Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington

Published by Biological Society of Washington
Print ISSN: 0006-324X
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Asterisks (*...*) surround words or phrases that are to be italicized. We describe *Anthosactis nomados*, new species, which belongs to family Actinostolidae, and redescribe *Monactis vestita* (Gravier, 1918), a species belonging to family Hormathiidae. Anemones of both species live attached to molluscs on the soft-sediment abyssal plain of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. *Anthosactis nomados* is known from 260 specimens, most of which were still attached to scaphopod shells when studied, and the others of which show evidence of having been attached to one. By altering the definition of genus *Anthosactis* to include all tentacles being of equal length, this species can be accommodated in it. The species also differs from the other six species previously ascribed to the genus in the size of its nematocysts. We examined about 600 specimens of *Monactis vestita*, more than 350 of which show evidence of having been attached to a gastropod shell but none of which was still associated with the host when studied. This is the first report of *Monactis vestita* in such a symbiosis and from the Pacific Ocean. We hypothesize that both anemone-mollusc symbioses are mutualistic. In that between *Anthosactis nomados* and the scaphopod, which is the third anemone-scaphopod symbiosis to be documented, the protection provided by the sea anemone may allow the scaphopod to avoid the corrosive environment of sub-surface sediments and to forage at the surface where it can obtain energy and calcium carbonate. For both symbioses, the mollusc may resuspend sediments and carry the actinian to food-rich areas, and the anemone may protect its host from predators.
 
The name Cryptotis peregrina (Merriam, 1895) previously encompassed two separate populations of a small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis mexicana group inhabiting the Sierra de Cuatro Venados and the Sierra de Miahuatlán in Oaxaca, Mexico. Analysis of museum specimens from these two populations, inc1uding the type series of C. peregrina, indicates that they are neither conspecific nor even sister taxa. We taxonomically restrict the name C. peregrina to populations in the Sierra de Cuatro Venados and adjoining Sierra Yucuyacua, whereas the name Cryptotis phillipsii (Schaldach, 1966) is available for the population in the Sierra de Miahuatlán. Moreover, we demonstrate that C. phillipsii is the most primitive member of the C. mexicana group, whereas, C. peregrina is one of the more derived members of the group.
 
Unique sperm morphology is described for Aegla longirostri Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994. a representative of the freshwater anomuran family Aeglidae from South America. Comparisons of the spermatozoal ultrastructure of this species with that described for other anomurans indicate that A. longirostri has a distinct suite of spermatozoal characters. Within the Anomura, the aeglids share more spermatozoal characters with the superfamily Lomoidea. represented by the monotypic Australian endemic genus, Lomis, than to any previously described representative from the Galatheoidea, Hippoidea. or Paguroidea. A more basal ancestry, with an independent evolutionary lineage. within the Anomura is Postulated for the Aeglidae. A Superficial resemblance of the spermatozoal ultrastructure of A. longirostri to that described for a palinurid lobster, Jasus, and a thalassinidean mud shrimp, Neaxius, is also noted.
 
The South American chewing louse Abrocomophaga chilensis Emerson & Price has, since its description, remained the sole known member of the amblyceran family Abrocomophagidae. We herein provide a redescription of the species as well as descriptions and illustrations for two new species of Abrocomophaga: A. emmonsae off Cuscomys ashaninka Emmons from Perú and A. hellenthali off the degu, Octodon degus (Molina), from Chile. After our reevaluation of the status of the family Abrocomophagidae, we consider it a synonym of the family Gyropidae. Resumen—Desde su descripción original, el piojo sudamericano Abrocomophaga chilensis Emerson & Price, ha permanecido como el único miembro conocido de la familia Abrocomophagidae, perteneciente a los amblíceros. En este trabajo presentamos una redescripción de dicha especie y además descripciones e ilustraciones de dos especies nuevas del género Abrocomophaga: A. emmonsae parásito de Cuscomys ashaninka Emmons proveniente del Perú y A. hellenthali parásito del degu, Octodon degus (Molina), de Chile. Después de reevaluar el status de la familia Abrocomophagidae, la consideramos como sinónimo de la familia Gyropidae.
 
Asterisks (*...*) surround words or phrases that are to be italicized. *Maractis rimicarivora* is a new genus and new species of medium-sized sea anemone (Actiniaria) from the TAG (Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse) hydrothermal vent fields (26°08.3'N, 44°49.6'W; 3650 m). The genus, which belongs to family Actinostolidae, is distinguished by the following combination of features: six pairs of complete mesenteries, mesenteries not arrayed according to the *Actinostola* rule, all mesenteries gametogenic, tentacles not thickened at the base, and no tentacular mastigophores. The species is distinguished by long, longitudinally-furrowed tentacles, and a roughened column. Anemones of this species encircle black smokers at distances from 15 to 60 m. This is the second species to be reported from hydrothermal vents of the Atlantic. Four species have been reported from Pacific hydrothermal vents.
 
Asterisks (*...*) surround words or phrases that are to be italicized. *Megalactis comatus*, new species, from Taiwan is the third species in this genus of sea anemones with highly branched tentacles. The others are *M. hemprichii* Ehrenberg, 1834, from the Red Sea, and *M. griffithsi* Saville-Kent, 1893, from the Great Barrier Reef. Size of nematocysts from acrospheres and column clearly separate *M. comatus* from the other species of *Megalactis*. One of us (A.A.) observed asexual blastulae in *M. comatus*. This is the first record of asexual reproduction in the genus. Because type specimens of *M. hemprichii* have not been found and the original description cannot be used to distinguish this species from other species of *Megalactis*, we designate a neotype for the type species of the genus, *M. hemprichii* Ehrenberg, 1834. All the specimens of actinodendrids examined lacked basilar muscles; this calls into question the placement of family Actinodendridae among thenarian sea anemones.
 
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi
 
Sigmodontomys aphrustits, the long-tailed rat, is an exceedingly rare rodent species from montane regions of Central and South America of which very little is known ecologically or systematically. It has been variously placed in the genera Oryzomys, Nectomys, and Sigmodontomys based on the five previously known specimens. Two new individuals Were collected in northwestern Costa Rica's Cordillera de Tilaran. These new specimens and the other five known specimens are used to redescribe the species, detail measurements of external and cranial morphology, and compare S. aphrastus to similarly appearing sympatric species (Nephelomys albigularis and N. dei,ius) and proposed closely related species (Sigmodontomys, alfari, Mindomys halmnondi, and Melanomys caliginosus). New ecological data is presented and the general knowledge of its natural history is summarized. The phylogenetic relatedness of S. aphrastus with purported sister taxa remains unresolved until combined molecular and morphological analyses are conducted.
 
A new subgenus, Hutiaphilus (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), is described for five previously named species of Gliricola (G. arniatns, G. capromydis, G. citbanus, G. ewingi, and G. omahonyi) and four new species (G. rabbi, with the type host Geocapromys ingrahami; and G. pinei, G. schwartzi, and G. wemecki, all with the type host Mysateles melanurns melanurus). We redescribe and illustrate the previously described species, and provide a key for the identification of these nine species. The nine species of Hutiaphilus are restricted to the caviomorph rodent family Capromyidae, the West Indian hutias. This chewing louse-host association is parallel to other louse-host associations we have documented for caviomorph rodents in that there are two (and in one case, three) species of lice on each host species and typically two even on single host individuals. Hutiaphilus is a derived clade well supported by several synapomorphic features. Its position within the genus Gliricola suggests that the family Capromyidae may be nested within what is now recognized as the Neotropical family Echimyidae.
 
We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, Cryptotis hondurensis (Insectivora: Soricidae), from high elevation pine forest on the western slope of Cerro Uyuca, Francisco Morazán Province, southcentral Honduras. The new shrew is most similar in outward appearance to C. gracilis, from which it can be distinguished by cranial and dental features, particularly a shorter, broader mandible with a coronoid process that meets the ramus at nearly a right angle and an m3 with a simple talonid. Cranially, the new species is most similar to C. nigrescens merriami, but differs from this species in its longer tail and several cranial and dental features, inc1uding a more complex M3. The holotype of the new species had been identified as C. gracilis and represented the only specimen of that species north of Costa Rica. Its recognition as a distinct species removes C. gracilis from the known fauna of Honduras. The other species of Cryptotis presently known from Honduras are C. nigrescens merriami and C. parva orophila. Resumen.--Se describe una nueva especie de musaraña, Cryptotis hondurensis (Insectivora: Soricidae), del bosque montanoso de la ladera occidental del Cerro Uyuca, Francisco Morazán, Honduras. Externamente, la nueva especie es similar a C. gracilis pero se diferencia de C. gracilis en características craniales y dentales; en particular, en la presencia de una mandíbula mas corta y mas ancha y con un proceso coronoides que se junta con la rama mandibular en un ángulo de casi 90 grados. Además, m3 presenta una talonida simple. El cráneo de la nueva musaraña se semejante al de C. nigrescens merriami pero la nueve especie defiere de C. nigrescens merriami por su cola mas larga y en varias características craniales y dentales incluyendo M3 con una corona mas compleja. El holotipo de la nueva especie había sido identificado como C. gracilis y este especimen era el único representante de esta especie al norte de Costa Rica. El reconocimiento de este especimen como una especie distinta, limita la distribución de C. gracilis a Costa Rica y Panamá y la remueve de la fauna de Honduras. Las otras especies de Cryptotis que habitan en Honduras son C. nigrescens merriami y C. parva orophila.
 
"Problematic bedding-plane markings" that resemble a "string of beads" from the Appekunny Formation in the eastern part of Glacier National Park Montana are described as Horodyskia moniliformis, a new genus and new species. The matrix shows laminations at an exceptionally fine scale, and, during life these aquatic organisms may have been intermittently lightly covered by wind-blown quartz dust. Growth stages are present: tiny, elongate, benthonic threads develop swellings; swellings grow upward; more robust forms have wide short cones. At all growth stages, the spacing of the cones is approximately proportionally to the diameter of the enlarging cones. To account for this phenomenon, presumably cones intermediate in position along the thread episodically ceased growth. Thus, the organism exhibits a form of colonial growth.
 
A specimen in the Museum Alexander Koenig collected in Colombia is shown to be a hybrid between Calliphlox mitchellii and Chaetocercus mulsant. This is the first known example of intergeneric hybridization between species in these presumably closely related genera. External measurements of the hybrids are consistent with the proposed parental hypothesis.
 
An enigmatic specimen collected by Perry O. Simons, presumably on the Pacific slope of the Ecuadorian Andes, is demonstrated to be a hybrid between Heliodoxa imperatrix and Heliodoxa jacula jamesoni. This represents the only known instance of intrageneric hybridization in Heliodoxa. External measurements of the hybrid are consistent with the proposed parental hypothesis.
 
Although the breeding ranges of Archilochus alexandri (Black-chinned Hummingbird) and Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) are narrowly parapatric in central Texas and central and southern Oklahoma, there have been few reports of hybridization in the literature and no well-documented hybrid specimens. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of two male hybrids collected, respectively, in Grayson County, Texas, and East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. As has been the pattern in other hummingbird hybrids, both specimens exhibit a blended mosaic of plumage characters of the parental species. Sequence for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) for the hybrid specimen from East Baton Rouge Parish (LSU 182,831) confirms A. colubris as the female parent.
 
The professional career and aspects of the life of Austin Beatty Williams (17 October 1919-27 October 1999), Systematic Zoologist for the Systematics Laboratory of the U.S. National Marine Fisheries, are summarized. Included is a bibliography with the 118 papers published by Williams, and a list of all the new names he proposed along with the holotype repository and catalogue number of species and subspecies.
 
To stabilize the taxonomy of the genus Porites in the western Atlantic and provide a foundation from which to launch future taxonomic research, neotypes for the coral species Porites porites and P. divaricata are chosen and Porites verrillii is proposed as a junior synonym of P. astreoides. Colony photographs and stereo scanning electron micrographs are provided of corallites of: 1) neotypes of P. porites (i.e., the P. clavaria holotype) and P. divaricata, 2) the holotypes of P. furcata, P. branneri, P. colonensis, and P. verrillii, and 3) a common P. astreoides. A brief taxonomic history of the genus is also provided.
 
Parasitic copepods of the genus Caligus infest the external tissues, mainly skin, of marine fishes. The objective of this study is to review the published literature about the distribution of the Caligus species that occur on the shores of mainland and insular Chile. Caligus species may be specialist or generalist in the selection of their host species. Hence, for each species of Caligus, we give a list of host fish species. The literature reports the presence of 12 species of Caligus. They may be cosmopolitan (C. bonito, C. flexispina, and C. productus), distributed in the Asia-Pacific region (C. lalandei, C. lichiae, and C. quadratus), restricted to Peru and Chile (C. cheilodactyli and C. debueni), or endemic to northern Chile (C. crusmae), southern Chile (C. rogercresseyi and C. teres), and Easter Island (C. fistulariae). Biogeographical topics are discussed in the present study.
 
The South American cyprinodontiform fish species with the vernacular name "mollies" are analyzed and three new species of the genus Poecilia are described and figured, viz., P. boesemani, n. sp. from Port of Spain, Trinidad, P. koperi, n. sp. from coastal areas of Venezuela and Colombia, and P. wandae, n. sp. from the Zulia district, Venezuela, west of Lake Maracaibo. Thirteen species of Poecilia are presently recognized from the northeastern part of South America and adjacent islands, viz., six mollies (including P. vivipara and P. caucana), five micropoeciliids, P. heterandria and the guppy (P. reticulata). Two different populations in both P. koperi and P. wandae are recognized, based on variation in pigmentation. From the type series of P. dovii Günther, 1866 and P. vandepolli Van Lidth de Jeude, 1887 lectotypes are selected. Four subspecies of P. gillii are recognized as morphologically and geographically distinct populations. Poecilia reticulata, P. heterandria, P. bifurca, P. parae, P. picta, P. branneri and P. minima are not considered herein, whereas P. laurae remains a species inquirendae. A geocline in characters of the species of Poecilia is recorded and an evolutionary scenario is discussed.
 
Caecum benhami, new species. A–B, Holotype, LACMIP 14527; A, adult shell showing length; B, close-up of the surface; C, Paratype LACMIP 14528, subadult; D, close-up of the protoconch, LACMIP 14532; E, Subadult fragment, LACMIP 14533; F, Early stage, LACMIP 14534; G, Close-up of the septum, LACMIP 14535.  
Caecum bensoni, new species. A–B, Holotype, LACMIP 14529; A, adult shell; B, close-up of the surface; C, Paratype, LACMIP 14530, adult shell; D, close-up of the protoconch, LACMIP 14536; E, closeup of the protoconch, LACMIP 14537; F, Paratype, LACMIP 14531, subadult shell; G, lateral view of a subadult fragment, LACMIP 14538; H, close-up of the septum, LACMIP 14539.  
Caecum sp. A, nearly complete shell, LACMIP 14540; B, close-up of the surface; C, close-up of the septum.  
Minute fossils of the gastropod genus Caecum Fleming, 1813, family Caecidae Gray, 1850, are present in early Eocene rocks of the Crescent Formation and the latest Eocene or earliest Oligocene Gries Ranch Formation in western Washington State. Caecum benhami, new species, and another unidentified species were found in the Crescent Formation, and C. bensoni, new species, was found in the Gries Ranch Formation. These are the first Paleogene records of the family Caecidae from the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and among the few Paleogene records worldwide. The fossils from the Crescent Formation in Washington State are 50 to 55.6 million years in age (Ypresian) and are the earliest known record for the genus Caecum and the subfamily Caecinae Gray, 1850. The Crescent Formation fossils are also as old, or even older, than the previous oldest known record for the family Caecidae from 50 to 52 Ma rocks in New Zealand. These fossils demonstrate that the family Caecidae had diversified into at least two subfamilies (Caecinae and Strebloceratinae Bandel, 1996) and inhabited both the north and south sides of the Pacific Ocean by early Eocene time.
 
New records of the Indo-Pacific seastar Mithrodia clavigera (Lamarck, 1816) include the north-central Gulf of Mexico, southeastern Florida, and Ascension Island. Material includes in-situ photographs, specimens from our own field collections, and museum specimens. This species was previously reported in the Atlantic basin in the 1880s off Brazil and in the western Caribbean Sea in the late 1960s and early 1970s. More recent findings are attributable to the advent of SCUBA, seafloor photography, and genetic analysis. The presence of M. clavigera in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters probably represents a former connection with populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean before the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. Our observations here of specimens collected off Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico add to our understanding of this species' behavior and ecology.
 
(A) Large thicket of Acropora prolifera on upper ridge of shallow reef buttress. In many places, this was the predominant coral at water depths of 6-10 m on the Jamaican fore-reef. Note three-spot damselfish Stegastes planifrons (Cuvier, 1830) in center of photograph. Photo taken at seven meters (7 m) depth on LTS Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica in April 1978. (B) Thicket of A. prolifera on flank of Channel Cay, Belize, C.A. Note the sea urchin Echinometra viridis on the exposed living branches of this coral. Photo taken in two meters (2 m) depth on windward side of low-energy rhomboid reef complex in December 1987. Photos taken by WFP.
Large thicket of the palmate form of the hybrid coral Acropora prolifera (APRO) forming a ridge on the shallow fore-reef terrace. Note long, slender branches of A. cervicornis (ACER) on the flanks of the ridge. Photo taken on Dancing Lady Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica in 1978. Photo courtesy of Phil Dustan.
(A) Extant Acropora prolifera colony within a recently (2018) discovered A. cervicornis coral assemblage in northern Broward County, Florida. Water depth of colony approximately four (4) meters. (B) Branch of sub-fossil A. prolifera colony excavated from a late-Holocene reef deposit, also from northern Broward County. Photos by ABM. Sample donated to the coral collection, Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Acropora prolifera is an ecologically distinctive western Atlantic reef-building coral that originates from hybridization and back-crossing between A. palmata and A. cervicornis. It has been suggested that A. prolifera might be a recent product of precipitous decline in the abundance of the two parent species, forcing hybridization where both it and its product might not otherwise be prevalent phenomena. We present evidence that A. prolifera has a fossil record dating back to at least the late Pleistocene, and that it was ecologically significant prior to the region-wide die-back of acroporid corals. These data, when taken collectively, reveal that hybridization in the Caribbean acroporids is historically rooted and not a recent artifact of changes in Caribbean reef ecology. It is becoming apparent that hybrid taxa likely play an important but underappreciated role in coral reef ecology and reef-building more generally. This is consistent with recent recognition that interspecific hybridization can drive evolutionary innovation and cladogenesis in animals as well as plants.
 
The gastropod shell-Pagurus longicarpus complex harbors a variety of associates representing different kinds of symbiosis. There are 31 known relationships, 24 of which have been found with hermit crabs from New Jersey, U.S.A. These involve species from eight phyla, living on, embedded in, or in the lumen of the gastropod shells, as well as on or in the crab host. Crabs primarily inhabited the shells of Nassarius obsoletus (75.7%; n = 6757). The hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and the bryozoan Alcyonidium albescens dominated the outside surfaces of shells (51.5% and 26.5%, respectively), and a predatory relationship between the bryozoan and the nudibranch Corambe obscura was observed. Dipolydora commensalis and Lepidonotus sublevis were the most common polychaetes living in shell burrows (38.9%) and in the shell lumen (25.8%), respectively. Acrothoracican barnacles, Trypetesa lampas, were embedded in 4.7% of shells: In New Jersey P. longicarpus is parasitized by the isopods Stegophryxus hyptius and Paguritherium alatum. Among known parasites of the crab not yet recorded from New Jersey are the isopod Asymmetrione desultor, plerocercoid larvae of the cestode Calliobothrium verticillatum, and cystacanth larvae of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus sp.
 
A new species of leucosiid crab, Nursia guinotae, is described from Vietnam. It is similar to N. mimetica Nobili, 1906 from the Tuamotu Archipelago and N. alata Komatsu & Takeda, 1999 from the Ryukyu Islands, in the projecting epistome, the expanded epibranchial region, and the dorsal ridges, but is distinguished from them by the dentate epibranchial ridge and well-developed posterior lobes. Nursia mimetica, a species not reported since its original description, is redescribed based on the syntype specimen.
 
The first record of the portunid crab Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818) in marine waters of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina (38°S, 57°W) is documented. Juveniles and preadult specimens of the species were captured in waters at depths between 6 and 10 m on sand and mud-sand bottom, 10°C of temperature and 34‰ of salinity. This report extends the southern limit of distribution of A.cribrarius by more than 500 km. This species was previously known in the southwestern Atlantic from Massachusetts to Uruguay.
 
Maps of the Falls of the Ohio River between Indiana and Kentucky: A, map from Cramer (1808:72) illustrating locations of Shippingport and Louisville at the time of Rafinesque’s visit (Reproduced with permission of the Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology, Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, D.C.); B, map illustrating the modern layout of the region. Construction of the Louisville and Portland Canal in 1826–1830, which permitted shipping to bypass the falls, left Shippingport as an island. The course of Bear Grass Creek also was altered during the 19 th century (Anonymous 1882). North is at the top of both images. 
The white-footed mouse, Musculus leucopus Rafinesque, 1818 (= Peromyscus leucopus), is a common small mammal that is widespread in the eastern and central United States. Its abundance in many habitats renders it ecologically important, and its status as a reservoir for hantavirus and Lyme disease gives the species medical and economic significance. The recognition of two cytotypes and up to 17 morphological subspecies of P. leucopus indicates considerable variation in the species, and to understand this variation, it is important that the nominate subspecies be adequately defined so as to act as a standard for comparison. Relevant to this standard for the white-footed mouse is its type locality, which has generally been accepted to be either the vague “pine barrens of Kentucky” or the mouth of the Ohio River. Newly assembled information regarding the life and travels of Constantine S. Rafinesque, the North American naturalist who described P. leucopus, establishes that Rafinesque observed this species in July 1818 while visiting Shippingport, Kentucky, which is now within the city limits of Louisville, Jefferson Co., Kentucky. Shippingport is therefore the actual type locality for this species.
 
The extant ophiuroid genus Triodia A. M. Clark, 1970 is a junior homonym of the lepidopteran genus Triodia Hübner, 1820. The replacement name Triplodia is herein proposed to accommodate Triodia abdita A. M. Clark, 1970, assigned to this monotypic genus.
 
Aegla occidentalis, a new species of the family Aeglidae, is described from the Tucapel River basin, on the western slope of the Nahuelbuta Coastal Range, in Chile. Morphologically, the new species closely resembles A. laevis (Latreille) from Central Chile but differs in having the apex of the carpal lobe of the chelipeds topped by two to four blunt scales mixed with a group of short, stout setae, the dorsum of the palmar crest slightly, if at all, concave, and the distal half of the subligulate rostrum not distorted. The morphological similarity between A. occidentalis and A. laevis contrasts with the high degree of genetic divergence between these two taxa, based on mtDNA sequence analysis. Our molecular results show A. occidentalis and Aegla bahamondei Jara to be sister species, with a 1.4%-1.6% average pairwise sequence divergence, compared with 5.9%-7.4% between A. occidentalis and A. laevis.
 
Considerable confusion has surrounded the identity of the nominal species, Paraplagusia dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931, known only from two specimens: the holotype, collected in Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, and a second, non-type specimen (reported with the trinomial Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi) captured in the Suez Canal, Red Sea. No catalogue number, illustration or photograph of the type specimen accompanied the original description, which also lacked critical information to confidently assign this species to a genus or to diagnose it from previously described tongue soles possessing similar attributes. Both the type and non-type specimen have been reported as lost for over 40 yr, further confounding attempts to resolve questions regarding the identity and status of this nominal species. During its history, C. dollfusi has been considered as a junior subjective synonym of C. sealarki Regan, 1908, a senior subjective synonym of C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949, and has been misidentified as C. zanzibarensis Norman, 1939. The trinomial, Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi, has also been considered as a second nominal species. Recently, specimens currently curated in the same jar in the fish collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) and identified as C. zanzibarensis collected in the Red Sea were determined to be the missing holotype of P. dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931 and the second-known specimen of C. dollfusi. Their sizes, as well as their meristic and morphometric features, agree with those provided in the original description of the holotype of C. dollfusi and for those in the account of the second specimen. Rediscovery of the holotype confirms the validity of this species. Based on the holotype and non-type specimen and information from the literature, C. dollfusi is redescribed and diagnosed from other Indo-West Pacific species of the genus. Information from these two specimens also provides the necessary data to resolve historical problems regarding the identity and taxonomic placement of this species. Additionally, this new information resolves Red Sea distributional records for three other species of Cynoglossus. Conclusions from the present study indicate: a) Chabanaud erred in placing his nominal species dollfusi in the genus Paraplagusia. New data allow confident assignment of this species to Cynoglossus. b) The hypothesis that two nominal species are represented by the names P. dollfusi and Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi is unsupported. Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi is a new combination reflecting transfer of dollfusi from Paraplagusia to Cynoglossus. c) The hypothesis that C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931) is a junior subjective synonym of C. sealarki is not supported by the data. These two species differ significantly to warrant recognizing both as valid. d) C. dollfusi has erroneously been considered the senior synonym of C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949, a nominal species known only from a damaged holotype also collected in the Red Sea. Cynoglossus dollfusi was redescribed in a global revision of the genus based mostly on information from the holotype of C. cleopatridis, a decision that significantly changed the species concept of C. dollfusi from that intended in the original description. e) The hypothesis that C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949 is a junior subjective synonym of C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931) is rejected. The holotype of C. cleopatridis differs sufficiently in several meristic and morphometric features to demonstrate that C. dollfusi and C. cleopatridis are distinct species. f) Additional specimens are needed to more completely understand the nominal species, C. cleopatridis. g) The specimen thought to voucher C. lingua Hamilton, 1822 from the Red Sea was misidentified. It later became the holotype of C. cleopatridis, a species quite distinct from C. lingua. h) The list of cynoglossine fishes reported from the Red Sea has been updated. Red Sea records of P. dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931 should be emended to C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931). The only specimens thought to voucher Red Sea records for C. sealarki, C. zanzibarensis, and C. lingua were all misidentified. Therefore, these species are removed from the list of tongue soles occurring in the Red Sea.
 
Illustration reproduced from Gruvel & Chabanaud (1937) of the non-type specimen of Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931) collected at the entrance to the Suez Canal. 
Ocular-side view of three specimens of Cynoglossus. A, Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931), Holotype, MNHN 1950–0077, female, 112 mm SL, Gulf of Suez. B, Non-type specimen of Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931), MNHN 1950–0078, female, 122 mm SL, entrance to Suez Canal. C, Ocular-side view of the holotype of Cynoglossus cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949, MNHN 1949–24, ca. 132 mm SL, Gulf of Suez. Photographs by J. M. Díaz de Astarloa. 
Ocular-side view of a specimen of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton reproduced from Gruvel & Chabanaud (1937). 
Considerable confusion has surrounded the identity of the nominal species, Paraplagusia dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931, known only from two specimens: the holotype, collected in Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, and a second, non-type specimen (reported with the trinomial Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi) captured in the Suez Canal, Red Sea. No catalogue number, illustration or photograph of the type specimen accompanied the original description, which also lacked critical information to confidently assign this species to a genus or to diagnose it from previously described tongue soles possessing similar attributes. Both the type and non-type specimen have been reported as lost for over 40 yr, further confounding attempts to resolve questions regarding the identity and status of this nominal species. During its history, C. dollfusi has been considered as a junior subjective synonym of C. sealarki Regan, 1908, a senior subjective synonym of C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949, and has been misidentified as C. zanzibarensis Norman, 1939. The trinomial, Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi, has also been considered as a second nominal species. Recently, specimens currently curated in the same jar in the fish collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) and identified as C. zanzibarensis collected in the Red Sea were determined to be the missing holotype of P. dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931 and the second-known specimen of C. dollfusi. Their sizes, as well as their meristic and morphometric features, agree with those provided in the original description of the holotype of C. dollfusi and for those in the account of the second specimen. Rediscovery of the holotype confirms the validity of this species. Based on the holotype and non-type specimen and information from the literature, C. dollfusi is redescribed and diagnosed from other Indo-West Pacific species of the genus. Information from these two specimens also provides the necessary data to resolve historical problems regarding the identity and taxonomic placement of this species. Additionally, this new information resolves Red Sea distributional records for three other species of Cynoglossus. Conclusions from the present study indicate: a) Chabanaud erred in placing his nominal species dollfusi in the genus Paraplagusia. New data allow confident assignment of this species to Cynoglossus. b) The hypothesis that two nominal species are represented by the names P. dollfusi and Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi is unsupported. Cynoglossus (Trulla) dollfusi is a new combination reflecting transfer of dollfusi from Paraplagusia to Cynoglossus. c) The hypothesis that C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931) is a junior subjective synonym of C. sealarki is not supported by the data. These two species differ significantly to warrant recognizing both as valid. d) C. dollfusi has erroneously been considered the senior synonym of C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949, a nominal species known only from a damaged holotype also collected in the Red Sea. Cynoglossus dollfusi was redescribed in a global revision of the genus based mostly on information from the holotype of C. cleopatridis, a decision that significantly changed the species concept of C. dollfusi from that intended in the original description. e) The hypothesis that C. cleopatridis Chabanaud, 1949 is a junior subjective synonym of C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931) is rejected. The holotype of C. cleopatridis differs sufficiently in several meristic and morphometric features to demonstrate that C. dollfusi and C. cleopatridis are distinct species. f) Additional specimens are needed to more completely understand the nominal species, C. cleopatridis. g) The specimen thought to voucher C. lingua Hamilton, 1822 from the Red Sea was misidentified. It later became the holotype of C. cleopatridis, a species quite distinct from C. lingua. h) The list of cynoglossine fishes reported from the Red Sea has been updated. Red Sea records of P. dollfusi Chabanaud, 1931 should be emended to C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931). The only specimens thought to voucher Red Sea records for C. sealarki, C. zanzibarensis, and C. lingua were all misidentified. Therefore, these species are removed from the list of tongue soles occurring in the Red Sea.
 
Psammodynastes pulverulentus occurs widely and is moderately abundant in the forests of Myanmar. The species shows morphological uniformity throughout its distribution from Kachin-Sagaing to Tanintharyi. Although there are no size differences among adult females (mean = 326, 253-436 mm SVL) and males (322, 222-471 mm SVL), a few morphological features are sexually dimorphic: adult females have shorter tails than adult males (TailL/TotL means ♀♀ 17%, ♂♂ 20%) and relative head width and eye diameter are slightly larger in males. The number of ventral and subcaudal scales are only slightly different between females and males (median ventral, ♀♀ 158.5, ♂♂ 159; subcaudals, 54, 59.5, although significantly different). Our smaller Thai sample displayed the same pattern of variation in measurements and scalation as the Burmese sample. We developed a coding scheme for coloration and qualitatively demonstrate dimorphism in the Burmese sample; females are darker ventrally than males but females and males are the same dorsally. Other coloration traits are also dimorphic. In our Burmese sample, the number of adult males (n = 21) outnumbered females (18). Adult females were most abundant in the 251-300 mm SVL size class, males of near equal abundance in 201-250, 251-300, and 301-350 mm size classes. Relative to other Burmese snakes, P. pulverulentus ranked eighth in abundance, nearly equal number in frequency of occurrence with Dendrelaphis pictus. Our reproductive data do not clearly define reproductive periodicity and, based on large vitellogenic follicles, a likely clutch/litter size of 4 to 7. Although only 30% of our sample contained identifiable prey (frogs, lizards), most (67%) had digestive boluses in the lower half of the intestinal tract. Skinks were the dominant lizard prey and Limnonectes the dominant anurans. Uniformity or at least low differentiation between our Burmese and Thai samples and the results of Rasmussen (1975) advocate for the continued acceptance of the pan-Asian species concept for Psammodynastes pulverulentus.
 
The larval development of the spider crab Epialtus bituberculatus H. Milne Edwards which lives on rocky shores with algae such as Sargassum and Hypeneia, is described. Larvae were obtained from ovigerous females collected in Ubatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Rearing was carried out at 24 ± 1°C, with an average salinity of 35%. Larval development consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopa. Zoeal development was completed in 9.5 days. Analysis indicated that zoeae of E. bituberculatus are very similar to those of E. brasiliensis Dana and Acanthonyx scutiformis (Dana). Differences noted between these species pertain to the setation of the carapace, maxillule and second maxilliped. The main morphological features useful for identification are presented together with a summary of features that characterize larvae of majid subfamilies in Brazil. A key for the identification of southwestern Atlantic majid zoeae to the family level is provided.
 
Although currently treated as feminine, the rules of nomenclature dictate that the proper gender of the generic name Chelonoidis Fitzinger, 1835, used for certain tortoises of South America and the giant species of the Galapagos, is masculine. This necessitates changes to the endings of the following specific names Chelonoidis niger, C. californianus, C. nigritus, C. carbonarius, and C. denticulatus.
 
All larval stages and the first crab instar of Paradasygyius depressus (Bell) were obtained in laboratory culture. Larval development consists of two zoeal stages, followed by the megalopa. Each larval stage is described in detail. Beginning with the first zoea, the duration of each stage was 4-7 (4.5 ± 0.7), 4-5 (4.5 ± 0.5), and 7 days, the megalopa and first crab instar appearing 11 ± 1 and 15 days after hatching, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of 21 genera of Majidae is provided based on 34 zoeal and three megalopal characters. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in four equally parsimonious trees 173 steps long (CI = 0.66, RI = 0.71, and RC = 0.47) supporting the monophyly of Oregoniinae, Majinae, and Inachinae (with the exclusion of Macrocheira De Haan incertae sedis). Based on general agreement of sister-group hypotheses, we provide sets of larval characters that define Oregoniinae, Majinae, and Inachinae. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that Oregoniinae is the most basal clade within the Majidae, and Majinae and the clade (Epialtus H. Milne Edwards + Inachinae [excluding Macrocheira incertae sedis]) are sister taxa. Within Inachinae, all trees suggest that Inachus Weber and Macropodia Leach are sister taxa nested as the most derived clade, followed by Achaeus Leach, Pyromaia Stimpson, Paradasygyius Garth, Anasimus A. Milne-Edwards, and the most basal Stenorhynchus Lamarck. The sister-group relationships of the clade (Pisa Leach (Taliepus A. Milne-Edwards + Libinia Leach)), Mithrax Latreille and Microphrys H. Milne Edwards remained unresolved.
 
A new monotypic genus, Nancyplax, and a new species, N. vossi, of the family Goneplacidae MacLeay, are described from the southern Caribbean and northeastern coast of South America. Characters derived from male pleopods 1 and 2, and male abdomen-sternoabdominal cavity, allow Nancyplax to be assigned to the Euryplacinae Stimpson. The carapace in N. vossi, however, strongly resembles in overall conformation some species in the Carcinoplacinae H. Milne Edwards. In addition, N. vossi has a well developed stridulatory organ, a feature shared with only one other euryplacine species, some carcinoplacines, and some species in the Goneplacinae MacLeay. The mosaic habitus of Nancyplax precludes resolution of relationships with other euryplacine genera. Morphological similarities of N. vossi with species of Carcinoplax H. Milne Edwards, Psopheticus Wood-Mason, Psopheticoides Sakai, and Trizocarcinus Rathbun, are summarized.
 
A new genus and new species belonging to the Euxanthinae sub-family, Batodaeus adanad, are described from the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Whereas the new genus is similar to Monodaeus Guinot, 1967 in the carapace ornamentation and shape of pereopods, it differs in the structure of the abdomen and male telson, sternoabdominal cavity, and shape and ornamentation of the first gonopod.
 
The nomenclatural history of the small Antillean species that now goes by the name Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri is briefly summarized. The type material of Puffinus lherminieri Lesson, 1839, supposed to be in a museum in Rochefort, France, could not be located and is presumed lost. The stated type locality “ad ripas Antillarum” is so general as to encompass almost the entire breeding range of the species, which is widely distributed in the Antillean region and has been regarded as showing variation meriting subspecific designation. Although the type locality was apparently legitimately restricted to Guadeloupe in 1948 or earlier, it was elsewhere erroneously restricted to “Straits of Florida” from 1931 to 1998 and up to the present. To resolve these numerous conflicts and uncertainties, a neotype collected in Saint Barthélemy, once administratively part of Guadeloupe, is here designated.
 
Eriocnemis dyselius Elliot, 1872 is hypothesized to be a melanistic specimen of Eriocnemis cupreoventris (Fraser, 1840), a puffleg hummingbird restricted to the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Venezuela.
 
The Japanese crayfish, Cambaroides japonicus (De Haan), is redescribed and illustrated, and details of its distribution and morphological variation are provided. Notable character differences between the populations of Honshu Island and Hokkaido Island indicate that gene flow between them is precluded. Analysis of geographical variation demonstrates that the undesignated type locality of the species is in central-western Aomori Prefecture, Honshu. The analysis of the gastrolith weights of the lectotype and possible topotypes indicates that the lectotype was collected in June.
 
A new species of pontoniinid shrimp, Periclimenes dolichosternum, is described and illustrated on the basis of 21 specimens collected from sublittoral zones of the Ryukyu Islands at depths of 1.5-30 m. This new species may be readily distinguished from all previously known species of Periclimenes Costa, 1844 by the long third thoracic sternite, and long intermediate segment of the antennular peduncle.
 
The holotype of Heliangelus violicollis Salvin, 1891, reportedly from 'Sarayacu' on the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes, is hypothesized to be a color variant of Heliangelus strophianus (Gould, 1846) from the Pacific slope. A second specimen identified by Salvin as an immature male H. violicollis represents a female H. strophianus in typical definitive plumage. Analysis of plumage color and external measurements revealed no credible evidence for a hybrid origin of H. violicollis.
 
Cambarus (Puncticambarus) hystricosus is a new species of crayfish that appears to be endemic to certain streams of the Cape Fear River basin that originate in or flow through the xeric Sandhills district of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. It shares a number of unusual characters with C. (P.) spicatus Hobbs of the Broad River basin, and is in many ways similar to an undescribed Cambarus of the same subgenus with which it is syntopic. It is readily distinguished from these and other members of the subgenus by a combination of multiple cervical spines, hepatic spines, an obtuse to subacute suborbital angle that is almost always devoid of a tubercle or spine, and the absence of marginal spines or tubercles on the rostrum.
 
Popelairia letitiae (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1852), known from two specimens supposedly from Bolivia, appears to be a valid species. Analysis of plumage color and morphometrics indicates that P. letitiae does not represent an immature plumage or geographic variant of Discosura longicauda, although this species and P. letitiae may be sister taxa. No credible evidence for a hybrid origin of P. letitiae was discovered. "Letitia's Coquette" is proposed as the common English name for P. letitiae.
 
Coeligena purpurea Gould, 1854 is shown to be a hybrid between Coeligena coeligena and Coeligena prunellei. The geographic distribution of the parental species suggests that the two hybrid specimens were collected in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The hybrids exhibit a blended mosaic of plumage characters of the postulated parental species. External measurements of the hybrids fall within the cumulative ranges of characters of the parental species.
 
Top-cited authors
Stanley H. Weitzman
  • Smithsonian Institution
Alfred L Gardner
  • United States Geological Survey
Harold E Robinson
  • Smithsonian Institution
Thomas M Iliffe
  • Texas A&M University - Galveston
Richard P Vari
  • Smithsonian Institution