of selection of optimal solutions in vacuum-sublimation drying of feather preparation Bacillus polymyxa 29 according to profit index is proposed. The proposed approach resolved the main technical gap between productivity and energy consumption. An optimal loading of the sublimator has been established, which ensures the minimization of specific electric power consumption for various values of the initial moisture drying of the enzyme, taking into account the given efficiency of the vacuum sublimation dryer.
To improve the concrete properties, various technological methods are used, the most accessible ones being the introduction of chemical additives into the concrete mixture, which can significantly reduce the costs level per unit of production; these additives improve concrete quality and effectiveness and reinforced concrete structures as well as increase their service life and buildings and structures in whole. This paper presents the results of studying the effect of introducing a superplasticizer with stabilizing effect of Polyplast SP – 2VU LLC Polyplast Novomoskovsk into concrete by analyzing the IR spectra of the additive in pure form and as part of hardened cement mortar (0.1–0.9%). Portland cement CEM I 42.5 B of Mordovcement OJSC was used as a binder; the aggregates were enriched with quartz sand from the Khromtsovsky deposit with a size of 2.4 and granite crushed stone of the Orsk deposit of 5–20 mm with water absorption of 0.2% . In the course of the work, the chemical composition of the additive SP2-VU itself and the hardened modified concrete composition were analyzed. Thus, the introduction of a modifier into a concrete composition leads to the change in its structure and strength characteristics. It was established with the help of IR spectra, that when the content of the additive in the cement mortar is 0.5%, a more ordered and stable hardened structure is formed. The reliability of the data obtained is confirmed by the identification of the main peaks. Due to the modification of concrete (at 0.3-0.5% in the concrete mix regulator concentration), the increase in the strength of the samples is more than 40%.
In the production technology of bakery products for the enrichment of products useful for the human body substances use a number of components. Many of them significantly increase the nutritional and consumer value of bread. An important area of research should be the identification of optimal ratios of wheat flour with other components to obtain products with increased antioxidant activity. Studies have been conducted with the aim of determining the rational composition of a mixture of wheat flour of the highest grade and flour made from grain of naked pigmented barley of the variety Granal 32, which has increased antioxidant activity, for use in the production of bread. For research used options with the addition of wheat flour of the highest grade barley in the amount of 10, 20, 30, 40%. The results showed that in flour mixtures as the barley flour component increased, the gluten content decreased. The quality of gluten was characterized by a tendency to increase elasticity. In mixtures with the maximum content of barley flour (30 and 40%), the protein content is reduced relative to the control and the previous variants. The strength of the flour decreased, starting with the variant with the amount of barley flour of 20%. The tendency to decrease in the values ??of indicators in the variants with the barley flour component was also observed when evaluating the physical properties of dough on the farinograph. The quality number of the farinograph decreased in the variant with the inclusion of 10% barley flour by 35, and in the subsequent ones - by 56–67. The volume of bread and the total bakery grade were less reduced in the variant with the addition of barley flour in the amount of 10%. Indicators of moisture and acidity of bread in this embodiment were slightly different from those of the control (without the addition of barley flour). The variant with the addition to wheat flour of the highest grade of 10% wholemeal flour from grain of naked pigmented barley of variety Granal 32 is recommended for use in breadmaking with the aim of enriching wheat flour with highly nourishing barley flour with enhanced antioxidant activity.
Transition metals are complexing substances, that is why being incorporated into the sensor modifiers, they can improve detection discrimination. The method of piezoelectric microweighting was used to study the sorption characteristics of the films based on partially soluble phosphates of 3d-elements (manganese (II), iron (II and III), nickel, copper, zinc, chromium) and coatings bearing partially soluble ferrous salts (hydrated oxide, fluoride, carbonate, sulfide, phosphate). The salts were created immediately prior to analysis, with bee glue as a filming agent. The method of immersion sensors in suspension of the filming agent and partially soluble salt, that was kept homogeneous by ultrasonic bath, was recognized the best way of film formation. Sorption characteristics of the composed coatings of piezoelectric resonator were estimated by the area under sorption kinetic curve and by peak value of sensor oscillation frequency drop during analysis of equilibrium gaseous form received over pure substances (water, phenol, isopropanol, isobutanol, acetous acid, chloroform, benzene, toluene, acetone, ethyl acetate, ammonia, diethyl amine, triethylamine, tert-butylamine, benzylamine). It was possible to determine the identifying variables Aij, minimax values of those allow to detect individual substances in the mixed vapour. Modifier application of piezoelectric resonators of phosphates of different 3d-elements is more efficient than use of different salts of one element. The shortcoming of the proposed modifiers is temporarily stable amine (ammonia) complexation. Those analytes desorption from the films proceeds slowly, it is determined by the bond strength of complexes and takes from 2 to 6 hours. However, array of seven sensors, modified by phosphates of transition metals of group IV, allows to detect oxygen- and nitrogen-based compounds vapours in the mixed vapour as well as to detect ammonia, diethyl amine and triethylamine individually.)
In extrusion 3D printing, the rheological properties of food are critical to achieving quality printing. The aim of this study is to investigate potential correlations between the printability of food pastes and rheological characteristics. Potato and tomato puree were used as a model system. The rheological properties of mashed potatoes with the addition of potato starch and their behavior during 3D printing have been investigated. A correlation has been established between the formulation and manufacturability in 3D printing. Potato mass without starch had a low yield point, which affected the deformation and subsidence of the mass later. At the same time, the addition of 2% starch showed excellent extrudability and printability, that is, the ability to flow. Under these conditions, the printed objects had a smooth shape, good resolution, and could withstand shape over time. The object with the addition of 4% starch represented good shape retention but poor extrudability due to its high consistency index and toughness. The results obtained using tomato puree showed a linear correlation between ingredient flow stress, zero shear viscosity and corresponding print stability. The extrusion pressure required to extrude tomato paste increases linearly with increasing flow voltage. Modules of viscosity, elasticity, and zero shear rate turned out to be not linearly correlated with the extrusion force, which can be explained by the fact that these parameters reflect the rheological properties of the non-deforming state of the material, in contrast to the flow stresses.
One of the biggest challenges is to find ways of recovering the expensive powder. With this aim, we needed to find out what happens with polyamide powder in the chamber of the printer and what processes affect raw materials, thereby impairing the physico-mechanical properties. In order to answer these questions, we conducted a number of studies. Articles of mixtures with a high aspect ratio of the secondary powder lose their properties: their surface is rough, increased fragility, there is a possibility of deformation of details. We carried out studies of the powder based on polyamide-12, applied by JSC "Center of technological competence of additive technologies" of the city of Voronezh, brand PA2200 modified. Material white powder, odourless. An increase in the degree of crystallinity from recycled polymer is considered an anomaly. But the violation of this trend due to the peculiarities of the technology of selective laser sintering. Thus, prolonged exposure of the powder in the chamber at a temperature close to the melting point, followed by a long cooling to room temperature represents the ideal conditions for the growth of crystalline phase. The research was able to identify differences due to deterioration of the physico-chemical properties of the powder after processing. The most important is the agglomeration of particles of the secondary powder in relation to the primary. In this regard, powder, already passed the stage of processing, an increase in the melting temperature, which causes defects in the fabricated parts: as the capacity of the carbon laser melting powder particles is fixed, its energy is not sufficient for the occurrence of the endothermic reaction caused by melting of the secondary powder. Thus, the powder particles only partially fused, whereby the resulting products of the observed increase in fragility.
The number of the innovative centers in a total amount of technological infrastructure in the world increases. One of trends of development of global economy is growth of speed of changes, including entry into the market of new types of products and services. The key trigger of these changes are "blasting" innovations which are characteristic of the fourth technological revolution which is taking place now. The program of support of clusters which is implemented since 2013 by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation receives the logical continuation, including in the innovative scientific and technological centers. In article the review of uncontested global trends of scientific and technological and innovative development in the conditions of the Fourth industrial revolution and the Industry 4.0 on the basis of which the principles of design and the organization of functioning of innovative infrastructures are created is carried out. The research of the systems of strategic management of breakthrough technological development, best in the class, is conducted. It is shown that for realization of breakthrough technological development it is necessary to create basic technological packages and technological packages of the second order on the basis of basic research packages. In a research the approach of intellectual and strategic scanning ("Strategic Intelligence") which is the significant instrument of management, concentrated on the solution of specific questions by scanning of a business environment is applied, marking out at the same time risks, threats and opportunities. The growing practical application of such approach is caused by need to solve unique research problems in new subject domains on which there is no saved-up knowledge base. A number of the methods which are originally used for the solution of separate planned and expected tasks unites thus in the uniform complete concept. Results of a research can be used as a theoretical basis for carrying out transformation of the innovative environment in the industries, regions, industrial complexes.
One of the most important factors defining the complex of operational characteristics of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes that represent a composite material is their structure. Composite material electroconductivity depends on the nature of phases setting the system and on their relative position. Impedance spectroscopy is one of the effective methods of structure definition and electrochemical characteristics not only of the composite material generaly but also the phases which it consists of. In this paper by the method of impedance spectroscopy the electrochemical characteristics of the heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes МС-40 (H+, Na+, К+, NH4+ - forms) and МА-41 (Cl- and NO3- - forms) in the range of the alternating current frequencies 100 KHz – 20 MHz are researched. The comparison of the contact and contact-differential ways of measuring membrane impedance is done. It is shown that in the case of impedance contact measuring of the sample the borders “electrode/membrane” influence the electrochemical impedance system spectrum greatly. In connection with this the contact-differential variant of the experimental procedure in the impedance measuring of the membrane system is more preferable. The interpretation of the received electrochemical impedance spectra in terms of the composite material conductivity is given. Basing on the method of equivalent circuits it is suggested representing the impedance of the heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane as a sum of pure resistance (resistance of ion-exchanger particles), sequentially connected with the impedance of the dielectric layers (resistance and capacity of polyethylene and dissolvent). The analysis of the spectra of electrochemical impedance of ion-exchange membranes in different ion forms showed that the quantity of the semicircle locus impedance radius is inversely proportional to the coefficient of counter-ion diffusion and directly proportional to the part of the membrane intergel phase.
Figure1. Specific volume of bread samples: 1– control; 2 –test 
In article results of research of influence of application of technological (TAM) “Enzo Way 5.02” (limited liability company “grain Ingredient”) while softening wheat on physical-chemical, structural-mechanical and microbiological indicators of bread from wheat flour first grade. It is established that the specific volume of the test sample (TAM) was 10 cm3/100 g compared with reference sample (white bread from wheat flour first grade). Analysis of the results of humidity and acidity of bread has shown that TAM does not affect these parameters, however, the porosity in the experimental sample was 3% more than the control. The total deformation in the test specimen more by 24.4%, plastic deformation on 17%, elastic deformation by 40%, relative plastic deformation by 14%, relative elastic deformation at 12%, the coefficient of elasticity by 20.5%. The results of the analysis of microbiological indicators show that TAM “EnzoWay 5.02” reduces the number of bacteria in the bread of a test sample after 3 h after baking at 80% (almost 5 times), and after 72 h 92% (13 times), compared with white bread from wheat flour first grade. Thus the positive influence of using TAM “EnzoWay 5.02” while softening wheat on physical-chemical, structural-mechanical and microbiological indicators bread from wheat flour first grade. It is proved expediency of application of TAM in the production of flour and bakery products.
One of the effective ways to increase the malt capacity of existing plants is the use of complex enzyme preparations. The enzyme preparation of complex action, penetrating into the grain during soaking or germination, affect its powdery body, contributing to the loosening of the cell membranes and the endosperm itself, thereby accelerating the process of malting. A purpose of researches is development of technology of fermented oat malt with the use of enzyme drug Ceramics 6ХМG. This enzyme preparation with complex action, has ?-amylase, protease, ?-glucanase, pentosanase, cellulose activities. As the object of study was taken oats Kozyr’ variety. Amylolytic ability of malt was determined by colorimetric method, proteolytic-refractometric method (according to Petrov). It was established that as a result of the use of Ceremix 6XMG in an amount of 0.1–0.5 kg per ton of grain, a more pronounced increase in amylolytic and proteolytic ability compared to the control (without the use of an enzyme preparation) occurs at a dosage of 0.5 kg per ton of grain. It is impractical to introduce Ceremix 6HMG in the amount of 0.5 kg per ton of grain, because the enzymatic activity of oat malt is only 6.4–6.6% higher than that of malt treated with an enzyme preparation in the amount of 0.3 kg per ton of grain. It was found that the use of the enzyme preparation Ceremix 6HMG allows to improve the quality of oat malt by improving organoleptic characteristics, increasing the mass fraction of extractives, as well as to intensify the process by reducing the drying time by 10-12 hours, which is important for the preservation of biologically active substances and energy resources.
Obtaining winter diesel fuel is an expensive and complex process, in which paraffinic hydrocarbons are removed from the fuel. Today, the consumption of winter diesel fuel in Russia has reached its maximum, and the volume produced is not enough to meet the needs of the Russian market. Therefore, obtaining winter diesel fuel from summer grades, by adding a depressant additive, remains relevant. The most common depressants are ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers. The effectiveness of depressant-dispersant additives depends on the fractional and group hydrocarbon composition of diesel fuel. Also, the physicochemical characteristics of the paraffins contained in the fuel play an important roleDuring long-term storage of fuel, depressants do not prevent fuel stratification. Therefore, together with a depressant additive, a paraffin dispersant is used, the composition of such additives includes mainly amides and imides of mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Dewaxol 7801 depressant and dispersant additive is a specially selected composition based on surfactants and copolymers in a hydrocarbon solvent. The use of this additive makes it possible to improve the low-temperature performance of diesel fuel without affecting other properties. From the low-temperature properties of diesel fuel, we have chosen the limiting filterability temperature, since it is this temperature that characterizes the real working conditions. When the maximum filterability temperature is reached, the n-paraffin crystals reach sizes exceeding the pore diameters of the filters, the fuel is not pumped through the fine filters of the high-pressure fuel pump, and the fluidity of the fuel deteriorates. The article shows the effect of Dewaxol 7801, a depressant-dispersant additive, on summer diesel fuel, in various concentrations and when the fuel is heated from 40 to 60 degrees in steps of 10 degrees.
Currently, the Russian market of phospholipase A2 enzyme preparations is represented by commercial preparations of foreign manufacturers: Nagase (Japan) and Maxapal (the Netherlands). However, the growing demand and the need to reduce the cost of production of phospholipase A2 require the development of new super-producers of phospholipase A2. In this connection, the aim of the work is to compare the expression of recombinant phospholipase A2 in Komagataella phaffii depending on the modification of the alpha-factor signaling peptide. The object of the study is the recipient yeast strain Komagataella phaffii X-33. The studies were conducted in accordance with generally accepted norms and approaches. Phospholipase A2 genes from Streptomyces violaceoruber were used for this worK. The target sequences were synthesized in the company "Eurogen" (Russia) and cloned as part of the TE vector pUC57. In the course of the work, the genetic constructs pPICZaA-Pla2 and PPICZmf4iA-Pla2 containing the Streptomyces violaceoruber phospholipase A2 gene were assembled under the native signal a-MF and its modification mf4i. The transformation of the yeast Komagataella phaffii X-33 with the obtained genetic constructs was also carried out. As a result of the conducted studies, it was shown that on average, there were no significant differences in the level of expression and specific activity of recombinant phospholipase A2 in methylotrophic yeast K. Phaffii X-33 when using the native a-MF secretion signal and its modified version mf4i. However, the use of the secretion factor mf4i allows for higher production of phospholipase A2 in individual clones. The obtained data indicate the prospects of using the secretion factor mf4i to create super-producers of enzymes based on yeast K. Phaffii X-33.
A basic model for the implementation of ABC/XYZ-analysis 
Inventory management for a trading company is a vital task, which requires processing significant amounts of information. Through the application of ABC/XYZ-analysis of the nomenclature within the enterprise ERP-system, it is possible to increase significantly the efficiency of inventory management, in accordance with Pareto principle concentrating on managing the most important categories of goods. Various researchers dealt with the methods of ABC/XYZ-analysis itself but its usage as a part of the inventory management and procurement subsystem has a number of essential features, ignoring of which can lead to tangible negative consequences. The article discusses the methods and key problems of application of ABC/XYZ-analysis within the enterprise management accounting information system. For each of the factors that can affect the reliability of sales and procurement statistics and distort the results of the classification of goods, we have formulated the proposals to minimize the negative impact of that specific factor. Proposed methods allow reducing the impact of the following factors: availability of conditions for duplicate nomenclature to appear within the enterprise accounting software, the lack of a unified approach to the formation of names for newly created items of nomenclature, frequent changes in the products range of the suppliers, excessive detailing of information about a product in its name. The results of successfully implemented analysis and classification of goods can be used for a wide range of tasks varying from implementing effective inventory control to general planning and forecasting commodity flows as a part of the enterprise budgeting model. Solving these problems will harmoniously fit the inventory management in the managerial accounting system making it an effective tool in achieving strategic business goals.
The management style does not characterize the Manager's behavior in General, but rather it is stable, invariant, and constantly manifests itself in various situations. The search for and use of optimal management styles are designed to increase employee achievement and satisfaction, and, as a result, the level of productivity. The management style is characterized by a stable set of traits of the Manager, which are manifested in his relations with subordinates. The management style does not reflect the General behavior of the Manager, but rather a stable, invariant one that constantly manifests itself in various situations. In modern conditions, the success of the case is determined not only by the nature of the relationship between the Manager and subordinate and the degree of freedom that they are granted, but also by a number of other circumstances. This is expressed in "multidimensional" management styles, which represent a set of complementary, intertwining approaches, each of which is independent of the others. The search for and use of optimal management styles are designed to increase employee achievement and satisfaction, and, as a result, the level of productivity. When choosing management methods, you must adhere to the following requirements of the "Golden mean": an effective Manager must be able to balance between different management styles of his team, and then the motivation of employees will be much higher. The leader of the future should be focused on the market and customers, constantly strive for progress, set development directions, be a driving force for effective changes, be talented and develop leadership qualities and teamwork skills of employees. In modern conditions, in their practical activities, the Manager must constantly adjust their management style in accordance with changing internal and external conditions.
Modern company development requires not only tactical and strategic goals settings. It also requires to meet specific financial requirements for capital conditions. As it widely known company's capital conditions estimates with financial performance indicators. This method is quite discussion, nevertheless it still widely applicable. From our point of view, «financial equilibrium» as a one of group key financial performance indicator is crucial. In the capital condition estimation while discussing its adequacy to financial equilibrium, special attention should be given to such performance indicators as: liquidity, risk and yield. Balancing those parameters allows to management by default to achieve financial condition that required. Shown issue reveals its especial actuality for holdings, due to its complicated structure of inner communications which made it hard to achieve tactical and strategic goals that been set. Holdings needs to develop and apply special rules for structuring capital flows, which allows to achieve financial equilibrium. This article is about Financial liability limits as a one of factors that impacting holding capital condition. Current article based on researching of the practical approach of financial liabilities limits. Key conclusions revealed in the article.
Article is devoted to the results of modeling-a certain mathematical function that describes the behavior of the object of study, abstracting from the internal structure of the real substrate. Materials and Methods: discusses the construction of models of experimental dependencies extruding abnormally viscous fluids, includes the following stages: clarification, depending on the specific tasks optimized parameters (specific energy consumption in the extrusion process, the pressure in predatrice area, complex organoleptic quality score, etc.); the choice of factors determining the variability of the optimized parameters (initial moisture of the product, the frequency of rotation of the screw, the living section of the matrix, etc.); the selection of intervals of change of factors; recruitment plan and the conditions of the experiment; analysis of experiment data and construction of mathematical model of dependencies of optimized parameters on selected factors.Results: when planning an experiment, the conditions for conducting experiments, obtaining reliable and accurate information about the object, with minimal effort, providing information in a convenient form and quantitative accuracy assessment. Discussion: the problem of optimization of the studied process was solved, which allows to find such modes of the extruder, which would be in a wide range of changes in the input parameters of the product amounted to a minimum of specific energy consumption, the optimal pressure in the pre-matrix zone and the maximum complex organo-leptic quality index. Conclusion: the obtained results reveal the influence of individual factors on the operation of extruders and can be used in the design and optimization of their operation. They will have an impact on the development of scientific, scientific, technical and technological directions in the field of creating new food products with programmable properties (including therapeutic and prophylactic action). Made on their basis, experimental design will reveal new technological solutions in the field of creation of new generation technological equipment for various branches of the food industry. The developed recommendations and proposals for the use of the results are already used in the ongoing innovative projects for the creation of extruders, as well as other equipment.
The modern stage of the improvement food production is conditioned by tense fight for their cost-performance that is defined in significant measure by maximum efficiency of the use agricultural cheese. At the same time problems with disadvantage ecological condition, accompanying life our society, require from taken person of the food different influences on recovery of the organism. For decision of this problem to researchers most different countries unite their own efforts on decision of the touched questions. The improvement and development technology must rest in study existing. In base of the studies can lie the mathematical product models of the feeding and corresponding to processes created in different exploratory organization. The development qualitative, claimed, competitive products – a purpose of each modern producer, choosing for itself most idle time, effective and economic justified way of the decision given problems. Modern prospecting in theories and practical person of the checking quality and analysis allow to use in principal new methods at determination of the possible negative changes to product of the feeding happened in them, in particular, under heat processing. The given methods, except traditional touch component, take into account else and complex of the analytical models of the models, for positioning undesirable warm-up mode for processing the product in target group of the consumers (for instance for integer medical-preventive feeding).
The work is devoted to the filling of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) compositions modified with ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) in a wide concentration range, intended for the production of profiles and moldings of various functional purposes, with short-fiber basalt fiber. Powdered samples were made by extrusion (in the form of flat profiles) and by thermoplasticizing on rolls (in the form of films). Introduction of 10-40 phr ABS in PVC formulation makes it easier to recycle the composition. Similar situation is observed when these compositions are filled with basalt fiber, which leads to insignificant decrease of MFR (melt flow index) and thermal stability, which in general does not reflect negatively on melt flow conditions, at the same time extrudate swelling index decreases by 10-15%, which indicates possibility to provide products with more precise geometric dimensions. The change in the supramolecular structure was evaluated by thermomechanical tests and by energy dispersive analysis using electron microscopy data. Thermomechanical analysis showed that the presence of large doses of ABS has a positive effect on the technological properties, leading to an earlier development of highly elastic deformations and a decrease in the yield point of the compositions. Basalt fiber contributes to an insignificant decrease in the value of high elastic deformations and an increase in the density index of meshing knots. Energy dispersion analysis has shown that introduction of basalt fiber leads to formation of homogeneous structure of PVC at lower concentrations of ABS in the composition, influencing on increase of melt flowability and thermal stability. Improved technological properties of PVC compositions filled with short-fiber basalt fiber, modified with different concentrations of ABS, allow to recommend them for production of a wide range of profile and molded products.
Characteristics of the studied materials during galvanostatic Cycling
Carbon nanotubes are effective nanomodifiers – providing the formation of a variety of thermal and electrophysical properties in composite materials. The functional purpose of composite materials determines the type and concentration of carbon nanostructures. The use of carbon nanostructures in polymer composites intended for electromagnetic shielding and electrode materials of supercapacitors is a promising direction in modern materials science. The method of manufacturing a radio-absorbing composite material included impregnation of a polyurethane foam billet – an aqueous composite suspension consisting of water, an acrylic copolymer, and carbon nanotubes "Taunit-MD". Structural studies of carbon nanotube samples were performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. To do this, PAM and SAM studies were performed using a HitachiH-800 electron microscope with an accelerating voltage of up to 200 Kev. For research purposes, electrodes with an area of 2 cm2 were made from carbon materials. Active mass was prepared from a carbon material and a binder, polivinildenftorid. Show PEM and SAM micrographs for samples of carbon nanotubes with the commercial name "Taunit-M". In this case, carbon nanotubes are characterized by smaller thicknesses in the range of 10-20 nm with a preferred average size of 12-15 nm. The structure of the tubes is very defective. The thickness of the tubes varies in some areas (not exceeding hundreds of nm) by more than 2 times. Carbon nanotubes have an irregular shape-there are processes, bends. The analysis of the obtained results allows us to conclude that the characteristic of the reflected EMI signal demonstrated by the pyramidal RPM is close in its values to that of the free space. At the same time, in comparison with the free space, there is a slight weakening (3-4) dB of the reflection coefficient. Carbon nanotubes MD has characteristics that exceed the carbon fabric "busofit" in terms of specific mass capacity, but inferior to it in terms of specific surface capacity. In addition, this advantage completely disappears at high current densities, which may be the result of a closed macrostructure and requires further optimization of the electrode manufacturing technology
The conducted information review showed that there are various types of radio absorbing materials. The expansion of the working wavelength range for radio-absorbing composites is possible due to the combined use of conductive fillers, characterized by different magnetic and dielectric characteristics and the value of electrical conductivity. As a rule, the increase in the efficiency of radio absorption of materials is associated with an increase in the concentration of metal fillers in them, as a result of which the weight and size parameters increase proportionally. To avoid this, the use of carbon nanomaterials, which have the ability to create self-organizing hierarchical structures in the bulk of the composite, allows. Varying the composition of the catalytic systems of the CVD process allows directional synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with the necessary morphological characteristics. To assess the effect of the composition of the catalyst on the morphology and structure of the synthesized CNTs, 3 Ni / MgO catalyst compositions with different contents of the active component (Ni) were selected. The effectiveness of the obtained catalysts was determined by the specific yield of CNTs (gC/gkat). The morphology and structure of the catalysts and the synthesized CNTs were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (a Hitachi H-800 transmission electron microscope). CNTs were additionally examined by transmission electron microscopy (a Hitachi H-800 transmission electron microscope). The use of a nickel-based catalyst provides the material with magnetic properties. The diameter of carbon filiform formations synthesized on Ni/0.16MgO and Ni / 0.3MgO catalysts is ~ 30 ? 60 nm. The Ni/0.5MgO system is characterized by low productivity in one-dimensional nanostructures; the sample after the CVD process contains a large number of unstructured forms of carbon and an unchanged catalyst. Structural diversity in carbon nanomaterials allows to obtain on their basis an effective hierarchical structure in the radio absorbing composite..
Time spent on sample preparation
The actual problem of food chemistry is the contamination of food raw materials and food products with heavy metals. Modern physico-chemical methods for the quantification of heavy metals are highly accurate and allow even trace amounts of elements to be determined, but the complexity of the sample preparation procedure is one of the most time-consuming steps, requiring high costs of reagents and time, especially for analysis of fat-containing samples. In this regard, development of new ways of determination of content of heavy metals in olive raw materials is relevant. Sunflower seeds in which they established the maintenance of toxic elements with use of different ways of sample preparation have acted as an object of a research: dry combustion and a wet mineralization and the developed new way of a fractional mineralization which distinctive features are: preliminary decomposition of test on fatty (oil) and fat-free (oilcake) of fraction with their independent mineralization. Oilcake is exposed to combustion at the maximum temperature 400 ?С for two full cycles, with convertion of the mineralizat in background solution and definition of metals by AAS-ETA method, oil – is dissolved in bipolar solvent in the ratio 1:6:2 from the mass of oil, with the subsequent direct input of mix in an analytical cell of the graphite tubular furnace of an electrothermal atomizer where there is a mineralization and simultaneous atomization of test. The use of fractional mineralization makes it possible to improve the metrological characteristics of the atomic absorption method of sunflower seeds: to increase the average openability of the investigated elements to 90.8%, to reduce the error of convergence (by 4.5%) and the reproducibility (by 4.9%) of the results of the study of cadmium and lead, and also to reduce the total time of sample preparation for 4–6 hours as compared with the test methods.
The structure of the group assessments: a-the distribution of scores by groups and subgroups; b-the ratio of the average score in the group and in subgroups
This paper deals with the problem of constructing a system of rating indicators for stimulating the work of the academic staff in higher educational institution. Many areas of teacher activity (for example, educational, scientific, international, etc.) laid the basis of selection the groups of indicators in the system. Social challenge in improving the quality of educational services determines the relevance of research in the field of modeling and prediction of indicators which characterize the work of high school teacher. To predict the dynamics of the structure of the rating indicators in the system, the authors introduced the concept of drift and variability of each group. Using informational hypercube for the structure of input data allowed authors to take into account the individual characteristics of each parameter included in a mathematical model to describe the rating indicators. To make the prediction of the structure and values of rating system indicators the authors introduced the concept of drift. Drift of indicators takes into account the introduction of new indicators, the removal of existing indicators, and movement of indicators between the groups. In the article, authors introduced a novel quantitative indicator of group variability. The value of this indicator determines the prediction strategy of the teacher work in higher school in the future period. To predict the total amount of stimulating, the complex technique offered and it includes four modules: modeling values within the existing range in the previous period; modeling new index value based on the assumptions introduced using a random number generator; exclusion a range of values of deleted indicators; modeling new values based on the study of the modern trend of indicators. The presence of flexible information structure in the form of a hypercube and complex mathematical model allowed authors to carry out numerical simulation for predicting the values of individual and group indicators. During the experiment, the structural stability of values is detected, and it does not lead to a drastic changing of the quantitative ratio between the groups of indicators.
The development of academic entrepreneurship as a way of transfer of innovation is an urgent task. One of the main factors in the development of academic entrepreneurship is innovation-oriented staff of higher education institutions. Insufficient attention of the scientific literature to importance of this factor is thwarting progress of various forms of academic entrepreneurship. In connection with this proposed study is aimed at determining the degree of scientific innovation activity influence on the development of academic entrepreneurship in Russia. Academic entrepreneurship in Russia has been chosen as the object of study. Analysis of the basic research in the field of academic entrepreneurship for the period of 2011-2016 years was used to achieve this goal. Analysis of publications was revealed that the innovative activity of the teaching staff of universities is a critical factor in the development of academic entrepreneurship. However, Russian scientists are characterized by low innovation activity, resulting in academic entrepreneurship in Russia is weak. The researchers suggest the following solutions to eliminate or minimize the effects of this problem: full awareness and moral training of the scientists involved in the innovation process of higher education institutions; profit payment; creating a psychological climate that will affect the scientific process of self-realization; continuous training of employees involved in the innovation process of higher education institutions; the creation of conditions that will contribute to the manifestation of creative activity of scientists; provide greater confidence to young scientists, graduate students and undergraduates; providing moral and material encouragement of initiatives, experimentation and creativity of scientific and pedagogical staff; the allocation of free time for scientists to research and search activities and others. The data obtained can be used by the guidance of Russian universities to enhance innovation activity of the teaching staff of universities.
The use of mathematical modeling in various branches of the food industry as an effective tool for the policy of resource conservation of food systems is an innovative solution in the field of improving the efficiency of existing food production technologies based on established patterns in the production process. The issues of operational quality control in the process of processing food products with a stream of accelerated electrons in the absence of radiation doses regulated by standards, except for certain types of spices, to ensure the safety and quality of food products, in particular chilled fish, require a constructive approach with the general predictability of technological parameters in specialized radiation centers – operators of the irradiator. It was found that the dose absorbed by the samples of common carp scales with a high degree of correlation of 0.94 depends on the actual radiation dose and increases to 7.51±0.04 kGy when irradiated with a dose of 12 kGy or 25.9 times compared to samples treated with a stream of accelerated electrons with a radiation dose of 1 kGy. It is revealed that the operational quality is determined by the reproducibility of the results under the established conditions of the production processing process. As a result of experimental testing, mathematical models of various types were developed to predict the absorbed dose from experimental conditions on the example of samples of chilled carp scales: polynomial, 3D-graph and arccos. The practical significance is determined by the possibility of designing experimental conditions for processing chilled fish with a stream of accelerated electrons without performing trial processing of small batches of food products in radiation centers and using emitters as a model for technological runs.
The digitalization process of the modern economic system tightens the conditions for the functioning of enterprises. Domestic enterprises operate under severe restrictions on time, organizational and financial resources. Organizations are urgently faced with the need to increase the number of opportunities for developing key business processes in a strategic perspective. It is necessary to develop tools to support the adoption of a strategic choice of development priorities based on the use of analytic methods of a multifactorial information array aimed at creating an information data array that provides a single vector of strategic development of an enterprise (PJSC NII PM). The final informational array for determining the strategic development vector of the enterprise is primarily focused on the implementation of the strategy under resource constraints and target key performance indicators. In the course of consistent identification and formulation of the main goals through the definition of goals of a lower order, a hierarchical target system of development strategy is created. The phased digitalization of the domestic economy forms a tendency to increase the demand in the product markets for unique and technologically sophisticated products, which determines a significant number of possible directions for the strategic development of the enterprise. The recommended mechanism for supporting the adoption of a strategic choice of enterprise development priorities contains a number of measures aimed at achieving sustainable development. Formed array of priorities allows you to achieve the goals of forming the optimal integrated development strategy of the enterprise. Implementation of development directions is carried out through the formation and implementation of a development program that allows us to assess the required time intervals for achieving strategic development goals, sources of financial and resource support for the enterprise.
The article deals with the modeling of the process of data transmission from sensors in the industrial production of vinyl acetate. The data packets are transferred from the sensors to the control system and the control effect is directed to the temperature regulators of the gas-vapor mixture, the vapor pressure of the refrigerant. oxygen consumption and return acetic acid consumption by industrial Ethernet protocols over a multiple access channel with carrier control and detection of CSMA / CD collisions (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection). The main bottleneck of the system is a limited sensor transmission buffer, which can cause data loss when it overflows, and due to improper regulatory impact. Mathematical modeling of the transmission process was carried out according to the scheme of the Markov process with continuous time and discrete states. The transmitter transmission buffer model was constructed on the basis of the state graph, each state is displayed by two elements [i, j]: i is the number of packets in the queue waiting to be sent; j - number of sent packets pending confirmation. A column of Kolmogorov equations was constructed. The solution was carried out numerically using the Maple mathematical package (Runge-Kutta-Felberg method 4-5th order). Based on the data obtained after modeling, we can conclude that the average packet transmission time, the number of lost packets with different bandwidth and channel load transfer. The adequacy of the model was confirmed with the help of experimental data, it was tested by the Fisher criterion, and the hypothesis at the level of significance of general variances was adopted. The model allows calculating the static and dynamic characteristics of the queue on a network device (they are important for calculating the functioning of the network in real time) systems for monitoring and controlling the production of vinyl acetate
Counting Resourcesautomated information system 
The article is devoted to the method of experimental estimation of parameters of functioning of standard information protection systems from unauthorized access, certified, widely used in organizations operating automated information systems. In the course of the experiment, statistical data were evaluated in the dynamics of the functioning of information security systems against unauthorized access in automated information systems. Registration of the parameters for the execution time of protective protection functions was carried out using a special utility called ProcessMonitor from the Sysinternals suite of utilities used to filter processes and threads. The loading of the processor and main memory of the computer with the use of special software, specially designed for performing experimental research, simulates the operation of GIS in real-world work for its intended purpose. A special software for simulating the work of a system with high load is developed in "VisualStudio 2015" within the framework of "ConsoleApplication". At the same time, the processor is loaded at a level of 50-70% and 60-80% of the operative memory. The obtained values of the time of implementation of protective functions in conditions of high utilization of resources of computer facilities for their intended purpose will allow us to assess the conflict and dynamic properties of the GIS. In the future, the obtained experimental estimates can be used to develop a model of information security in automated information systems, as well as in the formation of quality requirements (resource intensity, response time to the user's request, availability, etc.). Also, the results of the computational experiment in the future can be used to develop a software package for assessing the dynamic performance of information security systems against unauthorized access in automated information systems
The number of people with disabilities is steadily growing all over the world and currently there are up to 15% of the total population. About 35 million people with limited mobility live in Russia, including 11.6 million people with disabilities, the most numerous group of disabled people aged over 60 years (57.2 % of the total number). Insufficient adaptation of the tourist infrastructure to the opportunities and needs of people with disabilities is one of the barriers to the formation of an "accessible environment". A study of the barrier-free environment in the country showed a low level of adaptation of tourist infrastructure for different types of tourism (from cultural, educational, therapeutic, to mountain skiing, etc.): Moscow and St. Petersburg - up to 30% of tourist infrastructure is adapted for travel of people with disabilities, in Sochi currently plans to bring up to 60%, in general, in all regions – up to 5%. The most popular transport for organizing tours is rail transport, so the infrastructure on rail transport must meet the requirements of an "accessible environment" for all categories of users. The issues of transport accessibility for the Russian population as a whole and the objectives of achieving sustainable development, considered within the context of providing an "accessible environment" for people with disabilities and people with reduced mobility on rail transport, constitute the development pattern for barrier-free and inclusive rail tourism in the country. Considering the needs of different categories of passengers, Russian Railways carries out complex modernization of rolling stock and renovation of passenger infrastructure (more than 900 passenger cars are equipped with a specialized compartment for passengers with disabilities), designs and promotes new projects in the development of railway tourism together with enterprises involved in the hospitality and tourism industry. However, insufficient tourism infrastructure adjustment to the needs of people with disabilities is one of the barriers to providing an accessible environment. Moreover, special features of mentality and health abilities of people with disabilities, their low purchasing power, and lack of awareness should be taken into account. Consistent implementation of state policy in creating a single barrier-free space for people with disabilities will contribute to their socialization in society and mobility when traveling and when traveling in the tourist and recreational environment
Liquid component injection unit
Drapery machine
The technology of production of compound feeds for agricultural (pigs) and unproductive (dogs, cats) animals, as well as for fur-bearing animals (minks, arctic foxes, sables) and valuable fish (sturgeon, trout, etc.), in which the replacement of expensive components of animal origin (fish meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, offal), for extruded vegetable high-protein components (soy, sunflower or rapeseed meal, lupine, peas, soy) is carried out. The use of vacuum spraying of thermolabile liquid components (amino acids, protein-vitamin-mineral additives, vitamins, fats) on the surface of extruded pellets will allow you to obtain highly digestible feed. The kinetic regularities of the studied processes of humidification and steaming, extrusion, drying/cooling and draining are determined, and their rational modes are revealed. The technological scheme of the line for the production of highly digestible compound feeds has been developed, which includes the following equipment: hopper; extruder; dryer-cooler; liquid component injection plant, draining machine; conveyor and finished product hopper. According to the technical characteristics (overall dimensions, weight, occupied area, drive power, uniformity of application of fat on the surface of granules), the manufactured coating machine and the liquid component injection unit exceed the best world analogues. The technology of vacuum mixing with the introduction of liquid components will ensure their uniform distribution over the entire volume, reduce the duration of mixing, which will increase the productivity of the vacuum mixer and reduce energy consumption. The developed technology and promising types of technological equipment (mixer, extruder, vacuum sprayer, dryer-cooler) will make it possible to obtain highly digestible feed of a new generation with a protein content of 60 %, fat content of 40 %, with the introduction of growth stimulants, biologically active additives. An increase in the protein and fat complex will increase the digestibility of compound feeds by 10-12 %, increase weight gain by 10-12 % and reduce feed conversion by 15 %.
The sustainable energy goals are vectors for universal access to affordable, sustainable and modern energy for all. The aim of this work is to study the structure of the world energy supply, including Russia, and the role of energy cooperatives abroad in the past and present on energy supply to agriculture and rural areas, and the possibility of applying their experience in the Russian economy. The authors used observation, abstraction, analysis and synthesis, as well as dialectical and logical methods. Having studied the data of domestic and foreign statistical institutes, the authors came to the conclusion that non-renewable energy sources make up the largest share in the world. In addition to the economical use and efficient conversion of fossil raw materials, the focus is increasingly shifting to the use of renewable energy sources that reduce dependence on oil and gas, in particular in countries that do not have their own reserves, and therefore ensure sustainable energy production. At the same time, the global energy transition to energy resources, which will be available to all, can be carried out with the help of energy cooperatives. In Russia, the capacity of renewable energy facilities is also constantly growing. The peculiarity of the country is the need to transfer energy over long distances with significant wear of transmission networks, a deep monopoly of the market, and, consequently, high tariffs for consumers. One of the ways to solve the problems of affordable energy availability for agriculture, the authors see the creation of energy cooperatives. In the article the approximate model of energy cooperative is offered, their classification is given. The results of the study will help to create competition in the energy market, optimize the budgets of the village and reduce costs in the process of commodity circulation of agricultural products to the final consumer.
Top-cited authors
Liudmila Nilova
  • Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
Svetlana Mikhailovna Malyutenkova
  • Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University
Vitalii Vasilenko
  • Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education "Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies"
Elena Verboloz
  • ITMO University